Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00065
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: July 1, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00065

Full Text



Anthony Celestine

young farmer of the -Siparia
district, has accused the police
of beating him up after he
refused to plead guilty to a
charge of having marijuana in
his possession.
Celestine is claiming that
some person in the area has
reported him to the police as
a "freedom fighter", and that
this has led to a raid on his
home,to his arrest and to the
beating at his home on Satur-
day June 23rd.
The story of the beating at
the hands of the police came
after the report to his arrest,

Lloyd Best&Allan Harris


on the

fishing industry p6&7


- i

E HT D E P T H S O F INDIAN C ri bb n


Tapia address

THE Tapia House is up the
top of St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. If you are travell-
ing East along the Mn. Rd.
you can find St. Vincent St.,
on your left. It is the first
street after Barclay's Bank,
Tunapuna, and the last one
before Monarch Cinema. If
you are going west then you
can find St. Vincent St., on
your right. Then it becomes
th._ + irl





after passing Monarch Cinema.


STARTING time of the Tapia
House hops and shark party
this Saturday, June 30, is
8.30 p.m. The venue is the
home of Sheilah and Denis
Solomon, right next to the
UWI playing-field gate. You
cannot miss the big steps in

1 pm
If you have not paid your
$3 in advance,on arrival please
deposit it with Lennox Grant.
Further information from
Tapia House 662-5126 or
Tapia Southern Office

Mr. Anthony Singh,
General Manager of the
Cedros Cooperative, re-
ports that this was the
general attitude of govern-
ment minister, Cuthbert
Joseph, whom they saw
last week in connection
with the Venezuelan jail-
ings of fishermen.
Mr. Singh was at the time
addressing a meeting at Wood-
ford Square on. Wednesday
afternoon organised to explain
to the public the reasons why
Cedros fishermen journeyed
the 70 miles to Port-of-Spain
to see the Prime Minister.
As far as the Cedros people
are concerned, the only way
they could get any assistance
was by seeing the big man him-
self; and so at much personal
sacrifice and hardship they
made the long trek to the
Savannah on Monday.


Hopes were high as police
escorts were provided on the
way to Whitehall. On Monday a
police officer approached the
campers and said that a four-
man delegation would be re-
ceived. However, the fishermen
felt that no four men would do
at such a meeting.
Whitehall later denied that
any such delegation was re-
quested;but there are witnesses
who are prepared to testify
that they heard the police
officer ask for the delegation.
Commenting on the ap-
pointment by the Government
of a Committee to investigate
the fishing industry, Mr. Singh
pointed out that many of the

Committee members had been
holding discussions with fisher-
men over the last two years.
The Cedros fishermen have
two main grouses; one is the
constant harassment by Vene-
zuelans and the other is the
state of the local fishing indus-
try. On neither count have they
been receiving the support of
the government.
The attitude of the govern-
ment seems tantamount to take
your jail and keep quiet. The
Venezuelans are stronger and
therefore they can lock up as
many of our fishermen as they
wish while the Trinidad and
Tobago Coast Guard looks for
The question of Venezue-
lan harassment is indeed a
tricky diplomatic problem
which should not be blown up.
It is clear, however, that a
government official should be
based in the fishing ports of
the mainland to intervene when
such incidents occur.
The harassment also de-
mands high-level diplomatic
overtures which will make the

Venezuelans know that the
Government is supporting the
As it stands, the Prime
vlinister has refused to even
take a peep at the Cedros fisher-

men. This is an action which
will not go unnoticed by the
Venezuelans and will affect all
our fishermen out there be-
yond the pale.
If the diplomatic efforts of
the government have been half-
hearted, its attempt to foster
the local fishing industry have
been worse.
As Mr. Reginald Bharath,
Secretary of the Cedros Co-
operative stated at the Wood-
ford Square meeting, fishermen
have always been considered
third-rate citizens. The con-
tempt which the P.M. has ex-
pressed shows that the govern-
ment considers fishermen fifth-
rate citizens.
Even if the fishermen get
through the maze of Vene-
zuelans, they face the problem
of refrigeration, transport and
marketing facilities. Mr.
Continued on Back Page







had gone to press.

Says Government Minister

Dennis Pantin

TAKE your jail and keep


TAPIA Editor, Lennox Grant, returns to duty on July 1
after three months of study-leave. Grant has been reading
for a degree in General Studies at the University of the
West Indies, St. Augustine and has just completed final
Also back on the Reporter's Desk is Denis Pantin.
who has been dormant for similar reasons.
In the interim since Tapia No 13 on April 1,
editorial responsibilities have been shared in turn by
Denis Solomon, Lloyd Taylor and Lloyd Best.

Lennox rant Dennis Pantin



--gnr" o on

THE movement towards Carib-
bean economic and .political inte-
gration has reached another cri-
tical point. Next week, on
Wednesday July 4, the four
independent West. Indian States.
will be actually signing. the
Georgetown Accord,, the Treaty
to establish t1h Caribbean Com-
mon Market and Community. In
the background are the usual
noises with some very important
Here in Trinidad, Harold Robinson,
arch-reactionary.'-and.d free-enterprise-
capitalist when it suits. him, has been
mumbling some' incoherent argument
in favour of protection for the tradi-
tional agricultural -ector.:
It is the oldest kind of hat. It is as
if the purpose of economic integration
were not precisely' to. expose our
totally inefficient staple farming to,
competitive pressure from, say, Hon-
duran citrus imports.
What but production for regional
as distinct from protected metropolitan
markets would finally break up the
old plantation economy? And redirect
our full production potential towards
feeding and clothing the Caribbean.
people for absolutely the very first
time in our history?.


If there is to be restrictive inter-
vention, it must be not to protect.
the old but to zone and rationalise it in
a unified regional context so that new
production can be given its chance.
The second set of rumblings are
coming from the new manufacturing
interest, created in the last thirty years
by the neo-colonial programme of.
industrial promotion. What came out
of the recent meeting of the Caribbean
-Chamber of Industry and Commeice
in Port-of-Spain' was a demand for
free movement of capital and skill as
well as for trade in the usual goods
and services.
This contradiction within the busi-
ness community is politically import-
ant in itself because it represents a
split in the Afro-Saxon regime in the
S face of the advancing radical move-
Identified with the industrial and
manufacturing "modernisers" on the
regional plane'are Burnham, Williams
and Manley. The same Burnham, who
is running the second most repressive
regime in the West Indies, second only
to Uncle Gairy's. The same Samfie
man, Manley, who, for years in oppo-
sition acquiesced in the elitist
policies of the JLP, and then suddenly:
discovered Joshua's rod and reggae
magic and is now governing by radical
These bramblers are not fooling
anybody with their progressive Carib-
bean declarations. We have only to
judge by their unwillingness to con-
front inequality and iniquity at home.
On the other side, and equally bank-
rupt, is the curious and unwitting
alliance now developing between Ja-
gan's communal communism and
Shearer's chauvinist's myopia.
Unable to articulate any rational

alternative to the new. ishirt-jacked
class of technocrats' and politi-
cians, these pathetic has-beens in
Georgetown and Kingston are just
falling back on the old tired anti-
federal rhetoric which succeeded in
the 1960's. But in the 1970's nobody
is going to listen.
The third noise is from the radical
quarter, that is to say, mainly from
this editorial office and the New World
regional movement for which it speaks
on this issue. Integration for us means
more than free trade, more than a
common external tariff, more than
common economic planning and
administration. It means forging a
nation "united as much in present
aspirations as in historical heritage"
(Tapia, Vol. 2, No 1, Sept 3, 1972).


We are not arguing for the un-
doubted economic benefits of a larger
regional market. We intend to deal
with the corporations which exploit us
but we could not possibly advocate
West Indian unity just to that end. And
we have no interest whatsoever in the
fact that the regional integration move-
ment is worldwide.
We are dedicated to Caribbean inte-
gration because we know it is his-
torically and humanly right. The Carib-
Ibean is the only part of the New
World where black people have real
political power and with that the tre-
mendous opportunity to supplant a
civilization deeply rooted in imperial-
ism and race.

