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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00064
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 24, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00064

Full Text

15 Cents


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973


lZ THE Si~,
z E 3r


Are we ready





for the coming


THE long drought is brok-
en, a siege is lifted from
the land. Yet Trinidad &
Tobago would be foolish
to rejoice because the rains
Have coumi. VveSenooul pie-
pare ourselves instead to
breaks the other cutse. The
rains will probably sweep
the valleys clean and flood
the plain.
More than ever, 1973 has
been a year of plague, Fires


Tepie fete For June 30


Tapia members, associates,
and friends will be getting
together on June 30 for a
hops and shark party.
A DJ will be in attend-
ance but poets, publicists,
orators and other perform-
ers are welcome to share
the spotlight.
Lennox Grant is co-
ordinating plans call him
at 638-4836 and make
your play.
Subscription is $3 per
person. Collections in ad-
vance would help catering.
Kindly contact Allan Harris
at The Tapia House,
662-5126.
Or Nigel Gill at the
Southern Office, 17 Royal
Road, San Fernando,
652-4878.


Venue of the party is
the home of Sheilah and
Denis Solomon, St. Augus-


tine Circular Road, right
next to the UWI playing
field gate.


STwin bars of hunger mark their metal brows,
Twin seasons mock them
Parching drought and flood a
Martin Carter


in the bush have cleared the
water catchments of nearly all
the shrub and leaf and under-
growth.
The faces of the mountain
-np i h.V, h-,n -nnrtpA ;n-
to sheets of earthen metal from
which the water, when it comes,
is going tumble down in tor-
rents. And there will be vir-
tually nothing in the valleys
and the plain to stop the flow.
No chaff, no grass, few roots.
The last time we had these
wicked floods heaven only
knows what the farmers suf-
fered in terms of stock and
crops gone down the river!
But are we planning any de-
fence against the flood this
year when we are almost cer-
tain that it will come?
Who has built embank-
ments on the Caroni? What
measures are we taking in ad-
vance to clear the old canals
and drains which always block-
up in Laventille, or to build
new ones where we know there
may be trouble? If we are to
have crash programmes, why
can't we put them to con-
structive purpose?
What local administration
exists to look ahead and deal


with these problems? What vote
is there for the County and the
Village Councils to place them-
selves in readiness to act?
Are we doing as we did
with drinking water waiting
for the p-Problem to zdeseid
upon us before we start to
move? What kind of relief ser-
vices are there and ready, only
waiting to be called?
A National Emergency Re-
lief Organisation does exist but
in the Great Flood of mid-
October 1971, it could not
begin to cope with the damage
wreaked by torrential rains.
During the weekend of
23-25 October, after nearly
two weeks of pounding the
water backed up in East, Cen-
tral and South Trinidad.
As the Cunapo River came
rolling down from the Tamana
Hills a teenage girl was swept
away in Sangre Grande and
during that weekend alone over
$100,000 of property was
swept away. The Court House
and the Hindu. school came
under water.
The Caroni River also rose
to 28 feet above normal and for
the people of Piarco, Kelly,
Warrenville, Golden Grove and
Cunupia, it was something else.


THE story on the Garment
Industry by Lloyd Taylor
and Lloyd Best lost its
place in the centre-spread
queue and publication has
had to be postponed for a


second time this week.
The story will not now
appear until the end of July.
A preliminary statement on
the Industry is contained on
pages 1, 6 & 7 of Tapia No.
23 of June 10, 1973.


I I


Our printing-plantis open at The Tapia
House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. Kindly phone orders to:
662 5126.


- PUBLISHING -OFFSET PRINTING*EDITING SERVICE[


flood?


Garment story postponed


TAPIA


I


6-


I


Vol. 3 No. 25


! i I i
i I I





PAGE 2 TAPIA


"It would all blow over".
That was how the establish-
ment responded to the first
Butler Day, June 18,1937.
But before long the whole ap-
paratus of colonial repression had
to be brought into gear against the
West Indian people. "A forest of
bayonets" had to be activated to
contain the explosions which
rocked the entire archipelago
from Georgetown to Kingston.
The Crown Colony regime
had engineered its own destruction
by driving us to employ the most
direct methods against abysmal
wages, chronic unemployment and
impossible conditions of life. And
when the cost of living increased
by 16% in the first half of
1937, the system simply had to
go, it was a straight case.
The establishment response

-7'do


What a


What are the


SDiplomats saying


about Butler Day


1973?


is a familiar one to the present
generation. To begin with, stabili-
zation through repression while
denouncing the "radical minor-
ity". Then conciliation in the
only way open to an outmoded
and discreditied system of govern-
ment and politics: special-works
programmes, half-hearted attempts


SThe


Yankee


Response)


Third


1

I
i.
1
-

1

i
I


LAST year, the 35th Anniversary
of the 1937 Workers' Uprising in
Trinidad was celebrated here and
it was decided to shift the ob-
servance date of Labour Day
from May 1, one of the colonial
legacies, to June 19th, the real
history-making date in our his-
tory. This year it is the turn of
Jamaica to recall the 35th Anni-
versary of her part of the histori-
cal experience of the British
Caribbean peoples of the 1930's.
At this season of remembrance, I
wish in this third article to delve


of


series ys


Fitz Baptiste

back and show how the specific
events in Trinidad and Jamaica were
reported by some men on the spot,
namely the diplomatic representatives
of the United States at Port-of-Spain
and Kingston. Acting on directives
from the State Department, they trans-
mitted fairly comprehensive accounts
of what occurred in the two islands in
1937 and 1938 respectively. As far as
possible, I have decided to let the
documents speak for themselves.
According to Consul Moessner at
Port-of-Spain, there were signs of un-
rest among sections of the "working
class" of Trinidad for several months


at wage improvement and price
control, land settlement without
any serious land reform. It was
essentially a holding operation
until the inevitable fall of the old
regime.
Adult Suffrage and internal
self-government soon were to as-
sume their rightful place, duly


before the disturbances actually broke
out, but employers as well as the
Colonial Government apparently
greatly underestimated the gravity of
the situation, probably feeling that in
time things would blow over. How-
ever, on June 16, 1937, it became
clear to them that something was
stirring when employees of the Apex
(Trinidad) Oilfields Limited at Fyza-
bad openly stated that they were going
on strike unless their demands in the
form of increased wages and improved
working conditions were met.
For several months previously,
wrote Moessner, a man by the name of
T. Uriah Butler, who styled himself
"Supreme Chief Servant of the British
Empire Workers" and "Head of the
Local Citizens' Home Rule Party",
had been going around the workers
in the oil belt, urging them to action
and to violence, if necessary, in pur-
suit of their demands for higher wages
etc. A warrant was finally issued for
his arrest and on Saturday, June 19,
1937, four police officers made an
attempt to do so while Butler was
addressing a crowd of workers hear
the Apex Headquarters. The crowd
became infuriated and resisted the
officers, using sticks and various mis-
siles. A white Sub-Inspector of Police
was shot dead from ambush and a
black Corporal severely beaten and
then burned to death by the mob.
When news of the incident spread, the
workers throughout the oilfields de-
cided to strike and "certain radicals"
suggested the destruction of the Com-
panies' property.
By Monday, June 21, the strikes
and the rioting had spread to all oil-
fields and refineries, and "mobs" be-
gan to march, attacking the few who
remained at work. All available police


escorted into existence by Trades
Unions and organized labour, the
new forms of popular expression.
Tuesday gone we were grimly
celebrating the 36th anniversary
of Butler Day. In only two short
generations, as the Catholic News
has put it' "we seemed to have
gone full-cycle. Everywhere on
the labour scene there is bitter-
ness, antagonism, a lack of
trust "
When the divided house col-
lapsed in the 1930's, the diploma-
tic observers never doubted what
was happening. They knew very
well that if Government policy
"was not sufficiently settled to
permit definition", a time for
gun-boats surely lay ahead.
Now that they face a com-
plete incapacity by the Afro-
Saxon ministry to deal with the
fundamental demands of the
1970's, we must wonder what lies
in those despatches they are send-
ing home.


8/Fi~"~stc~ f~


SUNDAY JUNE24, 1973


and reserves, as well as military volun-
teers, were rushed to the affected
areas and the Government requested
that two British warships be sent to
Trinidad. On June 22, workmen em
played on the harbour development
project and on the new Treasury-cum-
Post Office building in Port-of-Spain
went on strike and proceeded to the
Customs House, where they were
joined by lightermen and stevedores.
They then marched to the Railway
Station, compelling persons found
working to join in the movement.
In this situation of escalating trouble,
in which some looting began to occur
in some places, most of the business
houses in Port-of-Spain decided to
close down.
During the rest of that week, the
strikes spread to most of the sugar
and cocoa estates and more violence
-and -bloodsh'ed oreturred. However&T by-
June ZO, thiL police, i Iscivists, volun-
teers and naval detachments which
had arrived in the colony had succeed-
ed in stabilizing the situation some-
what. The strikes were still continuing
throughout the territory by July 1st,
the time of Moessner's report to
Washington, though quite a number of
workers had by then returned to work
as a result of wage increases in some
cases and, in other, of a Government
statement that it would review the en-
tire situation once conditions had been
normalized again. A Government'me-
diation board was appointed, but its
work was greatly hampered, the Consul
stated, because the strikers could not
agree on just what they wanted since
they had no responsible authorized
representatives. There were, he noted,
no organized trade unions in the
colony. The number of casualties since
the outbreak of the troubles was about
15 killed and 45 seriously injured.

