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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00062
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 10, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00062

Full Text

SUNDAY JUNE 10, 1973


TAX-MAN ES '
162 ,* 1


FATTENS


GAR




FIRI


E


S


0 --



IBEy ii [1iUr
Ur


Workers on Strike at Kay Shirt Factory

THE ordinary law-abiding
taxpayer is paying through
his nose to keep the gar-
ment industry out of
trouble. Between 1969 and
1972 duty rebates to the
manufacturers amounted
to over $33m, over $10m
of which were handed back
last year alone.
The rebate normally comes
to about half of the import
value which was $19m. in 1972.
Among the big beneficiaries
who have recorded duty con-
cessions of over $m. in one
year are Kay, Juman, Glamour
Girl, Elite, Salim, Sportswear,
Beatrix, Spartan and Stylerite.
Kay topped the$1lm. mark in


1970 and 1971 while Juman
reached that figure in 1970.
Last year 23 firms had
concessions of $100,000 or
more; six of them getting back
over $m.,five more over $m.,
leaving twelve over the
$100,000 line. That compares
with 5, 2 and 12 in 1969 for a
total of 19 big concessionaires
outof an industry with between
70 and 80 firms.
Of the industries being sub-
sidised by taxpayers in this
way, only petroleum is doing
better than the garment trade.
Last year oil got rebates
amounting to nearly $25m,
about, two and a half times that
of the garment trade.
Big rebates are also going


DUTY REBATES 197,
Texaco $13m Lever Bros $2m.
Amoco $8m. Consol Appliances (ANSA) $1.1m.


More

Nexf week: on ft



lgao ent indu st y
Lloyd Taylor and Lloyd Best


to the Copra Products Industry,
to the Paint Manufacturers and
to the stockfeed firms.
Duty concessions are not
the only ones enjoyed by fa-
voured industries. There are
also tax holidays, help with
factories, and more. But, of
total duty waived by the.
Treasury in the four years 1969.
to 1972, the garment trade got
18 cents in every dollar.
In 1972 the figure was
nearer 17 cents but the sacri-
fice of taxes remains extremely
high. Obviously it will take
more than a policy of tax -
,concessions to bail the industry
out of trouble.
See Pages 6 & 7


S Caribbean Packaging $1.3m.
Trinidad Textile $900.000
Master Mix $800,000
Lipscombs $372,000
Harriman Feeds $700,000
Caribbean Milling Feeds $365,000
Dunlop $712,000
Van Leer Containers $489,000
Metal Box $697,000
Sissons $319,000
Berger $355,000
ICI $383,000
Trinidad Foods $300,000
Trinidad Paper $296,000
T & T Printing & Packaging $298,000
Wimpey $224,000
Electrical Industries Ltd $325,000.


WORKERS of Electrolux
Ltd., a Swedish firm which
sells household appliances
-- floorpolishers, vacuum
cleaners etc. are com-
plaining about something
called Crowhurst Law,
named after the English
General Manager of the
Company whose head-
quarters is located on Jer-
ningham Avenue, Belmont.
This law ordains that there
must be no Trade Union on the
premises, and no backchat from
employees. These ordinary
rights do not exist. So says
Jackie Birkett who was sum-
marily fired from her job as
sales representative.
PINK SLIP
The letter of dismissal
signed by Crowhurst himself
bluntly states that she had not
fulfilled her quota for the past
few months. What does this
mean? It means that no matter
how long you've been em-
ployed with the Company you
are under an obligation to sell
an average of four machines
each month, otherwise you get
the pink slip.
Jackie apparently has been
in default. So when she went
to work on Tuesday her ser-
vices were terminated without
any notice, without any pay.
You think it easy.
But most of the sales staff
are finding it very difficult to
cope. They contend that work-
ing conditions are deplorable.


Jackie Birkett
There was an absence of cool
water in all this drought, and
the dilapidated buildings are
full of leaks now that the
rains have begun.
They also claim that they
are exploited and grossly under-
paid. Many of the office staff
work for just about $100 a
month and they are expected
to perform sundry services of
cleaner and janitor at times.
That was certainly the case
when the Health Ministry in-
vestigated the premises recently.
A sales representative starts
at a salary of $140 a month
according to the contract of
employment. But that sum is
not really a salary. It is pay-
ment in advance for the sale
of four machines the commis-
sion on each one being $35.
Twenty one days after a
customer fails to pay an instal-
ment within the first three
months of purchase the ma-
chine is promptly re-possessed
and the commission with-
Continued on Back Page


Vol. 3 No. 23


15 Cents



























FOR the past decade cur-
riculum planners in the
English speaking Caribbean
have been attempting to
incorporate West Indian
Literature into the Lan-
guage Arts programmes of
both the primary and
secondary schools. But
while it was possible to
find a reasonably varied
selection of W.I. prose to
choose from, finding
poetry that was suitable in
content, style and language


for our children who are
largely still grappling with
the fundamentals of Eng-
lish was a far more difficult
proposition.
Nevertheless, many enthu-
siasts for the West Indianization
of the school curriculum have
allowed zeal to outrun critical
judgementfand have introduced
into some schools poems which
vary from sentimental imita-
tions of classical English poetry
to little more than doggerel in
dialect. What was needed was a
careful selection of the best poems


PAGE 2 TAPIA






Bf ll

poett


Literary


teaching


of the region properly graded
to suit the mental, emotional
and linguistic capacities of the
children of different age groups.
West Indian Poetry an
anthology for schools by Ken-
neth Ramchand and Cecil Gray
is the first of this search for
excellence and suitability on
the part of its authors. It pre-
sents the poems under six
major fields of interest of our
poets and attempts, within
each group,to trace the develop-
ment of poetry in the field. In
addition, the volume contains


an excellent commentary on
the works selected and a well
prepared series of questions on
each poem designed to lead
the pupil (but also the teacher
one suspects) to a fuller under-
standing and appreciation of
the piece.

RANGE

The selections in the book
include works from twenty-
seven different poets represent-
ing a wide range (in terms of
West Indian poetry, of course,)
of styles and themes. However,
the emphasis in the book is on
the modern even the contem-
porary and the authors have
boldly included generous serv-
ings of the works of Walcott
and Braithwaite (poets whose
works have hitherto been con-
sidered far too advanced for
the secondary school pupil)
Martin Carter and Wilson Harris
as well as a number +of the
newer like Wayne Brown,
Mervyn Morris, Dennis Scott
and Anthony Mc Neil.
Of the six thematic group-
ings, the first three: Making,
Narrative Poems and Dialect
into Poetry are best suited to
the age group at which the
book was aimed. They are in-
variably short enough for the
pupils to attain total grasp
after a few readings and are
generally free of the structural
complexities that obscure
meaning for our children.

INSIGHT

Moreover, the dialect sec-
tion provides the reader not
only with humour of the Louise
Bennett variety but with a
realization of how, when skill-
fully handled, as in the work of
Braithwaite, the vernacular can
be used to probe religious and
philosophical problems. One
does find it hard, however, to
understand the inclusion of
Henderick's Old Woman con-
templates the hereafter in this
section.
The sections Nature and
Landscape and the Line of
Literary Resistance present a
challenge to the better pupils
of Form IV and are certainly
more suitable for the Fifth.
The last and largest section
Voices is, in my view,, rather
beyond the abilities of young
readers. It is, however, the
largest and in many ways the
most important section of the
/anthology. Here we find the
finest of our contemporary
writers asserting themselves on
matters closest to their hearts
and the commentaries and ques-
tions do much to give insight
to works of Walcott, Braith-
waite, Harris, Brown, Morris
and others.
In the foreword the com-
pilers state 'this anthology .


SUNDAY, JUNE 10, 1973


choked by G.C.E


sob-s ho'seIol


is intended for use at and above
the Fourth Form level in
secondary schools anywhere,"
and later "The commentaries
at the end of the book attempt
to chronicle in broad outline
the development of West Indian
Art in verse, since an awareness
,of a growing tradition in West
Indian literature seems,
at this stage, to be especially
valuable. But they are also to
promote an understanding of
the possible relationships be-
tween literary sophistication
and perspective on the one
hand, and the social changes
in the region on the other."