Our heritage is a rich diversity of
cultural and racial streams brought here
in an enterprise by merchant ven-
tures. Our corresponding responsibility
iis to create so humane a system of
society that racial and cultural dif-
ferences will be represented in an
equal place. The only answer to hate
is love; the only road out of degrada-
tion is adherence to noble ideals.
We would therefore look with hor-

ror at a conception of Caribbean inte-
gration which is chinksed at the har-
monisation of fiscal-incentives, at the
establishment of marketing protocols,
common tariffs, development banks
and investment companies.
We do not by any means under-
value the importance of these steps.
We know that our colleagues who are
giving their blood and sweat to the cur-
rent movement know that they are
simply clearing the ground for bigger.
We agree with the new manufac-
turing interest which says you must
allow skill and money to move. But we
agree more with the noise coming from
another quarter still. The smaller is-
Slands fail entirely to see any profit
accruing to the poorer West Indian
folk. It is ironic that, by themselves
taking the narrow-minded economist's
view, the poorer and smaller islands
are exposing the exploitative character
of the present conception and in doing
,they are, forcing us all to a wider
moral and political perspective.
In such a perspective Tapia is not
afraid to see the Caribbean as the
centre of the world without for a
moment expecting people outside this
region to do the same. We know we
have natural connections with China
and India and the Middle East; with
Europe, parts and whole; with Africa,
East and West; and with America,
North and South.


We know too, that the organisation
of power in the world has undergone
significant changes which have pro-
vided fresh openings for us. The
emergence of the new states in Africa
and Asia; the rise of China and Japan
in the- Pacific; the consolidation of
Europe; the culmination of the whole
super-power struggle in an unmasking
of both the Soviet Union and the
United States as the most ruthless
imperial twins; and above all, the
crucial role played in this last develop-

:SUNDAY JULY 1st, 1973

WE at the Tapia House
were a little surprised to
read in The Guardian of
June 27 a report saying
that representatives of
Tapia were present as poli-
tical activists at the Fisher-
men's Whitehall demon-
stration. We have always
found John Babb to be an
accurate and clinical re-
porter but this time his
report was misleading.
Tapia's support for the
fishermen is unequivocal and
unqualified. On pages 6 & 7 of
this edition we have set out the
iniquities pf their .plight. We

Zion or Babylon?

therefore expect Tapia people
to have rallied to the demon-
stration both as sympathisers
and fellow-sufferers; and we
did have observers and report-
ers officially at hand.
S But. representatives and
political activists, no. And re-.
Sports on the radio that Lloyd
Best was scheduled to speak at
Woodford Square were as com-
pletely -unfounded as could.be.
SIn Tapia, we. feel strongly.

that the fishermen, like the
garment workers and the sugar
workers, are entirely capable
of conducting their own affairs.
If, like the taximen, they re-
quest some specific Tapia help,
we would certainly give it with-
out hesitation and to the very
best of our ability.
To usurp their platform or
substitute for their leadership
would be a horse of a different
colour. In fact, we are very

clear that jumping on people's
wagons would serve only to
muddy the water by validating
a largely political response by
the Government and even by
courting repression.
Equally important, we in
Tapia do not think there is
anything to be gained from
repeatedly taking our troubles
to Whitehall not by appeal,
nor by open letter nor even by
direct demonstration.
The fishermen must now
have learnt that in Whitehall
not only is there not a shred of
competence to run the country
but there is also no compassion
or concern for people just a

mania to hold on to office.
But even if there did exist
the noblest ideals in that
exalted place, have the last 17
years not taught us that our
problem lies precisely in this
pathetic wailing for a Messiah
to deliver us from the land of
Not even in our simplest
difficulty do we take up our
own beds to walk. And the time
must now have come to see
that tactically, strategically,
and ideologically, we must stop
all these appeals to the Doctor.
Until we discontinue this exer-
cise in impotence, we will re-
main in Babylon for good.

Cynics will

say it's a





ment by a small country such as North
Vietnam, by poor South American,
countries such as. Chile and Peru and
particularly by our Caribbean sister-
-island Cuba.
pAl.this we have in mind in chart-
ing the way ahead. The vision that we
must cherihis of a united Caribbean,
a beacon lighting the way to another
civilization and standing independently
between America to the North and
America to the South where crucial
developments are taking place not
least with that lazy Brazilian giant.
In looking ahead we have to en-
visage many different levels of asso-
ciation and a series of successive steps.
Argentina and Cuba have both called
for the expulsion of the USA from the
Organisation of American States, now
a hopelessly irrational and exploitative
Their point is that any genuine
American Association must include
both "anada and Cuba or be another
bigst'ck to beat up good neighbours
with; that if we are -rganisifig south'
of the Rio Grande, we are organising
south of th, Rio Grande. Tapia agrees
with that without the slightest reser-
By ithe same token, if we are or-
ganising in the Eastern Caribbean or
in the West Indies or in the Caribbean,
we must do exactly that. And this is
where the successive steps come in.


As soon as the PNM Government
falls later this year or early next, we
must move towards political integra-
tion of Trinidad and the Windward
Islands. Home Rule for Tobago is of
course an essential part of this scheme
as is the flowering of unconventional
politics up the islands.
Then we would have to bring the
Eastern Caribbean together. Which
means political unity from George.
town to St. Johns, difficult as so
natural a thing may seem while the
regime of Afro-Saxon administrations
And so on to embrace Jamaica and
after that, Cuba, Santo Domingo,
Haiti, Surinam and conceivably Vene-
zuela which is also psychologically
and historically more a Caribbean
than a Latin American country. Ulti-
mately we will have to open nego-
tiations with the US, France, and Bri-
tain over the remaining Caribbean
islands, particularly Martinique, Guade-
loupe and Puerto Rico.
The cynics will say it is a dream
and of course that is exactly what it is.
The problem of the civilization is
precisely that it has lost this capacity
to dream, especially those degenerate
Victorian liberals of colonial "vintage
whose imagination has long since been
grounded by the crimes of pragmatic
In Tapia we are hedged in by all
kinds of obvious limitations but our
ideals are still running free. We are not
going to settle for the short-arsed
caudillos which the ditherings of colo-
nial liberalism are now visiting upon
Caribbean people. Nor are we going to
be content with any half-arsed econo-
mic community.


_ I --

-- ---- --


I w

--' --

SUNDAY JULY ist, 1973
ARIMA is probably the fastest growing commercial centre in Trinidad & Tobago today. It
is just like the days when cocoa was king. Except that this time business has found a wider
Crown Lands agriculture and stock-farming in Waller Field,the Garment Industry
in D'Abadie and the ever-expanding Industrial Estate at O'Meara, down on the highway.

Plus all the housing con-
struction going on in Va-
lencia, down the Cocorite-
Tumpuna Road, up the
by-pass and on the hill.
Kirpalani's and Hi Lo are
already well-entrenched oppo-
site to the Pavilion there. That
is always a sure sign that
money is spinning even if the
cost-of-living these days is say-
ing hard-come easy go.
Even the sale of weekend
papers tells you that money is
is not the real problem. On a
Friday or Saturday morning
at the Dial and on a Sunday
morning by the market too,
you could see the heaps of
Tapia dwindling away. People
spending free. And they search-
ing for something.
Searching for those things
which make a difference that
money cannot buy. Like just-
ice and dignified employment
and community pride. Like a
different conception of com-
munity amenities in the formof
schools and parks and libra-
ries; museums, sports facilities,
theatres. Community centres,
public toilets and baths, wash-
ingmachine centres. And above
all, hospital and clinics.
It is the availability and
quality of these services which
reveal the humanity of the poli-
tical regime. Money is nothing

Lloyd Best

to Tiffle

wo~s ofThn h

in complete shambles

if these collective gods are not
provided so that the ordinary
law-abiding citizen can enjoy
them without even having to
The boom in Arima is mak-
ing people think harder than
ever. And the thing they are
thinking most seriously about