*

As to the causes of the disturb-
ances, Consul Moessner stated that the
increasing cost of living was given as
the principal cause. According to offi-
cial figures, the cost of food and other
workers' basic necessities had risen
about 16% since January 1, 1937. In a
personal comment, Moessner noted
that abnormally low wages were paid
to workers in the colony an
average of sixty cents for nine to ten
hours' work per day. An additional
factor which contributed to the strikes
and the resultant unrest was the "bad
blood"i that, by common knowledge,
existed between certain employers
and their workmen. Nevertheless, it
was thought in politically-relevant
strata of Trinidad's society that, had
the Government been fully prepared
to meet the situation either by media-
tion or by force from the very begin-
ning, the disturbances would have
been localized to the areas of their
inception and no violence would have
ensued.
Continued on Page 11


10i


ppppp-


1937








ARE CIVIL SERVANTS OUTSIDE OF POLITICS ?


Tapia Chairman




Lowhar Replies to




P.S.A. Secretary


AS A boy I respected Mr.
C. A. Thomasos as teacher,
poet, and man of letters.
My view of him changed
somewhat when he was
presented as a candidate in
the election of '56.
On the occasion of an
Installation Ceremony of the
Arawaks Literary and Debating
Club at the Arima Town Hall
where Thomasos delivered the
feature address on the great
modern poet T. S. Eliot, I
heard him recall the names of
some of his less remembered
contemporaries: Hinds, Chin-
aleong, and Benjamin, all
Arimians, now deceased. Later
that night I told him that we
would bring the trophy back to
Arima. It was not long before
we did.
SWithout the financial means
or the scholarship which re-
wards academic brilliance most
avenues to higher education
were blocked. The University
of the West Indies was not yet
.established in Trinidad. There
_.,as ^ political o an,.r.m in the
country. It was not surprising
that Clubs, Literary, Debating
and Cultural multiplied to fill
the gap in our education and
our politics.

GRANGER

People like Geddes Granger
and I learned at the feet of our
seniors, James Manswell and
Oswald Wilson. But that was a
transitional phase the limita-
tions of which became obvious
once, we had, to face up to a
returning graduate such as Ber-
tram Ifill. We'were shining in
the dark. I realized that my
"clear captivating style" was
not enough. I needed know-
ledge and analytical power;
from then I set out in search
of New World and Tapia.
When Manswell says that I
was a good speaker but I could
not debate I will not 'quarrel
with that. "Be it resolved that
the pen is mightier than the
sword"; "that a woman's place
is in the home"; "that Atomic
energy is more' destructive than
constructive".
The topics were too distant
and esoteric to generate any
but contrived arguments, with-
out passion or conviction. They
encouraged hair-splitting of
which Manswell remains the
Champion of Champions. The
long-winded Lionel Seukeran
was one of the finest examples.
"The essence of debating is
the collection of facts pertinent
to the, issue and the arrange-
ment and presentation of these
facts 'in some cogent, logical
form". Thus spake Manswell,
It was as though I heard Arts
Festival Chairman, F. G. May-
nard adjudicating all over again.
In spite of this Manswell's tech-
nique has not improved.
SArgumentum ad hominem,


7Under the Constitution every Citizen has the right
to join political parties and to express political
views. The General Secretary does not agree with
this, but it is not for him to decide
SYL LOWHAR
TAPIA,
June 3, 1973

gLowhar's article illustrates forcibly the dangers
posed by the political civil servantS
JAMES MANSWELL
The Public Service Review
May 31, 1973


the focussing on the opponent
rather than on the argument, is,
a sin always to be avoided.
About the Tapia pamphlet,en-
titled Reform of the Public
Service he has offered not one
word of commentary. Nor has
he taken issue with any of the
points which I raised concern-
ing the lack of confidence
A.hi.h ~lh.lic servnrt.i h've in
the Association. A crisis exists
precisely because the General
Secretary and the Executive do
not seem to be aware of the
thinking of public servants.
In my article which ap-
peared in Tapia of June 3 (Vol.,
3 No. 22) under the'headline
'Power to the People in the
Public Service I argued that the
Union needed to be democra-
tised. At the moment it is a
loose association of Sections
run under a self-perpetuating
system of cliquism with the
majority of members ignorant
of what's going.on. This could
well lead to Doctor Politics
with one man and his dogs
enjoying power. This charge
Manswell casually dismisses as
a feature of'all modern day
organizations.

WOODING

The Annual General Meet-
ing of the Professional Section
which was held on June 12
had to be adjourned on my
suggestion that the attendance
was insufficient to give any
Executive a mandate to run the
affairs of what could be a most
vibrant arm of the Association.
Manswell has tried to make out
that this meeting did not in
fact take place. The Secre-
tary's minutes have proved his
information wrong.
"A group of officers elected
almost by default cannot get
its Section to work. The chain
reaction is that the General
Secretary will lack the moral
authority to mobilise its mem-
bers for effective action".As an
example I drew attention to the
fact that while the Wooding
Constitution Commission was
sitting in Chaguaramas recently
a public servant wrote a letter
claiming that Manswell did not


have a mandate to speak for
public servants on this import-
tant matter.
In reply Manswell informed
us that his Executive had had a
mandate since '62, the time of
the Queen's Hall Conference. In
my view the member was cor-
rect. Ten years are along time.
The Council of Delegates, at
1-n.t -shold l' ve disllssed-
whatever proposals the General
Secretary took it upon himself
to make.

PUBLICITY

As a solution I suggestedthat
"it ought to be the duty of the
General Secretariat to service
all the Sections with the in-
formation necessary for their
proper functioning The
Secretariat should also ensure
that publicity is given to im-
portant meetings through Press,
Radio, and Ministerial Circu-
lars. I am sure that these chan-
nels of communication are well
within its reach. After all,
12,000 members paying over
$' million in annual subscrip-
tion deserve to have this facil-
ity".
I also stated how essential it
was for professionals to come
together to discuss perspectives,
to encourage independent
thought and action, and to
protect our brothers and sisters
in the lower grades who are
more exposed to daily insults,
abuses and victimisation .
Trained people are well
equipped to assist the asso-
ciation in its struggles, and to
organise in-training schemes for
the general upliftment of the
membership.
But apparently Manswell
does not want this independ-
ence of thought and action. He
probably fears .that his power
over our lives would be re-
duced if the brothers and sis-
ters protected one another
through co-operation and inter-
section solidarity.
Are we not to believe that
the Executive has developed an
interest in the fragmentation of
the Union? How else can his re-
tort be explained? Hear what he


says in The Public Service Re-
view:
"May I ask from whom are
these people to be pro-
tected? Is it not from the
very people drawn from the
same professional ranks of
which Mr. Lowhar is one?
The PSA has gore on re-
cord as being of the opinion
that the greatest protection.
which tle civil servant needs
is from the civil servant
who stands in a position
of seniority over him. Let
us not forget that many
dictators have come into
power filled with good in-
tentions such as Mr. Low-
har has. (or hlas he?)".,
S I am sure that Manswell
will never forget that because
he came to power filled with
good intentions (or had he?)
when he removed Morie and the
others from office. But whatv
the General Secretary is really
doing here is driving a wedge of
hostility between senior civil
servants and those in the lower
grades, both of whom he is
supposed to represent.When the
Government suggested that civil
servants over a certain range
should no longer be members
of the PSA, was that move not
calculated to limit the resources
of the PSA? We are now left to
wonder who actually inspired
the move? Perhaps the' General
Secretary could tell us.
The effect of this decision
was that many professionals
and other senior officers
stopped paying subscription, or
if they continued to pay, they
ceased to be active members.
The PSA has never clarified the
position to my knowledge, and






.' !_
""*,





Picture of
Lowhar
from The
Public.
Service .
Review .


this must be one of the reasons
why the Professional Section is
so weak today.
My suspicion is reinforced
by the General Secretary's re-
action to my statement that
trained people are well
equipped to assist the Associa-
tion in its struggles. Listen to
this:
"While the holding of a de-
gree in Engineering, or Agri-
cultural Science, or a quali-
fication in Accountancy or
some other type of profes-
sional qualification is very
useful, it is not by itself a
sufficient qualification for,
or expertise in the handlitig
of the trade union of mem-
bers of the PSA, especially
in the day to day affairs
which touch them most. One
has to first understand the
fundainen talks of trade union-
s Hi af"d aove- a thav~
genuine, honest interest in
such matters. If he (Lowhar)
wants to confront the
Government then he has the
doors of TAPIA open to
him., He will not be able to
do that through the PSA
which at times gets in con-
flict with Government over
the pay and conditions of
public servants never a
confrontation on political
grounds".
I would like to know
whether Manswell had any ex-
pertise or was grounded in the
fundamentals of Trade Union-
ism when he first became ac-
tive? Or whether he can prove
that his interest in these matters
is more genuine and honest than