COMMENTARY

The attempt to provide
poems and commentaries to
achieve the latter aim and at
the same time cater for the
Fourth Form'child has not been
entirely successful and the com-
pilers seem to have sacrificed
the former for the latter. But
this, to my mind, is not a major
tragedy.
A further weakness is forced
upon the collection by the
desire to represent as far as
possible, the growth and the de-
velopment of the art of poetry
in the area. This has led to the
inclusion of a few rather trite
items so that the reader might
compare the beforee' and
afterss' of the literary scene.
It is more than likely that
Mr. Gray, at least, who has
prepared a three year Poetry
course in the Bite In series,
is thinking in terms of a Fourth
form that has successfully com-
pleted this or a similar course.

SENSITIVITY
But the present Fourth form-
ers have, by and large, not
had the benefit of such
thorough instruction in poetry
and will, I fear, find the latter
half of the book rather over-
powering.
Yet, as I've said before,
this is no major tragedy, for
the book might well serve the
needs of students of the Fifth
and Sixth Forms as well as
Teachers' Colleges. Indeed it is
a welcome introduction for the
interested adult to the rather
perplexing world of West Indian
poetry.
The book has this other
advantage in my view it can
very profitably be used to intro-
duce West Indian students to
English poetry. For, starting
with poems in the dialect and
about familiar situations and
personalities, one can awaken a
sensitivity to poetry which will
carry over into an appreciation
of literature from further afield.


EXAMINATIONS

At this point we are faced
with the ever recurring obstacle
of examinations. Our second-
ary school syllabuses and teach-
ing programmes are controlled,
even throttled, by the require-
ments of overseas examinations.
So books like West Indian
Poetry an anthology for
schools are destined to be ex-
cluded from the higher forms
unless the content of the
examination is changed. Until
the publication of the Ram-
chand and Gray anthology it
was difficult to press the case
for a special paper in West
Indian Poetry, but now that we
have it there seems to be no
reason why this cause should
not be vigorously pursued.









TRINIDAD MAY LOSE THE SCARLET IBIS


Shell Oil


Barges


Into


Carom Suatmp


"IN THIRTY years time the entire area from Laventille to the Blue River will
be one whole garbage dump". Professor Kenny, of the University of the West
Indies, speaking to newsmen and conservationists on Tuesday afternoon, on
a tour arranged by the Wild Life Society and tour operators into the famed
Caroni Swamp Bird sanctuary.
The Blue River, to which Professor Kenny referred, runs through the
northern area of the Caroni Swamp, and constitutes the northern boundary
of the prized bird sanctuary. According to Winston Nanan, tour operator and
spokesman for the Wild
Life Society, the 900 acres Allan Harris
which make: up the sanc-
tuary have been a recog-
nised resting place for the
Scarlet Ibis for some
thirty-five years. In fact,
for an unknown period be-
fore that the birds may
have sought refuge in the--
swamp.
Now the Shell oil company
is proposing to operate a barge
up the Blue River and up
Channel 9 almost to the Prin-
cess Margaret Highway, where
it maintains a bottled gas plant.
It seems that the rationale be-
hind this move is that it is less
costly for the company to tran-
sport its gas in bulk by barge up
the Gulf of Paria and through
the Caroni Swamp, than it
would be to truck it up from -
Point Fortin. .- .


NATURAL ASSET

But the great fear of the
conservationists is that the
dredging required to create a
deep enough channel for the
barge, and the operation of the
barge itself, will seriously upset
the ecology of the swamp.
They hold out the grim pros-
pect of the destruction of the
natural vegetation, and the loss
of the abundant wildlife, in-
cluding the Ibis.
If this were to happen, it
would mean the loss of per-
haps the only area in the world
which permitted easy access to
a nesting ground of the Scarlet
Ibis.
As Winston Nanan pointed
out, a half hour boat trip, at
$3 per head, was all that was
required to allow one to take
in such a rare sight. Outside of
the Caroni Swamp, only in
Surinam, Guyana and Vene-
zuela could one find the Ibis,
and in those countries one had
to travel to areas remote from
the centres of population to see
the birds in the profusion one
met in Trinidad.


Peter Bacon, a recognized
expert on the ecology of the
swamp, had earlier pointed out
that in most other countries
such a natural asset would have
been put to much better use. We
ought to look not only at the
attraction of the area for
tourists, but also at the possi-
bilities for the teaching of bio-
logy to schoolchildren.
In addition there was the
large potential of the swamp
for the cultivation of oysters,
mussels and shellfish. Bacon
estimated that yields could be
increased two hundred or even
three hundredfold, with all the
implications for employment
and income. Further benefits
from the swamp could be de-
rived in the areas of fishing
and recreational activities.
All this would be jeopard-
ised, of course, if the worst
fears expressed on Tuesday
afternoon were realized. Pro-
fessor Kenny pointed to the


absence of a Government policy
on the swamp. If activities such
as those of Shell were allowed
to continue, then we could
look forward to the dire con-
sequendes mentioned in the
opening quotation.
Professor Kenny did not
see why Shell could not be
made to transfer their bottled
gas plant to the Caroni River,
which was already so polluted
as to be almost a sewer, and so
avoid the risk of polluting-new
areas.

NOISE

Peter Bacon admitted that
he could not predict the effect
of the barges on the ecology.
He noted that Shell claimed to
have made a study of the
ecology and had concluded that
there would be no harmful
effects from their activities.
He, himself, doubted the


existence of any such study.
While he did not know whether
the barges would be letting out
oil in the water, he did feel that
the noise they made running
alongside the northern side of
the sanctuary, would have some


effect on the birds.
According to Nanan, in the
early stages Shell would be
operating only one barge. And
that will be a reconditioned,
silent, self-propelling vessel
brought from Guyana. Nanan's
concern is about what could
replace this barge if it broke
down. Professor Kenny goes
further and asks what would
happen if the barge caught fire
in the swamp.
A dissenting note is sounded
by David Ramsahai, who is the
other big tour operator beside
Nanan. He is not too happy with
the idea of stopping Shell from
dredging at this stage. He
argues that the effect of the
dredging in the lower reaches
of the channel has been to
leave the tour operators' boats
stranded at low tide.
CONSULTATION
So as to restore the possi-
bility of starting out with visit-
ors at such times, Ramsahai
feels that Shell should be al-
lowed to complete dredging
right up to the top of the
channel, since the Government
cannot be expected to provide
any assistance in this regard.
On the surface it all seems
to be a classic case of the big-
business mentality at work. It
was left to Peter Bacon to point
out that there was another
equally important issue of prin-
ciple involved. It was disturbing
that in the face of such a large
development as the one Shell
was contemplating that there
had been no consultation with
the people most involved.
In fact, only one interested
party had been consulted. The
Government is reported to have
referred the matter to its own
Wildlife Conservation Commit-
tee, who had vetoed the idea
to find that the Shell scheme
had already been approved
months before the consulta-
tion.
Like their counterparts in
Guayaguayare the citizens of
North Caroni are now learning
the hard way that in the ab-
sence of strong local power it
is easy for them to be sand-
wiched between the selfishness
of big business and the heart-
lessness of big Government.
Meanwhile, we may all end up
losing yet another of our na-
tional assets.


TYPEWRITERS ACCOUNTING MACHINES
ADDERS DICTATING MACHINES
fliflliflff CALCULATORS ADDRESSING MACHINES
ALUTR34 PEMBROKE ST.
/J S PHOTOCOPIERS TELS 35842 38434 COIN COUNTERS AND SORTERS
DUPLICATORS P.O.S. OFFICE FURNITURE


SUNDAY, JUNE 10, 1973


TAPIA PAGE 3






SUNDAY JUNE10, 1973

^co^mmuniTy


Tapiaman


Jettrry


Pierre


visits


aI Paille


and reports


&


THEY live their lives sur-
rounded by sugar. Eight
hundred of them. In their
village of four streets on
the banks of the Caroni,
one mile away from the
Caroni Bridge on the Old
Southern Main Road. The
village called La Paille.
Community spirit is strong.
Almost everyone is related,
or they consider themselves to
be. Of those who work, over
90% gain their livelihood from
sugar, either as employees of
Caroni Ltd., or of Orange Grove
Estate.
But employment in sugar
is highly seasonal, so that, as
one put it, it is "five months
hard work and seven months
ketchass."

