Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00066
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: July 8, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00066

Full Text


- ommulity?

Lystra Cameron was happy
but puzzled on Wednes-
day; h-,. because there
was no school, puzzled,
because she didn't know
Asking her parents
didn't help: they didn't
have a clue themselves.
The best one student
could venture was that
"there was some signing
business down Chaguara-
Meantime down at Cha-
guaramas, the four Prime Mi-
nisters, their Ministers, mem-
bers of the hard-working
Secretariat and over 400-
P" i'-'-:!! invited guests wit-
nessed the "Dawn of a N .-
Caribbean Era", as the Exi,,-
headline said.
Tiut oinlide of the 4.-''.'l

persons present at Chaguar '
and maybe a thousand-colier
persons in this country, nco ,-..-
knows what the Carib.:ar'-
Community Treaty means.
The remainder of the F'p.'p,
lation, burdened with the i, jif-
cost of food, lack of job. .tI
school places in secord.J,
schools, of oppression, I.
timisation and corruption ...
only wonder what is thce. ,,
this "signing business" thai .. il
change the price of cc....
610 Radio interview I


you know

Sthere were


Africans too ?

persons on Tuesday to get
their impression of the signing;
and not one person really
understood the significance of
the signing or could even given
an opinion.
On Wednesday, the News-
makers team interviewed 8 per-
sons and they also were baffled.
One woman said that "they
damn fas' to put it on the
papers", since no one knew
what was going on.
No one is disputing the
need for regional cooperation
and integration. The point is
that any such integration must
be seen to benefit the peoples
of the Caribbean and they must
participate in any such venture
from the beginning.
On the first of next month,
Trinidad and Tobago, Barba-
do4 Guyana and Jamaica will
I .'. l 'l u n i .ljl T h' il t' l: '. a .
(_ ,...lnlT -.r L *..- rii l Tjiil[. Hu r-.
,,, .. : ij i ... .,I.r,' a

Caribbean peoples closer to
that dream, of so many think-
ers, when this region divided
by sea and metropolitan do-
minance would join together
to overcome a common history
of slavery, iindenture, imperial
domination and neo-colonial
The formation of a Carib-
bean Community can be viewed
at two levels.
The first is what the agree-
ment actually involves in terms
of benefits between the small-
er and larger islands, and within
islands themselves, among the

'businessmen who benefit and
the mass of the people who still
catching ass.
However, at another level,
even if one assumes, as Williams
and the others are doing, that
the Caribbean Community will
reap benefits, then it is still the
height of Afro-Saxon arro-
gance to ignore the mass of
Caribbean peoples and hold a
ceremony attended by five-
hundred dignitaries.
If the Caribbean Govern-
ments really believe in the
Community then all their pub-
licity arms should have been
flooding the islands with back-
ground information on the
The only attempt at such
publicity came through
UNESCO sponsored news-
paper supplements and radio

The signing ceremony
should have been marked by an
open-air meeting attended by a
hundred -thousand people.
There should have been danc-
ing on the streets of George-
town, Bridgetown, Kingston
and Port-of-Spain.
Instead, the dancing was
limited to a ceremony held at.
the Hilton Hotel on Wednesday
night. The -security guards
mingled with the Prime Minis-
ters and other "VIP's", patting
themselves on the backs' for
what statesmen they think they
Meanwhile from Kingston,
right down to Port-of-Spain,
the big scrunt still continued.
A treaty has been signed but
the forging of the Caribbean
Community is a task for the
New Movement.
Dennis Pantin

Special works protest

but 111plLl i'- CI! I11111 i
'ld I\ i
vj Ui.- I [I [ i' Ij r r d [i

I IliI'liitlIIir

page 7



vote at 18



1 I
7 0/t(A


by class

I\ page I


Best for Ja

TAPIA Secretary Lloyd Best
left last Wednesday for Jamaica
where he expects to be for
about one week.
Best who is a lecturer in
Economics at UWI, and Mo-
derator of the recent examina-
tions in that subject, is in
Jamaica on university business.

Quarry drive

Block-O -Rara

UPPER Quarry Drive, Champs
Fleurs will again throb on
Sunday, July 8 to the music of
five steelbands, one combo, a
troupe of drummers and four
disc jockeys.
The occasion is what the
youths of the district are call-
ing "King Ghetto Woodstock
As in November last year,
king-sized entertainment is
promised with such steelbands
as Solo Hai : s, Starlift,
Carib Tokv,. .di-iaament Scher-
zando, Sylvania East Side; the
Night Winds Combo and Unity
S The DJs: Cool, Funky man,
Prince and Billy Reece.


STARTING on Tuesday, July
10, and continuing that day
every week, the San Fernando
based Tapia Group will be
holding meetings at their 17
Royal Road headquarters.
When Tuesday's meeting
begins at 7.30 p.m. Mickey
Matthews is down to lead a
discussion on "How we can
get rid of unemployment".
All are welcome.

Another one of the popular
TAPIA back issue sales will
take place on Saturday, July
14 on High Street, San Fer-
Look out for the stall early
Saturday morning manned
by Tapia Associates in San

Nigel Gill, man-on-the-spot
in Tapia's San Fernando office
at 17 Royal Road, wishes it to
be known that he will be avail-
able from 4 to 6 p.m. on
Monday to Wednesdays and
on Thursday from 8 a.m. to
4 p.m.
Call 652-4878.

WHITEHALL, the centre
of political power, was
awakened by angry noises
coming from several hun-
dred hungry assailants yes-
terday morning.
They were protesting their
laying-off from the Prime
Minister's Special Works Pro-
gramme. According to them,
they were informed that from
next week all project wuk done.
And' that for them was their
one and only source of sus-
With Rasta-type growths
of hair what was in fact a
gathering of brudderman jeered
and howled as the several Minis-
ters filed in to take up their
places at the regular Thursday
morning Cabinet meeting.
They were there to see
Williams about the matter. But
accomplishing that too was not
easy. As one Worker com-
mented: "Imagine last year
when Williams came to see we
on the project that wasn't hard.
Now we come to see him, he
sending the Police and dem to
A middle-aged woman from
Basilon Street, East Dry River
complained bitterly about her
her predicament. "Look man",
she said, "some of us too old
for work, and too young for
pension so how we go eat from
next week".
She went on to explain
that for the year no material
was brought on the project in
her district. Pulling up roots,
cleaning the streets, and mak-
ing ,dustbins were all that they
had to do. "Now without even
notice they tell we that all wuk
close down".
The workers had travelled
from various parts of St. George
West including East Dry River,
Diego Martin, Petit Valley, Bel-
mont and San Juan.
They came just one week
after Cedros fishermen used the
Whitehall Fish Booth to demon-
strate how with proper mar-
keting facilities fish can be
made available cheaply.
Lloyd Taylor



15 Cents

,,, illi Ii i


.. .. ... W F m


~ ----


~I2CCj' aI

kokon- A8riZ~





and NIB...

