Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00061
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 3, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00061

Full Text

Vol 3 No. 22

.-* '**l': --
SUNDAY JUNE 3, 173 T > .;
162 F-.STf 78 STREET
MFw -yeR.21,

Power to our Public

Servants PAGE 2

Orange grove

probe PAGE 4




1964 Datrb enquiry:

Vice squad must go
h This Squad was formerly called a Vice Squad.
Allegations have been made that innocent people
have been arrested by the members of the Squad.
The Squad is used for clearing the streets of
disorderly persons and those who are guilty of
rowdyism, and the methods used are such that it
would certainly be easy to arrest others who in fact
are not really involved.
The system could lead to serious abuse, and
we were glad to hear the Commissioner say that he
was not happy with the employment of the Squad
and so intended to disband it completely. We can
see no reason for its continuance.
The work that it does can be carried out by
officers on patrol or else by officers in motor cars
when directed to the scenes of trouble, real
or anticipated, and we therefore recommend
that the Special Duty Squad be disbanded. g



..- '- ,

THE hearing into the case of 23 youths charged by the
Tunapuna district Police with "obstructing the free-way"
was called on Wednesday, May 30.
The Defence counsel, Mr. O.E. Williams asked for a
postponement until Friday, June 1st, 1973.
Picture above shows 12 of the youths waiting to dis-
cuss details of the charge at a Tapia Thursday night meet-

Mission Impossible

From our Diplomatic Correspondent
SUSPICION now runs rife
that Randolph Burroughs'
secret mission to London
was motivated by investi-
gations into the death of
Fitzroy Mitchell.
According to Police re-
ports, claims an Express Crime
Reporter, it was said that Mit-
chell was shot by someone in a
passing car. Further it is be-
lieved that as a consequence of
Mr. Burroughs' enquiries a
charge may shortly be laid.
Following on this course
of action, anticipations are that
someone will be arrested, and
will be brought back home to
answer charges.
For in the case of Michael
Abdul Malik, the last and most
recent occurence of such a
nature concerning Trinidad, the
Government of Guyana simply
handed him over, f.o.b. as it
were, to the authorities here.
However where the British
Government is concerned,
bringing a fugitive back, Malik-
style, may not be an entirely
easy matter. Any attempt to do
this is likely to raise anew the
whole question of extradition,

Abdul Malik

the results of which could make
Burroughs assumed mission im-
In International Law extra-
dition is possible in two
instances only. The most ob-
vious case is where an Extradi-
tion Treaty exists between two
countries. But for countries
of the Commonwealth, mere
membership could make extra.
edition legal.
This latter case is possible
because of the existence of a
number of laws which were
formerly passed to control-the
colonies. For though we are

now independent, these laws
have not been repealed, and
by that token, are therefore
still applicable.
But even so, for countries
seeking extradition there's a
procedure which must be fol-
lowed. In the first place one
must travel with the evidence.
Secondly a magistrate from the
country in which extradition
is sought, must be asked to rule
on prima facie evidence that the
culprit should stand trial.
For it is only after such rul-
ing could he order the immi-
gration authorities to hand the
man over. However before that
procedure can be followed cer-
tain prerequisites must be satis-
One of these is that the
penalty for the crime for which
the man is charged, must not
be more severe than that of
the country from which the
man is being extradited.
This means that if death
happens to be the penalty the
man is likely to face at home,
and if such penalty does not
exist for a similar crime where
the man is a fugitive, then he
stays put.
Continued on Back Page

Water pipes

SUPPLIES of galvanised
water pipes are now as
scarce as the water that
flows through them. And
strange enough, this short-
age has little or nothing to
do with price and supply
movements on the world
However it is known that
towards the end of 1970 the
Ministry of Industry and Com-
merce decided to have water
pipes put on the Negative
List. This was done in the ex-
pectation that the local steel
mill would begin producing
such items 5 or 6 months hence.


