Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00067
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: July 15, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00067

Full Text

SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973


Chicken feed is

big money now

CHICKEN FEED is big money now. And pretty soon, chic-
ken, live, or cooked in any of the famous recipes, will be even
bigger money, as the local poultry industry takes the bounce
from the recent US ban on exports of soyabean.
The ban on soyabean, which with corn are key ingredients of'
our feed rations for pig, cattle and chicken is sure to make the crisis

Same time,

same place
A MEETING of the Tunapuna
Tapia Group takes place at the
Tapia House on Thursday, July
19 at 8 p.m.
Regular meetings of the
San Fernando Tapia Group
continue at the southern head-
quarters, corer Royal Road
and Turney Street (opposite
Me Enearney).
Same time 8 p.m. -
same place.

Tapia down

Point Fortin

TAPIA heads deep south for
an all-day outing in New Vil-
lage, Point Fortin on Sunday,
July 15.
The caravan leaves Tapia
House at 7 a.m. to start the
day's activities with a public
meeting at the New Village
Community Centre at 9 a.m.
The agenda for the rest of
the day includes making politic-
al contacts, selling of papers,
all fours, draughts, etc.

in that industry even more acute.
It goes without saying that
it is the consumers who will have
to scratch around even more to
keep up with rising food prices.
But if we are prepared to
recognize the weakness in our
agriculture, this blow to the live-
stock industry may well prove
to be a blessing in disguise.
We have gone on planning a
meat and milk programme
based on imported rations, and
clearly this is a time for some
Why, for example, can we
not experiment with making
pellets from cassava and mo-
lasses to feed our fowls? The
Europeans are now importing
cassava from Africa for just this
purpose, and here the crop grows
bitter-sweet and wild.
The European Economic
Community has too been hurt
by the American "temporary"
embargo, so much so that one
London-based correspondent
has been encouraged to recom-
mend "modestly as becomes a
layman" that we plant soya-
beans here instead of sugar.
Other laymen will also like
to know about the shoals of
jacks on the coasts of Tobago

every season when will we
have a proper system of market-
jing and processing fish so that
we can make use of the guts and
waste for fishmeal?
Now that US sources have
been cut off, the feed manufac-
turers here will be scrambling
about for new sources of raw
materials. And if they are free to
search honestly they will find
We have to start going
against the grain of powerful
international interests and get
corn or whatever from the most
favourable sources to us.


In December and January
when the feed crisis was mount-
ing, rapeseed could have been
landed here at relatively cheeper
cost. Yet nothing was done be-
cause most of the feed millers
have ties with foreign "parent
companies" whose formulas they
have to follow.
Trinidad Grain Terminals
blessed with a monopoly for the
importation of grain, is linked

with a huge North Atlantic com-
plex which has its own ships and
its own sources of grain.
There is evidence that this
company has been making a kill-
ing at the expense of our farmers
and consumers. Like all outlets
for foreign corporations, they
trade only in the products that
give them maximum profits,
sticking rigidly to handed down
feed formulas.
National control of the
Trinidad Grain Terminals is an
imperative. Only then will we be
able if we must buy to buy
in bulk from the best source and
in negotiations at the highest
level of state.
In the meantime, why has
Trinidad Flour Mills, which is
now largely government owned,
not come to the assistance of
farmers and consumers by mov-
ing to compete with Grain Ter-
minals by importing grain in
Part of the reason is that
cock will get teeth before this
government learns how to
manage things so that we can
keep in good and cheap supply
of basic things like food.




crash ?

WHAT caused a PTSC
bus to flip over a hill-
side in Speyside, To-
bago, and crash 50 feet
down, killing seven of
its occupants and in-
juring 17 more on the
night of Thursday, July
This is what Govern-
ment, Public Transport
Service Corporation and
Police officials are peering
and probing into the wreck
in this picture to find out.
The morning after the
crash many people in the
crowd of villagers watching
efforts to haul the bus
back up to the road re-
called the last accident at
that spot on the Windward
Road, 24 miles from Scar-
borough. It was in 1959
or '60, and they con-
sidered the place which
commands a scenic pano-
rama of Goat Island, Little
Tobago and SpeysideBay,
to be unlucky.
"Only yesterday I was
saying nothing don't hap-
pen round here," a wo-
man in the crowd said.
But the Minister for
Tobago Affairs, whose ar-
rival from Trinidad by heli-
copter was awaited before
the wrecker could go into
action, ordered an imme-
diate probe into the reasons
for the accident.
Ralph Henry, hospital-
ized driver of the bus, later
blamed failure of clutch
and brakes for the acci-
It was people in the
area who had clambered
down the steep hillside
and pulled bodies, and the
injured out of the wreck,
and in the absence of ade-
quate ambulance service,
the victims had to be trans-
ported by private cars to
hospital. Two of the dead
were from Speyside.
Photo for TAPIA by E.
See Page 2



UP TO June 3, the Attorney
General was reported as still
studying the documents or. thb
Santa Claus (Anthony Joseph)
inquest which the Lawv ,S-
ciety had requested be re-
Well, six weeks have passed,
and people who felt the same
way as the Law Society have
not forgotten about it, as the

PORK $1.50 $1.60
BEEF $1.40 $1.50-55

Vol. 3 No. 28

15 Cents


WHEN THE delegation from the Caribbean Community
goes to Brussels later this month it will be a development
nothing short of epoch-making.
Joint negotiation against Europe runs naturally as a close
second to economic integration of the Caribbean region.
Together they mark a watershed because we have been the
classic case of mercantile puppets on a string. Little fragments in the
Ocean Sea, our individual navel strings buried in the metropolitan
capitals of the North Atlantic.
Now, despite all its limitations to date, the integrated
Caribbean Community could change all that. This absurd controlled
experiment in marooning people on little islands to ensure a flow of
staple products is at an end."
Once thrown together from all the continents, we must now
repudiate our colonial past and forge one nation out of many peoples.
To that end, the dialectic of history dictates that, having
got ourselves together, we must talk to Europe next. And the trap
we must avoid in Brussels is in thinking that the only options are
the ones that are being discussed in Europe.
We have already made the fundamental error of seeing
Caribbean integration in terms of progress from a Preferential and
Free Trade Area through a Common Market and then a Caribbean
This mindless mimicry offered to the Caribbean people as
political realism could bring disaster if our new political movement
does not intervene to change the game.


blamed for

bus crash

THE Government and the
Public Transport Corpora-
tion had been warned
about the bad condition of
buses operating in Tobago.
Speaking on behalf of the
Tobago Arm of the National
Joint Action Committee,
(NJAC) Bro. Thuku (Aloysius
Morean) told Tapiaman Lennox
Grant last week that the warn-
ing had been given at a People's
Parliament held in 1971.
Bro. Thuku's statement
came after the bus accident on
the Windward Road, Speyside
on Thursday July 5. Reports
have since blamed the failure
of the clutch and brakes for
the accident in which seven
people died and some 16 were
It had been pointed out at
the 1971 People's Parliament
that the buses in Tobago were
generally unfit for service.
Some used to catch fire, lacked
proper seats and had little
protection for passengers
against the rain.


"We hold the government
responsible for this tragedy",
Bro. Thuku said. "We had
warned and they failed to act.
It seems to us that they send
old buses to Tobago".
Speaking more generally
about the movement in Tobago
Bro. Thuku said that NJAC
opposed any idea of Tobago's
"We are not for dividing
black people", he added. "The
only secession we are for is
secession from the white op-
Referring to the charge by
Tobago tourism interests that
Black Power in 1970 had driven
away tourists, Thuku said: "We
don't see that Tobago will
necessarily have to depend on
tourism. We see it more along
agricultural lines".
He noted that it was often
unprofitable for people to go
into agriculture. Those with
lands found it more profitable
to sell them. Very soon, he
feared, "people will become
foreigners in their own

We have to start at the
territorial level with policies
for full employment and in-
come equalization: for re-
organizing and rationalizing
bauxite, oil, sugar, bananas and
Then we would not need
to bring regional integration
to popular attention by de-
claring public holidays and
ceremonial occasions. Once
we aim at fundamentals within
the islands, the need to band
together as a region will be
clear to all.
The corresponding depart-
ure from colonial orthodoxy at
Brussels must be a definitive
rejection of the options as
currently conceived in Europe
and the colonies.