IDC turn


IS THE IDC top brass now
trying to make a scape-
goat of a young financial
control officer since the
disclosures of the Auditor
Roland Medina, UWI gra-
duate who did further study in
Business Administration, re-
signed from the Corporation
after being removed from his
job of Acting Financial Comp-
Though he could not be
contacted to give his view on
the matter, it is believed that
Medina's removal means he is
being isolated for blame by
the IDC management.
On June 17, the Chairman
of the IDC, Mr. Bernard Pri-
mus, criticised the Auditor-

TIHE police are now reported
to have the use of the vehicles
of top business places in the
This is how they came to
hold Andrea Jacob and Clive
Pegus at St. Joseph late last
According to information
reaching TAPIA, around 5.45
on the morning of Monday,
June 25, a van belonging to the
baking firm of Coelho's or at
least carrying its markings,
crept into Ramkalawan Road,
St. Joseph. Accompanying it
was a blue Malibu. Out of both
came a party of forty or fifty
headed by top officers Toppin
and Burroughs.
(When TAPIA contacted
Coelho & Sons Co. Ltd., Mr.
Elias Coelho denied that any
of his company's vehicles were
It was out of the question,
he' said, as their vans were
fully employed from 5 a.m. till
late evening on company busi-
ness. Neither was it possible, he
stressed, for a vehicle the com-
pany had sold to be involved
in the incident, because a con-

General for using "unfortunate
language" and "cryptic corm-




edition of sale was for the buyer
to remove the original Coelho
markings before use).
The heavily-armed men sur-
rounded the house where Pegus
and Jacob were asleep. Coming
out of the house on the orders
of the policemen,- the two
young people were ordered to
lie on the floor and identify
The policemen then pro-
ceeded to ransack the house,
ripping apart mattresses and
Police later charged Pegus
with possession of 10rounds of
ammunition and a length of
fuse for explosives.
Also detained at this time
was a neighbour in the ad-


ments" in his report on the
IDC accounts for 1969.
Among other points raised
in the report were the follow-
ing: an investment of $30,000
in a handicraft company, Elaine
Barrymore Ltd; the erroneous
writing off of a building valued
at $213,388; the rent free oc-
cupation by the General
Manager of a property valued
at $36,759.
Now the Auditor-General
is a top government official
whose responsibility it is to
ensure that all expenditures are
properly authorised and ac-
counted for. He reports to the
Public Accounts Committee
which is composed of members
of Parliament.
IHe is empowered to ques-
tion any transaction which

does not meet with his satis-

joining apartment to the house
at St. Joseph and another per-
son who lived a few houses
away. These two persons were
released later on the same day.
Pegus and Jacob were taken
to Police Headquarters and
detained. While Jacob was al-
lowed a change of clothes, Pe-
gus was not even allowed to
take along his shoes, and he
appeared barefooted the follow-
ing day before J.P. Brian Bar-
Jacob is facing charges of
taking part in the Barclays
Bank robbery of February, and
also of robbing a security guard
of a revolver, ammunition
shirt and tie, cap, belt and a
revolver holster.
Pegus is charged with
harbouring Jacob and also with
being in possession of ammu-
nition and a length of fuse for
explosives. He was granted bail
in the sum of $10,000 and is
now back at his job at UWI St.
Augustine. He is due to appear
in the Tunapuna Magistrate's
Court on July 16 to answer the
Jacob, meanwhile, has been

As a lawyer and Chairman
of a Statutory Board Mr. Pri-
mus must know that it was in
bad taste to make charges
against the Auditor-General in
the way that he did. His con-

of this important watchdog of
the people's interests.
Since the Prime Minister
expressed his fire-rage over the
behaviour of high level staff
both in the Water and Sewerage
Authority and the National In-
surance Board, it seems their
counterparts in the IDC have
been frantically wetting their
roofs. But, as far as that Cor-:
poration is concerned, water is
as dangerous as fire. There is a
great deal of cocoa inthe sun.
Since Medina was still
at UWI in 1969 he cannot be

made to pay the cake for the
doings of the Corporation

maintained in custody at the
Golden Grove Prison. She ap-
peared in court this week on
her charges and is due to apply
for bail, today, Friday.
An Express story of June

founded since 1959. Appa-
rently he was on leave at the
time of the audit query. When
called out to work prematurely
lie refused to upset his commit-
ments and domestic arrange-
On his resumption of duties
he was removed from the post
of Acting Financial Comptrol-


At this stage we can only
speculate as to why the pres-
sures had been brought to bear
on him. Is it that he showed
an unwillingness to cover up the
past shortcomings of the Cor-
poration? Or is Management
now clearing the way for the
appointment of someone more
It is ironic that Primus who
was once fired from the IDC
for taking a stand against the
first General Manager Wein-
traub, is now a witness to
the apparent victimization of
this young man who has not
yet lost his idealism.
What is more, Primus now
defends the status quo.
According to the Trinidad
Guardian, "Mr. Primus said
under the terms and conditions
of service of the first General
Manager in 1959 the agreement
provided that suitable rent free
furnished housing accommo-
dation would be provided by
the Corporation.

"When the present general
manager was- appoit-di~.-wa.-,-
Ull un er1su.' iv tLLl ll hal hi .
should inherit the same terms
and conditions of service".

26 quotes a senior police officer
.as saying that police were
"stymied in their enquiries, as
they were not able to complete
certain exercises"

Our printing-plantis
House, 82-84 St.
Tunapuna. Kindly
662 5126.

open at TheTapia
Vincent Street,
phone orders to:

11i 1 ot


T&T............ 12.00 1F
CARIFTA. ......... 18.00 Wi
CARIBBEAN. ....... 12.50 US
-WS/CANADA......... 15.00 1S
UK....... ........ 8.00 UK
W. Europe.......... 10.00 UK
WEST AFRICA....... 2.00 UK
INDIA............. 12.00 UK
AUSTRALIA. ....... 12.00 UK
EAST AFRICA...... 15.00 UK
FAR EAST ......... 15.50 UK
All overseas deliveries airmail..
Surface mail rates on request.

91, Tunapuna Road,
Trinidad & Tobago.


'1 r


Column 1

By Lennox Grant



Music... funklified

IF THERE was anything like "good old times", it couldn't
be when we lived in tapia houses with wooden jalousies.
cooked our food in coalpots, and progas, glass louvres and
Bestcrete blocks were yet to modernize us.
At my age, I am self-conscious whenever I have to say
something that has to be prefaced with Learie Constantine's famous
phrase "in my day ..."
Now, in my late twenties, the colonialism that was the
reality of Constantine's time is a patch of dimming recollections
which include hearing an Englishman say on the radio that he was
"bitterly ashamed" to be Governor of Trinidad after the 1960 Oval
riot, and the strains of "God Save the Queen" which I almost failed
to recognize the other day.
So I must be a modern kind of person for whom transistors,
TVs and polyester fabrics are as much a part of my experience as
PNM nationalism and black consciousness.
Nevertheless, I have a fear that the period in time I would
call "my day" is being fast overtaken by developments that leave me
standing bemused and vaguely disapproving.
It was when my teenagedd)
sister jibed about my "gun W hat'
mouth" pants that I under- S
stood that bell-bottoms were
things ordinary fellers like me not
could wear without attracting not
unwelcome comments starting
with. "how you could .. -" __ M : *

All that needs to be said be-
fore I could explain reaction to
the advertising feature in last
Sunday's Guardian announcing
the arrival of Kentucky Fried
Chicken in Trinidad.
Because fried chicken is
one of these modern things
that I never paid much atten-
tion to until it seemed about to
become a national dish. You
wonder what's the use of that
elaborate menu card that you
ritually peruse before ordering
(as you knew you would) "fry
rice, fry chicken quarter