-YOU are Mr. Lloyd Best, il
the Tapia Man? I want to
tell you my mind about
this Rest House they call-
ing a hospitat-in-Arima-- Il
I had just, delivered some \I
TAPIA's to two vendors at
the Market Comer. It was
Thursday last week,, Corpus
Christi morning, bright and girl
early. The paper had come out
Wednesday night to beat the
holiday. .
My name is So and So the
and I vex too bad. They have
a dougla girl from Driver's
Lane in D'abadie, just oppo- n
site me. Tuesday gone she u 1
make a baby in the hospital. I
talking about a young 16-year
old girl, is she first baby. And
she sick too besides, high blood t
pressure, kidney trouble, all
her feet and hand swell-up.).
She went in Monday now.
morning and 10 o'clock Tues- Ye
day morning she make the not long
child. Premature, it look to about, th
me, 3% to 4 lbs. And you right now
know that instead of putting you kno
the child in an incubator, them was to 1
bitches bring it for she to she didn'
feed? I can't understand what give she
going on! changing
I was looking at her in think I jo
astonishment which she prob- I ask
ably mistook for disbelief It girl had
brought out the politician in
her. Perhaps I would hear her
out if she became a customer.
Gimme two Tapia dey.
Is complain I complaining. And
I want you to put my name, I
eh fraid a soul. On top of all
that the Wednesday morning
is stew fish and rice they give
she to eat, oui!
You mean yesterday,
Wednesday?Isaid, taking notes


I make




Is, yesterday, self. Is
ime business I talking
he girl in the hospital
i. I find that is wrong,
w Mr. Best. She had
bring the sheets but
't bring any. So they
the baby without even
the sheets self, you
ked her whether the
any family near-by.

is the outrageous state of the
By any standards the Arima
Hospital is a scandal. I checked
it out Sunday gone June 24th.
A nurse told me they have 25
beds in the two wards, one
male and one female. And 20
beds in the Maternity Ward to

- She leave school about two
years ago and now she living
at her father because the
mother gone to England. The
child father working in the
gas station.
And what you think we
should do'apart from publish-
ing your story in Tapia?
I thought it was a good
chance to hear what an ordin-
ary housewife felt we could do.
Naturally, she saw the solution
in terms of who the public
deals with, mainly the nurses.
They have to do some-
thing to improve the nursing,
they just have to do something,
I eh care what. We don't ever
see the DMO because he too
busy. When ever you ring him
he always says to come to-
morrow. Ask the Doctor please
not to be so busy.
And the Minister was
here the other day? Nothing eh
Oh yes, when the Minis-
ter came was about two
months ago, I think every-
thing was a shining armour.
But telling them that you com-
ing, they going to clean up.
Come unexpected nuh, and
you will see what happening?
Like when the girl did make
the baby waiting on the step!
Put all that in the Tapia.

the back.
According to the 1970
Census, the population which
looks to the Arima Hospital
is 38,100 if you put Valencia
with Sangre Grande and you
include the San Rafael, Blan-
chisseuse and Arima Wards
along with the Arima Borough
proper. What are they supposed
to do with 25 beds?
: There are 19,700 women in
the Greater Arima population.
Anything between 7 and 8
thousand of them fall within
the child bearing age. What use
are 20 beds even if 'they are
herded like paupers two to a
Perhaps the women could
stay home and have theirbabies
there. That would depend on
the room and the quiet they
could find in the house and on
if they could get mid-wife and
nursing service.
Well, housing all over Trini-
dad & Tobago is bad. Some-
where about 30 to 33 out of
every 100 dwelling units were
no better than fair in 1966.
Overcrowding we can assume
is perhaps even more wide-
spread today because the
government housing pro-
gramme completely lacks ima-
gihation and drive.

In Greater Arima we have
about 9,000 dwelling units
with something like 14,375
bedrooms in total, an average
per unit of 2.65 persons sleep-
ing in one bedroom. For the
average man in the street, this
probably means that more like
4 people sleep in one room.
Where then can our women
have their babies. Where can
they hope to be free of noise
and traffic? Can they afford
not to go to hospital?
In the country as a whole
the hospital-bed situation is
bad enough. Even if the PNM
Government has, successfully
carried out its Five-Year De-
velopment Programme which
would be nothing short of a
miracle so great is the in-
competence and corruption in
all quarters we could not
have more than 5-6 beds for
each 1,000 people living in this
long-suffering country. That is
why people have to be putting
out investment in bed-money
when they have to go to hos-
The latest figure we have
shows that each bed is used by
between 46 and 47 people in
the course of a single year
which means that on average
they ready to put you out of
hospital after you spend about
eight days or so inside.


When you consider the
serious cases who occupy beds
for months on end, the average
person is forced out of hospital
in 2-3 days just for lack of
space and nothing else. It is
back home to about 4 in a bed-
With 25 beds for 38,000
people, Arima is six to seven
times worse of than is Trinidad
& Tobago as a whole except
that Arima people can of
course go into Port of Spain.
But then there is an extra
burden of cost in terms of the
money and time you have to
And what chance is there
of improvement? The answer
it seems, is simply none in the
very near future. Nowhere in
the Five-Year Plan is there any
specific mention of improve-
ments of the Arima Hospital.
The only conceivable hope
of the moment is that this
article might get them to make
one more to-be-broken promise.
That would bring the Day of
Judgment nearer.


Every Week

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Trinidad & Tobago.


_~___ ~_P






Our printing-plantis open at ThcTapia
House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. Kindly phone orders to:
662.- 5126.

,AI' A



do you brush your teeth

every day?

Most people do, its a habit from childhood. SAVING
money should be that way too. A little money saved
is a little money earned. It only takes a dollar to
open a Savings Account,and like all good habits you'll
soon experience the benefits. SAVE-It's an investment.

Live a Better Life I Bank in Your Bank
The National Commercial Bank of Trinidad & Tobago. 60 Independence Square. 4


SUNDAY JUL'Y Ist, 1973

I Y P/I otI'ts

THE question is a non-question in her world; it does not
exist in the complex of her reasons for living. For 'mother-
hood' is not a simple function.
In the world of the marginal culture, motherhood, is for the
women, their destiny a means to survive. It is through becoming
the mother of a child, making a man become the 'baby father' that
relationships are established at all. Marriage in the Western

sense does exist in her world;
binage' which belongs to the
stable peasant relationships,
have tended to disappear in the
world of total flux and in-
The temporary quality of
each relationship is taken for
granted; what is often forgotten
is that during the temporary
stay of the male, he takes on
some economic responsibility
for the entire brood; then he
goes off and strikes up another
relationship with another 'baby
The link between them,
the hub of the relation is the
bearing of the child. Yet every
other child that she has, de-
creases her viability on the
baby-bearing market.
The seeking after each tem-
porary relation on the woman's
part, is matched by the same
on the part of the male. This
male has often been accused
of irresponsibility by middle
class critics, and sociologists.
Rex Nettleford in his
Mirror, Mirror with certain
Fascist overtones approved
by, his Publishers who place
the extract prominently on the
cover of his book' writes:
"It may be that the black
man will have to stop lit-
tering the countryside with
illegitimate children, dull
the memory of his proverb-
ial castration by slavery and
face the responsibility of
fathering a family unit as

even the old

'faithful concu-


is a means to survive

Here TAPIA presents one answer
by Sylvia Wynter-Carew, the Ja-
maican novelist and writer of the
Dept of Spanish, U.W.I., Jamaica.
The piece is an abstract from ONE
LOVE, published in CARIBBEAN
STUDIES, October 1972.

a base from which to build
his social and economic
The book, a propaganda
piece in defence of the status
quo, has been highly popular in
Jamaica. It offers the rationale
that the middle and upper
classes want to hear. The
irresponsible social and econo-
mic system, which condemns
a large majority of its people
to. a condition of semi-employ-
ment, underemployment,
casual employment or unem-
ployment, forces them to con-
struct a fabric of relations
which reflect the instability
and temporary quality of their
economic base.
The family unit, which
Nettleford sees as the ideal,
needs the material foundation
of regular employment in a
secure world, on which to base
itself. Once this material base

What is the


real policy?