It is not a question of
choosing, as the Guardian (July
12) predictably regurgitates,
"between association on the
Yaounde or the Arusha model
and a commercial agreement".
This would be to persist in the
passive role we have always
Instead, we have to for-
mulate the kind of contract we
would like to have as active
members of the world com-
munity. Unfortunately, there
are myriad obstacles in the way
of our adopting such a stance.
To its credit, the only
government which sees the sig-
nificance of the moment is the
Government in Port of Spain.
Intellectually, Williams has al-
ways seen it more clearly than
any other which is why, far
more than Norman Manley or
Marryshow or more recently,
Burnham or Kamal or Demas
the PNM Leader is the real
architect of the new Com-


This remains true, however
destructive have been the arro-
gance of "The Economics of
Nationhood," its sequel in the
BWIA fiasco and in the policy
of one from ten leaves nought.
As a pathetic Victorian
liberal in the final analysis,
lWilliams has never had the
psychological resources to
make Capitalism and Slavery
and From Slavery to Chaguara-
mas more than so much robber-
Now he lacks the moral and
political resources as well. This
is why A.N.R. Robinson who


BACK from Mona, Lloyd
Best reports mixed feelings
among academics over the
resignation of Vice-Chancellor
Roy Marshall.
Dr. Trevor Munroe, still in
his Lecturer's post after the
Report of the Professional Com-
mittee, on Sunday broadcast a
15-minute statement to the
effect that workers' power had
Not all agree though, that
Professor Marshall has resigned
because of the Report.
The recommendations and
findings clearly question the
Vice-Chancellor's judgement
but some feel that the overall
effect of the Report is to
assert the self-governing charac-
ter of the academic community
and to emphasis the continu-


ONE OF THE first tasks of the Caribbean
Community is to settle our relations with
the European Economic Community. A dele-
gation will be leaving for negotiations in
Brussels before the end of this month

According to the .inidad Guardian of
July 12, we have to choose between a

Yaounde-type association, an Arusha-type
association or a commercial agreement.
Tapia argues that the first thing we
should do is to repudiate these stereo-types
and think out the relationship we want.
But there is so much pulling and tugging
behind the scenes that we are. more than
likely to bungle.

How to pick that

team for Brussels

after 17 years in public life, still
cannot find anything construct
tive to say, could have the arro-
gance to pooh-pooh the recent
signing of the Treaty.
But even if we did replace
the PNM and put in Port of
Spain a Government with the
vision and the skill to act,
there would still be plenty
The big obstacle is Manley
in Jamaica who, for all the
swinging reggae rhetoric, is a
wolf in shirt-jac clothing.
The Manley Government is
a monarchist "brown-man
Government, "brown-man" in
Jamaica being not a thing of
colour but a traditional colonial
way of seeing problems. Man-
ley is mortally afraid to touch
bauxite or land reform or any-
thing fundamental.
His literacy campaign is a
Cuban headline; free education
is an Eric Williams headline.
Radicalism by association.
Sheer gimmicry by a playboy
who formulated no'programme
while in opposition, and who,
helped by the failure of the
left, got into office by a
Madison-Avenue stunt and has
been bluffing the people ever
This Jamaican Ministry is
fascinated by the prospect of a
Yaounde form of association
which requires nothing short
of covert political subservience
to Europe, participation in
some neo-colonial Parliament
and all.
One effect of this neo-
colonial attitude among West
Indians has been a certain

superciliousness towards the
African countries, reinforcing
the impression that we some-
how feel that we, but not Afri-
cans, can make it in the
"civilized" Western League.
On top of this, the Africans
feel pretty sure that Light-
bourne was able to swing some
kind of back-door deal with
Rippon over sugar.
They have been whispering
in the diplomatic corridors that
the Third World Common-
wealth countries are importing
2.3 million tons of sugar, al-
most double current West In-
dian exports. Ghana takes
200,000 tons with 8 million
people. Nigeria with 67 million
is taking only 80,000 tons and
is certain to be importing any-
thing like 400,000 tons when
she recovers from the civil war.
Why are the West Indian ne-
gotiators making deals with


The grapevine says that the
occasion of the recent Con,
ference of Non-aligned Nations
in Georgetown was to have been
the moment for a West Indian
-African deal to reorganise the
Commonwealth Sugar Agree-
ment and to settle a strategy
for Brussels by independent
Third World initiative.
But West Indian insensiti-
vity put paid to that. And
the meeting in Lagos last week
was nothing more than a paper-
ing over of obvious cracks.
In practice, the biggest
Caribbean voice in Brussels will

be London partly because
Rippon holds the whip on sugar
and partly because the Asso-
ciated States are not indepen-
London has been insisting
that the Windward and Lee-
ward Principalities should be
representedby Britain and that
they should be associated under
part IV, so called. Which is
the same as saying "that they
should be colonial hinterlands
of the Yaounde variety or
something vaguely similar.


In other words, a straight
mercantilist arrangement which
would allow Britain to intervene
in the Caribbean Community
even if we merely wanted to
change a tariff.
It is the height of insuffer-
able imperialist cheek and our
delegation to Brussels should
not negotiate until this reac-
tionary nonsense has been
totally repudiated.
That is what we should do
but will we do it with all the
.pulling and tugging going on
behind the scenes? With the
cricket team we are now select-
ing to represent us, picks being
determined by the usual inter-
island individualistic jealousy.


Tapia says that, if we are
going as a Caribbean Commun-
ity we should not need a
front-bench delegation of more
than three. Ramphal of Guyana
is the obvious political leader.
True he is philosophically and
culturally not a New World
sman, but he is articulate and
clear and radical within the
limitations of his generation,
far superior to Cuthbert Joseph
and all these ditherers who have
neither the technocratic, the
bureaucratic nor the political
Ramphal is our Number one
diplomat and negotiator, in-
finitely more appropriate to
these times than Lightbourne.
With him should go Demas and
McIntyre and that is all we
need except for supporting
civil service personnel from the
different islands.
But wait and see what is
going to happen. Ours is going
to be the biggest delegation at
Brussels and it is certain
that they are going to bungle it.
Which is just one more
reason why we have to hurry.
And bring the February Revo-
lution to its climax.

ing conflict over a proper code
of ethics.
The Committee had found
Dr. Munroe guilty on only
three out of 10 charges laid by
the -Vice-Chancellor and dis-
missed the suggestion that Dr.
Munroe was guilty of behaviour
rendering him unfit for a Uni-
versity post.
It is generally recognized
Best remarked, that "the issues
raised by the Munroe case are
all still to be resolved".
Asked who were considered
candidates for the job, the
Tapia Secretary replied that
"the obvious front-runner is
Williams Demas, able, acade-
mic and acceptable to all Go-
vernments with the triumphs
of the Caribbean Community
behind him".

Who will be next

UWI Vice- Chancellor?


SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973

Ghost town before it became a town

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YOU CAN still be charged
for "raising discontent or
disaffection" among sub-
jects of Her Majesty.
This is what two Scar-
borough brothers, Aloy-
sius and Fenwick Morean,
aged 24 and 19 respective-
ly, learnt last December 14
after they were arrested in
the Scarborough Govern-
ment Secondary School.
Aloysius and Fenwick are
called Brothers Thuku and Em-
bau, and are members of the
Tobago Arm of the NJAC.
The charge, later laid by
Inspector H.R. Roach, is that
the two Moreans "were found in
ithe building of the said Scar-
borough Secondary School for
an unlawful purpose, namely to
raise discontent or disaffection
among the students subject to
Her Majesty".
Unable to get confirmation
from the police at the time or
information on details, TAPIA
(Dec. 24, 1972) speculated that
the charges were the first under
the amended Sedition laws.
It turns out, however, that
the charge was laid under the
Summary Offences Ordinance
-Cha. 4 No. 17, Sec. 51 (a), to
be exact.
The case came up for hear-
ing in the Scarborough Court
before Magistrate Gilroy Loney
last Thursday, July 5, and was
postponed to August 23 be-
cause Charles Tyson, lawyer
for the defence was absent.
Magistrate Loney comment-
ed that the matter had been
"hanging too long", and urged

Are YO

M aj esty 's r


that other arrangements be
made if Mr. Tyson could not
come on the next occasion.
On the previous occasion,
it was State Counsel who was
absent, and Tyson had re-
quested that legal assistance
from the AG's office be sent for
the police prosecutor, as he
intended to make legal sub-


The police announced to
the court last Friday that Tyson
had called to say he couldn't
come. State Counsel Clebeit
Brooks was on hand and pre-
pared to go on regardless to
"cover all points and leave it
at that".
The magistrate disallowed

that procedure. He could not,
he said, see much point in State
Counsel making submissions
"in a vacuum".