In time and space the world
is shrinking. Kentucky Fried
Chicken was something friends
away wrote home about; now
we hae it down here long
before, in the expected pace of
diffusion, it should have
arrived. Same thing happened
with cassette tapes which were
being advertise: herj .within
months, it seemed, after I read
bout their invention in TIME
Yet the inevitability of our
"catching up" with the "ad-
vanced" countries that is to
say, acquiring their consumer
goods does not for me lessen
the dread I feel for the coming
of all these things, so modern
and indispensable to modern
Before I'd had the chance
to buy Famous Recipe Fried
Chicken, Kentucky Fried is
bidding for my attention and
I think of all those golden
brown chicken parts bubbling
forth from the gleaming gad-
getry in all those anti-septic
kitchens, to be served in clean
new bristol board boxes by the

home on

the range

ungreasy hands of uniformed
waitresses. And of the adver-
tising: "Have double barrel
fun "; "The finger lickin'
good chicken you've been hear-
ing about"; "here at last";
"Saturday night lime with the
And of the price, un-
abashedly advertised $11.50
for 15 pieces and six rolls.
Aren't there cheaper ways of
feeding that Saturday night
lime? So what, people can't
cook again?
And where, in this guava
season are people getting that
kind of money from, to spend
on that kind of thing?
But these are not questions
you can ask without fear of
inviting criticism for opposing
progress, for failing to face up
taLhe evidence of higher stand-
ards ofliving. Or, more curious-
ly, for not supporting local
For Kentucky Fried which
opposes its own secret recipe
to that of Famous Recipe, was
in fact brought down here by
11 Trinidadians who, according
to the Guardian write-up, were
able to convince the Kentucky
Fried Corporation of the USA
of their ability to provide
"quality control in food,
hygiene and service (which) is
only one step short of fanatic-
But how local is this enter-
prise anyway?
Well, and I find it signi-
ficant, the Guardian feature
doesn't even mention the
names of the Trinidadians in-
volved. Indeed, the biggest

story in the feature is the
rags-to-riches saga of the Ameri-
can founder of Kentucky
Fried, Colonel Harland San-
ders, 83.
The Colonel counts among
the highlights of his long career
of public service and private
enterprise, action with the
American army which brought
about the transfer of Cuba
from Spanish to American
colonialism at the turn of the
century, and a period as justice
of the peace in notorious Little
Rock, Arkansas.
Angostura, as we know,
also has a secret formula for
which its bitters is said to be
world famous. But I've never
heard of Angostura setting up
rum shops or pavilions to serve
rum punches flavoured with
their unique bitters across the
American Midwest.
Now, what about the
buxom woman who sold accra

long line of customers? She has
not been able to capitalise on
her special recipe that was
obviously irresistible to so
Her little stall saw no ex-
pansion; she founded no
branches; she employed no
assistants or technological im-
provements till the end, the
fries were made over the same
fiercely burning coalpot. And
you either waited your turn or
earned her sharp-tongued re-


Clearly, she was innocent of
the benefits of modern sales
techniques, modern business
organization. She never worked
more than a couple days a
Not so the 11 young Trini-
dadians who brought down
Kentucky Fried. They were
able to "win" the franchise to
produce and market for the
Corporation that boasts of sell-
ing "more prepared food in
dollar volume, than will be
sold by any other company in
the world".
But as far as I can see, the
entrepreneurship which re-
sulted in the establishment of
Kentucky Fried in Trinidad
belongs more to the American
Colonel Sanders than to the 11
It is Kentucky Fried and
Famous Recipe who are stepp-
ing into the breach provided by
the default of genuinely na-
tional enterprise' like that of the
accra and floe woman.
Somebody needs to trace
the connection between the
flourishing rise of ultra-modern
eating establishments like
Continued on Page 7

O sIIul" NiiNtLi1: 1i answering an earner que!uoIn yuu reLerreu
3) Silir tnhp nritlnfn nf thp Mn1lt;4i-ninnnl ('nnrnnrtionn After
,LFRGY Pnil better known tto nlvnsno nthusiaslthe

SUcLn Ol ierI o "aUIC I u'lIIllu Uiill as 1.-)i IUMIHi1111 m i lll-I,,ieS
Lord Nelson, in a succession of nightclub ( I Is -ate
Calypso is alive and well and living an rk the
which bends with the times and because tI y.;lous-
.or for that matter West
iW However, because [ f' / "- "- ,) 0 .aU"'>
Indians are well able to, F ootnotes ,.-
a-a weekly digest"
sui-,auwnsuo3 jo uo!is iueu2jO uogeujajuI aiq jo ?a .3a


BARBADOS PM Errol Barrow impresses Caribbean Com-
munity journalists as "a practical man".
He has an "open mind" on marijuana but closed eyes
and ears to the capers of Barbados beach boys and French
Canadian jeunes filles even though he knows about "health
problems" developing as a result.
But hear the man himself sing the hit song of the new
petite anglaise:
"If you remove the question of colour, there's no
'beach boy' problem. You know, I've travelled a lot and I've
seen tourists resorts in other parts of the world and let me tell
you, wherever there are tourist resorts, there are young women
looking for young men and vice versa. There are 'beach boys'
all over the world. But if the girls are not complaining, why the
hell are you complaining?"
Who, me?


SIGN OF the times if not augury of the future: the St. Kitts
House of Assembly last week debated the Georgetown Accord
under the protective eyes (and guns) of that State's Defence
Premier and Home Affairs Minister Robert Bradshaw
had the guards posted because, he said, "we have been hearing
what is going to happen and what is not going to happen in the
next meeting of the house".
Whatever was going to happen, the Speaker was not
prepared to have removed from the roof of the building a
soldier who, the Opposition leader Ivan de Grasse said, had
pointed a machine gun at his head.
Bradshaw, who has been seen sometimes in the uni-
form of an officer in the Defence Force, showed he was no
novice in mathematics of gunnery.
In rejecting De Grasse's complaint, the Premier ex-
plained it was "geometrically impossible" for anyone to point
a gun at Mr. De Grasse in his seat in the Chamber.


THE "Malik Must Not Hang" issue, pushed internationally by
such radical luminaries as US lawyer William Kunstler, and
locally (it would seem) by MOKO, has drawn comment from
the British journal "New Statesman".
An editorial in that magazine's June 23 issue headed
"The Case for Michael X'"reported that "most people secretly
(or indeed openly) welcomed the news that in Trinidad at
least Michael X would get 'the punishment he deserves' "
Recalling that Malik had jumped bail in England where
he claimed that as a black man he could not expect a fair trial,
the magazine commented "being black has not helped him
much in independent, self-governing Trinidad".
The "New Statesman" lamented, however, that Malik's
unpopularity has made it difficult for even the opponents of
capital punishment "to distinguish between the principle and
and the man".
And though the energy shown in the promotion of
the Save-Malik issue could perhaps be more profitably applied
to other outstanding international cases of brutality, the
magazine endorsed the campaign to save Malik's neck as a
creditable move to prevent a "single act of barbaric cruelty".


IT HAS long been the dream of such revolutionaries as Che
Guevara to abolish money as a means of exchange.
And Cuba, under the revolutionary regime begun by
Che and Castro, has gone some way towards providing living
necessities for all even though it might mean waiting long
hours in a line for rations.
We in Trinidad, blighted for the last two years or so by
food shortages, and pressurized by mounting prices are appa-
rently arriving at the stage where money will abolish itself and
we'll have to obtain goods by barter.
This is what the La Remain Land Tenants Association
started last week with its backyard garden project the produce
of which is to be exchanged among its members.
For those of us, however, with nothing to give in ex-
change but our labour it might not be so welcome a "return
to the way of life practised in olden times". (How many
man-hours for a dasheen?).
What it means in these days of scrambling for food,
water and transport is that we may be well returning to that
.State of nature described by the philosopher as "nasty,
brutish and short".