By that time too, the hope
was that existing pipe supplies
would have been exhausted.
Should recourse to imports
then become necessary per-
mission had first to be obtained
by means of an import licence
However the local steel mill
after two years or so was never
able to meet its own time-
table. Consequently some
licences were granted up till
mid 1972.
Since then no more im-
ports have been allowed, ex-
cept those for the firm W. H.

in short


Scott Limited who can
in any case import any amount
because of certain Government
contracts. However it is be-
lieved that most of these im-
ports are sold to the public.
To this date the local steel
mill has still been unable to
supply water pipes for the local
market. The result is a shortage.
Meanwhile officialdom here
is apparently holding out some
hope that Carifta country Ja-
maica may be able to alleviate
the current scarcity which we
But their steel mill is known
to be having problems too.
And ;furthermore it is not yet
in a position to consider ex-
porting to Carifta member
The local steel mill has

again made promises but reliable
sources advise that the gal-
vanising plant cannot be com-
pletedfor another 6 months.
In the meantime prices
have almost trebled the amounts
they used to be six months ago.
For example one length (20')
of galvanised pipe was then
priced at about $4.80. Today
a similar piece is hardly less
than $13.50.
This is a fantastic price
rise indeed. And there is no
doubt as to just who are the
ones paying for it.
With prices cutting such a
high level, one is left to won-
der just what would happen
when the local steel mill comes
into its own? Would the Prices
Commission continue to spout
meaningless platitudes then?

Next week :. Report from La Paille

15 Cents







To The People



ELECTION of officers to repre-
sent professionals in the Public
Service has been postponed to
Tuesday, June 12,'73 at the Re-
creation Centre, Long Circular
Road. The meeting will begin at
5 p.m.
This was the decision taken
by the eight members who
attended the Annual General
Meeting of the Professional Sec-
tion of the PSA on Monday May
14. The meeting had to be ad-
journed because it was felt that
those present were not sufficient
to give to any executive a man-
date to run the affairs of what
could be a most vibrant arm of
the Association.
In previous years the routine has
been for a handful of members to
turn up and elect themselves to office
Such a system is self-verpetuating.
After a time these office-holders might
well develop an interest in operating
as a clique, and keeping the rest of
the membership out of the know.
Doctor Politics with one or two peo-
ple enjoying power is the result.
It is essential that lawyers, Account-
ants, Economists, Engineers, Archi-
tects, Chemists, Almonists, Doctors,
Agrologists and all the other profes-
sionals in the Public Service come to-
gether to discuss perspectives, to en-
courage independent thought and
action, and to protect their brothers
and sisters in the lower grades who
are more exposed to daily abuses,
insults and victimisation.


These trained people are well
equipped to assist the Association in
its struggles, and to organise in-training
schemes for the general upliftment of
the membership.
But before this goal is attained the
PSA must regard itself as a Trade
Union, and not as a loose Association
of various Sections such as Clerical,
Secretarial, and Professional. The
crisis of confidence which now plagues
this body must also be solved, and
the way to do this is to democratise it.
As is characteristic of all these
colonial structures that Independence
has not changed, too much reliance is
placed on the top executive. This
policy of divide and rule must go.
The Governor has remained the
constitutional model in every organisa-
tion in this country. Williams in the
PNM is the best example. But there
have been many others. Eric James in
Football; Dos Santos in Cricket; Inskip
Julien in the Law Society; Harold
Robinson in Agriculture, to name only
a few.
When the meeting of the Profes-
sional Section was called on the 14th
of May it came to light that notices
had been sent to 25 members only.
The Secretary, Miss Y. Thompson,
claimed that she did not know who the
members were, and where they could
be contacted.
Perhaps one should not blame her
too much. I am told that she accepted
the post last year with reluctance. I
do not know what would have hap-


Syl Lowhar

Syl Lowhar

opened if she had declined because only
11 persons were present. She should
be commended for her effort.
It ought to be the duty of the
General Secretariat to service all the
Sections with information necessary
for their proper functioning. At least
Miss Thompson should have been pro-
vided with a list of the professional
members, their occupations and De-
The Secretariat should also ensure
that publicity is given to these im-
portant meetings through press, radio
and Ministerial circulars. I am sure that
these channels of communication are
well within its reach. After all, 12,000
members paying over $m. in annual
subscription deserve to have this
For the past years the Chairman
of the Section has been Dr. Lines,
Chief Government Chemist, a Scots-
man. The Secretary before the last was
Mrs. Ruth Rawlins, an Englishwoman.
To draw attention to this fact is not
narrow chauvinism.
On the contrary it indicates how
seriously these matters of representa-
tion are taken by foreigners who come
from a society in which participation
counts. A possible consequence is the
extent to which these officers might
have been handicapped in confronting
a Nationalistic Government as trade
unionists have to do from time to
time. It also shows up in Trinagonians
a tendency to stir only in a crisis or
when directly affected.
I too plead guilty to this tendency.
I began taking an interest in the PSA
after my detention in '70. My salary
was immediately cut off within the
Ministry by Senior Civil Servants who
had no authority to do so, but who
perhaps acting on political advice, felt
free to preempt the jurisdiction of the
Courts. Even when an officer is on
charge for an actual crime allegedto have
been committed by him he is put on
half pay pending the final decision.
Here was a matter for my Trade
Union to take up. In such an extra-