POLLUTION
It used to be that the
Caroni River was instrumental
in helping them to minimise the
ketchass. For one thing, it pro-
vided them with fish both for
domestic use and for sale. Also,
its waters irrigated the small
plots on which they produced
food crops.
Not so any more. The
Caroni has become increasingly
polluted, so much so that the
fish are no more, and its waters
are almost useless for irrigation
purposes.
Ironically, the acidity of
the river is due, the villagers
claim, to the effluents from the
distillery at Caroni Ltd. They
also blame Orange Grove for
dumping factory wastes into
the river. Now the river cannot


even be used for recreational
purposes.
And as if this assault on
their natural environment was
not enough, the people of La
Paille Complain bitterly of the
neglect of their man-made
surroundings.
They have been unable to
get the County Council to
institute regular cleaning of the
drains, which have been so badly
built that they are perpetually
clogged.

STILL THE SAME

Earlier in the year the
County Council representative,
Baxter, and the M.P. for the
area Ashraf Ali, paid the village
a long-awaited visit. Despite
their promises to clean up the
mess, things are still the same.
The villagers would very
much like to assume the respon-
sibility for looking after their
own needs. They are dissatisfied
with a situation where the
"outsiders" who are paid to do
the clean-up jobs, come in and
work for one or two hours, and
then lime the rest of the day.
The villagers are also won-
dering when they will be for-
tunate enough to have a school
nearer than the one in Frede-
rick Settlement. To get there,
their children have to walk I V'
miles, back and forth, each day.
For the people of La Paille,
it is as if the tall cane-arass
hides them from official view.
But with their strong sense of
Community, the villagers no
longer expect handouts from on
top. All they are asking for is
a chance to help themselves,
without too much outside inter-
ference, or control.


TO BRING about a rapid
increase in food production
in the years immediately
following independence, a
comprehensive examina-
tion was made of the exist-
ing system of agricultural
education in India.
It was felt that the goals of


increased production could be
achieved only by application of
science and modern technology
to agriculture, and that trained
personnel were vital for build-
ing up science-based agricul-
ture, because this important
human input is the most dyna-
mic factor that determines,
promotes and regulates the


efficiency of other factors of
production.
It also became apparent
that the pace of modernisation
of agriculture would depend on
the advances achieved in the
field of agricultural education,
particularly in terms of quality.
In 1948 the university edu-
cation commission, headed by


AGRULTURALED NATION
AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION


Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, former
President of India, focused
attention on the inadequacies
of agricultural education under
the then existing pattern of
agricultural colleges affiliated to
the universities.
Such colleges operated as
"teaching shops" while research
which stimulated teaching was
the function of research units of
state departments of agricul-
ture, except for extremely
limited postgraduate research
by students, mostly academic
in nature, unrelated to the prob-
lems of farmers in the states.

UNIVERSITIES

The commission recom-
mended establishment of "ru-
ral universities" which, it was
stated, should include a ring of
small resident colleges at the
campus with specialised cen-
tral facilities.
In several respects this con-
cept had similarities with
certain features of the land
grant universities of the USA.
An i n t e r- institutional
arrangement with five Ameri-
can land grant universities, ini-
tiated in 1956, took a number
of inservice participants from
Indian agricultural and veteri-
nary colleges to various U.S.
universities, and thus served to
create further interest in the
concept behind land grant
universities.
The prevailing atmosphere


MOVES


AHEAD IN


INDIA

was also conducive to bringing
about an early change in the
agricultural universities with
central assistance.
After a study of various
systems of agricultural educa-
tion in operation in other coun-
tries it was decided that the land
grant college system of educa-
tion in the USA provided a pro-
mising basis for developing a
suitable Indian model.
One of the main features
of the Indian system evolved
since is statewide responsibility
for teaching, research and ex-
tension education in agricul-
ture, including veterinary and
home sciences, which helps ful-
fil the principal objective of
developing an autonomous in-
stitution for serving farmers
of the state.
Based on this objective, 19
agricultural universities have
been established in 16 major
states of India. Among the first
to be established was the G.B.
Pant university of agriculture
and technology at Pantnagar
(Uttar Pradesh) in 1960 as a
pilot project.
Continued on Page 8


HORRORS


HARDWORK


IKIRPALANI'S
NATIONWIDE AGENTS AND STOCKISTS


__ I q 1
I I I
__ I


PAGE 4 TAPIA
























On Entering the


path of enlightenment


FOR THOSE intrigued by
Buddhism, Indian philoso-
phy and religion, Entering
the Path ofEnlightenment
will prove an illuminating
work. The book, published
by George Allen and Un-
win, London, has been
accepted in the Indian
Series of UNESCO's pro-,
gramme of Representative
Works. It contains the first
complete English transla-
tion of the Sanskrit Bodhi-
caryavatara (The Way to
Enlightenment), the work
of the Buddhist monk and


poet, Santideva, who lived
in the early part of the
eighth century A.D.
Prof. Marion L. Matics, who
translated this Indian classic, is
a member of various Buddhist
societies, and has taught the
history arid philosophy of reli-
gion at Columbia University.
He has contributed a masterly
guide to the Bodhicaryavatara,
which helps the reader to under-
stand the work and see it as
part of the historical develop-
ment of Buddhism. Concepts
that may seem abstruse to
Westerners are brought within
reach by Prof. Matics' clear ex-


SUNDAY JUNE 10 1973
planations and the apt compa-
risons he makes between some
aspects of Buddhism and some
aspects of Christianity.
Prof. Matics writes in his
introduction: "The mind of the
Bodhisatta (the "enlightened
being) is the real theme of
Santideva's work It is like
taking the mind of Christ, as
defined by orthodox Christian-
ity, and trying to find out all
that is contained within it".
Indeed this classic of Mahayana
Buddhism has been compared
to The Imitation of Christ by
Thomas a Kempis.
It is worth'noting the im-
portance Buddhist doctrine
attaches to pride as dis-
tinguished fromnarrogance. This
pride rests on the knowledge
that "what is to be done is
done by myself alone," even
if.the ultimate aim is the anni-
hilation of the individual self.
The courage needed to under-
take the Bodhisattva's path is
symbolized by the elephant, a
recurrent motif in Indian art.
The enlightened being must
be able to withstand abuse with
the fortitude of an elephant
pelted by the arrows shot from
a bow. In the forest elephants
are independent and carefree,
and in the world of men, indus-
trious and helpful. The Bod-
hisattva may be likened to this
splendid beast, for without the
elephant's qualities the Citadel
of Enlightenment could not be
stormed.
UNESCO Features


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* for the paint-shop man.

* for the home craftsman.

* for everybody.

Just ask for the
NCH-601 outfit

Sfor only $375.00


I -EIL I


TAPIA PAGE 5




IS WORK





& STUDY




IN U.S





COLLEGES


"ALL WORK and no play
makes Jack a dull boy" was
an expression that used to
be passedaround American
homes, often by school-
boys themselves who didn't
want to be dull and were
looking for an excuse not
to do their homework.
Nowadays, the expression
might be paraphrased to read
something like this: "All study
and no work makes Jack irre-
velant".
For relevance has become
a favourite word when talking
about education. Studies must
have a bearing on what is going
on in real life and a growing
number of educational institu-
tioifs have been adopting a pro-
gramme -known as "co-opera-
tive education", so named be-
cause the institution and the
community outside it busi-
ness, government and voluntary
organizations co-operate to
provide the total education,

CO-OPERATIVE

Dr. Asa S. Knowles, presi-
,dent of Northeastern Univer-
sity, one of the pioneers in this
type of education, put it: "Co-
operative education is a sys-
tem whereby classroom theory
is integrated with practical ex-
perience as part of the students'
college career".
It is studying for a few
weeks, then working at a full-
time job for a few weeks, and
so on to the completion of
requirements for a degree. The
work that the student does
must relate to the field of study
he is following. An architec-
tural student works in a draft-
ing office, a law student works
in a law firm.
Ten years ago, there were
about 35 U.S. institutions of-
fering co-operative education.
Since then, another 250 have
"gone co-operative", and it is
expected that by the mid-1970's
this number will have grown
to at least 500 out of the total
2,867 colleges and universities
across the country. In the
1971-72 academic year, almost
100 000 students were enrolled
in co-operative education pro-
grammes.
At some, institutions the
programme is mandatory. Every
student must work full time
at a job during part of his
time in college in order to
graduate, although no academic
credit is granted for it.At other
institutions, the programme is
optional.
About 30 universities in-
clude co-operative education in
their master's programmes and
eight institutions have co-opera-


tive doctoral studies. Even some
secondary schools are beginning
such programmes of a few
weeks of study followed by a
few weeks of work. The work
period is usually 12 to 16
weeks at a time.