The court that day was
numerously peopled with
dashiki-clad young men and
women who came out in re-
sponse to a pamphlet by
NJAC's Tobago Arm urging
"Black Solidarity for the Black

The pamphlet distributed
in the court was headed "Edu-
cation or Sedition?" It calls
the arrest of the Moreans "an
insult to all black people in
The two-page statement
talks about "the unemploy-
ment of our fathers and
mothers, the frustration of the

brothers on the blocks, the
prostitution of our sisters by
white landlords, store owners
and hotel gangsters to satisfy
the lust of these heartless
These, it continued, "are
some of the effects of a des-
tructive education forced upon
generations of black people".


It points, further, to the
increase of "whoretels" since
1970 which has accompanied
"more pronounced" poverty,
signs of which are seen in
"the shocked faces of house-
wives on market days"; in the
"heightening rate of malnutri-
tion"; and in the break up of
families and rise of mental dis-
Much stress is also laid in
thepamphlet on the alienation
of Tobagonians from the land
to make for tourism develop-
ment the building of hotels
and the creation of bird sanc-
It _also deplores the
"squatting" campaign against
people who attempt to culti-
vate Crown lands and the denial
of ammunition to gun-owning
farmers who want to control
The Scarborough Court is
now housed in the old Blue
Haven Hotel on Bacolet Street.
The courtroom is what must
have been a back dining room
of the hotel, overlooking a dis-
used swimming pool and the
sea beyond.

A SINGLE cow stands
guard over an unoccupied
housing scheme in Bon
Accord, Tobago.
The 125 houses were built
as a low cost housing project
by the Government's National
Housing Aurhority "in colla-
boration with the "Inter-
Am e r i c a n Development
Described as "an Alliance
For Progress job", the project
containing 42 two- and 83
three-bedroom houses has had
for the last year or so the un-
real appearance of a ghost
Except that this "town"
never had people, and nobody
who could be contacted at
the NHA office in Scarbo-
rough knew when the houses
would be turned over to the
people for whom they were
A "problem with sewe-
rage" is acknowledged. But
Tobagonians point to the fact
that the houses are built with
too little space separating
them for people liking their
privacy and accustomed to
planting a little garden to
supplement income.
A similar situation exists
at Buccoo. The houses there
have two bedrooms, though,
but the land seems much
more conducive to the growth
of large castor oil trees which
have reached more than man-
height in some of the lanes
between the houses.
Look out for a special
feature on housing in TAPIA
the end of this month.

Our printing-plantis open at TheTapia
House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. Kindly phone orders to:
662 5126.





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UGANDA'S President General Idi Amin has long made it clear
that he's not bothered by world opinion whether it is the
sensitivities of neighboring Tanzania, "model" of the Third
World, or those of First and Second World powers.
But his classically impudent ,US independence Day
message last week must have elicited diplomatic chuckles
around the world as the US State Department tossed its head
and issued an indignant rebuff.
At a time whe-: vassal states of US imperialism always
ritually make their dutiful salaams, Amin used the occasion to
point to the irony of the Americans celebrating their own inder
pendence while at the same time working to frustrate those
peoples around the world struggling for national liberation.
The press of the Eastern countries have reportedly been
accommodating themselves to the current demands of inter-
national power polities by restraining from comment on
Watergrate. But Amin who about a year ago was facing the
same kind of grand remonstrance as Nixon is facing now,
wished the US President "a speedy recovery from the Water-
grate affair".
Of course, this kind of thing is "not done". But then
the US has never shown itself unwilling to flout international
conventions when it suits that country's purposes.
And what's so wrong, with saying that American mili-
tary might "has made her prone to interfering in the internal
affairs of other countries", and to hope, after Vietnam, that
America does not continue to use her military might "to des-
troy human life on earth, particularly in the developing world?"


A HEARTENING note of a kind in the reporting of last
Wednesday's Caribbean Community ceremonies was the fact
that both daily papers remembered Kamaluddin Mohammed.
'After a long stint as Minister of External and West
Indian Affairs, Kamal meekly ceded the regionalism spotlight
to his "Master Builder" after the last Cabinet "reshuffle".
But then it was the press which had given Kamal the
name' "Mr. CARIFTA" without ever offering any critical
assessment of his performance win stimulating regionalism.
Just as they are now falling over one another to exalt
William Demas who is suddenly recognized as "the only civil
service economist in the Caribbean with an international re-
putation"; as "the only civil servant in the Caribbean to re-
ceive a standing ovation from politicians and diplomats alike
at an international ceremony"; as "the most hard working and
the most hard worked" and as one who "stands 10 feet tall".
But the difference between Demas and Kamal is that
the Caribbean Community Secretary-General doesn't have to
put water in his mouth to castigate the media, in the midst of
all the adulation, for operating to reinforce traditional atti-


BUSINESS is booming all right, to judge from the time, space
and radio-TV money the two daily papers are expending to
promote themselves as good advertising prospects.
And to judge as well from the throw-away supple-
ments and pull-outs they are packing into the Sunday papers.
The media are "constantly striving", the Guardian
crooned, "to improve their performance and to satisfy the
readers they serve ... "
The daily papers are also constantly striving to increase
revenue, as readers can see. And we are entitled to expect that
the increased revenue (both papers are now in a position to
publish strict advertising deadlines) will contribute to a
long overdue improvement in the service they are providing.
A better news coverage, for example.


JULY, for many reasons,
has to be a special kind of
month for the cocky
wizards of Southern Main
Road journalism.
It was, to begin with,
on July 31, 1970, that
Atomic Publishing Com-
pany detonated its first
BOMB which has for the
last six months or so been
packing a follow-up
PUNCH to take care of
those picking up the pieces
after the first fall out on
Friday mornings.
Last year on July 18, BOMB
editor started his celebrated
12-day lock-up for the short
story "The Judge's Wife"
penned by David P. Lincott,
one of the BOMB's many
In the. trial for contempt
prosecuted by the Law Society,
identity was one of the things
in crisis. It took, for example, a,
week of argument before the
judge could rule that one
Patrick D.' Chookolingo was in
fact the editor of the BOMB.
But before it was over
Chookolingo came around to
claiming the short story and
apologising for it ("unfortu-
nate and regrettable"). It didn't
save him. Justice Hassanali felt
that the apology "lacked can-
dour", and sent the 50-year
old editor to join such notables
as Shah, Lasalle and Malik,
with a $11,000 bill for the
Law Society for Chookolingo
to sleep on.
Nine days before time, the

Government in its mercy de-
cided he had paid his debt to
society. By which time Choo-
kolingo had moderated his
views on Shah and Lasalle and
had sharpened his appreciation
of the hospitality offered by
Her Majesty's Big House on
Frederick Street.
The $11,000 debt to the
Law Society remained unpaid,
however, and by Old Years
weekend last year BOMB read-
ers learnt that the lawyers
were still serious about their
"pound of flesh" as Chooko-
lingo called it.
The 200-pound editor
(Guardian's figures) who had
vowed to go on a hunger strike
on being sentenced in July was
however saved from further


Responding to a "SAVE
THE BOMB"' appeal, "Little
People" like Donald Granado
($100), an unnamed business
man ($51,000) and an unnamed
group ($1,000) rushed to keep
the newspaper "out of hock"
as High Court bailiffs came
bounty-hunting on Southern
Main Road.
One issue later the BOMB
faced "another fight for sur-
vival" as the A.N.R. Robinson
case came up for hearing and
Chookolingo saw visions of
more pounds of his flesh weigh-
ing down the scales of justice.
And once again identity
was in crisis. This time of
the witnesses Chookolingo
claimed he had to provide the
missing clues in the "mystery"

story of Robinson.
As Aeneas Wills told the
court on January 18 this year,
one witness was out of the
country, another dead and the
third just could not be found
anywhere by the Red House.
Nor could Wills privately give
the judge the name of the traunt
Case closed anyway with
Justice Mc Millan promising his
judgement the first week in
Not understanding the July
jinx, Robinson and TRUTH
waited with growing alarm for
the judgement which was not
given till last Saturday.
Well, everything going up.
And, from the looks of things,
the"Little People" may have to
come up with $12,000 to save
the BOMB this time around -
not counting "taxed costs" yet.
Meanwhile, back at South-
ern Main Road, David P. Lin-
cott has made another appari-
tion, having fled to limbo after
scaring tile judge's wife -
last year July.
But the BOMB's editor is
now one year older and wiser
if not manylpounds lighter.
And when Burnt Boots
visited the magistrate courts
last week, and heard talk in the
corridors about magistrates in-
volved in shady deals (as col-
league Lincott suggested about
the judges last year)he hastened
to add:
"Of course I knew that
these touts and their promises
were just empty words for that
sort of thing didn't really go