Continued on Page 10


ri


.3


a


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973


TAPIA PAGE 3





PAGE 4 TAPIA


TUNAPUNA




TIGERS ON


THE GO


THE Tunapuna Tigers
Table Tennis Club is prob-
ably the most revolution-
ary sporting association in
the country. Revolution-
ary in this context doesn't
refer to any militant or
political activity on the
part of the club. It is
simply that the conven-
tional yardsticks of
measuring the existence of
a club cannot be applied
to the Tigers.
In order to determine the
existence of a club sporting
leagues seek evidence of. a writ-
ten constitution, annual budget,
financial members etc. The
Tigers have none of these
things, yet, it is the top table
tennis club in the country. The
point here is not that written
constitutions are unimportant
but the real yardstick for
measuring the existence of an
organisation is whether the peo-
ple of that association are
working systematically and re-
,gularly to achieve specified ob-
jectives.
It is the old story of the
political partffcs all overJ'l-,lir,
Are you a party just because a
man holds some public meetings
and then calls a press confer-
ence to announce an executive,
a name and a symbol? Or are
you a party only when you
have people who are perma-
nently organized for political
work day in and day out?
The Tigers Club is a real
club. They have made no an-
nouncements but they have


Stephen WMde


won every major tournament so
far. They are the East Zone
champs, the national inter-
club champs, the interzone
champs and recently they won
the champion of champions
title.
Stephen Wade, Ainsley
Pile, Eric James are the national
A, B and C singles Champions
respectively. In addition to
Wade, Joey Gonsalves and_
Lionel Darceuil are national
players, C. Delph is the Carib-
bean junior ,champ while a
lesser player. such as Jerry
Evelyn has scored major up-
sets in national tournaments

TALENT

The club. was founded in
1964 by Hollis Bailey who
prudently assessed the potential
of community talent. It started
with 10 members and its pre-
sent membership is 50, only
five of whom are employed.
The club does not have its
own club-house so practice
sessions are organised in the


QUIET FLOW

ONLY FROM


Amana
room air conditioners




(-- I g--iB*-


Ruthven Baptiste


Wxl'cUc GlUIlditiuWl -, ,.,ViLib.
The toilets and lights for night
practice are out of order.
SThe club owns two tables.
One is a donation from the
founder and the other from
jthe T & T. T. T. Ai (The Trini-
dad and Tobago Table Tennis
Association). Both tables are
rough and full of holes. The
better table is used by the A
class members and the other
by the non A class members.


COOLING





- No Vibration


-No Disturbing

rush


-Just a quiet

stream of

cool air


climate Eantroaltd.
the air conditioning people


3-5. Duncan Street. Port-of-Spain,
Phones: 62-35883 3 7962 ""


Of the club's members 12 are
A class.
The difficulty involved in
organising practice session,
especially among the novices,
is obvious. Practice is organised
on a winner-stay-on-board basis.
While that method brings out
keen competition during prac-
tice it doesn't permit one to
concentrate on a particular
fault in order to refine tech-
niques.

FACILITIES

Wade corrected me when I


lUiLd) ~A,, Iutild i Lllie LU
play better on smoother tourna-
ment tables. His reply was that
a good board plays faster and
truer so that your timing may
be put off and that could make
the difference between winning


Korean


Epic now


In English

SONGS of the Dragons, the
first classic written during the
Golden Age of Korean culture,
has now been translated into
English for the first time. The
epic poem was commissioned
by King Sejong to celebrate
the Yi dynasty founded by his
grandfather in 1392 (and which
lasted until 1901). It is of
abiding literary as well as his-
toric interest.

HEROISM


Until the publication of
Songs of the Dragons, regional
words were recorded only in
Chinese calligraphy. But with
the creation of the Korean
phonetic alphabet (the han-gul)
in 1443, Songs of the Dragons
(produced in movable type four
years later) became the first
great work printed in its own
language.
The epic is divided into 125
cantos, the first, a mere three
lines; the last and longest, ten.
They bracket 123 tales of
heroism by King Sejong and his
six ancestors, extolling their


and losing a tournament.
The club has now reached
the point in, its development
where it is necessary to tighten
organisation and to improve
facilities. Opinion is divided as
to whether sponsorship will aid
in achieving those ends.
There is nothing inherently
wrong in sponsorship and the
club does need assistance, but
indiscreet sponsorship could
erode self-reliance as has hap-
pened with some steelbands.
In my view the club could
explore the possibility of call-
ing upon the Eastern commun-


Oleswie,, LU, aal)t Dy. of2, u0.
' donations and support for any
fund raising activity the club
chooses to'undertake. Resi-.
dents of the area would surely
reward a club that has made
the community proud.


virtues and exhorting their
successors to high moral and
intelelctual standards.
By "proving" his family's
superiority within the frame-
work of Neo-Confucianism,
King Sejong sought to establish
the legitimacy of the dynasty.




TO employ a draughtsman
at the Tunapuna Office of
the Special Works Pro-
gramme will be a waste of
public funds.
The economics in the idea
is poor; the need does not
arise. St. Anns Special Works
Office has enough Drawing
Staff to meet the wants of the
entire programme.
Yet the Tunapuna people
want a draughtsman to be em-
ployed. But why? Govern-
ment's agreement for its hourly,
daily and weekly paid employ-
ees did not provide for the
employment of Draughtsmen.
That's civil servicepost,in an
Engineer, Architect or Sur-
veyor's Office.
All Special Works needs is
a proper staff of experienced
practical men in the field of
constr action making use of
standard methods.
The best Engineers come
from the shop and their de-
signs always work. In every
country this is true.
F.J. Le Platte


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973


North East Drive. Tarouba Road,
Marabella,
PHones: 65-31910 12


I I~Commu-nity


~A~LRD~U~--, I PMM="C~aa


-----r---


. .. .. .. .. .. I lm ..


L L L I







Andrew Mackillop is a tutor at the School of Environmental
Studies, University College, London.


A YOUNG English student of architecture,Graham Caine,
is building an'ecological' house to find some answers to
the question how far aman can be self-sufficient in the face
of over-population and pollution.
Caine will live in the 'eco-house', on the grounds of
the Thames Polytechnic College at Greenwich, London, in
an attempt to provethat one person, using the latest knlow-
ledge in biology, technology, and other sciences can pro-
duce his own food, provide his own heat, dispose of his
own waste and otherwise manage for himself.


Although the design of the
house is unorthodox, it is not
costly. Materials are expected
to cost under fl ,000 less
than half the price for normal
housing of comparable floor
area.
Caine feels certain that
much of his living space and
water heating needs can be sup-
plied by solar energy not
only free but also' non-pollut
ing although he is incorpo-
rating a standby electric heat-
ing system.
Solar heat may seem an
unexpected source of energy
in a climate such as Britain's
but with simple equipment
(flat plate collectors) and by
channelling water under glass
through blackened pipes, water
can reach nearly 80 degrees F in
January and over 140 degrees F
in summer.
Sprayjet showers will pro-
duce further economy by cutt-
ing down on the amount of
water needed for washing,
while trapped solar heat can be
distributed to heat living
spaces. Obviously in warmer
climates the method of harness-
ing solar energy would work
even better.
The process for waste dis-
posal is equally novel. It dupli-
cates some elements of existing
urban disposal methods but
then adds completely differ-
ent sta es to ive end ro-
ducts of methane gas for cook-
ing and liquid fertilizer for the
plants which figure so pro-
minently in the eco-house.

HYDROPONICS

Kitchen and lavatory waste
is first taken to a tank where
primary breakdown with air
ensures that particles are made
even sized. In a second tank,
algae is cultured to provide
oxygen to help digest the
sewage which is then passed to
a third tank where the algae is
decomposed and methane gas
produced.
Like many of his student-
architect contemporaries, Caine
attaches much importance to
"things green" and over half
the floor area is devoted to
plants and flowers. Main em-
phasis is on food crops, grown
in little or no soil by the
hydroponics method. Mr. J.
Sholto Douglas, a director of
the United Kingdom Hydro-
ponics Information Unit and
an expert on intensive soil-less
cultivation, will advise on this
aspect.
By stacking plant trays in-
side the greenhouse and from a
small floor area, without com-
plicated machines, toxic pesti-
cides or artificial fertilizer,
Caine hopes to obtain nearly all
the food requirements of an
average person. It will of course
mean a wholly vegetarian diet
involving the normally carni-
vorous Caine in at least one
personal sacrifice for the sake
of the experiment.
There are many elements of
architectural interest in the
eco-house. First there is the
shape and what has led to
Caine's choices. The building
must have at least 200 square
feet of solar collector space.


Now- A



House


SOLAR ENERGY WORK AREA VENTILATION
ABSORBERS TO ON FIRST FLOOR OPENING OPENING DOUBLE
HEAT WATER /BEDROOM PLASTIC WINDOWS
SI

;. ,- .. --. .-


Cj ALGAE t
SDIGESTER TANK J GESTER2
.D..N-V ADGESTR 2-R

ALL ORGANIC WASTE ALGAE TANK DIGESTER 2
GOES TO DIGESTER I PROVIDES OXYGEN DECOMPOSES ALGAE ALL SOLIDS AND
BEFORE OINGTO TO HELP DIGEST AND PRODUCES METHANE LIUIOS FROM
ALGAE TANK SEWAGE. NITROGEN FOR COOKING DIGESTER 2 O AS
FOR PREENIOUSF NUTRIENTS SOLUTION
PLANTS TO GREENHOUSE
PLANTS


For Complete Living


The building, all window space
and the 500 square foot green-


house must all face south.
The novel, non-pollutive


and low cost waste-handling
system has been located


beneath the kitchen and bath-
room lavatory so pumps are
unnecessary. The greenhouse,
because it must give the rmaxi-
mum possible shelf area on the
small floor area of 40 feet by
37 feet in shaped roughly like
half a dome.
Caine's choice of plastics
has allowed him to keep to a
minimum the amount of tim-
ber and other materials needed.
In this way he has been able to
hold down materials' costs.
Since many of the proces-
ses Caine will employ are re-
lated to using renewable re-
sources and to preventing pol-
lution, the-result is a welcome
design task for the ecologically
conscious architect.
Caine is sure he can obtain
all the water he needs from
rain, although he will have to
allow for the high levels of
lead that are present in Lon-
Continued on Page 9


wins the African Safari


1st, 2nd, 4th, 9th and tenth places overall. Only 16

cars out of 89 were able to finish the race. 5 of the 16

cars were DATSUNS, breaking all previous records

in the history of the 5,000 km. Rally, demonstrating

Datsun's outstanding performance and reliability.