THE Prime Minister's
intervention in the current
family planning contro-
versy is another extra-
ordinary piece of acroba-
The impression we are
meant to get is that the Family
Planning Association has crept
up on our teenagers with con-
traceptives only to find the
gallant Messiah springing to
the defence of our morality -
the Attorney General, the
Minister of Health and the
Minister of Education sum-
moned into action at his side.
In point of fact, if we are
to take the Five Year Plan at
its word, the Government is
as deeply implicated as the
FPA in "the imperatives for
the promotion of a Family
Planning Programme". (p.307)


And what are these impe-
ratives? "The aim is to halve
the birthrate in ten years' time.
This involves providing
100,000 women per year over
the next five years with free
contraceptives". (p.307)
To this programme, "Cabi-

net has accorded the highest
priority". That was in 1968.
The claim was that a Population
Council had been established
on June 22 1967 "to give
overall direction to this pro-
gramme in collaboration with
the Family Planning Associa-
tion of Trinidad and Tobago
and the Roman Catholic Mar-
riage Advisory Council".


The first stated aim of the
Council was "to establish a
Family Planning Unit as part
of the Ministry of Health for
the administration of the
Family Planning Programme".
The expenditure was to be
borne by the Government "...
partly to subsidise voluntary
organizations such as the
Family Planning Association
..." (p. 307)
So what kind of bramble is
br. Williams now trying? Was
this statement in The Plan
another academic statement?
If not, is it that the Prime
Minister is conveniently trying
Continued on Page 9

Sylvia Wynter- Carew
exists then the responses of
responsibility, the 'fathering'
of children in an economic and
psychological sense becomes
Indeed, the heavy paternal-
ism of the father in the lower
middle class, the middle class
and the uppermiddle class
where the economic base
makes the family unit viable,
is exaggerated by the feeling,


the third









our Women


child after

c ild ?

that the lack of 'fathering' is
the hallmark of the casual
classes; the stigma of the lower
The irresponsibility of the
social system is placed on the
marginal man; the victim of the
system is made to bear the stig-
ma of irresponsibility. Yet this
response is no more than his
logical response to a condition
of casual, or semi-employment.
His temporary material base is
matched by his temporary re-
The need for human rela-
tionship, his desire to have
children, shown in his insist-
ence that his women prove the
validity of this relationship by
having a child for him, can
only be reflected in a pattern,
a social pattern which corres-
ponds to the casual and un-
stable economic base of his
material situation.
Both sides accept and are
clear-eyed about the temporary

nature of the relationship; the
material base does not allow,
or afford, 'fathering', 'responsi-
bility', 'a family unit'. The
mother, with the possibility of
domestic work, or a day's work
far more within her reach; with
the possibility of another man
as temporary wage-earner, is
far better placed, from
a material point of view, to
accept the responsibility of
her children.
Motherhood becomes her
profession; one of her means of
survival; and her woman's
burden. The high birth rate is
therefore an inbuilt part of the
economic status quo, which
opens such a great gap between
the new privileged professional
class to which Mr. Nettleford
belongs, and the marginal
classes whose numerous num-
bers, in that revealing word of
Nettleford's, litter the country-
side. Like so much garbage.


The ambivalence to the
birth control on the part of
the women of the marginal
classes shows their awareness
of the fact that birth control
is one more panacea, one more
adjustment to enable an unjust
system .which condemns a
large majority to the non-
existence of casual or no work,
to continue to function. Shows
her awareness too, that a high
birth rate, is itself the natural
fruit of the system, which
while holding up the family
unit as the ideal is programmed
to function, by withholding
from an exploited marginal
majority, the material econo-
mic basethat alone makes the
family unit, and all its cultural
superstructure, viable.
But the family unit of the
haves, with its paternal re-
sponsibility exists through its
exploitation of the havenots,
with its pattern of temporary
responsibility on the part of
the fathers; total responsibility
on the part of the mothers.

=tI .a

*i I

You always

wanted her to


makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.



------- ------------------ ---~I -





FISHING in Trinidad & Tobago means four quite separate
activities: Inshore Fishing, Deep Sea Fishing, Aquarium
Fishing for Export and Swamp Fishing.
The bulk of the fresh fish that we eat comes from the Inshore
Fishery. A paper presented to the National Consultation on Fisheries
(NCF) defines this sector as "operations taking place more or less
within territorial waters and limited to day-to-day fishing with
fishermen returning each day to dispose of their catch".
The national fleet is said to amount to 1100 boats in Trini-
dad and 300 boats in Tobago. Ninety-eight out of every hundred of
these boats are mechanised (power driven). The boats are mostly U

THE harassment and
humiliation of our fisher-
men by Venezuelan Coast
Guard and Police autho-
rities is to no small extent
directly due to the in-
adequacies of Govern-
ment policy.
This is not to deny that
our fishermen have been
poaching in Venezuelan
SIn fact, not only have we
been going into Venezuelan
territorial waters, but we have
even been guilty of fishing in
Venezuelan internal waters
as defined by International
It is shrimp which have
been luring our fishermen to
Venezuelan waters. For with
the depletion of the shrimp-
ing beds off the Caroni
' :l, n OT. ...
pouche Lagoon, the nearest
shrimp grounds are now to be
found in the muddy brown
waters off the Venezuelan
These waters are rich in
,organic matter brought down
by the Orinoco. One estimate
is that at the peak more than
200 boats worked these
grounds, bringing back any-
thing like 2,000,000 lbs. of
shrimp annually.


Interestingly enough, the
Venezuelans themselves have
never exploited this area to
any extent. This" part of Vene-
zuela is by and large wild and
unsettled country. We are left
to wonder, therefore, about
the motives for the periodic
harassment of our fishermen.
One suggestion is that the
issue is being used by the
State governments to bring
pressure on the Federal
Government in Caracas. Appa-
rently State governments in
Venezuela have some measure
of autonomy in such matters,
and can legitimately take ac-
tion against our fishermen
who have encroached into
their waters.
Whatever the reasons, in
the mid-60's a draft treaty
was hammered out between
the two countries, which al-
lowed a maximum of 100
Trinidad boats to fish in Vene-
zuelan waters.
As a trade off it was sti-
pulated that the crews of
these should be divided evenly
between Trinidadians and
Venezuelans; and that all
catches should be landed at
the Venezuelan port of Guiria.
This treaty was never ratified.





1. GUIRIA Centre of a
Venezuelan fish processing
complex. Authorities stationed
here secure Venezuelan inter-
(1,? it'CO I TA
Prolific shrimp grounds in
Venezuelan waters. Local
fishermen catch shrimps here.
Men caught by Venezuelan
authorities are normally beat-
en, jailed and have their gear
Abounds in deep sea fish.
Venezuelans in groups of 50
vessels trawl for carite and
kingfish in our waters. Sup-
plies sold in Guiria. Local
fishermen harassed.

Earlier, in the late 50's
we had hosted a visit by offi-
cials of the Eastern Venezue-
lan state of Sucre under
Governor Tejera Paris. One
outcome of this visit was an
agreement for joint biological
investigations.of the resources
of the Gulf of Paria. Nothing
ever came of it.
We are therefore left to
wonder who is to blame for
the "lack of collaboration
between neighboring coun-
tries" whichthe Government's
experts claim as one of the
constraints on the develop-
ment of a national fishing
It is a well known fact
that the Venezuelans them-
selves are poaching in our
waters. Every season, well-
equipped boats from Guiria,
and centres on the Venezue-
lan North coast, come to fish
for carite and kingfish off our
north and east coasts.
Obviously in such a situa-
tion there is a crying need
for the establishment of a
framework of reciprocal
rights and obligations between
the two countries.
Instead what we have is a
lop-sided situation where
'Venezuelans can fish in our
waters for weeks on end with
impunity. For example only
recently some of our fisher-

men complained that they
were shot at by members of
large Venezuelan crews trawl-
ing in our grounds off the
North Coast. At 9ther times
their catch has been taken
\awa;y by thei intiuLders.
On the other hand, our
diplomats, in Caracas have
every so often to be begging
and imploring the Venezuelan
authorities to release our
citizens, or to return their


The fishermen of Cedros
are now showing just how
fed-up they have become with
Government's glaring inability
and failure to secure the inter-:
ests of our sea-faring nationals.
Whether it is marketing
facilities or diplomatic
initiatives, this incompetent
PNM regime can be expected
to dwell in blunderland.





pirogue-type, 16-26 feet long.
There are also about 100
shallow-water shrimp trawlers.
Total employment, direct
and indirect amounts to about
6,000 individuals of whom
3000-3,500 are actual, fisher-
men full or part time. Many
fishermen supplement their in-
come from fish by work in
agriculture. Few of them own
their boats or gear. Their equip-
ment is usually rented from
merchants or middle-men on a
,percentage of the catch basis.
According to the Third Plan,
typical gear is drift gill nets,
trolling beach seine, fish pots,
handline and Italian lampara
without lights.