TWINNING

"It takes the student longer
to get his degree," said the
director of one co-operative
education programme, "but
upon graduation he usually-
commands a better salary than
other new college graduates".
Most institutions make the
programme voluntary, available
to those who want it., Some
however, with mandatory pro-
grammes, assign students on the
basis of a system called "twin-
ning". By that, each student
has a counterpart, or twin, who
is doing what he isn't. While one
is on campus going to classes,
the other is off campus going
to work.
The man who started the
whole idea was Herman Schnei-
der, a graduate of Lehigh Uni-
versity in Pennsylvania who
went on to the University of
Cincinnati in Ohio where in
1906 he inaugurated the pro-
gramme for the school of en-
gineering. At first, students
simply worked alternate weeks,
studying one and taking up
their jobs the next.
Co-operative education
didn't exactly spread like wild-
fire, however. For the next half
century, barely a couple of
dozen institutions were putting
it into practice.
In the past decade, with the
bounding increases in tuition,
more and more colleges and
universities have found that
co-operative education can do
many things. For one thing,
it allows the institution to
offer educational opportunities
to a greater number of students
than it actually would have
dormitory or classroom space
for. Especially with the twinn-
ing system, a college can en-
roll twice as many persons by
keeping half of the student
body off the campus at any
one time.
Students in co-operative
education keep a close relation-
ship between their work on
campus and their work in the
field. Last year, they earned
something over $220 million,
and it is this kind of earning
power that has led educators
to look on co-operative educa-
tion as a particularly useful
development as education costs
rise.
UNESCO Features





PAGE 6 TAPIA
/ PAGE 6TAPIA


SUNDA)



SPO





01




GAI




INi


Workers attend meeting at Min. of Labour, May,


THE GARMENT industry is in turmoil. Close to
1,000 workers are on strike. IRA mash-up and the
house of straw mounted by the Prime Minister during
his meet-the-manufacturers safari of 1971 has come
tumbling down. The famous Consultation on the
Garment Industry has laid a big fat duck-egg and the


garment workers have
come to know the score.
So far 8 factories are in-
volved including such blue
chips as Jumans and Kay.
Trouble is brewing at YKK
Zippers andc at Glamour Girl
and you can bet that condi-
tions in the rest of theqrade are
practically a formula for ex-
plosion.
Those who are pretending
that this breakdown is a bolt
from the blue are mouthing the
usual cant. The workers are
chasing away investors ... they
are upsetting an industry which
Sis already hard-pressed,by com-
petition everywhere and con-
strained by import restrictions
in the metropolitan markets.
They are jeopardising the eco-
nomy, causing more unemploy-
ment and more hardship:

BREAKDOWN

The grim logic of this hard-
boiled pragmatism would be to
enforce ANR Robinson's in-
famous policy of "tranquility
in our industrial relations", the
one he was threatening in his
Budget Speech of 1964 when he
warned us that the breakdown
in the labour market had "gone
too far."
Those were the days when
they were hatching the ISA
which Joe Young and Black
Power finished up for good in
1969 and 1970.
Now Williams has learnt
that the ring and the man is two
different thing and you can
pass ISA, IRA or any kind of
A, but you cannot bring order
in the labour market by impos-
ing the reactionary terms of


INDUSTRY IN


TURMOIL


ing eruptions in the garment
trade are a symptom of a
deep-seated sickness. If the
slave conditions continue,
workers are bound to shop for
more militant union representa-
tidn and TIWU is always there
on the horizon.
Stanford is talking now
about "the whole question of
the future operations of the
garment industry". Workers are


Government and Business..
,The ECA is pining for th'
restoration ofauthority. Doubt-
less they want the unpopular
government to invoke law and
order, lock up every bitch and
he brother and bring the issues
before the Industrial Court.
But Williams know better than
that. We are in the second half
of the February Revolution and
the country is just waiting to


eat his backside raw.
SEven Vascillating Stanford
has now taken a stand by en-
dorsing the call for strike made
by Mrs. Wellanese Williams.
"The battle has been joined ...
there is no turning back now ...
The question is under what
conditions you are going back
to work".
The UCIW has been forced
at last to see that these recurr-


emphatic in calling for nothing
less than "a-cost-of-living-
wage". And there is a proposal
for "a master contract," for one
single industrial agreement to
bind the entire trade.


As usual the government
whose complete mismanage-
ment of the economy is at the
heart of the disorder, is wait-
ing on the sidelines hoping one
morning to make some drama-
tic intervention that would pro-
mise yet another reconciliation
of the conflicting interests and
take the pressure off.
Tapia is never quite sure
whether these interventions are
meant to serve the interest of
the workers or the interest of
the manufacturers or just the
interest of the interveners. Is
the same khaki pants whether
Mahabir, McClean. or Messiah.


Wanted: A cost of living wage


THE 1971 Committee of
manufacturers representa-
tives, Unions and workers
agreed that fair wages for
garment workers must be
based on adequate
guaranteed rates and
production standards and
quotas.
What it boils down to is
so many dollars per hour and so
many hours to produce a dozen
pieces.


Suppose we agree that in an
eight-hour day, a sister could
reasonably make 100 dozen
pieces of something. This gives
us a standard of 0,08 lirs. for
every dozen produced.
Next a rate must be set pei
hour so that she could make a
decent living wage per day and
and per week. This living wage
must be a Minimum Wage.
TAPIA estimates that at
the present level of National
Income, this Minimum Wage


in a fair society cannot by any
stretch bf the imagination be
Iess than $50 for a 40hr week.
Whiii works out to $1.25 per
hour.
Actual earnings can now be
related to performance. If the
sister produces less than the
standard, say 90 dozens in the
8-hr day she earns pay for
90 x 0.08 hrs. That is 7.2 hrs
@ $1,25 per hr = $9 per 8 hr
day or $45 per 40 hr week.


If she produces more than
the standard, say 110 dozen,
she earns pay for 110 x 0.08 hrs
That is 8.8 hrs @ $1.25 per hr =
$11 per 8-hr day or $55 per
40 hr week.
We have to begin insisting
on these standards and pro-
cedures. In a decently managed
country, pay must be related
to Minimum wages and to
standard allowed hours.
But the Government has
i. ",',: '


been paying no attention what-
soever to equality and the gar-
ment industry is designed to
exist on starvation wages.
When we get rid of PNM
incompetence, the plan must
be to reorganise the industry
so that it can pay good wages.
Any plan for national recon-
struction and a people's sector
is only a bramble if it is not
specific and clear on this sub-
ject.


EXPORTS

THE BIG items of export from our garment
trade are shirts, dresses, stockings and male
shorts. Between 25 and 30 cents in every
dollar earned are earned by shirts, by far
the leader in the field.
/ Three-quarters of our exports go to
the CARIFTA market. The metropolitan mar-
ket is hedged in by restrictions. We were able
to sell nearly $900,000 worth of brassieres
to the US in 1969 but this outlet has since
been closed.
Our garment industry is clearly de-
pendent on West Indian pockets. There is
a very strong case for phasing out imports
of made-up clothes into the region. In 1969,
Trinidad & Tobago imported nearly $5m of
clothing.






JUNE 10, 1973



LIGHT





THE





?MENT




)USTRY


Flash back, Gomes talk with manufacturers September, 1955



- THEY THINK


IT SOFT ?