James Manswell

ordinary situation where detention is
preventive, that is, in anticipation of
a crime, one would have thought that
my. Union would have sought my
interest in the same way that the
OWTU assisted Weekes, Lennard and
When it is remembered that in '65 the
Mbanefo Commission of Inquiry into
Subversive Activities was unleached,
and detention orders for the arrest of
Manswell and other trade unionists
had actually been prepared, the PSA
ought to have been more sympathetic.
Instead, the acting General Secre-
tary at the time, Mr. Sam Martin
claimed that he was not aware that I
was a member of the Union. Imagine
that! In spite of all the press head-
line, "an economist attached to the




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91, Tunapuna Road,
Trinidad & Tobago.

Ministry of Agriculture"! Sam Martin
must come better than that.
My interest in the PSA also in-
creased when, on making represent
tion for an appointment, I was in-
formed that the General Secretary is
guided by the Professional Section on
all matters relating to professional
;staff. I was determined to find out
what this Professional Section was
all about. And so I came to dis-
cover that it was just a top without
a body. A top that was handicapped
because it represented nothing.
In such a situation it is the General
Secretary who guides himself on the
basis of his vast experience and the
information available to him. Such a
state of no-representation is tailor-
made for a Doctor and a set of yes men.
When these things happen the
Union is weakened and the members
suffer. A group of officers elected
almost by default cannot get its section
to work. The chain reaction is that
the General Executive will lack the
moral authority to mobilise its mem-
bers for effective action. It is common
knowledge that The Association often
disregards the grievances of its mem-
bers, and it is the Director of Personnel
Administration who technically is the
Employer that has to bring redress
to the workers.

It is no surprise that although the
Professional Section undertook to
make proposals before the Constitu-
tion Commission it never came around
to doing so. Where was it to get the
energy or the mandate from? Even
the General Secretary had to date his
mandate back to '62, ten years ago,
after his authority was challenged in a
letter which a member wrote to Chair-
man Wooding.
It was left to a retired female
Headteacher of Naparima to draw at-
tention to the many instances where
human rights are being denied Public
Servants as a result of regulations made
by the Public Service Commission,
contrary to the guarantees in the Con-
Under the Constitution every
citizen has the right to join political
parties and to express political views.
The General Secretary does not agree
with this, but it is not for him to de-
cide. So no formal protest has been
made against those regulations which
exist to debar public servants and
teachers from speaking and writing in
the national interest.
After riding teachers and Civil Ser-
vants bareback to get power the PNM
has been anxious to muzzle and blind-
fold them. They will succeed until
we get ourselves organised to defend
our basic freedom.

ELECTIONS in Guyana! And until July 16th, the
attention of the region will be focused on the political
goings-on in the world's first and only Co-operative
Interest is particularly high at this time, as
the election follows others in the region which have
clearly revealed deep-seated discontent with estab-
lished politicians and institutions. Will the people of


Guyana follow the trend?
Many people don't see how
the P.N.C. can be beaten. They
feel that Burnham's swash-
buckling image and his
"radical" record will once more
find favour with the electorate.
In any case, they think that
Cheddi Jagan's appeal is too
lacking in lustre to make a big
enough impact on the people.
Jagan, in fact, has had to
convince many of his party
faithful that the electoral route
is worth following. He has
sought to assure them that
once "free and fair" elections
are held the P.P.P.'s success is


The other electoral aspirant
is the United Force, formerly
led by industrialist Peter
D'Aguiar, and once allied with
the P.N.C. in a coalition go-
vernment. It commands only
minor support.
If this were all to it then
we would have an almost per-
fect scenario for electoral poli-
tics. The fact is however that
Guyana is/as much in the grip
of the malaise which has por-
duced startling electoral upsets
and no-vote campaigns in other
West Indian territories.
Disaffection begins with the
electoral system itself. The
elections will be conducted
under the list system of pro-
portional representation. There
are few people who do not
believe that this system was
introduced into Guyana by the
British. before Independence
with the express purpose of
getting Jagan out of office.
And there are equally few
who do not credit Burnham
with almost fiendish cleverness
in the manner in which he has
manipulated the system to his
benefit. The principal targets of
attack are the 'provisions for
proxy votes and for overseas