In our two islands there
are about 63 beaches on which
fish is landed, about 25 of
which are considered major.
Proper shore facilities are said
to exist at Carenage, Las Cuevas
Carli Bay, Orange Valley, Point
Ligoure, Mayaro, Matelot,
Blanchisseuse, Manzanilla, Erin,
Canandee, Cocorite, La Lune,
Grande Riviere, San Fernando,
Cumana, Toco, Otaheite and
Grande Chemin. And in Tobago
at Castara, Charlotteville, Dela-
ford, Plymouth Kilgwyn, King
Peter's Bay and Speyside .-. h
proposals to bring in Belle Gar-
den and Milford.
The big problem in the
fish industry is that "there has
been no significant yearly in-
crease in the recorded fish land-
ing". (NCF p. 5) In 1972,
production stood at 17 million
pounds and this is thought in
some responsible quarters to be
an overestimate even though it
is no higher than the average
(17.1m.lb) for the 10 year
period since 1963.
At the start of the highly
touted Second Five Year Plan
in 1964, the corresponding
figure was much higher at 20.1
million pounds. At the start of
the Third Plan, 1969, it was
15.9 million pounds.
Yet the Third Plan claims

THE fish policy of the
PNM fall down. Like with
everything else. The Five-
Year Plan 1969-73 boasts
of "a comprehensive study
of the local fishing industry
in order to identify prob-
lems and have some indi-
cation of which direction
the future development of
the industry should take".
(p.221) This was the fam-
ous survey by an Israeli
expert under the auspices
of the OAS.
Then there was the "com-
prehensive survey of market-
ing arrangements" (p.221),
undertaken by the Govern-
ment through the FAO. And
the Canadian loan for modern-
izing the industry through the
provision of a trawler and crew
for research, for training fisher-
men, developing fish curing
and processing and training fish
administrators overseas.
On top of all that, there

that its aim was "basically the
same" as that of the Second
Plan that is, "to increase the
level ofproduction of fish, with
a view to the achievement of
greater self-sufficiency "
Today we are still import-
ing a substantial amount of
fish, half of which is salted and
dried cod. In the Year of the
February Revolution, 1970,
we imported 7.3 million pounds
for an outlay of $4.9m which
compares with 8.9 million
pounds in 1966 for an outlay
of $4.4 m. In other words,
during the course of a five-year
plan we stand to put anything
like $22m. in the pockets of
national fishermen by pushing
out imports with production of
our own.
And the amount is growing,
because tl-ic cl-rt ,.' ;imported
fish went up from 45 to 69
cents per pound between 1966
and' 1971 while the amount we
imported only decreased to the
extent of 18 lbs out of every
100 that we used to buy.
The question the PNM
Government has to answer be-
fore the Court of this country
is why has the performance
been so totally inadequate to.
our national needs? They claim
to be spending plenty money
and the figures.show that in-
vestment has been taking place.

In the three years up to
1972 over $10m were spent on
th'e fishing industry with the
Government putting out 20
cents in every dollar. Half a
million dollars were spent on

is financial aid to the industry
in the form of "duty exemp-
tions of engines, fishing gear
and fuel; loans to fishermen for
the purchase of gear and boats;
and, storage facilities and in
some cases, sales facilities on
beaches". (p. 221)
Beautiful words and no-
thing wrong with that. Nothing
wrong with the rest of the
proposals either. The aim of the
Third Plan was to increase
production "by at least 50%
and, if possible, by 100%".
Promise No 1- an intensive
and continuous drive to im-
prove methods. No 2 an ex-
tension service to provide ad-
vice and assistance. No 3 a
$15m. locally-based, locally
owned fleet of shrimp trawlers
to exploit international fishing
grounds. (p. 222)
Still more. "The Govern-
ment also intends to introduce
measures to modernize the pre-
sent outdated distribution sys-.
tem, inadequate means of

See box below for where trouble is.

- _I


I Caepg --Le/CeyeA

Pon Ligo I maq.

ison otoo /i I /tt

do Cato's Too bI

I 1



establishing beach facilities
Moreover, between 1966
and June 1972, duty rebates
on fuel amounted to $573,000
on 4,000 applications processed
while purchase tax waived on.
1306 engines and 16 boats
came to $1.4m. The Agricul-
tural Development Bank has
also been making short and
long term loans, 21 in 1972
Yet the country is still

starved for fish, one of the
richest and most economical
national sources of protein.
One of the most damaging
results of this colossal failure

841' 804

to put fishing on an even keel But we deriveonly limited
is that the housewives have had tax or employment benefits
to pay the cake. Although pro- from the processing operations.
duction has not improved, the And we are not getting any
price of fish landed has more nearer to establishing a truly
than doubled from $3.0m in national deep-sea fishing fleet,
1963, our first year of full as a logical first step towards a
independence to $6.4min 1972, nationally-owned and controll-
when the second and decisive ed processing industry.
stage of the February Revolu- The reason why the Vene-
tion began. zuelans once stipulated that all
shrimp caught in their terri-
torial waters be landed at Guiria
AQUARIUM was that they well understood
the importance of controlling
According to the National the processing and marketing
Consultation Paper, fishing pre- operations. One guestimate of
sents a unique investment op- the amount we make for pro-
portunity. And there is a pro- cessing here is 60 cents on a
-gstVe--trent-d--tlre-h oIgt F--o---p ordDTTirnam -eWlh -Wh-o-e --
extra effort put in by fisher- sales for $4.00.
men at least on certain beaches. The paper prepared by the
For some reason, the fisher- Government's experts at the
men are not at all satisfied with National Consultation on Fish-
such a rosy painting of the pic- series paints an optimistic pic-
ture. The foreign shrimpers ture of the prospects for a
may be spinning big, big money; national shrimp industry. Hav-
the Aquarium Fisher may be ing stated that shrimp need
earning $12,0001 to$14,000 for neither feed nor rearing, it adds,
four months work; the oyster- "All that is needed are the
man may be making $400 per vessels; as a result there is no
month net; and the cascadoo reason why we should not own
specialists can report $80-100 these vessels".
per day.
But our Inshore Fishermen
keep insisting that they are
ketching their nenen to make
ends meet. And it is on these
3,000 brothers on the beach
that the politics of fish will

THE actions of the Cedros
Fishing Co-operative puts
one thing beyond doubt.
Our fishermen are no
longer prepared to accept
the second-class status
assigned to them by a
Government which prefers
to spend its time mopping
concessions from Brazil for
American shrimp interests
rather than serving the
needs of its own people.
Nor are our fishermen pre-
pared to stomach the contempt
of the PNM in putting party
hacks to execute fishing policy.
The real thrust of Govern-
ment policy has been toward
accommodating the interests of
foreign companies which use
Trinidad as a base for their
shrimping operations off
Guyana and Brazil. The sup-
posed benefit of such a policy
is the establishment of a pro-
cessing industry here.


The NCF paper also states
that the 400 trawlers which fish
this region dump 210-420 mil-
lion pounds per year or 10-20
lbs. of marketable fish for every
pound of shrimp caught. It
suggests that in addition to
setting up a large fleet to ex-
ploit both fish and shrimp, we
should demand that foreign
trawlers using Trinidad as a
base bring in a percentage of
the fish they would normally
dump, at a guaranteed price.
Clearly we have been gett-
ing the worst of both worlds,
since the Government has also
failed to provide the necessary
supports for the fishermen who
fish the inshore waters. The
result is that current produc-
tion is declining and that in
terms of 'wet' weight, we con-
tinue to import substantially
more fish than we produce.