Datsun 240z & 1600/510, 1200, 1200 Automatic Ex-stock from:

DATSUN MOTORS DIVISION
Cor. Richmond St. and Trogarete Road, PORT OF SPAIN'
Lady Hailes Avenue, SAN FERNANDO.


&MASSY


-- ------ ---


- ____~__,,-~.~U~~,,~.,


,,-I ~- --~II------


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973


TAPIA PAGE 5


----l


a~Ai~MIL





PAGE 6 TAPIA
THE People's National Congress
and the People's Progressive
Party, it has been said, have more
in common than meets the eye.
Mr. Forbes Burnham and Dr.
Cheddi Jagan may disagree. But
an examination of the workings
of these two mass parties which
have dominated our political life
for the past 18 years, will per-
haps sustain this contention.
There are, admittedly, notable dif-
ferencesbetween Mr. Burnham and Dr.
Jagan in terms of ideology, quality
of leadership, attitude to people and
life-style. But there seems to be a
striking similarity between these two
men when it comes to running their
parties which, it has been observed,
they do as if the PNC and PPP are
their personal possessions.
With a lot of attention being fo-
cussed on the next election, for which
the PNC said it wants two-thirds of
the 53 seats in Parliament and which
election the PPP said the PNC could
win only by a repeat performance of
electoral fraud, this is perhaps as good
a time as any to have a quick look at
both parties with the hope of a more
serious examination later.

*

To say that the PNC and PPP are
not What they used to be in terms of
personnel and programmes, is to be
guilty of an understatement.
Comrades who have not left in
frustration, who have not been ex-
pelled, who have not died, will agree
with those who have systematically
and subtly been removed from decision-
making positions, that very often the
will of the party, the policy of the
party, -simply means that of one man -
the maximum or charismatic leader.
In the case of the PPP, of the
four people whose initiative led to the
formation of the Public Affairs Com-
mittee from which the PPP was born,
only two remain Dr. and Mrs. Jagan.
Mr. Jocelyn -Hubbard, the old
Marxist politician of the "53 Move-
ment", is no longer with the party, and
Ashton Chase, a certainly dynamic
trade union-political personality, has
allowed himself to be reduced to a
mere member of the party, rather than
engage in open confrontation with its
leadership.



The militant Brindley Benn, whose
battle against Chase for the Chairman-
ship of the PPP had pushed Dr. Jagan
at the centre of a vicious inner-party
row during the 60's while the party
was still in office, and which contro-
versy eventually led to the successful
manoeuvring by Dr. Jagan in having
"newcomer" Cedric Nunes as Chair-
man of the party, is now leader of the
working People's Vanguard Party.
Nunez, whose health was seriously
impaired by his incarceration at Sibley
Hall, is now in Britain, living a quiet
life with his family, a disillusioned, if
not bitter man.
Stalwarts like Fred Bowman,
Neville Annibourne, C. R. Jacob Jr.,
Miles Fitzpatrick and Moses Bhagwan
are all out of the party, for one reason
or another.
Others, like Mohammed Saffee,
George Bowman, Laurence Mann,
Mohammed Zaherudeen and more re-
cently, Lilian Branco, Eugene Stoby
and Leonard Durant attracted by the
newly discovered "Burnham magic"
- forsook the PPP which they had for
so many years defended.
Rudy Luck, who as a Parliament-
tarian gave Mr. Burnham more hell


Is It





Libel IT


Y


ou Cr


Doctor

than most, has like others before him
disappeared into the political wilder-
ness.
Dr. Jagan does not need a journal-
ist to record what a great majority of
the people of this country and others
outside of Guyana know to be true -
his tremendous contribution to the
political consciousness, the political
education of the Guyanese people, an
education that allows us to appreciate
that so much of what is being said and
done by officialdom today was strongly
opposed yesterday.
But posterity will judge the wis-
dom (or otherwise) of quite a few of
his decisions, including the contesting
of the 1957 general elections (which
the PPP won by taking nine of the
14 seats); the signing of the infamous
"Sandys' imposition" in 1963, which
brought the Proportional Representa-
tion system as originally conceived by.
Anglo-American interests; and, of
course, the decision to fight, of all


Leadership as distinct from
Messiahship is not a matter of desire; it
derives from the natural accidents of the
human condition. As men are different-
ly endowed by birth and experience,
some who have developed special skills
or insights inevitably give leads to
other men within the areas of their
competence.
To the extent that his leadership
is successful the leader expects to be
superceded, precisely because he under-
stands that the basic condition of his
success is the active participation of
those whom he leads. Without this
participation, leadership turns to
messianic prophecy in which case his
utmost destiny is only to preside over
eternal crisis. ... From TAPIA No 3

elections, the next one.
On the outside, people question
the decisions and'actions of the party.
And inside the PPP, which Dr. Jagan
says, is becoming a more disciplined
Marxist Movement the Executive Coun-
cil, dominated by Dr. and Mrs. Jagan,.
meets very irregularly, sometimes once
every three months.
In theory, the General Council of
the party is the highest body outside of
the now biennial congress. It is sup-
posed to meet at least once every three
months. In practice, it is the will of
the party's leader that prevails between
and at congress.
The PPP's Parliamentary Group,
consisting of more people who have
successfully faced the electorate under
the first-past-the post system than
those PNC representatives in the
eastern section of the Parliament
Chamber, meets more often than the
General Council.
And what's the position of the


SUNDAY JUN
THE author of this article as well as the editor of the Sunday Graphic
where it was first published, have both been sued by Forbes Burn-
ham. The Prime Minister of Guyana is claiming damages for libel
in the amount of $100,000. Rickey Singh is well-known in
Georgetown as a New World Associate and a political
analyst in that philosophical tradition. His treatment
of the Guyana case exposes a classic example of
Doctor Politics at work. There is opinion in
Demerara that, in choosing this ground on
e which to fight the radical critique
of Doctor Politics, Burnham
may have over-extended
himself. He has beat-
S* en Jagan back;
but West Indian
opinion is
s o m e-
thing
else.



Politics ?


The Case Of Bi


ruling PNC?
To judge from the recently con-
cluded 16th annual congress, at
Queen's College, which the party
takes over for at least one week every
year, things are going very well for Mr.
Burnham. He has 50,000 "comrades"
under his control and was able to
raise a quarter million dollars at a
time when there is such a widespread
outcry from the small people against
the rising cost of living.
Even more than Dr. Jagan, Mr.
Burnham completely dominates the
PNC and this business about being the
first among equals either in the Cabi-
net of the PNC Government or the
executive of the party is according to
those from within the party who know
about what they speak, a lot of "hot
air"
Things have so significantly
changed that a man like Kit Nascimen-
to can now address old PNC com-
rades on "socialism".
It has been observed that one of
the first things that strikes someone
examining the PNC is that none of
the principal persons who broke from
Dr. Jagan in the famous 1955 split
can identify themselves with Mr.
Burnham today in the party, in any
senior position or in the decision-
making process. Those who have not
died have been carefully eliminated.
Topping this list is Eusi Kwayana,
who, as Sidney King, wrote the "battle
song" of both the PPP and the PNC.
Having remained with Dr. Jagan fol-
lowing the split, Kwayana, whose
dialogue with Dr. Jagan in 1956 is
now part of our valuable political his-
tory, subsequently teamed up with
Mr. Burnham, but only after he had
been defeated by Balramsingh Rai of
the PPP for the Central Demerara
constituency in 1957.
Part of the team that drafted the
PNC's "New Road" manifesto Kwa-
yana was expelled from the PNC by
Mr. Burnham in 1971, because he
dared to say publicly what others in
the PNC were saying privately.
If he became the chief casualty of
the politics of expediency then, Dr.
Rawle Farley, the well-known
Guyanese economist and educationist
and another member of the team that
had drafted the "New Road" plan, was
to be subsequently humiliated at the
PNC Congress at the African Welfare
Convention Hall when he was accused
of wanting to seize the leadership of
the party from Mr. Burnham.