'Little People'

against the

jinx of July



SStep hens


SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973

Allan Harris

THE PEOPLE of Surinam
will go to the polls on
November 17. The elec-
tions will provide the first
major indication of how
the political wind is blow-'
ing after the widespread
public disorders of January
and February this year.
The big question, of course,
is whether an effective chal-
lenge will emerge to the United
Indian Party of Jaggernath
Lachmon. For despite the posi-
tion of Jules Sedney as Premier,
it is in fact Lachmon who is
the most powerful figure in
Surinamese politics.
In the last elections held in
October 1969, Lachmon's
party gained the largest bloc
of seats in Parliament, 18.
Sedney's party, the Progressive
National party, won only eight.
In the past, voting has been
along racial lines. The Indians
have emerged in recent years
as the largest racial grouping in
the country, and with the Afri-
can vote split between two
major parties, it is difficult to
see Lachmon being toppled by
the traditional forces.


What is new on the elec-
toral scene is an attempt by
some of the smaller political
groups to form a united front
to fight the elections. This
move is being spearheaded by
the Party Nationalistische Re-
publiek (PNR), which is led by
Eddy Bruma.
Since in the existing Par-
liament the PNR has only one
seat, it will obviously be an
uphill struggle for the new
coalition to make a real impact.
One of the burning issues
in the election will be the
question of national indepen-
dence. At present, Surinam is
supposed to be an equal and
autonomous member of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands.
However, in the view of many
Surinamese, this constitutional
status hardly obscures the
reality of economic domina-
tion by Holland, and, increas-
ingly, by American interests.
Sedney's PNP is supposed
to favour independence. In fact,
when the troubles erupted in
January, Sedney was in The
Hague negotiating for greater
autonomy for Surinam.


His critics accuse him, how-
ever, of entering into a deal
with Lachmon to play down
the Independence issue, as a
trade-off for the Premiership
and six ministerial posts.
Lachmon's party, with
more than twice the number of
seats, has the same number of
ministers as the PNP.
Lachmon's opposition to
Independence derives from the
position of the Indians as the
chief beneficiaries in Surinam
of the prevailing economic and
political arrangements.

Over the last few decades
the Indians have thrown up
a large class of merchants and
small industrialists, which
seems quite happy to work
together with the foreign
economic interests.
The latent racial hostilities
inherent in a situation where

unemployment is heaviest
among the urban Africans,
came to the surface during the
riots earlier this year. Not only
were the shops and stores of
Indian businessmen attacked,
but Indian workers, too, were
The racial situation in Suri-
nam seems complicated even by
West Indian standards. In the
first place, there is a basic
difference between the Afri-
cans of the town, and those of
the hinterland. These latter are
the descendants of rebel slaves
who escaped the plantations
and set up communities in the
remote "bush" which in many
ways were a reconstruction of
life in Africa.
By contrast, the Africans
of Paramaribo are "European-
ised" in culture and language

to a far greater extent.
In addition to the Africans,
there are the original Amer-
indian peoples, and the Indians
and Javanese who were brought
in as indentured labourers.
There are also sizable commun-
ities of Chinese and Lebanese,
in addition to Europeans,-
largely Dutch, both native and


Most of the important
racial groups still speak their
original languages. Even if Suri-
nam becomes independent it
will be a heroic task to forge a
nation out of these disparate
The nation builders of
Surinam will also have to grap-
ple with severe economic prob-


"Bearer of the future" (tjariman foe tamara) done in
mahogany by Surinamese sculptor Johan Pinas.

lems. The country has been
spared the full impact of high
unemployment because of free-
dom of movement between it-
self and Holland.
It is estimated that 60,000
Surinamese, or a full 15% of
the country's population of
4,00000, reside in Holland.
The frictions arising out of
the existence of a large coloured
contingent, plus the fact that
many of them are a burden on
the Dutch Welfare state, are
said to be among the factors
which have induced Holland
to look favourably on Suri-
namese independence.
The Surinamese will also
have to decide what they are
going to do about their
bauxite, of which they are the
second largest producer in the
world. Bauxite accounts for

80% of the country's exports,
almost all of which is shipped
to the United States, which ob-
tains 30% of its bauxite im-
ports from this source.
Inside Surinam the industry
is dominated by Suralco, a
wholly-owned subsidiary of
Alcoa. Despite its predomi-
nance in the economy the
bauxite industry employs only
five per cent of the work
The Surinamese Govern-
ment has shown some interest
in the integration moves in the
English-speaking Caribbean. As
the people of Surinam press
for national sovereignty, they
may yet discover that their
destiny is inextricably bound
up with that of the
Caribbean people as a whole,
who are also in a state of inci-
pient nationhood.


THE BAHAMAS attained in-
dependence on Tuesday, July
10, after 300 years of British
colonial rule.
Britain's Prince Charles in
giving the message of his mother
Queen Elizabeth, referred to
the long tradition of parlia-
mentary government in the
Brief congratulations from

Trinidad and Tobago were sent
by the Prime Minister who
"welcomed an independent
Bahamas into the Common-
wealth of Nations" and looked
forward to the strengthening
of regional ties.
**** ****
DESPITE US objections that
Puerto Rico cannot take her
problems directly before the

United Nations, two of the
island's parties, with help from
Cuba, voiced their objections
to the building of a superport
in Puerto Rico.
They charged it threatened
the ecology and would not pro-
vide many jobs.
The fight against the super-
port was made by Juan Mari
Bras and Ruben Berrios, leaders

of the Puerto Rican Socialist
Party and the Puerto Rican
Independence Party, respec-
**** ****
STARTING next term, Jamai-
ca will have free secondary
education in all its grant-
aided schools and university
education at no charge for all

New Dorina



soft, light

S and delicious.


SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973


Sex-fame and


-a game people play

Esther Le Gendre and Mating in Trinidad" by Frielich on the sex-life of pea- Marriage is not contem- their music by Anson Gon-
editor Anson Gonzales. sants in a Trinidad village he plated. The female view is just salves. Here he rejects the
"A SCRUNT here, a scrunt Gonzales attempts to calls "Anamat" makes an inter- the opposite. "simple type of laughter and
there" and the first falter- gather together as much as testing observation. He sees sex Ronald Amoroso's "Cry of tears" of the calypsonians and
ing effort of "The New possible of the literature on as a game played by the two the Panman" captures the fever praises the soul songs which he
Voices" made its appear- family relations in the Carib- sexes. of the Pre-Panorama and Pano- believes incorporate a multi-
nce m bean. rama nights. He focuses at- tude of the nuances of love
ance The works of R.T. Smith, LOVE AND PAIN tention on a relatively new and pain. He says:
"The New Voices pro- Herskovits and Herskovits, addition to the steelband, a now
poses to be a bi-annual Braithwaithe, Morris Frielich, all-important member the Let me not only shuffle through
literary forum from which Dom Basil, Laura Longmore The male view of this sexual trap-set man. streets with active pelvic thrusts
neHH .ie *1l 1 ia activity he calls "sex-fame" and as lifted skirts and no meaning
new writers would be read and Judith Black (one hopes calls sesame an The story grows out of the no afterwards
and heard. Its items are that the seqenc onf the sexe the female he calls "secret-sex", panyard under the breadfruit let me have more than the iin-
and heard. Its items are that the sequence of the sexes each having their peculiar cha- tree, is warmed by the stark, tinabuition of the tympani
intended to consist mainly holds no key to their assumed racteristics. The views conflict suspended electric bulbs ad tod the voie as nstrume word
of creative writing but the importance) are all brought to- for the male wants his es- draws life from the "contro- orchesttin ruments
results of serious research gather for the first time in an capades to be widely known, ed delirium" of the pans. my hopes and fears and aspirations
would also be entertained effort to come to some con- the greater the fame if lovers The poetry section consists n harmony with your virtuosity.
The first issue of "The New lusions about marriage and become pregnant and to have of four poems beginning with K.V. Parmasad's "Tomor-
Voices" opens with a lengthy mating in Trinidad society many outside women and one a tribute to soul brothers and row and Today" has all the
observation entitled "Marriage A study done by Morris common-law wife, tension of a tightly coiled
spring and the menace of a
man representative of a people
who have had about all they
would take and are awaiting