Thl 1ighIest producers of
fish in the nation are .the com-
munities in the South-west,
Bonasse Village, Icacos, Gran-
ville, Fullerton yet fishermen
there are languishing for want
of proper facilities, hustling to
sell their fish from day to day,
and growing more and more
despondent. It is any wonder
that some just give up?
A serious approach to the
problems of our fishermen must
deal first with the provision of

adequate marketing facilities.
It has been suggested that our
fishermen could double produc-
tion immediately if they had a
proper marketing chain.
This is precisely the point
that the brothers from Cedros
made so successfully with their
fish sale opposite Whitehall on
Tuesday evening.
In addition to the centrali-
zation of wholesaling, we need
to have a large number of re-
tail outlets for fresh fish in the
areas of high population density
Only well thought-out market-
ing arrangements along these
lines will allow fishermen to
plan their production on a
weekly or even longer cycle,
and so avoid the outrageous
practice of dumping fish.
In addition we have to pro-
vide for fishermen all those
amenities-landing facilities, re-
pair docks, extension services -
which have been promised them
repeatedly by the present
The fishing industry offers
so many possibilities proces-
sing industry, employment, in-
creasing exports and cutting
down on imports to name a
few. But none of these will
ever be realized by begging
Whitehall again. No, for these
things we need a popular
Government with dedication
and competence and above
all, with imagination and love
for people.

of cbe

I I /1 iIe

transportation and lack of land-
ing and storage facilities".
(p.223). Plus "an educational
campaign" to help fish sales,
plus one central fish harbour
both for local fishing and
foreign fleets.plus "capable and
qualified personnel" in the
Fisheries Division. of the Minis-
try of Agriculture. And a Train-
ing School and an experimental
processing centre. And cote-ci
and cote-la. Since 1968.
What a beautiful land of
promises! Who could wish
better? It sounds so much like
the garment industry and the

food processing industry and
agriculture and education and
health and petroleum and every
conceivable thing.
Now the whole five years
have passed. Plans written by
William Demas are one thing.
Implementation by a corrupt
and incompetent PNM Govern-
ment is something else. The
fishermen, like everybody else
are at the end of their patience.
From Matelot to Cedros they
are taking matters into their
own hands. The rising among
the people continues. And one
of these mornings it go finish.

/ ,


1 Mile Post Blanchisseuse Road, Arima
TEL: 667-3349




/ Stephens

I -I I -~ -




can double



WHEN Hema Malini
danced at Queen's Hall
last Thursday night, the
depths of Indian culture
came to us. And we appre-
ciated it. Those of us who
went expecting to see her
perform as she does in the
films must have been plea-
santly surprised to see her
in the classical vein and it
was all so satisfying that
we were disappointed
when the show ended. We
just wanted more.
The evening began with
the formal opening of a series
of shows by Mr. Kamaluddin
Mohammed, Minister ofHealth.
Then the soft voice of Mr.
Hanoomansingh and the
dimmed lights ushered in the
first item and one of the few
It was not what one norm-
ally expects of Qustand
"Taran" and his Orchestra. Or
perhaps we are undervaluing
this offering in comparison
with the faultless performance

SUNDAY JULY 1st, 1973

The depth

of Indian

of our Indian guests. At any
rate, it was soon over and the

curtain went up again leaving
the rest of the evening to the

visiting artistes.
The music reflected the

wins the African Safari


1st, 2nd, 4th, 9th and tenth places overall. Only 16

cars out of 89 were able to finish the race. 5 of the 16

cars were DATSUNS, breaking all previous records

in the history of the 5,000 km. Rally, demonstrating

Datsun's outstanding performance and reliability.

Datsun 240z & 1600/510, 1200, 1200 Automatic Ex-stock from:

Cor. Richmond St. and Tragarete Road, PORT OF SPAIN'
Lady Hailes Avenue, SAN FERNANDO.


glory of both North and South
India. Padmini, the supporting
dancer of the troupe, impressed
with her agility and her keen
sense of co-ordination against a
background of drumming.
Her every movement
evoked sentiments peculiar to
Southern Indian dance. Above
all, she displayed her versatility
when she followed a classical
dance of the Barathya Nytam
branch by an entertaining folk
dance, rich in intricate steps.


As to the music, the solo
items were simply excellent.
Truly the Veena player trans-
ortlcd uis into another world.
We were so completely hypno-
tized that we hardly noticed
the electrical movements of her
fingers along the frets of this
South Indian instrument, very
similar to a Sitar.
The flautist too, played
with great skill and charmed
us with a delightfully sweet
semi-classical tune. It is a pity
that he was partly hidden by
some of his fellow-musicians
so that not everybody knew
exactly who was playing.
A special dance composi-
tion Duet in Nature dedi-
cated to the people of Trini-
dad & Tobago, did not quite
come off. As a dancer, the
Veena player could not match
the grace of Padmini nor for
that matter the heights of her
own music.


In between all this, Hema
Malini gave a superb perform-
ance, impossible to describe.
It was a revelation in classical
dance, every movement match-
ing the Veena, the flute and
the time-keeping instruments.
The combination of the ex-
quisite classical form and the
great physical beauty of the
dancer was an experience far
surpassing anything we have
yet seen in the films.
Above all, the dance to the
Meera Bhajans, devotional
songs composed on Lord Krish-
na, was a treat. At times Hema
Malini's poses seemed impossi-
ble to the human making
believe that a Goddess had
come to us with all her grace
.and charm.
It should have gone on and
on. We longingly look forward
to more.
Ramiattan Singh


came to us with Hema Malini

- I -- -~ ---

' --



ON Friday last, Anthony Celestine, 22, his shirt soaked
from the rain, came to the Tapia office at Royal Road
San Fernando. Ivan Laughlin and Nigel Gill were there at
the time. "Dis is Tapia? I want to tell all yuh what happen
to me".

His eyes were bright,
strong and resolute. This
is what he told us.
He, his wife Rosetta and
their one year old daughter
live at the corner of Grell and
Gamble Streets, Siparia. Un-
employed and having to pro-
vide for his family, Anthony
was able to get a three-acre
parcel of land at Lorensotte
,South Trace, Rancho Quemado.,
With a loan from the Agri-
cultural Development Bank he
started growing food pum-
kins, tomatoes, sweetpeppers
and so on. But Anthony did
more. "Siparia is a weird town",
he said, "you are either Ges-
tapo or Joneses". Like every-
where else in the country peo-
ple are living without purpose.
Anthony's venture onto the
land is a search for purpose and
direction. Both his example
and encouragement excited the
brothers on the block and

his voice bitter, his manner

Ivan Laughlin

some of them joined him. But
hardwork is subversive activity
in this society. The established
interests are totally opposed to
it as another Anthony, Da
Costa this time, discovered on
his agricultural plot in Diego
On Saturday, June 16th,
around 5.30 a.m., Anthony
heard noises outside his door.
"This is the police. We have
a warrant. Turn on the lights".
Four policemen entered
his house. "I ain't see no war-
rant yet. I recognize two of
them Randy Pierre and Richard
Gunn, he from Siparia".
"We hear you is a guerilla,
a freedom fighter. Well let me
tell you the police is the only
fucking freedom fighters".