THE notion of a Universal Saviour
derives from the peculiar condition of
a people landless and nomadic but at
the same time intensely nationalistic.
The early Israeli tribes craved political
power, but lacked a political base in
reality. In despair they turned to the
magical hope of a Messiah. The Old
Testament is obsessive with the dream
of messianic delivery because the sense
of impotence and frustration in real
life fathers the hope that Somebody
Up There Must Love Me.
Essentially, that is the psychology
behind what we have been calling
Doctor Politics the politics of the
lame and the dispossessed, of those
who have been intimidated and dis-
couraged into the conviciton that they
could never hope to help themselves


By Ricke_


What had in fact happened was
that Mr. Burnham having failed at two
consecutive elections to show that he
had the capacity to win political pow-
er from Dr. Jagan some PNC groups
took the bold initiative in proposing
and supporting Dr. Farley for the
post of Deputy Leader of the PNC.
Naturally, he lost.
And such a post has never become
a part of the party's constitution, and
exists today for the benefit of Dr.
Ptolemy Reid, only because Mr. Burn-
ham wants it to be so.
Farley has ever since failed to show
any interest of significance in the
politics of the PNC. And it is instruc-
tive that as one whose reputation is
recognized by so many other govern-
ments and who campaigned for Mr.
Burnham and the PNC during the days
when the possibility of a PNC victory
was very remote, Dr. Farley has not
been chosen by the Burnham Govern-
ment to advise and assist in the coun-
try's development. Instead, as it has
been further observed, there is a sur-
plus of "newcomers".
One of the men whose political
influence was destined for an eclipse
following the Farley debacle was John
Carter, Guyana High Commissioner to
London, and non-resident Ambassador
to Moscow.
Carter's UDP and Mr. Burnham's
PNC merged after the 1957 election in
an effort to defeat the PPP. This was
Mr. Burnham's first political marriage
of convenience. The second was to be






4, 1973


Cheddi Jagen


with Peter D'Aguiar's United Force in
1964. The first failed in terms of defeat
for the PPP, but succeeded in destroy-
ing the old UDP influence.
The second marriage succeeded
with Mr. Burnham becoming Prime
Minister, although it was Dr. Jagan's
PPP that had a majority of two seats
over the PNC.


Forbes Burnham


Among those who have either been
thrown out of the party, cleverly re-
moved from positions, or who chose
to depart from the PNC's fold because
of their disagreement with the party's
leadership, are: Eusi Kwayana (who
did more than most for the party in
1964): Llewellyn John, whose popu-
larity with the Women's Auxiliary be-


rnham & Jagan


If we are serious about making a
better world there can be no question of
presuming on ignorance and backward-
ness, there can be no question of see-
ing the people as "the masses", to be
pulled about by a ring in the nose.
And this above all, is not a question of
'idealism' vs 'practicality'; it is the
plain comnonsense of understanding
that the only way to leave Babylon is
for everybody to take up his bed and
walk.
We cannot talk about 'theory' as
opposed to 'action', and when people
do so, what they are usually implying
without realizing it, is really a dis-
tinciton between 'compulsion' and
'participation', between prophetic rule
and the kind of common endeavour
in which leadership is only functional
From TAPIA No 3



Singh



By 1968, as he had done with the
UDP, the wily Mr. Burnham had rele-
gated the United Force to the dustbin
of history.
The PPP may know what it is
talking about when it says that had it
not been for overseas votes and wide-
spread use of proxy votes at home. Mr.
Burnham would not have been Prime
Minister today.
Be that as it may, the PNC's
success over its opponents is largely
due to a group of men and women,
who, today, are either out of the
PNC and openly in opposition to Mr.
Burnham or those still within the
party, but relegated to the status of
faceless comrades whose will has been
broken by the politics of Mr. Burnham
and his appointed "lieutenants".


came a frightening phenomenon Stanley
Hugh, founder-patron of the Young
Socialist Movement, the militant Ro-
bert Jordan, ex-Chairman of the party,
who became the butt of inspired ru-
mours in order to push him out of
ministerial office; Claude Merriman, an
old stalwart who shared the dis-
appointments of both .Carter, and
Burnham and Neville Bissember, the
once fiery party spokesman who now
has been-tossed aside in favour of men
who once bitterly opposed the PNC.
If comrades like those named
above, have cause to be disillusioned
or bitter or angry for different rea-
sons, then there are two women who
while they may never wish to.publicly
say so, and may be even encouraged to
deny it, have suffered much personal
disappointments and frustration in the
realisation of their plans to improve
the PNC. They are Jane Phillips-Gay
and Margaret Ackman.
For all her faithful service, in spite
falll the years she has been identified
with the struggles of party politics in
this country, Jane Phillips-Gay has to
live with the ignominy of being re-
jected for a seat in Parliament in
preference to a woman like Lola
Willems, who was busy fighting com-
munism and defending business inter-
ests when Jane Phillips-Gay toiled in
the rural communities.
Margaret Ackman, whose work in
the party has put to shame many
comrades, and who, significantly was
given her present post of Chief Whip in
Parliament only after Mrs. Pat Limerick
had to quit Parliament, now seems
destined not to rise beyond the post
of Assistant General Secretary, having
frightened the powers that be by al-


Eric Williams


most defeating on two separate occa-
sions, Mr. Hamilton Green for the post
of General Secretary.
Now Mr. Burnham appoints the
General Secretary, a unique feature
even within the confines of West Indian
party politics. It is Mr. Burnham who
appoints the Deputy Leader of the
PNC, as it is also the case in relation to
the Assistant Secretary, which post is
presently held by ex-Information Min-
ister, Elvin McDavid.
So we have a position today where
in his Cabinet, with the exception of
himself, Mr. Burnham has no minister
who has ever successfully faced the
electorate before the introduction of
Proportional Representation, a system
which has helped to put more powers
in the hands of a party leader than the
electorate had dared to imagine at the
time.
In the Parliament, with Mr. Burn-
ham there are no longer comrades like
Rev. A. B. Trotman, H. M. G. Whar-
ton and Anson Sancho. Those who go
there merely to vote, have to live with
the reality that they have no power to
alter the course that might be set for
the party, sometimes by no more than
four people.
One of the most effective wea-
pons used to remove old UDP elements
and other strong stalwarts of the PNC
who Mr. Burnham felt had to be re-
placed, was the amendment to the
system of Proportional Representation
which substituted an order of pre-
ference candidates' list for an alpha-
betical list.
It is significant to observe that
among those who were removed from
active party politics, from Parliament,
from the Cabinet, with the change of
the preferential list, was the then
Chairman of the party herself, Mrs.
Winifred Gaskin and that well-known
political figure, who defied both the
PPP and the PNC in the early years of
their popularity, Rudy Kendall.
Armed with the power to decide
who will be in Parliament, and who
will be in the Cabinet, Mr. Burnham
has therefore succeeded in reducing
party politics in Guyana to the stage
where, while a lot of fuss is made about
which party wins the election, the
electorate is none the wiser, having
voted, as to who will in fact be its
representatives in Parliament.


TAPIA PAGE 7
But even now, the PNC leader is
asking for two-thirds of the seats in
Parliament. His diplomatic service is
made up of former UDP elements or
elements other than Mrs. Gaskin and
former civil servants, like Evan Dray-
ton, Rashleigh Jackson and Neville
Selman, or those who are not known
to have stood by Mr. Burnham when
he used to say that "I walk alone".
In his Cabinet, there are seven
technocrats or nonelected ministers.
With the exception of Hamilton Green
and to a lesser extent, Hubert Jack, it
cannot be said with accuracy that the
others are from the "old PNC" with all
that this implies. Of the 30 PNC re-
presentatives in Parliament today,
only four were ever elected at a First-
Past-The Post election Burnham,
Bissember, Jordan and Joaquim.
That is therefore the position to-
day.
All the pillars of the party, pointed
out some old, faithful comrades, have
been either swept out of or removed
from the positions of influence within

SThe Prophet is more and more
convinced of his mission to direct and
manipulate the people for their own
good: the people are only led deeper
into their conviction of impotent un-
worthiness. In the long run they lose
all capacity to "take up their bed and
walk".
The infallibility of the Prophet
has the most serious implications. By
the principles of the prevailing mythol-
ogy he can never be wrong. Since in
real life men do make mistakes, the
view of reality must then be con-
stantly adjusted to meet the needs of
the mystique. It becomes increasingly
difficult to apprehend reality, and
finally the people are confirmed in an
endless nightmare in which they are
led blind from despair to despair. In
their delusion they keep up the wail
for a Messiah; but in fact they are in
Babylon for good.
\ ... From TAPIA No 3


the PNC and Mr. Burnham, whose
party's General Council meets even
more irregularly than that of Cheddi
Jagan's PPP, carries the PNC on his
own shoulders, and seems not to want
colleagues of equality but subordinate
supporters.
The question that needs to be
asked, and it is one that applies to the
PNC since it is in power, is why a party
needs 36 or 42 seats at our next general
election? What can it do with these
seats that it cannot now do with its 33
assured votes in the present Parliament?

Some people feel, and these in-
clude those within the PNC, that the
electorate are being asked to give a
blank cheque of two-thirds of the
Parliamentary seats to the party. Per-
haps they now regret changing to the
Proportional Representation system
to allow the party leaders rather than
the electorate to decide who should
be the members of Parliament.
Time will tell.


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PAGE 8 TAPIA
MATELOT is on the move
again and this time it is
action to improve the vil-
lage economy. Last Sep-
tember Father Travers, the
Parish Priest, led a delega-
tion into town to protest
against conditions which
made people describe the
place as being "behind God
back".
This time a delegation is
going to the Ministry of Agri-
culture Lands and Fisheries to
seek State help in priming the
village fishing industry. So
states a CARIRI release.
The Project in hand is the
reactivation of a public build-
ing as a fish-storage depot. The
delegation is to ask the Govern-
ment for permission to use the
building and for finance to re-


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973


Matelot On


novate, insulate and reactivate
it.
The project is the idea of a
CARIRI Team which visited
Matelot during the crisis last
year and reported on Novem-
ber 27, 1972. The plan is to sell
between 1000 and 1500 lbs
daily to a fish catching, pro-
cessing and marketing company


owned by Mr. S. Maharaj.
It is estimated that the ven-
ture could bring in not less than
$45,000 for operations all the
year round mainly catch-
ing, cleaning, storing and sell-
ing shark. At present Matelot
fish sales generate only
$13,273, according to official
Statistics for 1969.