... -.* an fIYt**6

,_ i

I. OWN ___




Latins drawing closer to Cuba

JUST A FEW hours after being installed in
power, President Hector J. Campora's ad-
ministration reestablished Argentina's diplo-
matic relations with Cuba.
Present for the historic occasion was
Cuban pTesident, Osvaldo Dorticos, who head-
ed a top-level delegation of his country to the
inaugural ceremonies, held in Buenos Aires on
May 25.
Both President Dorticos and Salvador
Allende, Chile's Chief Executive, were hailed
by giant crowds that took to Buenos Aires'
avenuesarid plazas to cheer the return of Ar-
gentina to constitutional rule following the
May 11 electoral victory over the military.
regime headed by General Alejandro Lanusse.
The reestablishment of relations between

US gains

THE Central American Com-
mon Market has enabled the
United States to increase in-
vestment in the area by $698
million in only 11 years.
The Secretariat for Central
American Ecbnomic Integra-
tion (SIECA), based in Costa
Rica, revealed that in 1960
US investments in the region
were $37 million, and by 1971
the figure had jumped to $735
And as American invest-
ments rise, so does the Central
American foreign debt. At-the.
beginning of the decade it had
already reached $800 million.
Meanwhile, in 1972 alone,
the US registered profits of
$120 milliori, something more
than 20 percent of the sum
invested in the area.

000 agencia informative

Argentina and Cuba, President Campora's first step in
his country's "new look" foreign policy, was followed
by similar decisions concerning the German Demo-
cratic Republic and North Korea.
On June 5 and 7, contracts were announced
for the sale of 58 thousand tons of Argentine maize
to Cuba, another harsh blow to the already crumbling
U.S. economic blockade of Cuba.
Observers noted that while Presidents Dorticos

July 26 Movement marks 2lt.

CUBA this month marks the
20th anniversary of the cele-
brated assault of Moncada
Fortress on July 26, 1953.'

A bloody business
EXPORTS of Costa Rican blood and plasma, mostly to the United
States, will continue after the legislature failed to pass a bill out-
lawing it.
A measure declaring the blood trade illegal was passed almost
unanimously in the first round.
However, when it came up for the third and decisive vote,
the ruling National Liberation Party'switched and the bill was
The blood business here has been going on for eight years.
Moves to outlaw it started two years ago.
A legislative commission of inquiry found that there are
some donors who sell blood once or twice a week while 95 percent
of all donors show signs of malnutrition.
Had the bill been voted into law, the.Cenaplasma Ltd. firm,
linked to close relatives of President Jose Figueres, would have dis-
This explains, in the view of observers, why the ruling party
legislative caucus changed its mind.
0 I

That abortive uprising
against the Batista dictator-
ship led by Castro has been
considered the start of the
Cuban revolution which cli-
maxed in the march into
Havana on New Year's Day
Two decades after Mon-
cada finds Cuba still "deepen-
ing" the process of the revo-
lution which resulted in

and Allende were cheered by crowds throughout their
stay in Argentina, US Secretary of State William
Rogers could not even attend the inauguration cere-
He had to be whisked awaybyjittery security
guards, who protected his flight through a back door
and took to his Buenos Aires hotel, surrounded by a
hostile crowd that showed anti-imperialist slogans.
Campora's bold decision to invite Cuban
President Dorticos to his inauguration even before
diplomatic ties were reestablished, and the official
honour given to the Cuban chief executive he was
the first to be welcomed by Campora before the
swearing-in ceremony and he and AUende signed the
inauguration document as well as the overwhelm-
ing displays of popular enthusiasm over the presence
of the Cuban president, are facts that keynote the
latest stage in the hemisphere's development.

Dorticos later visited Chile
where President Allende wel-
comed him, saying:
"Cuba and Chile will march
side by side in the new destiny
of Latin America".
In Peru, President Dorticos
spoke with Peruvian chief exe-
cutive, General Juan Velasco
Alvarado, who made a speech
saying: "This is a meeting be-
tween two revolutionary
governments whose countries,
through different methods, are
building their own revolution
to solve the fundamental prob-
lems of their people.
"I believe that the trans-
formation processes of Cuba
and Peru, now under way with-
in the framework of their own
histories and realities, represent
experiences of invaluable im-
portance to the people of La-
.... ti.-Ameriea .andr m a __tk -
containab1c force of the deep
trends towards change on our
Both in Chile and Peru,
Dorticos spoke of the creation
of a Latin American organiza-
tion, with the participation of
the English-speaking Caribbean
countries, and with the exclu-
sion of the United States, for
the defense of the Latin Ameri-
can peoples from imperialist


thorough-going social and eco-
nomic Change in Cuba.
In the coming weeks TAPIA
will present reports on the pro-
gress and achievements of the
Cuban revolution and its im-
plications for both the Carib-
bean and the wider Hemis-

A Watergate grammar...



74 Independence Square, P.O.S.
19 30 High St., San Fernando,
(Trinidad, W.I.)







FROM ATOP the fly-over bridge overlooking Chaguanas
the panoramic view presented of beautiful buildings, well
laid-out streets, of traffic and residents moving on, of a
church tower, resembling one out of an English History
text, looming in the distance and of the newspaper vendors
flitting between taxis, conjures up a feeling that a growing
and affluent community exists in the centre of our nation.
A community which may challenge the present Port-of-
Spain dominated pattern of our nation.
Such a picture is very deceptive. For what one does not
hear are the cries of the frustrated, the disaffected, the victimised,
the unemployed and the employed.
From 1956 to 1972 all
attempts by the ruling party to
win the seat in Central Trini-
dad have met with complete
The last election, however,
changed this with the "land- r e
slide" (no-contest) victory of
the PNM thereby giving the
area apparently real represen- ,.
station for the first time. -


Today as ever Chaguanas
remains the focal point in Cen- .
trial Trinidad. It serves a myriad -
of small communities (Long-
denvilje, Enterprise, Cunupia,
Endeavour, Brasso Caparo, Ma-
moral, Charlieville, Felicity ,
Cacandee, Montrose), with ever .. .
growing populations. '
As far as the people of the ..;
town itself are concerned there '
is a great deal of disaffection "
and growing apprehension. In
the conversations overheard
one can feel the urgent need
for a change in our country's
administrative set up, especially
at local government level. It's a terribly frightening
The problems which exist experience for people on the
are manifold. Central to the days that these buildings are
prevailing crisis of political, used poor seating, insani-
social and economic ills is the tary toilet facilities or the ab-
A' pt sence I o I same TCTrpur- p-~
A potentially viable agri- commodation for female pa-
cultural community does not tients and a number of related
focus on agriculture to the deficiencies remain to be re-
extent necessary for the uplift- medied.
ment of the community,, and
the leading citizens of the town The word is that the accent
are indifferent to the com- is'on the "Youth". One sees
munity's problems, little evidence except the re-
cently opened Trade School, of
ESCAPE sustained attempts aimed at
creating the necessary condi-
tions for incorporating young
Rumshops, snackettes, people into the national main-
gambling Clubs, racing pools, stream.
the blocks seem the o n I y
avenues of escape from and/or It is quite clear to every-
forums for discussion of the one that since 1956 the coun-
growing problems and frustra- try has slowly witnessed the
tions that exist. degeneration of Local Govern-
The Community Centre no ment. The Local representatives
longer holds pride of place as are unable to display any form
the focus for community in- of independence of thought or
volvement, rather one finds it a action.
breeding ground for irrespon-
sibility and the violation of all CENTRALIZED
norms governing every aspect
of living together-partnership
is rife. Questions are still being This is part of the crisis
asked as to the purpose and facing our country the ab-
function of the Centre. science of popular involvement
A growing population de- in the framing of laws relating
mandg certain facilities and :.. to administration in County
these a library for the grow- a 'd Village Councils which de-
ing youthful community, a hos- feats the purpose for which
pital (because of the commun- these bodies are designed.
ity's unique position), a fire Over-centralisation has re-
station are all absent, suited in the lack of attention
This is the highest form of to the problem of rural and
discrimination possible for you semi-urban areas.
can't win all, and public build W
ings function for the taxpayer Why can't the Government
ings fiction for the ta yer distribute some of its power to
(or do they?) So what scene
you on? the various communities where
the people themselves can at-
There is need for better tend to their problems? This
health facilities, in particular, then would be the realization
a properly equipped ante-natal of "Power to the people!"
clinic, for the presc it building
is totally inadequate to meet The community of Chagua-
the needs of a growing popu- nas has developed around a
lation. The Health Centre, and sugar estate. Why is it not pos-
Dental Clinic, too, are un- sible for more of the local resi-
suited for their intended pur- dents to have some measure of
pose. control in this enterprise? Why

People of


still waiting

Arthur Frederick


not allow Localisation to be
meaningful and not the misno-
mer that it is?
Why shouldn't the local
government authority (CCC)

exercise some measure of au.
thority over the police? Why
shouldn't the residents have
some measure of control over

To become nationally con-
scious, people need exercise
some measurable degree of in-
volvement in their affairs. This
is what Tapia has always been
emphasising, "the participation
of men in the choice of their
Government, in the process of
legislation and in the control of
administration free from a
foreign yoke".
People are unwilling to co-
operate because of this. The
cry is for relevance and further
involvement. Laws alone can-
not make good relations. How
can this be achieved if the
people are not given some
measure of authority in runn-
ing their affairs?
The people of Chaguanas
are still waiting.