The police proceeded to
ransack the house. "I didn't
have anything to worry about
because I know my house clean.
But when they was nearly
finished this fellow Richard
Gunn produce a half stick and
say, "this ain't no tobacco".
Anthony and Rosetta were
arrested and charged for being
in possession of marijuana. The
station was full that morning -
"like they mate a clean sweep
of Siparia."
On Monday, husband and
wife appeared in court. The
police told them they should




plead guilty and take a small
fine. "Dat is so I would have a
criminal record dey would use
against me in de future".
Anthony of course refused.
The case was put off until
July 5th.
His lawyer,Mr. Rambachan

told him it was some respon.
sible person in the area whc
reported him to the police

"So when you poor and
ketching your ass you still have
to bend to police and 'respon-
sible' people. We have to fight
to make a bread."
Anthony Celestine is not
prepared to bend. He intends
to keep up the struggle. "July
5th is a decisive day for me.
We go see if this country have
justice and if a man will be
penalised for trying to make a

THE present rate of Moscow's expansion-poses the prob-
lem of a possible water shortage in the near future. A new
system of water supply is under construction and should be

ready in 1976 to meet the
city's need for the coming

rom 5 -
to escape responsibility for the
policy direction given to the
FPA on page 307 of The Plan.
"The implementation of
these aims envisages the
disseminatioi-on f advice to
women between the ages
of 15 and 44 years ...'
The various methods to be
used include, and the esti-
mated percentages are:
Contraceptives... 45%
I.U.D's ...45%
Other methods ... 10%
Is the Prime Minister say-
ing that these "Cabinet pri-
orities"were determined with-
out the relevant figures on
births, abortions and venereal
disease? Was the plan an-
nounced without the Attorney
General's opinion of "the rights
if any" of the FPA to inter-
fere unilaterally with students
in order to implement govern-
ment-approved and subsidized
Whatever the Prime Minis-
ter is now saying, it is crystal
clear to the country that they
are not only incompetent but
totally crooked as well. And yet
they have the impertinence to
say we know what we have.
Well, we also know now what
we go get the same grave
diggers they fraid.

ten to 15 years. To protect
the quality of the water,
samples will be tested
along the 500 kms (300
miles) of .the Moscow
The increasing volume of
household waste is a serious
problem for Moscow, as for
other bie cities: some 7,000,000

cubic metres were collected last

Water shortage faces


year compared with only
4,000,000 in 1965. There is
also the job, of treating and
recycling of industrial waste.
Water purification appratus
has been installed in 700 fac-,
tories and, by 1975, will be
put into 500 more plants.
,To combatat tospheric
pollution, the city's central-

ized heating system, extended
and Moscow's electric power
plants, together with those in
other main cities, are being
converted to low-sulphur fuels.
The switch, to cleaner fuels
has brought about a drop of
between 25 and 33 per cent in
the dust and sulphurous gas
content of the air over the past
15 years. Moscow, today, is
one of the cleanest of the
world's major cities.

And the air is cleaner even
in such centres of the metal-
lurgical industry as Magnito-
gorsk, Krivoy Rog,Donetskand
Cherepovets, where smoke
from blast furnaces is channell-
ed into sulphuric acid produc-
tion instead of being allowed
to poison the atmosphere. This
process now accounts for 30
per cent of the sulphuric acid
produced in the USSR while
keeping Soviet citizens' lungs

UNESCO features

GT( Trained to serve you




80 Independence Square PO S '
3 rd Floor
Tel: 62/52267 53776 .

Guyana & Trinidad Mutual Life's
Sales Representatives are trained to
advise you in selecting the policy best
suited to your needs and to assist you
with your plans for the future


1 Edward Street 3 rd Floor
Tel : 62-53268
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68 70.HENRY ST.






STARTING next year, the 35,000 trucks that ply Mos-
cow's streets will be converted to burning liquid gas,
which is far less polluting than their present petroleum
Similar measures, aimed at protecting the Soviet citizens'
health, are being applied in other major cities including Leningrad,
Kiev, Tbilisi, Volgograd, Tashkent, Baku and Minsk.
The measure means higher
costs for the motor industry,
but liquid gas contains neither a ir o r
lead nor sulphur and discharges
three times less carbon monox-
ide than is carried by petroleum vehicles before mass produce
exhaust fumes. tion of them begins A network
-r ,-nc qnl d n

ot central gas uepots unu ai
recharging stations will also
have to be created, so that an
overall reorganization of motor
transport is involved.


The Soviet Union was one
of the first countries to forbid

Although all of Moscow's
taxis are to be converted to
liquid gas as well, the exhaust
pollution problem will not be
entirely solved; there are
another 250,000 convention-
ally fuelled motor cars in the
Soviet capital. Over the next
three years, tests are to be
carried out on gas powered

SUNDAY JULY 1st, 1973
UNESCO Features



vehicles running on fuel con-
taining ethyl to operate in big
towns. And strict regulations
control carbon monoxide dis-
charge which must not exceed
two per cent of the volume of
exhaust fumes.
The chairman of the Mos-
cow municipal council, Vladi-
mir F. Promyslov, told an inter-
national meeting on urban
problems, held in Tokyo last
November., about a new govern-

ment-approved general plan for
his city.
Moscow's expansion is to
follow a polycentric model, he
said, with eight planning zones
united by the city's general
centre. In the planning zone
centres, large architectural en-
sembles will be created with
squares and open greenery -
planted spaces.

In order to regulate indus-
trial enterprises and other pro-
duction centres, factory con-
struction will be controlled in
Moscow and its suburbs and
industrial plants regrouped into
65 production zones on the
periphery of the city. Over the

past ten years, 300 enterprises
that polluted Moscow's air have
been relocated or rebuilt and
equipped with air treatment
equipment. Another 168
plants are to be moved in the
near future.
Moscow is well provided
with greenery and has a num-
ber of parks and gardens.
There is also a forest-park
belt laid out so as to avoid
fusing Moscow and the small
communities of the region into
an urban sprawl. The new plan
calls for enlarging this green
belt by new plantations which
will bring the area of woods,
gardens and parks up to 30
square metres per Moscow in-


I JULY 2nd' 4th, 1973 *

This is a $4 million issue. The 6.% Bonds 1980/83 can be
purchased at TT $98.22 per cent, with a running yield of 6.87%
per annum, and gross redemption yield of 7% per annum.


4/ 2B5 YEAR

This is an issue of $12 million. These 7 A% Bonds 1993/98 are
offered at a price of TT $96.80 per cent. The running yield is
8.01% per annum and the gross redemption yield is 8.05% per
Delivery of Bonds:
Bonds will be made in one registered bond in the name of
each subscriber. Thereafter transfers may be made in multiples
of $100.


The list of applications will be opened at 8.00 a.m. on Monday
2nd July, 1973 and closed at 12 noon on Wednesday 4th
July, 1973.
Bonds will be dated 4th July 1973.
The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago is the sole and exclusive
agent for the raising and management of this issue.
This will be payable half-yearly by the Central Bank of Trinidad
and Tobago on the 4th January and the 4th July The
first payment will be made on the 4th January 1974. A sinking
Fund will be established for the redemption of the issue.
What the funds will be used for:
These Bonds will help finance projects under the Third Five-Year
Development Plan 1969-73, including agricultural, industrial and
tourist development, schemes for education, housing, water and
sewerage, etc.
where to obtain application forms
Prospectuses and application forms may be obtained at
the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, Investment
Division, Central Bank Building, Comptroller Accounts,
Central Bank Building, any of the branches of the
commercial banks operating in Trinidad and Tobago,
Trinidad Co-operative Bank Limited, Caribbean Stock
and Bond (Trinidad) Limited, West Indies Stockbrokers
Limited, all Trust Companies operating in Trinidad and
Tobago and Barclays Finance Corporation of Trinidad
and Tobago Ltd.
Applications Will be received at the Investment Division of the
Central Bank, St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain, and must be
accompanied by the full amount of the purchase price of the
Bonds applied for.
The issue will be made under the Development Loans Act 1964'
(No. 19 of 1964), as amended by the Act No. 17 of 1965 and Act
No. 14 of 1969.
Further information may be obtained from the Central Bank,
St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain; all banks and trust companies
or your stockbroker.