The


It has not yet been dec
whether the proposed st(
depot is to be financed and
by the Government, the vi
or the marketing firm but h
are high that effective cot
would remain in Matelot.
Offers of help have
forthcoming in regard to
training of villagers in pr


Move Again


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rence Hall of Science of the
University of California
are offering internships in
a science education innova-
tion programme.
Intended for people trained
in science who are involved in
science education in their home
countries, the programme is
organized in teams of two to
four interns who spend about
a year at the Lawrence Hall of
Science at Berkeley, California.
They receive training in the
design, evaluation, and imple-
mentation of experience-center
science education adapted to
the varying needs of their own
countries.
Tuition and materials costs
are provided by Unesco and the
Lawrence Hall of Science.
Officials from developing
countries interested in the pro-
gramme should write to Dr.
Herbert D. Thier, Internship
Programme Director, Lawrence
Hall of Science, University of
California, Berkeley, California
94720.
UNESCO features

Was Jesus

a case
IF JESUS Christ had been
examined by the psychia-
trists of his time, 2,000
years ago, he would in all
probability have been
labelled psychiatrically
diseased.
UNESCO Features re-
port this as the view of an
Italian expert. Dr. Ferra-
cuti had been called to
Court to examine the man
who broke the Pieta at
the Vatican in 1972.


fish handling and in book-keep-
ing. The handling of the fish
affects quality and quality con-
trol is essential in ensuring pre-
mium prices for the catch.
The books must record the
movement of fish in and out of
the depot so that fish could be
landed at any time of day or
night and payments made on
an equitable basis.
At a meeting held on May
27, to concretise the project,
Dr. Desmond Ali of CARIRI
cd stated that he foresaw the de-
orage pot becoming the nucleus of an
run integrated fish processing
llage operation in the area. Such a
apes complex could in turn be a
ntope focus of economic development
tro of that region.
been One good prospect would
the be to use waste fish to make
ote fish sillage as pig feed. The
oper Ministry of Agriculture has al-
ready been approached about
50 acres of land to start on
pig-farming. The villagers are
trying tcorganisehelp with pig-
lets and with information on
pig-rearing.
Now that Matelot is mov-
ing to help itself, people are
waiting to see when work will
begin to improve the road. And
of course the age-old question
of electricity for that district
can hardly be dodged by T &
TEC for yet another time.


UNESCO
Schols for
science

education


What's better than

money in the Bank ?


Money in a Fixed Deposit account at the

N.C.B. Trust.

Paying a higher rate interest, a Fixed Deposit grows

at the rate of interest paid at the time of its deposit.


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n


Annum






BAHRAIN is best known
for its oil resources but
other, archaeological trea-
sures also lie beneath its
desert soil. An archipelago
thrusting into the Persian
Gulf from the Arabian
peninsular, Bahrain, has
been a crossroads for the
cultures of Arabia, West
Asia and the Indian sub-
continent since'the third
millennium B.C.
A Unesco expert, Mr.
Michel Ecochard, visited Ba-
hrain last year, at the request
of the government, to draw up
a plan for a new museum there.
"All the known archaeological
treasures are a mere indication
of the island's real wealth, for
the excavated areas are infini-
tesimal in comparison with all
that is left to be excavated",
he reports, adding, "Research
is but at its beginning and only
shows the country's enormous
potential".
As a result of the urban and
'industrial growth underway in
Bahrain and because of illegal
excavations, "every day sees
the disappearance of elements
which would make it possible
to retrace the country's history
and the evolution of its arts
and techniques",says Ecochard.
He cites the,case of one of
the biggest Bronze Age burial
grounds ever found which has
been systematically pillaged be-
cause oflack of adequate pro-


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973



ANCIENT




TREASURES




OF




BAHRAIN


tection. A similar fate threatens
another site which may contain
the remnants of a palace built
in the time of the Ummayad
caliphs who ruled from 661 to
750.

Fortunately, the Bahrain
government has recently
enacted a law covering monu-
ments which should allow the
protection and preservation of
important buildings and histo-
rical and natural sites of inter-
est, such as traditional houses
in what are now the bustling
petroleum centres of Manama
and Muharraq and cooling palm


don's rain, a product in part of exhaust fumes. The 20 gallons per
day average he thinks he will be able to collect from his roof arc


more 1Uia l SufticimnL for-lmriz c~colomical sloweifin; I ali xigand illl
,methods.


A major problem has been to findfilter equipment to I
lead levels below the World Health Organization minimum
milligrams per litre at low cost andpreferably by simple equit
Here his approaches to various
British water treating com-
panies has gained him much
usefull advice but so far he has
made no decision as to how
he will solve his water prob-
lem without using main supply
from underground and other
sources. j.l
Caine has received enthu-
siastic and helpful responses
from official and industrial
sources. Greater London Coun-
cil (GLC) departments have
waived several rules on waste
handling so he can try out his
methods and have been sym-
pathetic to his unorthodox
building design and materials.
Thames Polytechnic and the
local borough of Woolwich have
provided the land free and the
Polytechnic's engineering and
building departments are giving
advice and facilities, as well as
keenly observing the eco-
house's progress. The London
Electricity Board has laid on
free access to electric power.
But perhaps the greatest
help has come from Commer-
cial Plastics Ltd., a British
company producing high
quality plastics products. By
supplying many hundreds of
square feet of roofing and
covering material at no charge
the company has enabled Caine
to proceed immediately with
the construction, which should
be completed by late October.
By next spring the per-
formance of the house should
be able to show how his food
production, thought qf as part
and parcel of the housing,
could fare.
UNESCO features


groves that too often succumb
to urban development.
Ecochard's plan for a new
museum for Bahrain includes
an archaeological section that
would show local remains and
traced different influences from
the Stone Age up to the Islamic
period, including those of the
Akkadians, Babylonians, Assy-
rians, Kassites and the Indus
Valley.
Another section would re-
cord the ethnography of Ba-b
rain: aspects of traditional
life, furniture, dress and arts
and crafts including those used
to build dhows, the graceful
sailing vessels that still ply the
Gulf, and the techniques of
pearl fishing, Bahrain's great
source of wealth before the
discovery of the oil deposits.
Finally, a third section wold
he cl dvnlAd to modern life nnd


tho uture, so tLiat the I DalIraillS
can see how their country is
being industrialized 'and what
its role is in the contemporary
world.


THE trustees of the Ne-
wark Museum are return-
ing "for artistic and his-
torical reasons" a one
metre (10 sq. foot) frag-
ment of a fourth century
mosaic found to have been
stolen from the site where
it was discovered in Syria.
Research by the museum
after the mosaic was purchased
from an art dealer in 1970
disclosed that it had been
stolen, within a year of its dis-
discovery in 1967 by a team of
Belgian archaeologists, in the
remains of the Roman gover-
nor's palace at Apamea, a site
in western Syria. The mosaic
fragment shows a bare-breasted
Amazon on horseback.
Dr. Susan Auth, curator of
the museum's classical depart-
ment, who discovered the work
had been stolen, said, "we were


TAPIA PAGE 9

Fourth


Century


Mosaic


Returned
absolutely horrified, having
been assured by the dealer that
it had been in his 'possession for
a number of years".
In Paris, Mr. Huges de Va-
rine Bohan, director of the
Unesco-affiliated International
Council of Museums, said "The
museum is setting a really
splendid example to others by
this action".


Soviet Union's first


THE Soviet Union's first
city to be built under a
dome will rise in the oil-
and-gas-producing region
of West Siberia.
A transparent dome
stretching over several square
kilometres will cover multi-
storey houses, a market centre,
and other facilities. The roof
will protect the inhabitants


transparent

dome

from frosts reaching 60 degrees
below zero, against snow
storms and hurricanes.A win-
ter garden will be laid out in
the heart of the city.


Use of Solaf.


EneOgg extended


SO0
rese
no


wat
and
kist


23Elm


VIET scientists extending scientists have succeeded in
arch into the use of solar producing in solar fuelled fur-
rgyu ._.e deP.simredl olar naces a temf~t. ue _of over
er-fresheners, refrigerators 3,500 degrees C which melts
air conditioners in Uzeb- tungsten the most refractory
an and Turkmenia. of all metals. Use of solar
energy avoids pollution of the
In Soviet Armenia, environment.


The


Cortina





MEANS A


LOT OF CAR

FOR YOU


bodied beauty Safety, style, comfort, performance. A good
:ing, reliable car with 'plenty of room: room to move and room to
oeuvre. Low slung body gives excellent road holding. You corner
safety. There's ample room in the boot for luggage so you can travel
xed. And with Cortina you can get 1300 or 1600cc engines, standard
automatic transmission, bench or bucket seats, saloon or estate car -
choice is yours. Motoring's so much more pleasure. The Cortina L.
Ily a lot of car.

Charles
Me Enearney
& COMPANY LIMITED
Port of Spain 62-32731, San Fernando 652-2741,
Scarborough 639-2160


EliI


W..