In the World

No.6 is Players

greatest success

t .

7i i -- "',:

.....' I

--- Success through\,,
people of good taste who
enjoy a unique blend of the finest .
Virginia tobaccos. Be different,enjoy'
a blend that's a bit different.

No 6 the cigarette for people of good taste.

-- -- --- --



'Divided by class,

united by


A limer, (Ivor Picou), an orange vendor (Ermine Wright), Corpie, a calypsonian,
(Stanley Marshall), witness the return of the Mighty Cobo, (Wilbert Holder).

Denis Solomon

'* kT SET Derek Walcott's
"Dreamr on Mionkey Mountain"
apart from all other drama for
me was the fact that it was the
first play in my experience that
said something serious directly
to .me as a West Indian. No
matter how others might react to
the play, in a West Indian it
touched psychological and poli-
tical nerves in a way that he

If "Dream" is the first West Indian
play, "The Charlatan", which opened
last Friday at the Town Hall is the
first Trinidadian play. With allow-
ances for the narrower focus and
more superficial bite of farce, it
speaks as directly to a Trinidadian as
"Dream" does and its wit, humour
and general elan depends on the con-
stant mutual, and affectionate, appre-
ciation by author, actors and audience
of everything that is absurd in this
crazy and wonderful country of ours.
It was time, too, that we should be
reminded of the lighter side. Walcott
- or perhaps we should say the Trini-
dad Theatre Workshop, for "The
Charlatan" is not a new play has
obviously understood the need for re-
lief from the pressures of the last few
years, pressures to which he has re-
acted (in "Dream", "Ti Jean", "In a
fine Castle" and "Franklin") with an
output whose relevance and imme-
diacy have provided something of a

beacon in sadly troubled times.
Now we are shown the bright and
endearingly ridiculous side of the coin.
But what is astonishing is that the
same man should be capable of show-
ing it to us.
Not that a Trinidad audience is
really surprised that Walcott is witty
- "Castle" showed that: or farcical
- "Ti Jean's" political message was
carried by a torrent of broad humour
and slapstick.
But with this production of "The
Charlatan" it is clear that not only has
Walcott matured as a "serious" play-
wright: somewhere along the way he
has mastered the techniques of British
music-hall comedy, British-Jamaican
pantomime, and even the writing of a
.peculiar type of long-lined calypso,
somewhere between son0 .l-l 1:...,
and calypso-tent picong.

The secret of this kind of comedy
is that the audience must be kept com-
fortable: there must be a slightly
wild and unreal quality crazy is the
only word for it about everything
that must be able to blunt the cutting
edge of cruel humour and situations.
This is achieved in a most professional
way by the company, all of whom dis-
play in the light of their previous roles,
a versatility that fully entitles them to
the-name of a theatre company.With
previous Walcott plays, what sticks in
the mind after the performance is over
is parts of the dialogue: with this play,
memories are visual: the idiotic sight
of Laurie Goldstraw hunched! on the
ground tirelessly levitating his crystal
ball in the hope of spiritual guidance;
the two never-say-die failed calypso-
nians, Stanley Marshall and Wilbert

Laurence Goldstraw plays Dr. Theodore Holley, an English spiritualist reunited at
Carnival with his ex-wife Mrs. Clarissa Holley-Upshot (Judy Stone).

Holder, patiently freeing the emotion-
ally constipated white Trinidadian
. artist, Nigel Scott, of his inhibitions
(which he loses in..record.. ine);.
q ,r -,l.-. .f.|,. I,-,|II1 I ..,,. hl -, .'i ..-.
sponses of lechery and caution to the
advances of the near-nympho "society"
girl. played by Helen Camps; Gold-
straw again, weighed down and al-
most invisible under the ample thighs
of Judy Stone, paddling his canoe on
an imaginary lake as they sing a love
duet in memory of old times.


The story that holds all this idiocy
together is that of Dr. Holley, an
English faith-healer and general phony,
his beautiful daughter by a second,
West Indian,wife, and-his first,English
wife, whose elderly husband's money
they hope to inherit in order to be able
to take up where they would like to
have left off.
There are also various other frauds
a pair of picaresque calypsonians,
a self-pitying white artist, Mrs. Holley's
repressed but libidinous daughter, and

forhistorical and geographical balance,
an African charlatan who has spent' his
life fooling the whites as Holley has
... spenthhis foo". .hb. _
here nor there. Suffice it to say that
behind the crazy events, sustained at
an admirable pace by the company
and highlighted by the Family Trees
rendering of Fred Hope's lively music,
the charlatan of Trinidadian society is
gently but clearly illuminated.
The benign self-deception that en-
ables the failed calypsonians to keep
going by convincing themselves that
they are the true poets of the land; the
yearning of second-rate expatriates to
be big fish in a small pond; the pallid
sentimentalism that passes for artistic
sensibility; snobbish'reserve overcome
by interracial sexual attraction; the
pride of a calypsonian in a white mis-
tress that is so great that he can hardly
wait to seal his ownership by giving
her her first beating.
All in all, a picture of a society
that, at all its levels, has brought to a
high pitch the art of fooling and being
As one of the songs has it, we are
"divided by class, united by

VcLA. M1 Ar



IS Stephens



History of our peoples

Did you know there were

indentured AFRICANS too?

Allan Harris

of our history is the impor-
tation of Africans into the
West Indies after Emanci-
Especially in Trinidad
and Guyana, we tend to
make a convenient distinc-
tion between African
slavery and Indian inden-
tured labour. However, on
the basis of recent work
published by Maureen
Warner, it is clear that we
cannot continue to take
such a simple view of our
social history.
In an article in Bulletin
No. 5 of the African
Studies Association of the
West Indies (ASAWI), Miss
Warner has put together a
wealth of information on
the origins and modes of
came to these shores in the
nineteenth century as in-
dentured labourers.
As in the case of inden-
tured labour from India, the
background to this phase of our
history was the chronic labour
shortage experienced by the
planters after 1838.
The vast majority of new
arrivals were "slave recaptives",
that is, Africans who had been
taken into slavery, but who had
been liberated before they
could reach their proposed des-
tinations in the New World.
After Britain abolished her
slave trade in 1808, the noto-
rious traffic continued between
Africa and the plantations of
Brazil, Cuba and the United
Britain soon put her un-
rivalled sea power to work in
defence of her economic inter-
ests. According to Miss Warner,
"Some of the slave transports
were intercepted by man-o'-
wars of the British Naval Pre-
ventitive Squadron which from
1808 patrolled the seas off the
Guinea Coast and in the Middle

Southern Chanters keepingAfrican traditions alive.