SVONE TREE the right moment to spring. He
ONSi describes the experience that
R obnhiben al a ler e f eight moment to spring. HeR
O e ) one tree leaves him no time to spare for
one atree the frivolity of Carnival and
so many leaves the cries of anguish which
St t o tree drown any effort on his part to
Sbrant atrone sing with the carnival crowds.
tont r, It must be remembered
so many creeks that this first issue of "The
Tpie H all are going to one seae g New Voices" was meant to
T op la H ouse o coincide with the appearance
Sone head of Carnival, thus a series of re-
e kso many thoughts levant artistic responses are re-
ROBIN RA VALES first came to the atten- thoughts among which one good one flected in the theme.
tion of the English-speaking Caribbean at must be C ributors to the second
Carifesta in Guyana in 1972. Yet in his volume are welcome to take
homeland, Surinam, Dobru, as he is better one God advantage of this new avenue
known, has been a leading literary figure for so many ways of worshipping for the publication of their
manyfor the publication of their
manyyears.JANI but one Father creative efforts. They are re-
He is also a nationalist politician and a minded that payment is not
leading member of the PNR (Party of the one Surinam usually made for contributions
National Republic). to so many hair types which could be se ntinto Anson
Edward Braithwaite has written that, you move to a new house so many skin colours w h o ulds Saphire Drive
"one of the warmest, most beautiful of or te standpipe toso many tongues Diego Martin
people at Carifesta was the Surinamese poet, the standpipe too far one people
Robin Ravales. clearly, burningly, a mili- a paved street
tant nationalist,committed in life and work with neon lights WAN BON Theatre Guild
to opposition to Dutch imperialism and the where you live
achievement of his country's autonomy". is no bread for us wan iwin thi month end
Dobru has recently been on a Carib- or are you afraid of the cockroaches someni wiwiri
bean tour, and passed through Trinidad last wan bon THE Caribbean Theatre
weekend Jani think of us Guild will present a pro-
On Sunday evening, together with his when you are in Parliament wan liba gramme of dramatic perform-
countryman, Bally Brashuis, an accomplish- you ride along someni kriki ances at St. George's College,
ed drummer and expert on the African-based so now and then ala e go na wan se corner 6th Avenue and 10th
religions of Surinam, Dobru gave a poverty if you have time Street, Barataria between
recital at the Tapia House. in your big American car wan ede Friday July 27 and Saturday,
In recital, both poet and poem seemed but don't bring too many sweets.for the children someni prakseri August 4.
to take on added life and vibrance. prakseri pe wan boen moes de The three-play series com-
Dobru writes in Surinamese, the in- and also not too much tobacco Gad prises Wole Soyinka's "The
digenous tongue, in Dutch and in English. for the old woman to wash she mouth wan o Lion and the Jewel"; "Africa
Of the two poems we publish, ONE TREE someni fasi foe anbegi Slingshot" by Cicely Waite-
won great acclaim at Carifesta. It is published ma wan Papa Smith and "The Tout" by
both in Surinamese and in English transla- tell the speaker Errol Jones.
tion. I have enough of my bigfoot wan Sranan There will be 4.30 p.m.
The other poem, JANI (M.P.), is tell him someni wiwiri matinee shows (at 75 cents)
written from the standpoint of a dweller of that the leaks in the roof women skin on Friday, July 27 and Satur-
the barrack-yard from which Jani, (Johnny) already filled all the buckets someni tongo day August 4. Other shows
has been able to escape by way of education and that my boss wants to fire me starting 8 p.m., can be seen
and politics. (A.H.) for five dollar raise. wan pipel for $1.50.
Tickets can be obtained
from members of the Guild
or from the Tapia House.

SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973

IT WOULD have become more and more difficult to recall my return trip
to Tobago by coastal streamer last week.
One reason is that it's so easy to forget what you'd rather not
think about. Even a memorably agonizing ordeal is forgettable once it's
over and doesn't have to be repeated in a hurry, or at all.
That cold you caught last month. For the few days'it lasted you suffered, and
then, when it was over, it quickly became no more than a past unpalatable detail in the
mosaic of a life's experiences.
A lot of us don't have to wait for a bus and we manage to know someone in the
passport office which saves us due process from the end of the line to the top.
To be a crusader, you have to accept being a bore even to yourself. You
need to be tough to go on stressing the "pressure, punishment and pain" that people
have to suffer. Documenting ketchass is tiresome.
Like last week when Dennis Pantin told me Pegus was out on bail and might be
a good idea to interview.
I was cool towards the idea. "What he will say? That the police cut his arse?"
Dennis made the point: that that detail no longer meant as much to me again. It had
happened before and presumably would happen again.
And in a sense, "to raise the whole question" is a way of dropping the issue.
Compared with now, in 1963 "police
brutality" must have been an overkill
brickbat to hurl.
And you have only to think about
Brazil, or remember Grenada just up
the water, to realise the inexorable
logic of the detail assuming less and
less importance the wider the context
But I could never forgive an un-
necessary discomfort, inconvenience or
imposition. When there's no nobility "Passengers are warned not to
attached to it, when it's not the remove life jackets for use as pillows
reparable accident of ill fortune, then etc". The stencilled sign in red,
the deprivations, the travails of a straight up front. The life jackets,
Sierra Maestra are simply the squalid looking invitingly like pillows on racks
status quo. overhead.
Poverty is above all, an awful
humbug. One that nobody deserves. I heard the Ibis "bucks" less, so I
Why must good thing not be cheap expected a better looking ship. But the
and cheap thing not be good? appointments were distressingly fami-
That is why I could either forget liar. And it was more crowded, with
the boat experience of last week of a stick-bearing khaki guard stumping
remember it only with bitterness. up and down, at one point ordering
For Tobago remains out of my one passenger to take up less space on
way for most of the time. And Tapia the seat to give another place, instead
could afford the $29.00 air fare instead of lying across it.
of the $6 coastal steamer return ticket I don't know how they could ex-
I chose. pect people to remain seated upright,
Now I can't look back with the in place for the eight hours or more
experience (14 hours on the lower expected. Eight hours of boring travel,
decks of the Bird of Paradise and the the boat bucking and ducking, the
Scarlet Ibis) as "fun", or as a good temperature getting colder, the smell
experience, of petrol constant, the unrelieved
blackness of sea all around matching
MEN-OF-WAR the unrelieved throb and shudder of
engines underfoot.
All for now 9.45 it seems
I would rather not have had it. cheerful enough; the lights on chatter-
It was a net waste of time. ing passengers, a woman behind clap-
The other important reason why I ping her hands and singing gibberish
can more easily write the story now is and laughing to amuse a child.
that I wrote most of it on board the a l t a a child.
that I wrote most of it on board the This Ibis is the sister ship all right.
vessels, especially on the return passage And I knew that in the next few
in the Scarlet Ibis. hours it would seem that nothing had
On the trip out I made friends interrupted the ordeal of two nights
with two Tobagonian schoolgirls on ago.
the seat in front, and as they kept
looking back to talk I put away theCOCO UT
notebook not wanting to invite ques-
tions about what I was writing.
Arriving late to get a front seat on It came to me as I arrived on board
the Ibis, the situation was more con- and headed instinctively for the same
ducive. And this came out in the end. seat. No good. My two friends from
POS 9.35 p.m. Bird of Paradise. C.U.C. were nowhere.
I didn't know what to expect. To But the bells rang as before, the
a confirmed landsman like myself, whining of the whinches was the
"Deck" suggested an open situation same. And on the floor in front of me
exposed to the elements. The only a woman spread a grey blanket with
ships I'd been on were visiting men-of- red and yellow borders, put a white
war. sheet on top it and a skirt over every-
Climbing the ribbed gangway be- thing, and rested a pillow at the bed
tween members of a travelling family, head.
I got onto deck where it seemed there "People go mash yuh, Pearly. Wait
was plenty of space in the rows of blue till everybody settle down."
seats. I walked down the aisle to dis- Good advice. Pearly sat upright on
cover that there was in fact little or the seat, eyes closed and swaying as
no room. Many seats looked empty be- she dozed.
cause their occupants had had the "I like to be seated when leaving
idea which occurred to me imme- 'Tobago water. The boat does rock
diately: they were lying flat on them, too much".
starting to sleep. It was an early bed Pearly was
My dread remained unrelieved, preparing, though others had already
The thought of the seven or eight been made and their occupants
hours to come was like Gethsemane. asleep on the floor near the staircase
One hour later, to the rumbling near the galley.
of motors below and the whining of 10 p.m. On the way. Hissing like a
winches, we pulled off frightfully train up front.
slowly, it seemed, for the length of "The Roman soldiers kill Christ.
time it was taking to get clear of the Them was white people!"
lights of POS. On the outer deck in front I could
The white-uniformed sailor closed see crewmen on parade before a big-
the windows and tarpaulined off the bellied officer with a torch light in
foredeck onr one side. hand.
Scarborough. July 6, 1973. 9.35 "Money ent no use to we. Money
p.m. is use to the honkies".
Crowded lower deck. A strong breeze was blowing. I