The critics claim that in the
elections of 1961 there were
300 proxy votes. In the elec-
tions of 1968 when the P.N.C.
won it is claimed that there
were 19,200, and that the over-
seas votes exceeded 36,000.
The Sunday Times quoted
D'Aguiar as saying that "to call
it an election is to give it a
name. It was a seizure of pow-
er by fraud not by election".
Quite apart from the sys-
tem of elections is the question
of the electoral strategies of the
two main parties. Guyana's
racial makeup is similar to
Trinidad's, except that in their
case Indians are a larger group
than Africans. The racially
based nature of the parties is
also similar to what prevails
among the major electoral
"parties" in Trinidad.
Ensi Kwayana, Co-ordinat-
ing Elder of the militant
ASCRIA accuses both major
parties of at least covert agree-
ment to exploit race to main-
tain the status quo in politics.
Accusing Burnham of pro-
tecting Jagan, Kwayana states
that "in 1970 Burnham told me



Tapia Administrative Secretary and
Office Manager

Forbes Burnham

Cheddi Jagan

among the new political and
bureaucratic elite. Burnham,
himself, was the guest of
honour at a lavish Thanksgiving
party on the occasion of his
fiftieth birthday recently. All
the leading lights were there,
including the American Am-
bassador Spencer King.
The PPP, burdened with
its Moscow-line ideology, has
been incapable of offering the
people of Guyana a, credible
alternative. Because of the
rigidity of its stance and its
hackneyed formulations it has
consistently been out-manoeu-
vred and out-sloganed by the
The PNC has launched an
American-style campaign, a
notable feature of which is
a celebrated "Cookies for
Charity" drive making use of
schoolchildren. As they assess
the prospects before them, the
Guyanese people could well be
reflecting ruefully on the way
the electoral cookie crumbles.


that he had Jagan's code num-
ber at the Swiss Bank. I said
"Expose the man'. He runs
around playing communist. Ex-
pose him." Burnham in his
office at Public Buildings said,
"No, I can't do that". I said,
"Give it to me. Let me expose
it." Burnham said, "No, it is
confidential." Burnham uses
Jagan to unite his voters and
Jagan uses Burnham to unite
his voters."
ASCRIA itself is in the
forefront of the non-electoral
forces. Previously allied with
the PNC and led by Kwayana,
the former Sydney King, who
made a naire for himself as a
leading freedom fighter along-
side Burnhanr and Jagan in the
early fifties, the group has
recently been agitating for the
distribution of unused sugar
areas among landless peasants.

Some of the other political
groups which have emerged in
recent times include the Move-
ment Against Oppressiom
(MAO), active on the urban
front and counting among its
membership many of the lec-
turers at the University of
There is also the Working
People's Vanguard Movement,
led by Brindley Benn, and the
Anti-Discrimination Movement,
composed mainly of middle-in-
come professionals.
The growth of such an
array of non-electoral forces is
clear evidence that for many
the existing political institu-
tions in the country do not
allow for the expression of
dissatisfaction over economic

and political dispossession.This,
despite Burnham's boast that
the co-operative republic would
make the small man a real man.
According to Kwayana "We
differ with Burnham and Jagan
'and all of them because, to a
greater or lesser, extent, they
have no intention of encourag-
ing people's power. Burnham
has succeeded the white man:
That's why he says, "We have
had our political revolution."
He has all the airs of the white
boss over his 6wn people".

In fact all the familiar prob-
lems of the Caribbean states,
unemployment, rising cost of
living, inadequate housing and
social amenities, and the con-
sequent dissaffection of the
people, have forced the govern-
ment into ian increasingly
repressive stance. The radical
image that Burnham has so
assiduously cultivated abroad
is at striking variance with the
reality at home.
The revolutionary rhetoric
is also belied by the high living