12 NOON JULY 4th 1973

- _I---~ -------------

Il Th~is



out of politics. .
However, where there: is
exploitation of free labour and
abuses of other kinds, then the
demand to keep politics out of
sport, especially by that admi-
nistrative type becomes an ob-
session, a fear of public scrutiny
the most crucial aspect of
democratic politics.
The biggest single problem

THE Maple club has taken
the lead from other POSFL
clubs in offering financial
rewards to their football-
ers. Each player will re-
ceive $5 for a match drawn,
$10 for a match won and
$20 for any member se-
lected on the national
team. Already Russell
Texeira, Trevor Leiba and
Godfrey Harris have bene-
.fited from the scheme for
their recent participation
in the series between Trini-
dad and Barbados.
The TFA has announced
the abandonment of the Hay-
ward shield inter-league series
in favour of a national pro-
fessional league organised on
an inter-club basis.
Whatever the limitations of
the efforts by both Maple and
TFA their actions are steps in
the right direction. What is of
some concern is the sniffling by
many people at the idea of
While 'the concept of
amateurism reads beautiful-en--
paper and a beautiful case can
be made for it in the abstract,
Sin practice it is something else.
Whereas amateurism is de-
manded of the players, organ-
isers charge spectators an en-
trance fee. For amateurism to
have any meaning it ought to
be demanded of everyone in-
volved; players, organizers and
When spectators pay at the
gate, organizers receive lavish
honorariums, or companies

charge ground rentals afid
amateurism is required of play-
ers, then, amateurism becomes
an iniquitous exploitation of
Many people do call for
amateurism without seeing the
perversion of it, but there is
an administrative type who
calls for .it and is vehement
about keeping politics out of

There are also people who
seriously believe that politics
should be kept out of sport.
Where that belief is genuine
people really mean, keep cheap
politics out of sport. It is
really a reaction to mere an-
nouncements and empty pro-
mises as opposed to serious and
constructive planning. In that
case we should go further to
say, lets keep cheap politics

Merely to get government
to acquire a tennis robot was
impossible. A tennis robot is a.
machine that can. play any
known shot in the game ten
times better than the most
skillful human dan. It can chop,
top spip or Joop with unerring
accuracy repeaAtedly.,
The machirie was developed
by the Swedes and was on
demonstration here recently.
The tennis association could
not afford to buy it and
government wouldn't. If the
other islands purchase one and
allow their players to practise
with it, the opportunity it will
give those players to refine
technique will put us at a
serious disadvantage at the next
Caribbean championships.


Dear Tapia,
LET us assume that you all
win the next General Election.
What will you do with the
,Special Works Programme?
The news you gave in the
June 17 Issue are facts that .ne
people should be aware *;f by
now. Maracas-St. Joseph play-
ground is not the only half-
way job in the area..
If you travel a little further
up into Luengo Village 'at
Hobal Trace there is an incom-
plete project. This job was
started on November 25, 1968.
A bridge and about 1,000 ft of
roadway are to be constructed
for agricultural access across
the river.
The work was planned 4
years and 7 months to date
and just half of the roadway
is done. The bridge is still to be
started but when? They have
taken down the road name
Now an M.P. wants 2
bridges built over a river runn-
ing between Cane Farm & Five
Rivers Estates.
E. J. Le Platte
June 20, 1973.

SUNDAY JULY Ist, 19703

Ith enduI

Ruthven Baptiste

I -- m

in our sport is the absence of
politics. The absense of govern-
mental politics, that is. There is
virtually no national pro-
gramme for sport in the country
and it is only a reflection of
the creativity and wit of our
people that sporting activity is
going on regardless.

F r

,s., pAndrea Talbutt,
Rsearcch Insttute for
Study of In9
1629 E., t 78th Str 6et,
Ph Le 'h-Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8L.48,
U.S.b -.



Allan Harris

DURING the month of
May, when the New Jewel
Movement spearheaded
widespread protests against
Gairy's plan to carry Gre-
nada into Independence,
there were the sceptics who
wondered whether it
wasn't a.case of "when the
icat is away, the mice will
And whbr ed
from Lonaon to a tumultuous
welcome at the airport, some
commentators went so far as
to suggest that it was the
erstwhile protesters themselves

who had come to greet the
returning hero.
The innocent observer is
therefore left to wonder by
what subtle wiles Gairy bends
the people to his will? How
could the Chamber of Com-
merce extend the olive branch
after having gone so far as
closing down their business
places as a sign of their oppo-
sition to the Government's
Now that Gairy is back on
the scene we are getting a
better idea of his operating
style. And we are realizing
that what is taking place is

Take Jail and I

From Page 1
Bharath claimed that the
Cedros Coop. spends $25 per
day on ice, for lack of adequate
refrigeration facilities.
Then there's the problem
of transport and marketing
outlets. This led the Cedros
Coop. to request from Govern-
ment use of the Old Eastern
Market in Port-of-Spain. This
was refused and three alter-
native sites were suggested.
However, the Cooperative
has heard no further word on
this matter. These problems are
also faced by fishermen in
Mayaro, Erin, Carenage, Mara-
cas and so on.
John Humphrey, in re-
sponse to this lack of planning
organised a meeting with key
men in the fishing industry. He
told the Woodford Square
gathering that at this meeting
representatives of the public
and private sectors were present.
Mr. Humphrey said that he
outlined a plan at that time for
a project by the three fibre
glass companies to manufacture
a trawler fleet. Included in the
plan was the provision of re-




Sangre Grande




frigeration and living accomo-
dation on a supply escort.
Agreement was reached in
principle, according to Hum-
phrey, on a National Fishing
Cooperative. However, subse-
quent to this, government re-
presentatives failed to attend
meetings. They were then in-
formed by the Ministry of
Agriculture that a National
Fishing Company was being
organised with assistance from
the United States Import-Ex-
port Company.
Dr. Clifford' Ramcharan of
the DLP expressed support for
the Cedros fishermen and said
that the government was afraid
to offend the Venezuelans since
it may need their support some
time in the future.
Dr. James Millette of UNIP
said that Williams had a long
history of not meeting dele-
gations since he was not inter-
estedin the people.

one of the most unabashed
displays of gangsterism we've
seen this side of the Caribbean.
The terror, naturally, is
directed principally against the
leading figures in the ranks of
the new opposition which
emerged in April and May. One
of the more notorious cases is
that of Clarence Ferguson and
his family.


About*three weeks ago Fer-
guson was the victim of a
brutal assault by members of
a semi-official organisation
known as the Police Aides and
his daughter was humiliated in
the public square. The Police
Aides consist largely of criminal
and other dubious elements
recruited to do the dirty work
of the regime.


The question of fishing, he-
felt, was a question of whether
or not the people of this coun-
try will be able ,to afford a
square meal in a few months
time with the rising cost of
living. Dr. Millette argued that
the question of fishing was
essentially a political one.
Chairman of the meeting
was Mr. Roy Richardson of
the UPP, and parliamentary re-
presentative for the district.
The meeting came to an end
with a sale of fish. Young and
old jostled to obtain the cut-
rate product and if nothing
else it showed the extent to
which the country is hungry. A
similar scene occurred in the
Savannah on Tuesday night,
while the little king maintained
his aloof silence. It was as if
the people were asking for food
and were told to eat cake.
And if the Cedros fisher-
men return home bitter and
disappointed men, they, and
the country as a whole, return
wiser men, in the knowledge
that there is no "big man"
to rerder assistance; the help
lies within ourselves.









Sole Distributors:
Messrs United Marketing Ltd.

50 Oueen St., P.O.S Tel:62-35981 :
----------------- -----------i

Another victim is Maurice
Bishop, the Joint Co-ordinating
Secretary of the New Jewel
Movement. Bishop has written
to the Commissioner of Police
in St. George's protesting a
police search of his home and
that of his parents on the
morning of June 15th.
In the letter Bishop states
that "when the Warrant was
read to me at about 5.40 a.m.
.there were already about 32
policemen digging and search-
ing the area around the two
Bishop goes on to charge
the police with condoning the
activities of Gairy's Mongoose
Squad, as the Police Aides are
better known.


He states that it is "well-
known that no arrests have
been made after Jeremiah Gor-.
don was murdered, or Allisfer
Hughes, Bro. Hamilton, God-
rick Antoine, Frederick Phillip,
Hermie Calliste, Roy Gordon,

Lennard Greenidge, Alston
Williams, Harold Strachan and
most notably Clarence Fergu-
son, to mention a few, were
beaten-up or chopped-up, in
each instance by identifiable


It was the shooting to death
of Jeremiah Gordon on April
20th which sparked off angry
protests in Grenville and the
later occupation of the airport.
Within the last few days a
charge of murder has been laid
against a policeman.
Now that it is clear that
Gairy is seeking to make good
his threat to "cinderise" the
NJM and the entire unconven-
tional opposition to his Govern-
ment, we must wait and see if
the new forces have developed
deep enough roots among the
people to survive the brutal
Onslaught. One thing we know,
and this is that if they have not
organised themselves politic-
ally, :Gangsterism will sweep
them clear off the land.