PNM has learnt how hard
it is to establish industry
in general and garment in-
-dustry in particular. In
spite of all the robber-talk
and the hail of statistics,
Williams has never had an
original idea in his life.
When he came on the scene
in the 1950's he just con-,
tinued on the beaten track
of inviting outside capital
to introduce industry
which would take advan-
tage of cheap colonial
labour.
Up to 1964 ANR Robinson
was concerned about the
climate for foreign investment.
In his 1965 Budget Speech he


ON SEPTEMBER 9, 1971,
a Government-appointed
Committee reported on
The Trinidad & Tobago
Garment Industry. It had
been commissioned "to
examine Productivity, In-
centives, Wages & Condi-
tions of Service".
On the Committee had been
five manufacturers representa-
tives, five from the Unions and
five workers. Chairman Clyde
James, Secretary Neave Beckles
- Productivity Centre Experts.
Recommendations were
made in regard to improved
training of personnel, improved
management-worker relations,
improving the physical environ-
ment for workers and recogni-
tion of improved productivity
by workers.
So far as the physical en-
vironment was concerned, the
Government was to "stipulate
and phase in minimum stand-
ards for garment factories in
temperature control, lighting,
seating, .dust control, refuse


seemed enchanted by the possi-
bility of establishing a textile
industry without a home base
of raw materials. The thrust
of policy was therefore a matter
for' taxation,. budget and
finance; tax rebates, duty-free
concessions, and the rest.
And low wage rates. Arid
now that the policy has "suc-
ceeded," we are beginning to
count the costs. By 1971 we
had over 70 factories producing
garments and employing some
7,000 workers. Out of every
dollar spent for materials, 92
cents went out of the country
for imports.
Imports of raw material
alone in 1971 for those firms
enjoying duty rebates as gar-


removal, ablutionary (wash-up)
provisions, lunch-room facili-
ties, first-aid facilities, and other
such physical factors".
To ensure due, rewards to
workers for increased produc-
tivity it was proposed to intro-
duce uniform procedures for
setting standards and to estab-
lish a Garment Training Centre
to train people in setting
standards.
The Committee was em-
phatic that any new system of
productivity incentives should
be simple, introduced only
after careful and detailed
studies by experienced stand-
ard-setters using the multiple-
watch method.
The report insisted on griev-
ance procedures for workers to
state their dissatisfaction and
to provide speedy and factual
answers to complaints. Before
any new system was introduced
workers were to give their
acceptance.
Almost two years have gone
by. Most workers do not know
whether or not the Report was


ment manufacturers amounted
io $13.7m. The figure would
be higher if we included im-
ports of all firms in the trade
including those) aided under
the Pioneer ,Manufacturing
Legislation and if we counted
imports of equipment, pay-
ments fori services and invest-
ment income leaking out, to
foreign owners.
Exports on the other hand
amounted to about $11m.,
Which means that the industry
is using more foreign exchange
than it has succeeded in bring-
ing in. Part of the reason is
that in imitating the Puerto
Rican policy we have not been
able to win Puerto Rico's easy
access to the export markets of


accepted by the Government
and if it has been implemented.


the United States or some other
metropolitan country. In con-
trast, we have all kinds of
almost insuperable barriers to
our sales abroad.

LOW WAGES

As in Puerto Rico the gar-
ment industry has been em-
ploying mostly women. It is no
'surprise that union expansion
has, been very slow. In 1971,
-47 out of 75 manufacturers
had no 'union and were un-
protected by Statutory Mini-
mum Wage-fixing machinery.
A Ministry Paper published
in July 1971 revealed that 47
non-unionised factories showed
no evidence of provisions for
maternity leave, sick and casual
leave or vacation leave. Some
22 other unionised factories
had reasonable conditions be-
cause they had industrial agree-
ments. Some others with unions
but no' industrial agreements
showed wages and conditions
which were not bad but could
be improved.


All they know is that it has
made no visible difference.


SWages, as the Prime Minister
discovered on his tour, were
depressed to levels abysmally
low. Out of 75 factories, 16
paid earnings of between $20
and $23 per week; 5 paid be-'
tween $16 and $19; 1 paid as
low. as $10 per week, accord-
ing to unofficial (newspaper)
sources.
'The National' Consultation
of 1971 and the. Prime Minis-
ter's tour set off a clamour for
reconstruction, not least be-
cause of the political upheaval
of 1970.
Much was made of piopo-
sals for a Garment Training
Centre to be financed 50-50 by
Government and Business up
to, the amount of $200,000.
There were to be lecturers in
every garment factory, a fac-
tory inspectorate, to include
workers, a special Women's
Bureau in the Ministry of La-
bour with workers from indus-
try to advise on its staffing
The .ferment, of 1971
brought promises of "a pro-
gramme of immediate work on
improvements within the in-
dustry." There followed a flurry
of activity especially in export
promotion and then, in 1972,
a Textile Advisory Council was
established "to give the garment
industry a shot in the arm." It
is now 1973 and time for new
announcements.


THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKS


ANY KIND OF


St hens
PORTOFSPAIN SAN FERNANDO


I/S


What has happened to that 1971 report ?





PAGE 8 TAPIA



BLACKGOLD


-- .

Blackgold members


From Page 4
As a pioneering venture,
this university started with a
"clean slate" and an entirely
new campus was laid out ac-
cording to a well planned
scheme.
The Indian agricultural re-
search institute a premier
institution to introduce an
internal evaluation system at
the postgraduate stage, an epoch
making reform in the examina-
tion system also reorganised
its postgraduate school in 1958
more or less on the:agricultural
university pattern.
In most cases, however, the
existing colleges of agriculture
and veterinary sciences formed
the nuclei for the new state
agricultural universities. The
new facilities of basic science,
humanities, home science and
agricultural engineering were
added subsequently.
While the main source of
financial support to these uni-
versities are the respective sfate
governments, a substantial con-
tribution for key developmental
items is made by the govern-
ment of India through the
Indian council of agricultural
research with a view to assisting
in the maintenance of high
standards of education.
Out of these agricultural
universities, only half a dozen
may be classed as pace setters,
the progress of which is one of
the brightest features on the
academic horizon.
Their research programmes
are heavily weighted in favour,
of finding urgent, practical solu-
tions to the economic, social
and personal problems of the
farmers around them.
This is a welcome change
from the time when the agri-
cultural scientists used to live
in an ivory tower. They were
then unaware of the farmer's
real .problems.
Now farmers flock in thou-
sands to the university kisan
melas, the duration of which in
some universities had to be ex-
tended to seven days.
The key to the land grant
concept, adapted to Indian con-
ditions in the agricultural uni-
versities, is the emphasis put on
a single institution responsible
for the vital functions of teach-
ing, research and extension
education.
The agricultural universities
limit their extension education
functions to communication of
results of research to the ulti-


SUNDAY JUNE 10, 1973



CO-OP


GROWS

ON the Blackgold Coop in
Corosal spirits continue to be
high, Nearly ten acres of land
ready for planting and the
brothers are looking forward
to this new phase of their
work.
To beat the terrific heat
working hours are from 6.30 -
10.30 in the morning and in the
afternoon from 3.00 onwards.
The land is hard and the bush
(plenty bamboo) tough. But
the willingness to get ahead, to
carve out their own thing, is
the incentive that keeps Black-
gold moving, and growing.
Carlton Marchan, their
P.R.O., says that they intend
to stand on their own feet.
They are not prepared to work
for the starvation wages paid
by the cocoa estates in the area.
Wages that range between $3.00
to $4.00 per day for work be-



**r-


tween 7.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m.
As Linton put it "that is slavery
all over again".
The challenge they face is
not limited to Carosal. The
challenge is in fact encountering
our youth all over the country.
How, in the face of growing
unemployment to build a life
of hope and purpose?

OWN HANDS

The brothers at Corosal
realise that the answer lies in
their own hands. They do not
intend to beg anyone for a
work, they refuse to depend on
anyone to resolve their prob-
lems. They are working hard
for themselves and for them
everyday offers hope. After
years of scrunting there is a
purpose to their lives.
Slowly but surely Black-
gold is giving the lie to the
view that "young people
just don't want to work hard".
At Corosal our brothers have
gone back to the land to plant
the seeds of a new life. ,To
plant the seeds of hope and
purpose. The months ahead
will bear the fruits of
their labour.