Guyana Election

Campaign Warms

DURING the first day's hearing at the Orange Grove
probe Lennox Hunte, Personnel Manager, defended
himself against a number of charges made by the
His defence was in most instances unconvinc-
ing and instead persuaded George Bowrin that for the
short time he was with the company he had run into
a storm.
For example it was difficult for Chairman
Bowrin to understand why Hunte found it necessary
to threaten to call in the Police to put Union repre-
sentative Chandrika Singh, and a number of carter-

men out of his office.
As a Personnel Manager,
Bowrin felt that he should
know that it was the tendency
for union leaders to become
heated over matters affecting
Bowrin also expressed
some dismay over Mr. Hunte's
tendency to push his weight
around. In this regard, a
worker, Pilgrim, told the probe
that Mr. Hunte had threatened
to dismiss him if he ever again
refused to carry out his instruc-
Pilgrim who was giving
evidence at the time said that
once during a tour of the fac-
tory by school children, Mr.
Hunte who was showing them
around asked him to fill two
paper bags of sugar.
This instruction he had
refused to carry out, because

Lloyd Taylor

as he said, he did not know Mr.
Hunte, and because he had al-
ways taken instructions from
his immediate" superior and no
one else.
Pilgrim's stand was a reason-
able one George Bowrin indi-
Scated. He went on to say that it
was quite possible that a work-
er may not know who was
the company's Personnel
Manager. Bowrin also felt that
the worker had to protect him-
self from a charge of stealing.
That was all the more reason
why Pilgrim was quite in order
to follow' the instructions of
his immediate boss only.
However the most shock-


& $ -AL

1: I I


ing revelation to come from
Lennox Hunte's testimony was
that he had not a single record
of grievances settled or un-.
settled, nor any record of
minutes of 'meetings with
labour. "But," Mr. Bowrin
quipped, "Mr. Hunte, you have
not been doing your work."
Another sore point among
the workers was the question
of rules which were outlined
for them to follow. Mr. Hunte,
who is also something of an
industrial relations expert, had
drawn up a code of conduct
for the workers. This code
threatened warnings, suspen-
sions and dismissals depending

on the nature of the offences
Several of the rules now
listed in the code had till then
been informally recognized
only. To put them in writing
Mr. Bowrin felt, gave them
a new status. In that light it
was necessary, Bowrin con-
tinued, to have them examined
by Union representatives before
their enforcement. This would
have been the proper proce-
dure Mr. Bowrin thought.
Replying to the question
why he had not vetted the
animals owned by carter-men,
at the start of this years crop,
Hunte told the probe that he
wanted to ensure that all ani-
mals were properly identified.
So that in, the event of claims
being made for injury it would
not be possible for a carter-man
to claim for an animal which
had not been registered to work
with the company.

The Chairman could not
understand what manner of
identification Mr. Hunte ex-
pected to work. For even if the
tails of animals were cut,'or if
their bodies were branded, it
,would still be possible for such
marks to be reproduced on
similar looking animals. With
this Mr. Hunte agreed. His rea-
son for not vetting the animals
as has been the normal prac-
tice, was thus not convincing
The probe also learnt from
the workers that travelling al-
lowances had not been paid to
cultivation workers who had to
journey across boundaries to
perform their duties.
This was so Mr. Hunte ex-
plained because he wanted to
consult with his technical of-
ficers before any payments were
made. The Chairman did not
see why this kind of counselling
was a necessary prerequisite be-
fore travelling allowances could
be paid.



THOSE whose business is to
communicate to others through
the medium of newsprint must
quite naturally wonder why
the Vanguard has been out of
circulation for the last 8
months or so.
For the Vanguard, organ of
the 12,000 strong Oil Field
Workers Trade Union, its non-
appearance is a far cry from
the days of February to April,
1970 when, under the editor-
ship of Wally Look Lai, it
echoed the cries of 'Black
Power' through out the city's
Those days marked the high
point of the circulation of that
tabloid size, fortnightly journal,
as indeed was the case of every
other newspaper, including the
weeklies Tapia and Moko.
However from the report of
the OWTU's General Council
has come a statement explain-
ing the paper's absence.
The Report states that
Vanguard "was silenced by-
none other than the General
Secretary who refused to sign
cheques for payment of wages
to employees of the Vanguard
Publishing Company for the
week ending 14th September
"The President General and

the Assistant General Secre-
tary," it continues, "had to pay
these wages out of their
The General Secretary has
himself admitted this in a
sworn affidavit in one of
his many Court actions, the
Report indicates.
This course of action the
General Secretary has justified
on grounds that "the Company
has been trading while
SAs far as the General Coun-
'cil is concerned, however, the
real reason "for the General
Secretary not signing the.
cheque was to stop publication.
by the Vanguard of informa-
tion to rank and file members
on the attempted subversion
of the Union by two members
of the Executive".
However, the General Coun-
cil, in its report to the Thirty-
Third Annual Conference of
Delegates, has admitted that
"to date the Company has not
been the success" that they had
Their failure "to obtain the
services of an efficient and
reliable manager/supervisor,"
was pinpointed as the main
reason why the' Publishing Com-
pany has not been as success-
ful as they had hoped.