Raise the whole

question... and drop




didn't know how to flick the cigarette
ash. On the floor, Miss Pearly had lost
no time after we weighed anchor to
curl up with a thin cotton sheet pulled
lengthways over half her body.
Next to me, all around, passengers.
Lights not off yet.
"They have no love in Seven Day
Adventist. Ah say they have no love"!
Leaning casually over the winch
were two gentlemen, one with a polka
dot shirt and a jacket over one arm,
the other no-teeth, both sipping beers.
"Time 4 o'clock we landing. I
does always ketch the half past four
bus to San Fernando.
"Me head start to spin already".
All about, under seats, in the aisles,
on the chairs bags and grips.
Go on get a beer 75 cents.


"Big man!" The Black Power
preacher wa callingg me to help close
the window. I looked around, beer in
hand, trying to keep steady without
holding on.
"Lemme hold it for you. I
wouldn't drink any".
The boat seemed to be moving with
great speed. You heardthewash of the
water ahead and a gentle power hum
of the engines. Then it began to sway
sharply from side to side. Beer bottles
No-Teeth offered Polka Dot Shirt
a smoke from a pack of Broadway.
"Na man, what that good for?"
10.45. Lights off except two down
the centre.
"I like the 20 minutes business,
I dozed off just before midnight,
but sleep was impossible with the
head on the knees or resting the head
on the back of the seat. Lying flat was
really the only possibility.
To the water cooler where I
sucked at the cold water and smelled
piss from the men's next door.
I tested my ideas on a fellow
passenger who came to join me at the
rails looking at the sea. He had come
to Tobago for the first time by air,
but was returning by boat "to see
what it's like".
He wasn't moved. Not by my
pointing to the people on the floor
and opinionating that people ought
not to have to travel like that. The
trip took too long; there should be
proper accommodation for sleeping -
like airline seats which you could ease
backwards to make into a couch.
No. He wasn't moved. "Who tell
them to sleep on the floor? They not
bound to sleep. That's how they like it.
You know nigger if they give them
anything better they will mash it up".
He suggested TV, though.
There was a plaque at theentrance
to the Tourist Class. "Government of
Trinidad and Tobago 5-Year Develop-

Lennox Grant

ment Programme 1958 62, M.V.
Scarlet Ibis ... 'etc". Just like the big
signboards that used to be outside the
new schools. Only that this one in
plastic hadn't peeled, and was in fact
for the edification of the Tourist
Class alone.
At the back of everybody's mind
was the idea to sneak into the Tourist
Class and sleep on the low, foam-
filled chairs with arm rests. The cubi-
cles had all been taken up by early
birds who now spread their baggage
on the tables and stretched out on the
luxury of the foam-filled seats.
I thought I should copy the rest
of the sign. "Est. Cost $1,545,800;
Date of Commencement July 1959;
Date of Completion June 1960".
And there was another framed
"Licence for Passenger Ship" which in-
formed that the Ibis was 1267.92 tons,
"owned by T & T Government Shipp-
ing Service, licensed for six months to
carry 302 persons within following
limits: Trinidad and Tobago and Wind-
ward Islands".
On board, the licence said, were
364 lifebelts, eight life buoys, four
boats capacity 236; eight inflatable life
rafts (25 persons each); and two water
tanks containing 27.6 tons. There was
a furled poster showing how to put on
a "Kapok" life jacket.


I counted 27 bodies sleeping on
the clammy steel floors. Sleepers
squeezed between rows of seats, co-
cooned in bedding, huddled under the
life boats or just sprawled anywhere -
on a handy mat or on newspaper.
Just before one o'clock, I saw a
light two lights together, like two
eyes from Trinidad peering at our
A drunk or mad man grabbed my
arm the second time I passed near his
seat. "Wah wrong with you? Wah you
want?" he asked.
I pulled away as a woman who
clung to his next arm gestured me
don't take him on. I noticed that only
cranks, drunks and "characters" like
me kept walking about.
One of them was resplendent in
turtle necksweater,white bell-bottoms.
"You a sailor?" I asked trying to open
conversation with an insincere ques-
tion. No luck.
2.10 a.m. Wretchedly sleepy i;ke
everyone else. No activity, no tal!:'.
now. Just human forms collapsed into
positions of rest, exhaustion, un-
3.21 a.m. sight of ship and light
nearby. At last. A general bestir.
Wake-up faces all about; towels, tooth
4.00 a.m. still chugging.
4.22 a.m. Tying up. Sullenly im-
patient crowd waiting for gangway to
be let down.


SUNDAY JULY 15, 1973

uaas suo!ieOoN

Notations seen






Directions to play chess will be given by Mr. Fred
Brassington on Radio Trinidad at 6.45 p.m. nightly.
Monday thru' Friday. Starting July 16th til August 1st.
Write at the end of this series to the National Com-
mercial Bank, 60, Independence Square. Port of Spain
for a Free Booklet on Chess.



SUNDAY IULY 15, 1973



THE Brazilian military regime of
Marshall Humberto Castelo Blanco!
would prefer to avoid identification
with the Third World.
This is affecting the Brazilian
political and economic thrust into
Africa and indeed the international
position of Brazil in such world fo-
rums as the United Nations.
In her African safari, therefore,
Brazil will not be able to eat her
cake and have it.
Basically there are two doors giving
entry to Africa: the first by way of inde-
pendent African countries and the second
through colonialist Portugal and South
Entry through one door automatic-
ally shuts the other and not even the

customary skill of Brazil's Foreign Rela-
tions Ministry can change this.
A progressive government, for ex-
ample, would have do trouble in making
a choice, and the Brazilian people owe an
enormous debt to the people of Black
Africa, for it was chiefly the Blackswho
made Brazil.
The millions of black people brought
over from the other side of the Atlantic
by the Portugese over three centuries con-
stituted practically the entire labour force
of the country up to 1888 when slavery
was abolished.
Moreover, the Blacks have made im-
portant contributions to Brazilian cul-
ture and civilization.

A scene from Cararu, Brazil... The military dictatorship regards Brazil as closer to the industrial
ized countries of the west than to "the confused and tormented Third World".


As a mestizo people proud of their
origins, Brazilians have every reason to
open a permanent dialogue with thier
African brothers. And the dialogue would
be furthered by the Brazilian people's
anti-colonialist and anti-racist traditions,
which have been only recently betrayed.
Under a popular government, Brazil
could exercise enormous influence with-
out objectives of hegemony or material
interest in the development of the
independent African countries.
She could play a decisive role in
eliminating the vestiges of colonialism in
Africa, especially in the liberation of the
Portugese colonies.
This would be one way to begin pay-
ing the immense human debt Brazil owes
to Africa.
During the government of Janio
Quadros, the Foreign Ministry
received express orders from
the president to give total sup-
port to the independent Afri-
can countries and to the libera-
tion struggle of the Portuguese
As everything, else in Brazil
this policy changed with the
coup of April 1,1964. Marshall
Humberto Castelo Branco's
chief technocrat, Roberto Com-
pos, declared: "We must re-
place ideology with pragma-
tism, thus ensuring that our
anticolonialist and antiracist
position does not harmour rela-
'tions with Portugal and its
African colonies, and with
South Africa".
And so, pragmatism re-
Splaced ideology. According to
the newspaper "O Estado do
Sao Paulo", a high foreign
ministry official affirmed that
"Brazil is not in agreement with
the tendency now prevailing in
the United Nations which fa-
vours the application of ex-
treme measures in defense of
the national liberation move-

This policy makes dialogue
with the independent African
countries difficult. Medoune
Fall, chief of the Senegalese
mission to the UN, looked at
the Brazilian. dilemma objec-
"We understand that Brazil
is linked to Portugal by history
and sentiment, but I think the
time has come for Brazil to
choose between justice and in-
"Portugal's present position
is to perpetuate rule over its
colonies and so, Brazil must
choose between Africa and
Another obstacle in Brazil's
relations with the independent
countries of Black Africa is its
growing ties with the racist re-
gime of South Africa, the week-
ly Varig and South African
flights between Rio and Jo-
hannesburg, and Brazil's invest-
ments in that country.
Politically, the choice in
favour of Portugal and South
Africa is a disaster which has
earned Brazil the hostility of
46 African nations (a population
of almost 300'million) which
represent one-third of the
United Nations and almost half
of the Group of the 77 which
is made up of 96 "under-
developed" countries.
However, this does not seem
to worry the men who rule
Brazil. The influence of Roberto
Campos is felt in this sphere
"We must moderate our
romantic solidarity with the
countries of the Third World.
The truth is that because of the
level and rate of industrializa-
tion which we have reached and
because of our opposition to
socialism and state control, we
are much closer to the indus-
trialized countries of Western
Europe and the United States
than to the confused and tor-
mented Third World".