-K


--- -----i~l~II~. L-V L L CUC~V ICI U


--~1-


___






PAGE 10 TAPIA
Continued from Page 3
that of so many others?
What is evident is that the
General Secretary has a Doctor
attitude to the PSA. He does
not seem to appreciate the
strength to be derived from
active participation.
If a building is to be ac-
quired, for instance, a member
Engineer or Architect, or Ac-
countant for that matter, may
be able to assist in estimating
and negotiating. It is much
better to have their advice than
to have the Executive rely on
the 'expertise' of the General
Secretary at Emergency meet-
ings.
Manswell accuses me of
being patently dishonest for
mentioning the fact of my sus-
pension of pay while I was
detained, and for not acknow-
ledging at the same time that
my pay was restored on repre-
sentations by the PSA. Well, let
the people judge. I spent 50
days in detention. My pay was
restored a day or two before my
release, after the Review Tri-
bunal had cleared my name.
During that period my family
was without any assistance ex-
cept from Tapia. Manswell
must be dreaming.,

PADMORE

Over the past 15 years or
so the triumph of Government
and administration over politics
and people has expressed itself
as much in the PSA as in the
country at large. Today we hear
little of Parliament but every-
thing of the Prime Minister.
We also hear almost nothing
about the Council of Delegates
because.-everything.is said .and
done by thc Geiiccral Sccet:.ryI
of the PSA. This is a far cry
from the days when "Worrell,
Harris and Wilson had been
Presidents. The General Secre-
tary is no longer the Chief
Executive only; he has become
the arch-framer of policy as
well.
Why was he allowed to use
the PSA Review to launch such
a malicious attack on a mem-
ber who has since been elected


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973








Low arRe.1,ie.T


to the Council of Delegates?
The Review of May 31 bears the
same date as the Friday when
my article appeared. Did the
General Secretary ever call a
meeting of the Executive? Who
is the editor of the Review
anyway? How often does it
come out? To whom is it sent?
We must ask these questions be-
cause up to the time of the
meeting of the professional Sec-
tion on June 14, no member
present had seen The Political
Civil Servant: The Dangers of
Political Adventurers inthePub-
lic Service, this scurrilous attack
by the General Secretary.
The reply is malicious be-
cause it does violence to the
truth. Padmore, Cuthbert Jo-
seph, Carlton Gomes, Daniel
have held the status of public
servants while in politics.
The General Secretary has had
precious little if anything at all
to say. There are civil servants
who address PNM Conventions.
Manswell conveniently sees no
danger.
Before the Constitution
Commission, in his presence, a
cultural officer in Tobago made
political speeches on behalf of
the -PNM Pictlrre have appear-
cd in -th:-_ Pr" -- +' l|.: ,-r.o
vants forming party-group in
Valsayn. How come nobody
ain't see?
It is pure distortion to say
that civil servants are not in-
volved in politics. They have al-
ways been. If is civil servants
and teachers who campaigned to
put the PNM in power in '56.
Some are still campaigning to-
day. Top public servants are
continually" carrying out the


*No formal protest has
been made against
those regulations which
exist to debar public
servants and teachers
from speaking and writ-
ing in the national
interest.

SYL LOWHAR
TAPIA,
June 3, 1973





political behest of-the ruling
party even beyond the call of
duty.
As a parting gift the British
Government left us the myth
of civil service neutrality. There
are people who still express a
preference for working under
the white Colonial Civil Ser-
vant. Since he was not emotion-

of the country he could afford
to be Tair ir' .et'tlirig disputes
between, the blacks. But once
the interest of the Mother
Country was at stake he knew
what position to take. If five
natives applied for the same
post he would endorse each
application with "forwarded
and recommended, please".
He was too diplomatic to be
exposed in the files. The real
decision was taken informally


at the tea and cocktail parties.
Who were more "political"
than the Colonial Secretary
and his Aides!
Top civil servants in the
US are openly 'political; they
come and go with Govern-
ments. What is not generally
recognized is that the same rule
applies to Britain, the only
difference being British hypo-
crisy, and the fact that the
broad goals of national policy
are more settled there. The
ruling class have been influenc-
ing policy for centuries. Tra-
ditionally, they go into the
Treasury or the Foreign Service
and instinctively they know
where the national interest
lies. They are neutral, but their
politics has been long estab-
lished on the playing fields of
Eton, Harrow and Winchester.

NEUTRALITY

The myth of-neutrality
could not have been better
calculated to suppress progres-
sive nationalist opinion 'in the
Colonies. Given the education
system and the job opportun-
ities, where but from-fthe'ranks-
of i ic icachcrL anid ltle civil
-servants could political opposi-
tion have sprung? What would
have happened if Eric Williams,
the International civil servant
of the Caribbean Commission
had not defied the orthodoxy?
And what about Geddes Gran-
ger who was a civil servant up
to 1966?
We must restructure the,
Public Service so that the poli-
ticians who are now operating
behind the scenes will be ac-
knowledged in the open. It is
hypocrisy to pretend that they
are neutral. This is what the
opposition in the country has
really been saying about the
voting machines and the Elec-
toral and Boundaries Commis-
sion. We. have been saying that
the key figures in these opera-
tions have not been impartial.
For advocating the liberal-
isation of the Public Service
Manswell threatens me. "Stand-
ing in his (Lowhar's) way and
speaking out clearly and boldly
on their behalf is the PSA.
Speaking for the PSA is. Mans-
well .."

TARGET

Lowhar will be well advised
to tread cautiously, he warns.
"It will do Mr. Lowhar well in
his recent adventure to remem-
ber that the PSA has withstood
all sorts of spurious attacks
coming from an adversary much
more powerful than he or his
Tapia". So Manswell has de-
feated Williams. He has now
selected Lowhar as his next
target.
Peaceful Arawak that I am,
am I to tremble before this
warmongering champion of
champions? Tried in so many
battles, Manswell now charges
forth and describes my refer-


ence to Dr. Lines and Mrs.
Rawlins as "nothing but a
cheap racial attack upon two
members of the Association
who gave of their time and
energy to do a job which he
shirked from doing .
See how he stirs up the dust?
What I actually said was that
for the past years the Chairman
of the Professional Section was
Dr. Lines, a foreigner, a Scots-
man. That the Secretary before
the last was Mrs. Ruth Rawlins,
an Englishwoman.
I then continued as follows:
"To draw attention to this fact
is not narrow chauvinism. On
the contrary, it indicates how
seriously these matters of re-
presentation are taken by
foreigners who came from a
society inwhich participation
counts." By what acrobatics of
the imagination can this be
transformed into a racial at-
tack? Our knight in shining
armour is a Don Quixote chas-
ing windmills.

DISTORTION

Manswell perpetrates
another deliberate distortion
when he writes that "Lowhar
should remember too that in
those dark days when he was in
detention it was not his black
brothers who came forward to
give evidence on his behalf but
an Englishman who did so as a
result of which he was re-
leased".
Peter Newhouse was an
Englishman who worked in the
same office with me. Whatever
his shortcomings, I have respect
for him. He stood up as a man
'aTd"'Mi56k'theh trith ilfih"'i g
the Authorities warned him

tlhit i-o'fioul'6 be1 giicing
the Ministry if he appeared as
my witness.
But Newhouse was not the
only one, as Manswell is trying
to make out. Carlyle Wilson,
Vaughn Thomasos, Earl Augus-
tus, James Millette, Lloyd Best,
Vernon Pierre and his son, all
black brothers also testified on
my behalf.

PANCHAYAT

Why did Manswell run the
risk of publishing so malicious
a statement when he must have
known that it would be de-
molished in TAPIA? Why has
he not bothered to reproduce
my article in his Review or to
support his arguments by quo-
tations from me? The answer
is that he was addressing that
constituency of delegates and
supporters among whom The.
Review normally circulates and'
who he hopes may never come
across my reply.

Split the sections, juggle
information, manipulate igno-
rance. The symptoms are
familiar. And the remedy is
everywhere the same a re-
constitution of our political
life to guarantee executive
accountability as a matter of
course, whether at the level of
the PSA or at the level of
Parliament.
Naturally the Chief Execu-
tives are instinctively hostile
to any such revolutionary
change because their survival
as a breed depends upon keep-
ing the rank and file in the
dark. And that is why Manswell
prays to the high heaven that
whatever else Tapia does, spare
him the Panchayat.


IKIRPALANI'S
NATIONWIDE AGENTS AND STOCKISTS








Continued from Page 2

The position by July 1, 1937, was
that business of all kinds had been
disrupted and the oilfields, the re-
fineries, asphalt works, and sugar mills
almost completely shut down. Much
damage had been done in the oil belt,
not directly by the strikers themselves,
but as a result of the closure of drilling
wells and wastage of oil from wells left
flowing. The damage, he stated, would
certainly run into several thousands
of dollars. Shipping had also been dis-
rupted on account of the strike action
by the stevedores and lightermen; and
a number of cargo vessels which were
in the island had had to leave unladen.
The outlook was still "uncertain"
by that date, though the belief in
Government and business circles was
that the greater part of the workers
would resume work within the week
or ten days if they could be assured
that the "radicals" would not "beat
them up" for so doing before all
demands were satisfied. It was thought,
he reported, that approximately 80%
of the persons then on strike would
have preferred not to, but were forced
by threats and, in some cases, by
violence. As a result, the Government
had to issue a decree forbidding inti-
midation in any form on penalty of
thirty days' imprisonment without the
option of a fine. It remained to be
seen whether the decree could be
enforced properly.