Passage in an attempt to block-
ade the continued trade in
The liberated slaves were
sent to Sierra Leone, a settle-

menr estaolsnea oy pnnan-
thropic interests in 1787 as a
home for free blacks from
England and Canada. In 1808,
the British Government took
control of the colony.
It was from among these
"Sierra Leoneans", both the
earlier settlers and the more
recently arrived slave recap-
tives, that the majority of in-
dentured Africans were drawn.
Miss Warner tells us that
during her investigations in
Trinidad, one of the factors
she took into account to de-
termine if informants were re-
ferring to forebears of inden-
tured as opposed to slave status,
was whether or not they had
heard the Africans speak of
Sierra Leone.
The scheme to import in-
dentured labour from Sierra
Leone into the West Indies
was approved by the British
Government in 1840. Because
it could so easily evoke memo-
ries of the .slave trade, the
authorities sought to mask the
economic motives with philan-
thropic sentiments.

The indentured Africans were from the Congo, Coromanti,
Yoruba, Kru and Hausa tribes.
Below are some surviving Fanti names with Angli-





Thus it was argued that
since the West Indies was more
like Western Europe than was
West Africa, the emigrants
stood a better chance there of
acquiring "civilization".
Opposition to the scheme
from various interests in Sierra
Leone forced the British Go-
vernment to hedge it about
with' such restrictions as the
one requiring that emigrants
must have been at least six
weeks in the colony, and that
they be allowed 21 days to
consider the matter, before





These regulations, designed
to ensure "that newly-liberated
Africans would not emigrate
while still debilitated by their
experience of the slave ships"
came under increasing pressure
from the West Indian planters.
As the economic motives were
more and more boldly asserted,
the minimum residence require-
ment was progressively reduced
from six weeks to one week.
On arrival in the West
Indies, the immigrants enjoyed
relative freedom compared with
the lot of the slaves in earlier
times. The arrivals were divided

by the Agent General for Emi-
gration into lots of 10, 15, 20,
or even 50 at times, and "ad-
vised" to place themselves at
the disposal of certain estates.
Such advice was often ig-
nored. This situation derived
from Colonial policy between
the years 1838 and 1846 which
forbade the Emigration offi-
cials and the planter interests
in the ports of embarkation
from making the immigrants
sign contracts.


But once more economic
interests eventually prevailed
so that in 1842 the indenture
of liberated Africans was autho-
rised for one year or until the
age of 18. By 1852 the period
had been extended to three
years and by 1863 to five years.
Between 1841 and 1867
an estimated 36,120 Africans
landed in the West Indies. The
chief recipients were British
Guiana, Jamaica and Trinidad.
This pattern of distribution was
similar to that of Indian immi-
There was greater availabil-
ity of land in Jamaica and the
new colonies of British Guiana
and Trinidad, which made it-
difficult for the planters to
keep the former slaves under
their sway. After 1848, small
numbers of Africans were sent
to St. Vincent, St. Lucia, St.
Kitts, Dominica, Tobago and
It is estimated that almost
8,000 immigrants came to
Trinidad, either from Sierra
Leone, or from other depots
for slave recaptives such as St.
Helena, Rio and Havana. Some
idea of the impact of these
arrivals can be gauged from the
fact that at Emancipation the
population of the country
could not have been more than
between 30,000 and 40,000.
Gordon Rohlehr has sug-
gested some of the difficulties
of life at that time:

Continued on Page 11

From Page 3
Royal Castle and the two fa-
mous recipe brands and the
pressures on, say, Independence
Square food vendors who have
been harried by the authorities
for reasons of health, traffic and
electricity generator licences.
Of course, people want
higher standards of hygiene,
more comfortable if not
opulent settings in which to
eat out. And, look at them:
they clearly want to eat out
more, and have more money to
spend on it too.

Last week one visiting
London-based Trinidadian
Pearl Connor Magotse was com-
plaining that she could get so
little "creole" food in the well-
heeled circles in which she was
entertained. They would all
take her to Chinese restaurants.
But how much have we
progressed from 1959 when
Dr. Williams wrote about West

Indian eating habits:
"The table is for the most
part European or American,
with Chipese cuisine more than
holding its ow;r, the West
Indian menage is based on im-
ported meat, starches, vege-
tables and even preserved fruit
(which has steadily displaced
local fresh fruit), all washed
down by coca cola and pepsi

Well, the fry chicken plants
are outlets for the big poultry
industry local. But the re-
cipes are American, the techno-
logy American, the entrepre-
neurship and business organiza-
tion American and even the
dining rooms are modern
American in style. Coke is still
"the real thing".

I noticed last year at UWI
that the one music common to
all the 'national day' fetes held
by students from different terri-
tories was American "funk'.

Nothing to worry about?
Maybe. But I look around and
see a lonely constituency who
have no old times of pitchoil,
coalpot and tapia to look back
to nostalgically, but who fear
we'll one day have no chicken
other than fried and no music
other than funkified.

Chicken... fried, Music... funkified

I I II II L I---

- I I__



L.3 0 ;
Inr -- -


Ot --' ~ A.


~' ,

Bayn-rtheC, rbbeanpeope

akig ,a vote .o confidence in

-e s, ',
.Bfeciding -o work together to
S ._help each other*and help

,, themselves.

SIt's a decision we have to
make now, tomorrow,..the day

after tomorrow...

For no one will dofor. us

what we must do for ourselves.
"Fi Thejfact is: -we'vett

Sis --ours, too ,Let's

.- -.-o, t there and find it!



14.. 1




c lc4:~
1 "I r. :4
'n .
"-'' !~E9
~.L ii

~~ i~
p~ ~-~J?
~;: ~;~s

; ?~sF1
-~. J




J.."A 4 "

1 7A
WA..-0 i-2 01
"Ag 9 .




I .. I A.,


.- ,



Why PPP opposed vote at 18

Peasants seize lands
A REBELLION by landless peasants in the village of Monte-
peque 125 km. northeast of Guatemala City, adds a new explo-
sive element to the peasant struggles which have sharpened
during the last six years in Guatemala.
According to official reports, 11 peasants and six
soldiers were killed in a clash at the end of May.
About 1,000 men and women, armed with machetes,
sticks, stones and a few guns, took part in one of the biggest
land seizures the zone has ever seen.
The landless peasants are refusing to be dislodged and
they are showing titles left by their ancestors, some dating
to 1711.
After the first clash, a thousand Rangers, trained by
US counterinsurgency experts, were flown in to the region.

olds the vote.
The PPP charges that it was
only when the PNC was satis-
fied that "the fraudulent regis-
tration exercise recently carried
out will give it a majority of
votes between 21 and 18" that
it moved to reduce the voting
Noting that lowering the
voting age to 18 was one of the
reforms it had for several years
agitated, the PPP statement

emphasised that the party "still
believes that the voting age
should be at 18 as it has
always advocated.
"It will support the reduc-
tion of the voting age from 21
to18 if it is satisfied that the
voters list is impartially com-
piled and is not padded with
names of underaged, dead, non-
existent, and phantom voters
as was the case in 1968 and
will be in 1973."

In writing or speaking the purpose is either to
persuade or to inform to a particular view point,
or both. However, the clarity of the message is
always more important than the language or the
media used to communicate the message.

Our message is that you should do your Banking
Business with us, and not merely because we're
a truly National Commercial Bank but
actually because our Rates of Interest and our
services are competitive, and our Financial
Counselling Services sound and innovative-
designed to help you.

.... B. --.--

The National Commercial Bank'of Trinidad & Tobago. 60 Independence Square.

Bank in your Bank.