CHRISTIAN missionaries have been accused of exploiting
the native Indians of Paraguay and of causing indifference
towards the plight of the indigenous population.
One of the anthropologists making these charges has pointed
out that missionaries disrupted the traditional life-style of the
Indians whom they later abandoned when it proved not worth the
*while to convert them.
Paraguayan anthropologist Chase Pardi, writing of the effects

of missionary work on Guarani
Islands in his country, reported
that the Fathers of the Divine
Word quit after 25 years be-
cause "the number of Indians
converted was minimal in rela-
tion to the investment".
The effect of the Fathers'
work, according to Pardi, was
to "corrupt and change the
whole Indian social structure".
Another Catholic mission-
ary order had banned the rites
of a native cult considered in-
compatible with Christianity.
The result: "profound social
and psychological traumus and
the disappearance of the primi-
tive agriculture of these Indians
who worked the land almost
exclusively to provide the food
and drink consumed during the
religious ceremonies".
In the competition for con-
verts between Catholic and Pro-

testant missionary groups, it
was the Indians who came out
losers. Religious differences
among the Indians led to fre-
quent clashes.
The other anthropologist,
Jacob Loewen, condemned the
German Anabaptist Mennonite
missionaries as "straightforward
intruders in lands belonging to
the Indians whom they ex-
Such investigations have led
in Paraguay to a policy of
"ending missionary paternal-
ism" and giving support to "the
development of the Indian com-
munities at all levels".
An article in the Catholic
magazine Accion has claimed,
however, that "Indians do not
participate in the bodies sup-
posedly responsible for their


I~ 4IiII


SYou always

wanted her to

S [ sew...

makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.




SUNDAY JULY-15, 1973


theme, "The Sun in the
Service of Mankind", was
due to be held in Paris last
Week. Its purpose was to
examine the whole ques-
tion of solar energy and
its applications.
While the results of
this UNESCO-sponsored
meeting have not yet come
to hand, it may be useful
to look at some of the de-
velopments which led up
to it.
The conference reflects a
renewed interest, especially
among scientists from the highly
industrialized countries, in the
problems of harnessing the
energy of the sun.
Fifteen years ago, when the
idea first gained wide currency,
particularly in relation to the
needs of poorer countries, few
of the richer countries saw any
gains from it.
Now that they are faced
with the so-called "energy
crisis" many scientists and
planners are coming to think
that, despite its high capital
costs, it may well be worth the
while to take a further look at
solar energy.
And there is another new
factor in their calculations -
the challenge of the environ-
UNESCO staff writer,
Daniel Behrman, notes that,
"it is in the temperate coun-
tries that solar energy has
emerged from its technological
limbo. It suddenly came to be
considered more practical for
two reasons. It can supply
power without pollution: no
smoke, no smog, no radio-
active wastes. And it is not all
that expensive any more.


As costs of "conventional"
power plants rise because of the
shortage of fossil fuels(meaning
mainly oil and, to a lesser extent
coal) or the environmentalist
reaction against nuclear react-
ors, the sun looks better and
Solar energy has often been
urged as a natural prospect for
poor tropical countries with
abundant supplies of sunshine.
The advantages of using
solar energy devices, in terms
of their long life, low mainten-
ance costs, and absolutely free
fuel supply, have been greatly
The real bug-bear has always
been the high cost of solar
energy technology. And in the
past, whereas the poor coun-
tries lacked the men and money
for the research needed to bring
down costs, the richer coun-
tries, secure in their supplies of
oil and in the prospect of nu-
clear energy, simply lacked the
the motivation.
Now that all that is chang-
ing, scientists, particularly
those in the United States,
where apprehensions over the
energy crisis are most acute,
are overreaching themselves to
come up with novel proposals.
In order to harness solar'
energy, sunlight must be col-
lected and then stored. Sunlight
is a low intensity power source,
which means that, compared
with other sources of energy, a
large area is required to obtain a

THE ONE thing of which we have not been sources like coal and oil,and by the dangers of
short in the last six months or so of drought, pollution.
water and food shortages, is sunlight. The poorer, tropical, countries who could
We have discussed before (TAPIA Vol 2 No have benefitted from solar energy research
5 -- Nov. 5, 1972) the prospects for using the could not afford to undertake it.
sun as a source of energy and for more imme- Now, scientists in the US, particularly, are
diately possible amenities like waterheating, air "overreaching" themselves in their efforts to
conditioning and crop drying, come up with new ideas for the use of the sun.
This article points to the fact that the With our abundant sunshine we ought to
richer countries which had previously ignored keep an eye on these developments which have
the possibilities of the sun's energy are now led to a UNESCO conference in Paris due to
worried by the shortage of conventional energy have started last week.

A Solar
Water Still
by two
,scientist M

given amount of power.
For instance, two specialists
at the University of Massa-
chussets calculate that they
would need an area of two
square miles to collect solar
energy equivalent to the output
of a 1,000-megawatt electric
plant (one megawat is a million
Their aim is to heat water
with the sun to a temperature
of 1500 degrees Centigrade.
They state that this should
bring about the production of
hydrogen by thermal dis-
sociation and hydrogen could
do everything in the future
that natural gas now does.
A more ambitious proposal

is being put forward by a hus-
band and wife team at the
University of Arizona's Optical
Sciences Centre. According to
Behrman, "they have calculated
that a square measuring 73
square miles on a side could
collect sunshine to generate a
million megawatts.
"Instead of optical lenses
to concentrate the sun's energy,
they propose to use "selective
surfaces" which absorb sunlight
very well but radiate it very
They want to run their
solar plant at 550 degrees C.,
the operating temperature of
steam turbines already used by
the electric power industry.

Heat storage, the stumbling
block of most solar energy
systems, would be licked by a
system using molten salts as a
heat reservoir".
The proponents of this
scheme suggest that their mil-
lion-megawatt plant could be
set up in the Colorado River
area of the United States, where
it would occupy some 10% of
now uninhabited desert.
Waste heat from the tur-
bines could be used to desali-
nate enough water to meet the
daily needs of 120 million
The most way out of these
ideas, and literally so, is the
proposal to put a solar collec-

RAIN IS a source of an-
xiety in many parts of the
world. In Trinidad we're
still worried about getting
too little of it to make up|
for the searing drought des-
cribed as the worst in many
A recent press report
claimed that Texaco has been
importing for use in its re-
finery plant water from the
Delaware River in the USA.
And the USA has been at
the centre of much of the
anxiety about getting adequate

or too much rainfall.
Last April El Salvador
weather officials charged that
American tampering with tro-
pical hurricanes in the Carib-
bean was responsible for the
worst drought experienced in
Central America in 30 years.
Would changing the course
of a. hurricane affect rainfall
patterns? That is a question not
yet satisfactorily answered.
But if it does, then the
alarming thing is that this power
to desolate large areas of the
earth and mankind inhabiting it

is now in the hands of the only
country with the technological
command to manipulate the