Read TAPIA Every Week





EM. Road, Sangre Grnde,


AT A Colourful May Day
Rally in Havana, Prime
Minister Fidel (stro de-
fined his Government's
Latin American policy be-
fore 180,000 of his
In a speech devoted mainly
to foreign policy questions and
specifically to Latin America,
Castro revealed a basic strategic
approach characterized by two
essential elements: its flexible
and non-dogmatic attitude to-
ward the Latin American
struggle and its principled re-
jection of any deals with an
aggressiveUnited States govern-
The main thrust of, his
remarks was. directed toward
the prospect of Latin American
unity in a continuing battle
against United States penetra-
tion and control.
In institutional terms, it
contemplates the creation,
sooner or later, of a regional
organization of Latin American
nations (including the English
speaking nations of the Carib-
bean area) which would ex-
clude the United States govern-
rhent from membership.
The new organization
would substitute the crisis-
ridden Organization of Ameri-
can States (OAS), which was
founded as an instrument of
US cold war policy after the
Second World War and which
was used during the sixties to
implement the isolation of
S Cuba from the rest of the con-
The process of American
expansion in Latin America
Shad received its first major
jolt with the victory of the
Cuban revolution in 1959.
Nevertheless, during most
of the sixties, the United
States continued to exert al-

U S Gain s
from Panama

A BIG campaign to publicize
economic benefits obtained by
the United States from the Pa-
nama Canal is to-be launched
in Panama.
The decision follows de-
nunciations 'of US. canal pro-
fits issued by the foreign
ministers at the recent meet-
ing of the UN Security Council
in Panama City.
According to figures ac-
knowledged by the United
States, the gross income from
the Canal came to 2,033
million dollars between 1951
and 1970.

'..'. "6-

JUNE 3, 1973


* Castro addresses rally

Castro urges unity to

fight US presence

most unchallenged hegemony
over Latin American nations.
Indicative of this was the
fact that all of them, with the
exception of Mexico, broke
diplomatic and trade relations
with the Cuban revolutionary
Since the beginning of the
present decade the' tide has
begun to turn against the
United States in Latin America.
SThe recent meetings of the
,OAS in Washington, the UN
Security Council in Panama
and the Economic Commission
for Latin America (ECLA) in
Quito were all indicative of the

new currents coursing Latin
They showed that a grow-
ing number of Latin American
nations have already begun to
confront energetically US poli-
tical and economic policy in
the hemisphere.
.Fidel Castro pointed to
Chile thereee is not just one,
but there are two nations that
speak of socialism"), Peru and
Panama as nations that have
most forthrightly' challenged.
US control of their destinies.
He called the results of the
Argentine elections "a popular
victory, that is, a majority of

Crisis in Venezuelan

THIS year Venezuelan oil pro-
duction will increase, and will
be sold at higher prices.
The increase in prices will
provide some 300 million
bolivars, that will almost ex-
clusively benefit the foreign
oil \companies operating in the
However, the other side of
Venezuelan economy com-
pletely changes the cheerful.
petroleum picture. Agriculture-
and livestock are today con-
fronting the worst crisis in
many years.
There is an acute shortage
of meat and milk. Milk im-
ports will have to increase to
30,000 tons in order to supply
the domestic market.

Agric u Iture
The price of the lowest
grade milk in February was
3480 bolivars a ton (one T.T. $
equals about two bolivars)
which means an additional ex-
penditure of 83 million boli-
vars just to bring the milk
supply to normal levels.
Meat imports will also have
to be increased to 100,000
tons a year. Additional pur-
chases in this area will mean
an outlay of 160 million
Thus Venezuela will have to
import an additional 55 million
dollars of meat and fish this
year, an outlay that will more
that counterweigh the benefits
from the rise in oil prices.