0 0

At the same time, the Colonial
authorities had taken a series of
measures aimed at alleviating some of
the conditions which were at the root
of the crisis. Recognizing the tension
between abnormally low wages and
the spiralling cost of living of the
mass of the working people, the
Governtinent-decreed that hereafter its
non-skilled, non-agricultural labourers
in. various Departments, including the
PublicWorks and the Railways, should,
in the Port-of-Spain area, receive a
minimum wage of seventy-two cents
for 8 hours' work and in the country
districts, sixty cents. It was also
thought that the Government might
take steps to regulate the prices of the
principal foodstuffs consumed by the
working population e.g. rice, coconut
oil, flour, salt-fish. There was clear
evidence, Moessner wrote, of a certain
amount of profiteering in those com-
modities throughout the eolony.

*

Continuing, Consul Moessner
states that the disturbances demon-
strated the ability of a "radical minor-
ity" among the working population
under the leadership of a few "radicals"
to bring the industries of the colony to
a complete paralysis at any time. It was
evident too that the existing regular
police and military forces did not
possess sufficient strength and re-
sources to cope with a colony-wide
disturbances of any kind. That was a
matter of some concern, be opined, in
view of the importance of Trinidad
from the economic and military stand-
point as an oil-producing country in
the Western Hemisphere. Oil produc-
tion was 1,250,000 barrels per month.
More oil was produced in Trinidad
than in any other part of the British
Empire and in the event of war the
supply could become of very vital
importance.
It was believed, he said, that for
some time Britain had been contem-
plating steps to establish a naval base
in Trinidad. Existing opinion in
Government and business circles in the
island was that action toward that end
would be expedited as a consequence
of the events of the preceding two
weeks. The presence of a certain num-
ber of naval units in or near to Trini-
dad waters at all times would give
tore adequate protection to the petro-


SUNDAY JUNE 24, 1973




The First






Butler


Day


leum industry, since the personnel
would be available for police and
patrol duty. In addition, current ru-
mor had it that the British Govern-
ment was also contemplating the
establishment of a military garrison in
Trinidad for reasons connected with
the security of the petroleum industry
in the light of the disturbances.
Finally, the Consul reported, the
view in Trinidad circles was that one
other result of the upheaval was that
it would setback the colony's progress
toward self-government. For a num-
ber of years, certain elements in the
territory, especially a "so-called La-
bour Party" had been advocating self-
government for Trinidad and "a Fede-
rated West Indies". The events of the
past weeks would undoubtedly give
the movement a severe set-back, at
least so far as Downing Street was
concerned.


B4st Comes


Foriwad in


Jamaica

IN his despatch of May 28,
1938, covering the events in
Jamaica, the Consul-General,
Hugh Watson, stated that the
first serious outbreaks of rioting
occurred in Westmoreland on
May 2, 1938 and accounted for
four (4) persons killed. Order was
restored by police reinforcements
brought in from Kingston. Fol-
lowing the suppression of that
disturbance, minor strikes and
demonstrations were reported
from different parts of the island,
including Kingston.
On May 19, the stevedores in
Kingston came out on strike and four
days' later a general strike of all work-
ers in Kingston was attempted. On
that day and the following one, serious
rioting developed in which two (2)
more persons were killed. Business
life in the city which had been dis-
rupted by the riots of May 23 and 24,
resumed on May 25, but the strikes of
the stevedores continued and many
other workers either struck or began
making demands for increased wages.
By then, the strike movement was
fairly widespread, embracing nearly
"every phase of economic activity ...
construction workers, stevedores,
sanitary corps of the Kingston Civic
Corporation, tramway drivers, bus
drivers, tobacco workers, sugar estate
workers, hospital employees, factory
employees, railway employees, and
others".
The unrest, Consul Watson stated,
sprang from unemployment and low
wages, Suggestions of "communistic
activity" which had been made might
be disregarded. There was not the
slightest evidence of it "either in pub-
lic utterances or elsewhere". The
underlying causes, pure and simple,
were economic. For some time, "a


current of unrest has permeated the
labouring classes of the Island" and
that current began to grow and to
find open expression as a result of the
example of the Trinidad disturbances
of 1937. Emerging to channel the
discontents into political directions
was Alexander Bustamante, "a self-
appointed leader" and a former resi-
dent of New York "who is under-
stood to be a Jamaican by birth".

*

Consul Watson noted that,
although 1937 was a year of relative
economic prosperity in Jamaica,
thousands remained out of work and
wages were kept at a low level. By
the beginning of 1938, there had been
a recession and the number of un-
employed, already high, increased,
adding to the situation of poverty and
hardship amohg the population. At
Frome, Westmoreland, the construc-
tion workers who triggered the strikes
received 1/9 per day. Kingston steve-
dores, among the better-paid got 9d
an hour "with liberal overtime". Said
the Consul:
"The proposition upon which Busta-
mante and his aides based their idea
of a strike involving all of the work-
ing classes was that the general scale
of wages is too low and that all
---_ sit rsai.bigher.pay".
The situation in Jamaica was high-
lighted in1938 by Parliamentary Ques-
tions in the British House of Commons,
prompted, it later appeared, by a
letter from Bustamante to parliament-
arians in Britain. A related factor was
the debate in the British Parliament in
early 1938 on the report on the 1937
Trinidad disturbances.

*

From the inception of the troubles,
the Consul wrote, the Colonial Govern-
ment minimised the situation and even
down to the Kingston riots of May
23 did not seem to realise the gravity.
The Colonial Government had, he
said, never denied unemployment or
low wages. Prior to the outbreak of the
Westmoreland troubles, it had adopted
a land settlement scheme and had
provided work for a certain number of
unemployed on roads, slum clearance
etc. A two-man Commission to inves-
tigate wages had also been appointed.
However, all that had been over-
taken by events. The Colonial Govern-
ment then changed its tune, claiming
that wages were to a large extent de-
pendent on world prices for Jamaican
commodities over which it had no
control and that the strikers should
have stayed their hand until the
Government-appointed Wages Commis-
sion had reported. Faced with an esca-
lating situation of disequilibrium, the
Government's first response was to
add an extra member to the Wages
Commission and to transmute it into a
Commission of Enquiry into the causes
of the unrest. Indicative of the insipid
response of the Jamaican Government
to the crisis was a report that the
Governor intended to go on his sche-
duled leave. However, it was later
announced that he had changed his
mind.
The Kingston riots, Watson con-
tinued, "completed the change of
attitude of the Government and em-
barked it upon new policies". Firstly,
the riots were suppressed by force.


TAPIA PAGE 11
Then, having achieved a modicum of
stabilization, the Government adopted
a policy of conciliation. On May 26, it
set up a Board of seven members
with the following terms of refer-
ence:
1. To receive and enquire into
representations by employers
and employees in regard to exist-
ing labour disputes with the
object of bringing about imme-
diate settlement so as to secure
continuation of work;
2. To make recommendations, in
the light of the information ob-
tained under No. 1 and such
other information as might be
obtainable, with a view to the
establishment of permanent
machinery whereby such dis-
putes could be investigated and
settled; and
3. To make recommendations
which would assist to relieve
unemployment and for social
legislation affecting the labour
classes generally.
The Consul-General ended off his
report with the observation that, pend-
ing the work of the Conciliation Board,
the Colonial Government was not at
all definite concerning its next moves.
It appeared to favour a readjustment
of wages a course which was forced
on it by the speed with which many
employers and even Civil Authorities.
had, in the face of the unrest, con-
ceded wage increases hitherto held
impossible by them. It also favoured
the creation of organized trade unions
under "responsible leaders" with whom
the Government and the employers
could deal on industrialmatters.


*.

Moreover, it .was persisting with
its land settlement programme as a
-.long-ter-m-aidi to the un mlapg e dj_
with its special works' scheme to re-
lieve the short-term difficulties. Be-
yond that, the Government's policy
was not sufficiently settled to permit
definition. Quite conceivably, the
situation would lead to further social
legislation, including the establishment
of a Department of Labour to further
industrial development and, with the
cooperation of the Department of
Agriculture, to reduce the island's high
dependence on imports and on world
prices for its commodities.
Thus, the disturbances in Trinidad
and Jamaica in June/July, 1937 and
in May, 1938, respectively were re-
ported to Washington by their men on
the ground at Port-of-Spain and Kings-
ton. Comment and enlargement on a
number of points in the memoranda
will be left to the final piece of this
series.



Suffice it to state, however,
that the value of the documents rests
in their contemporaneity. They are
'on the spot' accounts. True enough,
the sources of information on which
they were based were Government -
and business derived, but I do not
think that this takes away from their
intrinsic value as historical documents.
In interpreting the events of the
period, the historian has to cross-
check the above against other docu-
ments etc. One notes, however, evi-
dence of some critical comment by :'e
American diplomats on the ge'- ''
abominable socio-economic coidiwno
in the two islands and of the nitir
lackadaisical attitude of the Colonial
Governments and the business corn
munities to the unrest. "It would ahl
blow over", seemed to have been their:
reaction. Well, as we know. it did not,
and ultimately the whole apparatus of
colonial repression or, what the
Manchester Guardian termed, a
"forest of bayonets", had to be acti-
vated to contain the explosions.




i'rs. ,Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of jinn,
162, East 78th Street,
I-,T YORK, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8148,
U.S.jA


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