"There is no doubt that
artificial rains were provoked
in Laos along the Ho Chi Minh
Trial in an American 'Opera-
tion Popeye'," says a PRENSA
LATINA report.
The fear in North Viet Nam
was that the bombing of the
dykes by US planes last year
was intended to coincide with
the artificial provocation of
rainfall. After the destruction of

tor into orbit in outer space,
where the sun shines all the
It would consist of photo
cells that convert light into
energy and which are now used
on a small and extremely ex-
pensive scale to operate statel-
The electric power would be
beamed by a giant microwave
transmitter to a receiving sta-
tion on earth.
The existing applications of
solar energy are far more
modest. Perhaps the most popu-
larly used device is the solar
water heater. It has been esti-
mated that some 10 million
people around the world get
their hot water from the sun.
Another well-known device
is the solar drier for use in
agriculture. In Trinidad we are
familiar with the problems of
drying cocoa and coffee.
The solar drier protects the
crop from rain by providing a
cover, usually of glass, which
allows in the sunlight at the
top, and which, by closing in
the sides, prevents currents
from escaping the system, so
that the temperature is higher
than if drying were done in the
SResearchers at UWI, St.
Augustine, have developed a
natural convection solar drier,
which overcomes the disadvan-
tage of the conventional drier
that the wind is no longer avail-
able to remove the moist air
from around the crop.
At UWI work is in progress
also on the extension of these
drying techniques to ground
provisions and to grass.
Another application of solar
energy is the solar still, which
is used,.among other things, for..
desalinating water. Other pro-
spects for solar energy include
refrigeration, cooling of homes,
and running small motors.
Obviously, in Trinidad we
cannot afford to devote hun-
dreds of square miles to sun-
shine collection. But even if
we have little to gain from
the grandiose schemes for gene-
rating megawatts by the thou-
sands, we ought still to keep a
sharp eye on those uses of our
abundant sunshine which we
can afford to develop, and
which will bring tangible bene-
fits to us.
For these reasons we look
forward with great interest to
the results of the Paris con-

floodcontrol devices the stimu-
lated rains would result in the
complete swamping of the
It is not easy to calculate
the far-reaching results of spray-
ing of clouds over N. Viet Nam
so that the rain water would
become acid to corrode and
oxidize radars, cannons and
rocket launching pads.
And what if the meteoro-
logical war over North Viet
Nam were to be extended to
any country which refuses to
revolve in the American orbit?

A rainy night in Georgia?

r- -. C `Y; -~~~'~P~PDl~ls~qlJXIBPll~~seJR~(rI:9F~-




India tries work and study plan

INDIA HAS long had the
unenviable reputation of a
country where university
graduates have had to ac-
cept such menial tasks as
sweeping the streets for
want of appropriate jobs.
Recent developments in the
field of post-graduate education
for engineers suggest that the
problem may not entirely be
one of insufficient job oppor-
Graduates of the eight
regional engineering colleges in
India which are offering new
two-year post-graduate courses
specifically oriented to indus-
try's needs, are finding jobs

easier to come'by. In fact,
many have gone into industry
after completing only one year
of the course.
To attain their close link
with industry, each of the eight
regional engineering colleges -
which turn out about 10% of
India's 2,000 post-graduate en-
gineers has been seated near
to an industrial centre.
In addition to the usual
theoretical studies, these in-
stitutions have placed strong
emphasis in their programmes
on practical training, with par-
ticular attention to industry's
needs. This is achieved by bring-
ing in top .engineers from
nearby industrial firms as lec-

Assistance in planning the
new curricula has been pro-
vided by UNESCO and the

United Nations Development
Programme. The project-plann-
ers anticipate that the industry-
orientation approach will ul-

timately reshape engineering
curricula, both postgraduate
and undergraduate, in all of
India's universities and colleges.
Specialized Research Cen-
tres, to be established over the
next four years at three of the
regional engineering colleges,
will lead to a further strength-
ening of ties with industry.
In an attempt to extend
the benefits of industry-
oriented education to under-
graduate students the Ministry
of Education and Social Wel-
fare has recently announced a
"work and study" plan.
With the collaboration of
industry, it is proposed to in-
troduce new curricula whereby
students will alternate periods
of actual work in industry with
periods of study.

fSi, I-IA



n71 ~

fsr. fAndrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of 1nian
162, East 78th Street,
:Dr YORK, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 814488,
U.S.A -




Ruthven Baptiste


IF WHAT happened at
the Tunapuna Commun-
ity Centre, where the
Village Olympics table
tennis preliminaries were
to take place last Tuesday
on July 10, is the pattern,
then the 1973 Village
Olympics, is destined for
Starting with the an-
nouncement in the Trini-
dad Guardian, the public
wa sinforqied about place
starting time. Tunapuna
was scheduled to meet
St. Augustine South and
Tacarigua were to oppose
St. John.
"Is a real Mickey
Mouse business", claimed
Elliot of the Tacarigua
team. "I get the fixtures
only Sunday gone
(July 8). I ent even know
the rules of the compe-
tition. Ah didn't even
know that yuh supposed
to have women on the
team or yuh go lose
If that isn't incredible,
then their opponents for that
night's tournament, St. John,
who did not turn up, appa-
rently did not receive their
Winston Elliot again:
"Yuh know wha really going
on in this Village Olympics
business: yuh have to read in
the papers on the morning of
a tournament that yuh have
to play the evening.


So if yuh from Talparo
and yuh read in the papers
yuh have to play the same
evening in Arima ... that is
how plenty side does lose by
Just as the Tacarigua vs
St. John match did not come
off so it was for the Tuna-
puna vs St. Augustine South
Tacarigua won by default.
Tunapuna won in the same
way. The only difference is
that while Tacarigua got two
days' notice by chance, the
captain of the Tunapuna

team only received his fix-
tures the night before.
Consequently, it was im-
possible for him to organise
the female members of the
team the following morning.
If the match had come off,
Tunapuna and Tacarigua
would have lost points be-
cause of the absence of wo-
men on their teams.
Moreover, there was vir-
tually no preparation of faci-
lities. Lighting. which is .
.-('0L-ira^^.pj ______

The table was lit not by
fluorescent bulbs but by dim
30-watt domestic bulbs.
As one member of the
Tunapuna team said, "I have
a reputation at stake, I ent
letting no shithound beat me
in that bad light".
Even more incredible, was
that not a single member of
the Village Council was pre-
sent. Victor Pyle a member
of the Tunapuna team was
asked by a Community De-
velopment officer, Mr. De
Couteau to run off the


There was nothing wrong
in asking Pyle to supervise
the tournament but the fact
is, it was not a member of
the village council who de-
legated the responsibility to
him, rather it was a com-
munity development officer,
connected to the ministry of
Local Government in Port of
Spain. Furthermore he was
asked to do so on the very
night of the tournament.
The final act in the
comedy was when the Tuna-
puna representatives in the
Prime Minister's Better Village
Competition turned up for
their usual Tuesday night
They had not been in-
formed beforehand that the
Community Centre would
have been otherwise employed
that night.Anyhow,for them,
all was not lost even if the
tournaments did not come

At practice, Freeling St. Jets who made the shift from the block to the conventional
Daaga Hall Court quite comfortably.

East basketball men


THE EAST Amateur
Basketball League is. go-
ing guns. The league was
organised to provide an
outlet for the many bas-
ketballers on the block
in the Eastern region.
The League's organ-
isers are themselves sur-
prised not only by the
enthusiastic support, but
also by the high standard
of play achieved by teams
in the short time the
league has been in exist-
An informal league was
run last year but officially it
started on May 5 this year.
(Tapia Vol 3 No. 16). In
varying degrees, the teams
have made the slift from the


block to the UWIs Daaga
Hall Court quite comfortably.
Yet many of the players
are still immature. Very often
a player would sacrifice two
points by trying to score
with a flourish rather than
doing it the simple way.


The League has also been
fortunate in having the flood-
lit Daaga Hall court.
On account of the lighting
it has been able to start its
double header programmes at
6.30 p.m. on Wednesday,
Saturday and Sundays.
The league has a major
regret however. It has been,
virtually impossible to get
advance publicity for its acti-
vities from the media, except

for a line in the Guardian's
"Today's Sport" column.
Media philosophy seems to be
that anything outside of POS
is not news worthy.
Despite the organisational
chaos, last year's Village
Olympics managed to reveal
that Port-of-Spain is not the
mecca of sport in Trinidad.
In fact, there is no mecca.
The illusion that POS is
the mecca has been created
by the press simply because
it reports too little coming
from the communities.
For example, in football,
cricket, athletics and table
tennis none of the out-of-
town communities in POS,
except for Woodbrook and in
football only made- any im-
pression in the Village olym-
The time has come when
the media in all its forms
must move out of its POS
prison. (R.B.)