that nation has expressed itself
through the ballot box in favor
of important political changes.'
The Cuban Prime Minister
made clear that Cuba is ready
to implement "forms of coope
ration" with\ nations whi6h are
not socialist but embark on a
policy in favor of their inde
,pendence, sovereignty and de
fense of national' interests.
He said that' the Cuban
government "views 'with sym-
pathy those annulment by
Venezuela of the commercial
accord which .submits its
foreign policy to the interests

Oil talks in

Venezuela and The Nether-
lands on the oil-and ore-rich
continental shelf off Venezuela
,will start in Caracas on June

The Netherlands isle of
Aruba is only about 16 miles
from Venezuela at its nearest
point. Holland's policy is a
3-mile territorial offshore
waters limit and that country
does not recognize the Vene-
zuela 12-mile limit.

zuelan oil.

economy is mainly
on. refining Vene-

of the United States" and added
that "if, because of petroleum,
serious conflicts arise between
the government of Venezuela
and the imperialist monopolies,
our people would support the
government of Venezuela, re-
gardless of the economic sys-
tem that prevails in that
Prime Minister Castro re-
affirmed his belief that social-
ism is the only road in Latin
America that will produce the
unity needed for substantial
progress. But, he observed, the
Cuban government does not
expect the nations of Latin
America to take the socialist
road "overnight".


S He said: "We do not be-'
lieve that the Latin American
revolution is just around the,
corner" and predicted that the
people of the continent have a
difficult road of struggle ahead.
He recognized that "there
will be diverse processes and
each one will have its own
Castro also defined his
nation's attitude toward the
United States. He declared:
"We are not interested in re-
ceiving any US representatives
here" until the US economic
blockade of Cuba is ended
However, he went on, even
if talks between Cuba and the
United States did take place,
his government would not only
discuss the problems of Cuba,
such as the presence of the
Guantanamo Naval Base on its
territory, but, in the first place,
the problem faced by all of
Latin America.
He reaffirmed the inter-
nationalist principles that
underlie Cuban policy by de-
claring that "our problems are
not the specific problems of
Cuba but the problems of
Latin America."
He asserted that "there will
be no improvement in relations
between Cuba and the US as
long as the United States pre-
tend to exercise the role of
gendarme with respect to the
peoples of this hemisphere."
During his May Day speech,
the Cuban Prime Minister de-
clared that the Cubans reserve
their right to back "Latin
American revolutionaries that
struggle against oligarchic and
reactionary governments in the
service of imperialist policy
on this continent."
= From th Cuban News
Agency, Pres La tinA




soft, light

_ and delicious.

_ __ _~~__ __~_~




BECAUSE we are insufficiently Caribbean
conscious, we are taking some time to estab-
lish for ourselves, as educated West Indians, a
necessary reading list of Caribbean works we
ought to have looked at, at least in translation.
On such a list, the novels of the Cuban
writer Alejo Carpentier, who now works for
Unesco in Paris, will certainly have to figure.
Carpentier is one of the more interesting of Cuban
writers if only because he has given so much weight
in his novels to the African presence in the Caribbean.
Born of European parents who emigrated to
Cuba, Carpentier grew up with Cuban blacks and his
first well known artistic efforts were connected with
the Afrocuban movement in the twenties, in the
form of two not very impressive poems which have
nevertheless become anthology pieces of the Afro-
cuban vogue.
An aficionado of music and folk material, no
doubt stimulated by the studies of the great Cuban
ethnologist Fernando Ortiz, Carpentier wrote two
Afrocuban folk ballets, which were banned because
blacks were not allowed on stage.
Later, in the thirties, while living in Paris, Carpen-
tier did have some of his Afrocuban compositions
performed. We do not know how they were received.
Not surprisingly, Carpentier's first novel Ecue -
Yamba 0 (1933) focuses,on Cuban life from the
angle of the Afrocuban subculture. The novel
follows the life history of a young black Cuban who
moves from a rural plantation environment to a
lower class urban setting and attempts to show how
his life is conditioned by traditional Afro-cuban cult
beliefs and culture norms which co-exist with the
Hispanic mainstream.
Nevertheless, the perspective in this first novel is
ambiguous, as ambiguous as the Afrocuban movement
as far as its focus on the Negro was concerned.