[4.1! [ultu[el


E=3





mate beneficiary, that is, the
farmers, through the existing
infrastructure of extension
developed in the state, depart-
ments of agriculture and animal
husbandry.
However, the first line of
demonstration or operational
research, is now being con-
'ducted by university scientists
in the farmers' fields to prove
their research findings on a
macro scale.
The advantages of integrated
approach are paying rich divid-
ends, as this is the most effec-
tive means of bringing about
speedy exchange of informa-
tion on practical measures
among scientists, students and
farmers, and researchers, teach-
ers and extension officers.

CLOSED CIRCUIT

The teachers also remain
abreast of latest findings which
they pass ori to students instead
of transmitting obsolete infor-
mation to them.
Similarly, extension work-
ers are brought up to date by
direct association with centres
of research. Thus the agricul-
tural university model in India
functions like a "closed circuit
system", in which one of the
three important services im-
proves the efficiency of the
other two.
This is essential in the cur-
rent rapidly changing phase of
agricultural technology, in
which farmers have to face new
problems almost with every
season.
Some of these new univer-
sities are largely responsible for
development of high yielding
varieties of wheat, maize; bajra


and jowar, with the introduc-
tion of which a new era has
dawned in the agricultural
sector.
Moreover, these institutions
today are serving as centres for
research tosolve specific prob-
lems. .- "
In some states, agricultural
marketing federations, farmer's
forums, panchay4t samitis -and
zila parishadsi have offered
voluntarily to finance soil and-
.-seed testing laboratories at the
university campus and pay for
printing bills of extension leaf-
lets.
There are instances on re-
cord when busloads of farm-
ershave on their own initiative
driven to the campus to honour
agricultural scientists.
In addition to extension
education, the direct contribu-
tion of these universities to
such programmes as pedigree
production of various crops,
evolution of new techniques of
fertilizer use, national crop de-
monstrations on farmers' fields
is impressive.
Above all, they are aware
that there is no substitute for
quality and competence for
which they strive ceaselessly.
Five advanced training cen-
tres of postgraduate studies of
an international level for agri-
cultural economics, soil and
water management, plant pro-
tection, dairy production and
poultry production have been
established in these institutions
with assistance from FAO and
UNESCO.
Agricultural engineering is
likely to be added to these
institutions in the second phase
next year.
Foreign nationals from over
50 developing countries are
currently receiving training at
various agricultural institutions
throughout the country.
Indeed, India today is poised
to share the institution-building
experience in establishing agri-
cultural universities based on
the Indian model which, with
modifications, should be suit-
able to countries in Asia, and
Africa.
Indian & Foreign Review


Blackgold members at work
Blackgold members at work


ASAWI


Bulletin


BULLETIN No 5 of the
African Studies Associa-
tion of the West Indies is
now available in Trinidad
& Tobago.
Copies at $1.00 can be had
from Gordon Rohlehr, Depart-
ment of English, UWI or from
The Tapia House, 82-84 St.
Vincent Street, Tunapuna.
Among articles in this num-
ber are *Mr. Black in Cuba
by Lloyd King
*Africans in 19th Century


Trinidad by Maureen Warner
*The West Indian Attitude
to Tragedy by Vere Knight.


~411






SUNDAY JUNE 10, 1973 TAPIA PAGE 9

The Staggering of Working Hours Has


Cleaned Up Traffic In Jamaica
BEFORE AFTER
STAGGERING of working
hours has worked a miracle
on the streets of Jamaica
at rush hours. Traffic has
been unsnarled beyond the
wildest dreams of social
engineers and town plan-
"Ir~~~I~~ :ners. Photographs issued by .
the Jamaica Information
Service (JIS) are there to
.a prove.
The shot on the left shows 'L ,
r. / the Constant Spring gateway f:".
into Kingston at 8.35 a.m. on
Monday. January 15, 1973.
According to a JIS release to ...: .,
the Daily Gleaner of Friday
May 25, the traffic peak oc-
curred at just about that time.
The shot on the right shows
precisely the same spot on
S. Monday May 7. It was taken
Z.' at 8.10 a.m.; the new traffic
peak-time since staggering was f
introduced at the beginning of
te e " May. K

TAXI DRIVERS

The magic wand brought a
general agreement to start fac-
tories and schools at 7.30 a.m.;
"offices at 8.00 and stores at
Ui 9.00. The report is that the
'- scheme has been working
smoothly.
The big question is whether .
Trinidad & Tobago will folloA h
the fashion. Taxi-drivers, whose
pockets are most directly hit by :
congestion have been trying to .
twist the Government's arm
without success.
When the Junior Second-
S : ary Schools were opened with
a shift system, we had a big
...chance to introduce a scheme ,
of staggering for the whole
It country. But the leadership was .
not forthcoming and people
are wondering whvy.



w wm m


OUR ONLY PATTERN
GROWTH


* INVEST IN


Clico a company of
West Indians, formed for the
economic upliftment of PEOPLE.
Growing from humble beginnings to one
of the largest financial institutions indigenous to
the Caribbean. Assets for the security of our
policy holders now total over


60 MILLION DOLLARS




CL INSURANCE
The Growth is UP


ox
\L&A






PAGE 10 TAPIA
WE HAVE to take a long hard look at the National
Lottery. Is it functioning in the national interest? Or
is it simply reinforcing some of the more undesirable
features of our national character?


We may start with
where seemingly the Lottery
cess. Agents and vendors
have not been complaining
of any particular difficulty
in selling tickets nor has
the Lottery Board been
suffering any financial loss.
But can we say that the
Lottery has been encouraging
us to think in terms of invest-
ment even though we may be
making a little investment every
other week? When you check it
out, the Lottery turns out to
be no more than a gigantic
whe-whe in sireek, government
style.
It is just one big long-shot
gamble and every other Satur-
day night you can find practic-
ally the whole country looking
at TV, waiting for the mark to
buss -

SAVINGS

The effect of having one
large first prize is to reinforce
the widespread tendency to
regard the lucky break as the
.only way to get ahead. Can we
afford to perpetuate this gold-
rush mentality?
Why could there not be a
shift in the emphasis away from
personal gain towards national
reconstruction? While we make
a modest personal gain, there
is no reason why we shouldn't
and couldn't build our nation
too.
The Board could consider
a system of savings bonds such
as they now have in the U.K.
Savers are entitled to partici-
pate in a monthly or quarterly
lottery the prizes for which
are paid out of the interest on
their savings-bonds.
The beauty of such a
scheme is that we would never
lose our savings but we would
still be able to invest in a
gamble for the interest. And
the prizes could be quite large
because many more people
might join a savings scheme
than now go for a straight
gamble.
At present there are 10
major prizes, with so much
emphasis on the first three
prizes and especially on the
No 1, the whole scheme is


SUNDAY, JUNE 10, 1973


Naina 0te


the disposal of tickets
has met with some suc-




Whe.-Whe


in sireek Gov't


style


obviously much too top-heavy.
And heaven knows how they
decided to divide up the funds
between the different prizes
in such a crazy way. Where
sellers are concerned, the
prizes seem even more crazy.
And why should the sum total
of sellers' prizes amount to only
$8475, just 2.8% of the
monies staked?
Such a return is too small
to provide the incentive which
sellers need if the Lottery is to
grow. We must remember it is
they who do the bullwork.
This means then that the
ten per cent discount, totalling
$30,000.00 allowed to agents
and vendors for their work in
vending and distributing must
more properly be regarded as a
salary than as a prize.
In addition more investors
might be attracted, as well as
a different type of investment
nurtured, if in the first place
the 10 prizes at present dis-
tributed were changed in'value
so as to spread the major re-
turns more widely, and more
evenly. The value of the ten
major prizes could bear the
ratios 30: 20: 15: 10: 8: 6: 5:
3: 2: 1 to each other.
Alongside this change the
granting of proxy or of near-
miss prizes should be extended
to cover these ten prizes in-
stead of just the first five.
Digit prizes too could be
extended to cover the fourth
prize. Their values could bear
the ratios of 5: 4: 3: 2 to each
other. These ratios are not
quite the same as those or the