GUYANA's People's Progres-
sive Party (PPP) has sought to
clear up misunderstanding over
that party's Parliamentary vote
on May 30 against the measure
for the reduction of the voting
age to 18.
A press statement has re-
affirmed the PPP's support for
the reduction of the voting
age to 18, pointing out that it
was the ruling People's National
Congress which had always
been opposed to giving 18 year

iive a-hPtter. life

.5l W U

-- ---


v __ v


has been said to have its
roots in revolution.
But if anything, our
Carnival has more and
more moved away from its
And in recent years
many have been led to
quption whether the tra-
diurpa festival can find
ar~gt Iijce in a seriously
reataized society.
To judge from a recent
PR SA ,LATINA report,
Canivalhas survived the Cuban
revfi Qtion and' has been
ad*ted' with success to pro-
yide for the usual merry-mak-
ing while maintaining the
s~qus orientation towards the
Cian ethic of work and
.'"The Cuban news agency
$ EFORE THE Cuban revo-
lution, King Mammon ruled
the, Queen of the Carnival with
tiebaftd jealousy. The fun-
ftaking carnival days in Havana,
Saitiago de Cuba and other
cities were marked by the
the commercialism of the spon-
sors of Carnivals and by vio-


The contest to choose the
Queen and her "Ladies" was,
in effect, a business publicity
enterprise. The prospective
candidates were sold to the
public as if they were a brand
of soap, beer or lady's lingerie.
Victory meant the publicity
spotlight for the merchant-
sponsor and his products.
The contests for selection
of the Queen and her Ladies
were full of dirty business. In
1951 the young woman chosen
as Carnival Queen in Havana
was disqualified at the insist-
ance of a group of powerful
It was a highly unpopular
decision. One "benefactor"
came to hear rescue and built
a magnificent float for what he
cajed "The Queen of the
People", a clever move which
S ddeidd publicity to his
a~n bimiess.
Th floats that highlighted
thf' pocession. especially in.
Hgpna, were little more than
rolling advertisements, laden


The traditional prcsuuntatons now go accumpaincd wlth new slogan,. This one stresses "FCO.VOM ".



with scantily-clad girls, and re-
plete with flashing signs an-
nouncing products.
Crime inevitably accom-
panied the carnivals. The thick
crowds gave an excellent oppor-
tunity for those bent on
vengeance: a bullet or a knife
'in the back of their enemy.
It was also a time when
:the. pickpockets were out in
full force, victimizing Cubans
as well as tourists,

Carnival continue to be
held in Cuban cities but today
the mercantile and crime ele-
ment has been eliminated.
In the post-revolutionary
carnivals the Star and Starlets
(they are no longer called
Queen and Ladies) are nomi-
nated by student organizations
and trade unions and then
chosen by a jury without finan-
cial commitments of any kind.
In choosing them, a new

criterion is used: the Star and
Starlets of today are young
women respected by their fel-
low workers or students.
The floats, often pulled by
a tractor, are as lavish as ever.
Workers,many of whom volun-
teer their time, spend weeks
building them and a substantial
budget is allotted for the pur-
Now it's called "Carnival
of the Peoples' and, Cubans'

claim, the mas is even better
than before.
With unemployment and
commercialism eliminated, and
health care and education avail-
able free, crime Carnivial
is not the problem that it used
to be. People can now attend
in their numbers without fear
of robbery or assault.
"a much more pure form of
fun-making" has replaced the
previous "escapist frenzy".

ABO VE: Construction workers put on a show
LEFT: An Afro-Cuban dance in Havana streets.




gets refinery

Manley of Jamaica on June 18
signed an agreement to con-
struct a $350 million oil re-
finery complex at Luana Point,
St. Elizabeth, in the island's
southwest corner.
The project is said to re-
present the greatest single
investment in Jamaican history.
Scheduled to start opera-
tions in 1976, the refinery will
have an output of 250,000
bbls. daily, and will process
crude oil from the Middle East
and market the petroleum pro-
ducts mainly in the Eastern
United States.
The Jamaican Government,
without financial commitment,
will take up 10% of the equity,
Moratti 90%.
Between the 6th and 15th
year, Jamaica, from dividends,
will obtain an additional 10%
The Moratti Group, which
runs 2 refineries in Italy, will
be responsible for operating
the Jamaican plant, which will
provide up to 4,000 jobs, it is
The huge project hopefully
will spur others to be built on
the island, including a sorely
needed electric power plant
plus a chemical complex and an
aluminum smelter.

I wish to inform he public
that it is not true that Orange
Grove sugar factory has been
experiencing difficulties be-
cause Mr. Clement Tello, the
production manager is on sus-
The spokesman for the
company who informed the
Sunday Guardian of June 24,
1973 that the factory was in
trouble either doesn't know

From Page 7
groups of Yorubas, say, fresh
from Africa as indentured
workers, or taken off slave
ships, were living alongside
creolised Blacks of French,
English or Spanish background,
Indian indentured workers, and
a dozen more fragmented racial
groups; all experiencing severe
problems of language in their
relation to the power struc-
ture?" (Forty Years of Calyp-
so, TAPIA vol. 2 No. 1).
Miss Warner enumerates a
number of African "nations"
"In that confused post-
Emancipation period the prob-
lem of identity must have been
acute. How was status to be
determined in a society where
from which the immigrants
were drawn. These included the
Kru, Coromanti, Congo, Yoru-
ba, Hausa, Rada and Mandingo.
The Kru had never been
slaves, but because of their
proximity to Sierra Leone, they
had been drawn into the immi-
gration scheme. Few appear to
have come to Trinidad.
The numbers of Coromanti
appear to have been small.
These were Fanti speakers from
the Gold Coast and, according
to Miss Warner, they have be-
queathed us such names as
Cudjoe (derived from Kojo),
Quashie (Kwasi), Cuffy (Kofi),
Quamina (Kwamina), and Car-
tey (Quartey).
The Congo and the Yoruba
seem to have had greatest re-
presentation among the immi-
grants. The Yorubas are des-
cribed as being a culturally
arrogant and close-knit com-

Tello,tell it like it is

AN Orange Grove worker gave the following statement to TAPIA
last week.

about O.G. or about the manu-
facture of Yellow Crystal sugar.
Further, 1 wish to point out
that. before Tello came on the
scene we never had a produc-
tion manager. Things were

going good then. For example,
in 1968 we produced 16,087
tons of sugar from mid-January
to the end of May.
Since Tello came on the
scene we have been getting fac-

Indentured Africans

Originally there seemed to
be friction between the Yoruba
and the Hausa which related
to inter-tribal conflicts in
"Both the Hausa and Yo-
ruba descendants say their fore-
parents were captured into
slavery through wars which
were being fought in Africa ..
Most of the Hausa slaves were
therefore likely to have been
war captives of the Yoruba".
The closest associates of
Yoruba seem to have been the
Rada. However, in the face of
the "hostility, misunderstand-
ing and/or indifference of the
non-Africa-born Trinidad so-
ciety", the different African
communities were forced into
greater cohesiveness.
Creoles thought the Afri-
cans bizarre because of their
appearance and customs. Some
of the African traits they re-
marked on were the use of
tribal marks, the habit of some
of the Yoi'uba anl to wear a
plain hookede~riang in one ear,
and the fact that Mandingo and
Hausa males sometimes had
their hair in plaits. -
One Hausa is described as
having his beard plaited in two.
African languages, were des-
cribed as "hog language" and
the Africans' use of English as
In such an environment,
the reflex of the Africans was
often bitterness, alienation and
a deep longing for their home-

land. They tended to be dis-
trustful of Creoles, and even of
their own children who were
"born under the English flag".
But few Africans returned
home. Return passages were
offered only to residents of
Sierra Leone (1843-1852) and
residents of the Kru coast
(1843-1852), never to the re-
captives. In the case of B.G. it
is said that "the total number
who returned appears to
have been about 1,690 .
Those who did return to West
Africa frequently took signi-
ficant sums of money with
them, the fruits of their years
in British Guiana".