respective initial prizes. They
are instead reasonably close to

them and provide rewards ac-
cording to how closely partici-
pant* approach the major
prizes, rather than the present
flat rates.
The changes suggested here
would also affect the number
of prizes. Vendors, for example,
who now get 227 prizes would
get 306. Bettors, now offered
2,117 prizes would recieve
2,826 prizes.
The expectations of partici-
pants would also be altered.
This would most likely be re-
flected in the gradually increas-
ing number of citizens taking a
chance thus paving the way for
an overall expansion of the
lottery.
Equally important too is
the likelihood that an increased
number of prizes would give
rise to word-of-mouth advertise
ment on a scale large enough to
allow the Board to cut back on
its advertisement budget quite
markedly.
At present a ticket has
approximately 0.035 chance of
winning any prize. Were all the
prizes distributed evenly
throughout the 60,000 tickets
one would have to buy 29
consecutive tickets to be sure
to score. With the new propo-
sals the chances of winning
would be increased to 0.047,
and the number of tickets re-
quired to ensure a win would be
reduced to 22.
Vendors would have their
stake too. With the present sys-
tem a sale of 264 consecutive
tickets would ensure a prize.
With the new proposals this
would be reduced to 197
tickets only.


Earnest Messiah


For vendors, most of whom
are of limitedmeans,any favour-
able change in their prize ex-
pectancy is of great import-
ance to them.
One wonders too whether
it is really necessary for the
Lottery Board to have its draw-
ings done over radio and TV.
This is obviously a very costly
way of drawing for wins.May-
be draws could be held at a
place accessible to the public,
the results of which can after-
wards be released to the news
media.
By such means much need-
ed money would be retained in
the Board's coffers.
Current lottery revenues
are distributed as follows:
Sellers Discounts :- $30,000 or
10%
Sellers Prizers :-$8475 or 2.8%
Ticketholders
Prizes :-$177,910.00 or 59.3%
Board:- $83,615.00 or 27.9%6
Allowing for a division of
revenues so as to give investors
60%, agents and vendors 15%
and the Board 25% it is pro-


posed that the following struc-
ture be adopted:-
Sellers Discount $30,000.00 or 10%
Sellers Prizes $16,080.00 or 5.4%
Ticketholders
Prizes $183,930.00 or 61.3%
Board $69.990.00 or 23.35%
Total A$3Q0,000.00 or 100%
approx.

Finally special draws should
be reduced to a minimum or
even stopped entirely. At pre-
sent they tehd to attract peo-
ple trying for the big prizes
only. In their effort to increase
their chances they very often
over-extend themselves. The
result is that they may cease to
buy tickets for sometime. And
this is exactly what we do not
want to happen.

Our National Lottery
should seek to attract a large
number of regular small invest-
ors. These we hope would con-
stantly waget amounts well
within their means and fairly
regularly win small but still
useful sums.


THE SCHEME PROPOSED


TICKET HOLDERS
1st Prize 32,400.00
2nd 21,600.00
3rd 16,200.00
4th 10,800.00
5th 8,640.00
6th 6,480.00
7th 5,400.00
8th 3,240.00
9th 2,160.00
10th 1,080.00
S.T. =108,000.00
PROXIES
2 of 4050.00 = 8100.00
2 of 2700.00 = 5400.00
2 of 2025.00 = 4050.00
2 of 1350.00 = 2700.00
2 of 1080.00 = 2160.00
2of 810.00 = 1620.00
2 of 675.00 = 1350.00
2 of 405.00 = 810.00
2 of 270:00 = 540.00
2 of 135.00 = 270.00
S.T. = 27000.00


VENDORS
2700.00
1800.00
1350.00
900.00
720.00
540.00
450.00
270.00
180.00
90.00
S.T.= 9000.00
PROXIES
2 of 337.50 = 675.00
2 of 225.00 = 450.00
2 of 168.75 =337.50
2 of 112.50 = 225.00
2 of 90.00 = 180.00
2 of 67.50 = 135.00
2 of 56.25 = 112.50
2 of 33.75 = 67.50
2 of 22.50 = 45.00
2 of 11.25 = 22.50
S.T.= 2250.00


Ticketholders
2 DIGIT PRIZES
699 from 1st @ 25.00 = 17475.00
699 2nd @ 20.00 = 13980.00
699 3rd @ 15.00 = 10485.00
699 4th @ 10.00 = 6990.00
3 DIGIT PRIZES


from 1st @ 25.00
2nd @ 20.00
3rd @ 15.00
4th @ 10.00


1725.00
1380.00
1035.00
690.00


the thoroughbred car



RENAULT 12.

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4#F6 F M CH- TES1;6;-5k4IIl3





SUNDAY, JUNE 10,1973


1 ft
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TAPIA PAGE 11


Ebonites




defeat


SConsc
made ball control difficult.
Neither team ever really
gathered their rhythm except
possibly for the first ten
minutes when Consol's early
sallies at the Ebonites goal
threatened a "sampat".


"/ .' ,



Front Row (from R to L) F.Hunte.A Thomas,S.Hoyte,C. O'Brien Middle Row H.Mitchell,
D Patrick,M Williams.H Ribieiro,C Holder. Back Row R Butcher,T.Dunbar,F.Hernandez,F.Hoyte,
K.Butcher *


THE EBONITES club of Bara-
taria emerged winners of
Vernon Bain's keep-fit league
last Saturday June 2 at the Sir
Frank Worrell ground, U.W.I.
campus, winning 3-1 from Con-
sol.
The match itself turned out
a bit disappointing except for
the first ten minutes or so. It
did not live up to expectations.
For one thing, the contrast
in styles between the two teams,
I thought, would have produced
an interesting clash. Ebonites is
one of the best organised and


disciplined clubs in the country.
What Ebonites may lack in
skill is compensated by enthu-
siasm, determination and united
effort. The togetherness among
its members is almost legendary.
VIBRANT
At every major sporting occa-
sion in any part of the country
you see them in attendance.
Whenever you are at The Oval
and you see a vibrant group of
men in the concrete stand
immediately adjacent to the


commentary box; knocking
bottles, talking shit or raising
a chorus of cheers when a
shapely chic passes by, that's
Ebonites.
Consol on the other hand
are a group of skilled foot-
ballers assembled by a commer-
cial firm to furbish its image.
In its lineup were Godfrey
Harris and Fitzroy Valentine
two well known Tunapuna
players.
In the first place the ground
rendered parched and bone
hard by the severe dry season


SCORING
In that early period Consol
opened the scoring with a
world type goal. Tyrone Dun-
bar, showing none of the form
that made him a national player,
misjudged a high bouncing ball.
Godfrey Harris who unfailingly
capitaliseson defence blunders,
picked up the ball and slipped
it to his right winger "Gouti".
Dashing to the goal line before
the defence could recover,
"Gouti" squared back for
"Slapper" on the left wing to
tap home.
But that early inspiration
was soon to disappear when
midway in the first half Fitzroy
Valentine was put off for un-
gentlemanly conduct after the
buffetting he was receiving
from the Ebonites defence.


3-1


Later on in that same half
Gouti was put off for the same
reason. With two men short
Consol lost that creative thrust
which gave them the upper
hand in the game.
From then on Ebonites
took control. Consol held on
grimly to their lead until mid-
way in the second half when
the team cracked up under the
Ebonites pressure. Coming to-
wards the end of the game Ken
Butcher sent Ebonites ahead.
When it was too late the Consol
defence adopted the strategy
of running the Ebonites for-
wards offside.
But such a strategy calls
for defence teamwork which
Consol never had. When in the
twilight of the game three of
Consol's defencemen advanced
to run young Richard Butcher
offside the left back stood
wondering what really going
on. Butcher not being offside
consequently had an un-
obstructed path to goal and
made no mistake with the third
and final igoalP of the match.
Ruthven Baptiste


AT THE END of the NAAA athletic meeting held on UWI
grounds recently Ainsley Armstrong was crowned the Most
Outstanding Athlete.
As it turned out the eagerly awaited Crawford/Arm-


strong battle did not materialise.
Marva Edwards of Siparia Asso-
ciates emerged as a record-
breaker to watch. Laura Pierre
backed down 'lame' from the
100m. confrontation with Joan
Porter. And NAAA packed
stop-watches, tapes, and rule-
books until ... only they know
when, and where.
WE DONE WUK

The meet was well attended,
but crowd-control, a feature
which was absent on the first
day, was inadequate on the
second. The Policemen who
were hired on Sunday per-
formed lackadaisically at best,
and merely stood around in the
late afternoon. "We done
wuk", they quipped.
Heats dragged on and on.
Thirteen heats listed for the
400m, eight for the 100m, and
ten for the 200m.