Those who remained sought
to perpetuate their cultural
practices, albeit in greatly at-
tenuated form. Often they had
to synthetize their customs
with those of Creole society.
For instance they were
forced to a "reinterpretation
of the publicly celebrated
orisha festivals of Yorubaland.
Since- the Trinidad Yoruba
could not expect total com-
munity (that is, creole) in-
volvement in these festivities,
they compromised in their new
cultural situation.
"Their primary avenue for
universalizing their own cul-
tural responses was through
the Church. So that whether
the priest or creole congrega-

tory troubles galore. This year
apart from factory troubles we
were plagued with contamina-
tion problems. Morale among
workers has been extremely
Right now we are trying to
clean up the mess that he has
left, and so far we have pro-
duced.sugar of a higher quality.
I am a worker and I should

tion knew it or not, they too
were honoring Ogun when
they celebrated St. Michael's
feast. And when the Africans
honoured St. Michael, he was
Another important tradi-
tion the Africans maintained
was that of communal feasting.
One of Miss Warner's inform-
ants recalls these occasions in
the following terms "Every-
body come, they getting.
Plenty people, and plenty food
too; and the biggest set of
pot and dishes you ever see in
your life."
The Africans adopted the
Christmas season as a time for
,engaging in festival-like activity;
"organizing groups of mas-
queraders, outfitting them with
costumes, making and -tuning
musical instruments, rehearsing
traditional and original com-
positions, and engaging in pub-
lic expressions of gaiety, aban-
don, satire and cynicism for at
least once in the year".
They also made important
contributions to the develop-
ment of Carnival "Rada
descendants recall their fore-
parcits playing masquerade as
a group at carnival-time late
century and sporadically during
the present one ...
"It is known that the La
Cour Harpe and -ry-River
areas produced many carnival
bands in the past, as they still
do now, and on the basis of
Rada and Yoruba evidence, it
is very likely that several of the
19th century bands from these
areas may have been ethnic
groups of African immigrants..



Clico a company of
West Indians, formed for the
economic upliftment of PEOPLE.
Growing from humble beginnings to one
of the largest financial institutions indigenous to
the Caribbean. Assets for the security of our

policy holders now total over



The Growth is UP


... II 1



'V 4 A~tq4

,'rs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of ten,
162 East 78th Street,
.,T- YORK, N.Y. 10021,
Ph, Lehigh 5 8448
U.S..o _

The West Indies in England


Baldwin Mootoo

HEADLEY, Worrell,
Weekes, Walcott, Kanhai,
Sobers a whole string of
exciting West Indian bats-
men. And now Kallicha-
ran how far has he
He had dominated
Arthur Barrett at Sabina
in the Shell Series four
years ago when the latter
was terrorising all comers
on the Sabina wicket
with turn and lift.
He flayed the New

Zealand attack, albeit in
an erratic sort of way, in
the West Indies in 1972,
and was the pick of our
batsmen against the Aus-
tralians earlier this year.
We now face England,
and already he has given
warning of things to
It will be a series between
two teams with real problems.
The West Indies has not won
a match since the first test
against Australia during the
1968-69 tour. Some people
say we have forgotten how
to win.
England would have just

finished a three-match series
against New Zealand which,
at worst, they now cannot
lose but which, with a
little more experience and
self-confidence, New Zealand
shouldhave won.
So the series means a lot
to both teams; neither can
afford to lose. We can predict
a hard and close series with
plenty of "needle" in it.
Tony Greig has emerged
as one of the more important
players on the English team
filling the spot left vacant by
another South African-in-
exile Basil D'Olliveira.
Snow has not been in the
wickets, Gifford has been re-
placed by Underwood for the
last test against New Zealand,
and Illingworth could yet lose
the captaincy.
Added to this is the fact
that Knott'has now found his
true level as a batsman. So
once more, the English team
will depend on Boycott, and
on an improved Fletcher for
runs, with Graham Roope,
kGreig,, and maybe Hayes the
new comer from Lancashire
to support them.
But who will take the


For the West Indies, Kalli-
charan will undoubtedly,
spearhead the batting. Those
who saw him here earlier this
year against the Australians
marvelled at his maturity
after one season with War-
He is now a more com-
plete player, some think, than
Kanhai was at that age.
In addition, the grey-
haired captain will make a lot
of runs. With the recent injury
to Camacho, (interestingly
enough floored by Andy Ro-
berts the young Antiguan now
playing for Hampshire) Rowe
will more than likely partner
Frederick in the opening spot.
He is certainly the tech-
nically best equipped of the
batsmen to do this.
So our batting is in good
hands. Sobers, Foster or
Lloyd; lower in the order,
possibly Murray and Julien,
make a good batting side,
the second innings at East-
bourne against Robbin's XI
In bowling, Julien has
been having some good
matches and continues to
pose a lot of problems to the
English batsmen.
Add Holder, (always a
wicket taker in England) and
Sobers, and the quick attack
is well taken care of.
With Gibbs and Ali taking


care of the spin department
the bowling, too, looks for-
midable, so we stand a good
chance of taking this series.
But we must take our
IfKanhai remains as fit as
he was during the Australian
tour, with iKallicharan, a
sharpened Rowe,Gibbs,Julien
and Sobers, our close to the
wicket fielding should be re-
Wicket-keeping should go
to the in-form keeper this
could mean giving the nod to
young David Murray if he
shows form and Deryck Mur-
ray continues to perform as
indifferently as he did against

Australia in the West Indies.

Finally, one hopes that
InshanAli is beginning to
understand the basic require-
ments of an international
sportsman and has got him-
self a lot more fit than he
was in the last test series.
It is really pathetic to see
one of the younger members
of the team moving so slowly
in the field.
The West Indies must beat
England and start their climb
back to the top if we
don't, then the re-building
process is more fundamental
and difficult than some of us
ever dreamed.


Why not marbles

as a national sport?

FUNNY, how the most popular of school games are excluded
from the programmes of school sports. Marble pitching, three
line morals, hopscotch, three A are firmly entrenched in our
children's culture, yet, these games are completely over-
looked at schools' sports.
Unlike athletics for which the preliminaries and Finals
can be organised in a single day or weekend, these games are
more time consuming and will require more elaborate planning
and organisation, but the rewards arising from greater partici-
pation would be well worth the extra effort.
Moreover, schools can provide an excellent base from
which games can expand and even become more than just a
juvenile pastime. They can attract adult interest.
Marble pitching, especially, has immense potential. It
requires a multiplicity of skills of positioning, accuracy and
guile as much as table tennis for example.
In any backyard it is possible to see a demonstration
by youngsters of great skills. How much more thrilling it would
be if we were to see the game played by mature performers.
Of course, there are problems in putting on such a
match. For one thing, each community has devised its own
rules which may even differ from block to block in the same
Before we can view a national championship match,
the rules will have tc be standardisedinthe communities (possi-
bly through the schools).
One reasonable method of standardising would be to
research the rules as they obtain in the communities rather
than having a national sports council committee composing
some rules from memory. Then, choose the best style in use or
invent an entirely new game from an amalgamation of the
various styles.
One can argue against going through all that trouble
simply to make marble pitching an official national sport. But,
since the game is already established in the communities, if we
standardise the rules it is easy to visualize what further develop-
ments are possible. Marble-sariums will have to be designed
and built.
An expanded market for marbles will be ,created
Leather straps for protecting one's knuckles, bringing the
drag brothers into the picture, plus professionalisation and
even betting. All that spells industry and employment.

Ruthven Baptiste

poutr S
poop o




I '
~ Illill