Gerry Llewellyn


NA.A Atbleic meet


show up out lck of


International standards


Ainsley Armstrong runs away from Lovell and tratnwaite


Athletes were required to
run against the clock and false
starts were too many. Speed-
sters when nearing the tape
turned and jeered at those


immediately behind them. What
a poor example of sportsman-
ship from some of our US
based runners!
Continued on Back Page


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Ann Adams


Ann Adams



A Budding


Champ

AT THE recently concluded
NAAA athletic meeting at the
UWI grounds Ann Adams of
. Point Fortin Civic Centre Jets
turned in a record-breaking 16
secs.flat for the women's 100
metr hurdle.
This was her first attempt
over the distance.
It was understood that she
was turned down for the Junior
Carifta Games by Mr. Auguste
in favour of Yvette Coombes
who placed a weak 3rd over
90m. And the reason given: he
hadn't seen her run. Coach
Anthony Peters' faith in and
knowledge of Ann's potential
and of her timing was not
enough for the novice.

PRAISE

Ann has been training for
about 2 years for 100m and
200m. She won the 80m. hur-
dles and 150m at the National
Primary School Championships
at Palo Seco three days before
the NAAA meet.
Those who saw her in the
final leg -of the 4 x 400m
relay were unanimous in their
praise. Not only the pace, but
the guts to try to win from
80 metres behind showed her
determination and courage.
No prima donna this, but
a budding champion. NAAA
would do well to consider her
as a member for the National
team for the July tour of
Venezuela.
There is also need to go
into the Primary Schools to
find and develop all those with
athletic potential.
Gerry Llewellyn


Who Cares About Success Village

their limbs risk broken or
sprained ankles to practise on a
small bumpy section of the
ground which is not yet covered
with mounds of rubbish -
sorry, dirt with rubbish in it
One cannot really blame
Success Village for its pessimism
Stewards any sports ground.
People there are taking careful
note of the shitty end of the
H E D U M PS -stick that the district is given
to hold.
Maybe someday someone
SUCCESS VILLAGERS Dept., in a country that boasts more dirt. in authority would feel in the
are waiting and. watching a "Sports Year", take to grade So that a casual observer of right mood and seriously order
their sports ground which and mark off a ground to the the operations could mistakenly the completion of this project
has been under construe- necessary specifications? get the impression that Success which ranks high in the list of
tion for what they consider Two years have passed and Village, Laventille has two La much needed facilities in the
a frustratingly unbearable no ground yet. Basse. area.
length of timeMy estimate is that about Meanwhile some of the
e like to find HOLD STRAIN80%of the maleyouthof the youth continue to make posi-
They would like to find district play football and take
out whether the task of laying patr in competitions at differ- tive plans. Daily they are gett-
the Success Village Sports After holding all that strain, ent levels throughout the coun- ing together for a different
Ground near the Community imagine during that time the tr approach towards solving their
Centre on Angostura Street is only work done was the dump- problems, and changing their
in the right hands. ing of dirt excavated from some And with the official foot- image to demand prompt atten-
Something is definitely canal, spreading that dirt over ball season mere weeks away, tion to the granting of badly
wrong somewhere. How long the surface of the ground, and footballers of the district- with needed facilities in the district.
should a Government Works right now they're dumping more love of the game than Ronnie Grant


From Page 1



No trade union


drawn. Although the prices of
the products have skyrocketed,
and sales have increased over
100% over the past few years
commissions have been at a
standstill.
In order to better condi-
tions the sales representatives
formed a staff association, and
Jackie was elected secretary.


Trouble really began when she
stuck, up a .circular, on the
notice board to summon mem-
bers to a meeting. Crowhurst
warned that her days were
coming to an end.
One of the Association's
main grouses is that its mem-
bers can be too easily victim-
ised by Supervisors who are


NA.A.A.'ATH E


From Page 11
Perhaps the NAAA could
consider encouraging more club
and/or regional meetings where
qualifying times and distances
could be aimed at, and champ-
ions selected. Perhaps having
some rules of sportsmanship
may be taught as well.
Such meetings will how-
ever place heavy demands on
the unsung few who really
work in NAAA. A pool of
NAAA/TOA approved officials
will have to see to proper lay-
ing out of grounds, measuring,
clocking, and everything else
necessary to allow an athlete's
record to stand. And that more
so, whether it is set in Toco,
Queens Park, or UWI.
Added to that is the need
for a sound grounding in Inter-
national Olympic rules, and
techniques. This raises the prob-
lem of coaching.
In principle expertise ac-
quired abroad, or by experience
should not be hoarded. Spread


the wealth around to fellow
coaches, scrunting clubs and
individual athletes. The provi-
sion of audio/visual aids in this
area would most certainly help.
Controversy raged over the
100m final where winner Arm-
strong, and second-place Lovell
both clocked 10.2 secs. The
accompanying photo shows
Armstrong ahead of Lovell.
Yet this highlights the crying
need for a photo-finish camera.
Laura Pierre and Joan Por-
ter turned in 11.9 sees in their
respective 100m heats. Pierre
eventually withdrew from the
finals 'lame', while Porter went
on to win in 11.8 secs. on a
hard uneven UWI track.
While it must be recognized
that Pierre had put in a hard
day, one must nonetheless echo
the widespread speculation that
Laura Pierre had foreseen
another defeat over the UWI
100 metre course. This time
not by an unknown, but by
Porter herself.


allowed to keep the Company's
cars in their possession. Each
supervisor gets an income allow-
ance for driving 3 sales reps
around. He also gets a cut of
the commissions. But whenever
he is tied up otherwise the
sales reps have to wait on him
no matter how long. He of
'course is not obliged to wait on
them. Often it takes some time
to persuade the client.
But the impasse really came
when Jackie refused to sell a
re-possessed item as "new but
shop-soiled." Crowhurst felt
that she was rude and out of
place. Now she is out of a job,
and without any means of re-
dress since the law protects
these types of exploiters.
"To have survived for two
years in an achievement," she
says, "it is the policy to hire
girls on three months proba-
tion, and fire them at the end
of the period."


TOURIST

PROFITS
"THE 2 million tourists flock-
ing into Mexico this year will
mean profits for U.S. corpora-
tions.
A researcher from the
National Autonomous Univer-
sity of Mexico (UNAM) pointed
out that the tourist industry
does not provide Mexico with
the economic benefits claimed
for it.
The large majority of
foreign tourists "arrive in trans-
port from their own country
and are lodged, fed and enter-
tained in U.S.-owned hotel
chains."
The Mexican Tourist Office
admitted that 85 percent of
the two million tourists are
U.S. citizens whose spending
"means little for Mexico."


Monkey-face makes peace


APES and chimpanzees use
a combination of gestures,
postures, and sounds to
help keep the peace in
their communities.
And they use monkey-face
too. This has been revealed in a
forthcoming UNESCO Report
by a U.S. Psychiatrist, Dr.
David Hamburg, Chairman of
his Department at Stanford
University.
"When one animal behaves
in a threatening manner", wrote
Dr. Hamburg, "another can con-
vey a very clear message as if
to say: I recognize your status,
Don't intend to challenge you,
I prefer not to fight with you.


To this, the more aggressive
monkey or ape can reply with
an answer something like this:
All right, fine, then I needn't
carry the attack any further."
Apparently, these well-
agreed methods of avoiding
violence by communication are
thought to have been a feature
of those times two or three
million years ago when men
lived in small hunting groups
of 50 or so persons.
Large industrial countries
have become highly impersonal
and communication has become
difficult. Smaller and less indus-
trialized countries, it seems,
have a distinct advantage here.


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__