She Cuban literary intellectual back'in the
twenties had been carried along quite .willingly by
the enthusiasm for the "primitive" which was the-
vogue in Paris, was therefore interested in depicting
the vitality of the black folk with their "primitive"
beliefs and dances, but was not really operating
from a. well thought' out' position on the whole
question of evaluating this "primitivism."
In a later novel Los pass, perdidos, Carpentier
analyses this passion for the primitive in the twenties
in Europe as,the folly of a "Higher Civilization"
seeking to exorcize the monsters it has bred,
continuing thereby to miss the significance of
cultural norms this civilization had. already con-
demned as barbarous:
For more than twenty years a weary culture
had sought rejuvenation and new powers in the
cult of the irrational. But now I found the
attempt to use masks of Bandiagara, African
ibeyes, fetishes studded with nails, to promote
an assault against the citadels raised by the
Discourse on Method absurd. The barbarous
had been sought for in things that had never
been barbarous in their setting and while
fulfilling the ritual function for which they had
been designed.
If European intellectuals had missed the point
when they rushed to embrace "the heart of darkness",
trapped in the mirrors of their own needs, Carpentier
looking back at Ecue Yamba 0 has'also been
willing to admit that his representation of Afro-
cuban practices had failed to penetrate to the heart
of the matter, although he had been, as it were,
.operating as a witness in his own backyard.
This realization had led him to tread cautiously
in dealing with folk material in his writing.
If we turn to the second novel by Carpentier in
which the Caribbean black is put at the center of the
stage, El reino de este mundo (1948), we see him
handing his material in quite a different way.

For one thing, having fled the Caribbean to exile
in Paris and participation in the surrealist adventure,
his links with any folk tradition were now the result
of memory and reading. He lives the adventure of
the Caribbean intellectual alienated from his roots.
His return therefore to the American landscape
tended to assume the form of a recovery of his own
reality, but of a reality whose dimensions he had not
With a fresh eye, he set out to rediscover "el
monstruo de la poesia popular", an experience he
explores most clearly in Los pasos perdidos. He
experiences the mixed blessing of being both at
home and a stranger.
El reino de este mundo, a series of tableaux in
black and white, can be placed squarely within the
negritude canon. Its theme is the epic struggle of
the blacks of Saint Domingue fon freedom and the
betrayal of this effort. Central to the theme is the
significance of voodoo, as a primitive folk phenome-

non, in that struggle.
Carpentier offers us a typical Caribbean paradox
to meditate on, the spectacle of a white Cuban
writing a first rate negritude novel. There are notice-
able changes of perspective from the earlier novel.
Ecue Yamba 0 had bristled with political
allusions to the Machadato, the era in which General
Gerardo Machado was imposing himself on the
Cuban people; under his regime Carpentier had ended
up as a political detainee. But there is nothing in
that novel which can be taken to be a position state-
ment on politics.
In El reino we see a more mature and philosophical
Carpentier at work, fixing on the theme of our time,
revolution and its relation to the Caribbean situation.
Secondly although a folk phenomenon like Voodoo
is treated of in the novel, Carpentier had grown
away from the folksiness of nativist writing. He
therefore is very economical in his references to the
ritual aspects of voodoo.

One might even object that he almost drains it
of its material content, while assigning to it a quite
solid symbolic significance as the touchstone of
authenticity in the Haitian situation.
The view of voodoo which we find in the
novel was one popular among some Haitian intellec-
tuals in the thirties, and forties. Carpentier visited
Haiti in 1943.
Remy Bastien gives this account of some
views which were stimulated by the famous Haitian
intellectual Jean Price Mars:
Nationalist intellectuals found that the coun-
try was in misery because its responsible elite
had rejected its intrinsic personality, trying to
be what they were not, European instead of
African. By concatenation, this original sin had
caused a split in the Haitian social body, turn-
ing thee responsible class away from its duties
towards the rural masses and transforming it
into a parasitic, superficiaL, and prejudiced
clique only by returning to its cultural
sources could Haiti regenerate itself and regain.
its pride. (Religion and Politics in Haiti Washing-
ton 1966, p.54).

The strong note of cultural nationalism, the
opposition Europe vs Africa, which could easily
read Europe vs America, the attack on the alienated
,elite and the call for the return to roots: These
themes would have appealed to Carpentier, who
was himself renouncing his French surrealist adven-
ture in order/ to reassert his Caribbean American
identity, who so often reflects both fascination with
and hostility towards the Europe from which his
parents came, the Europe in which he had found
His imagination fired by the sight of the
ruins at Sans Souci, Carpentier constructed a short
novel which reads like a-parable, tracing the trajec-
tory from Colonialism and Slavery to National Inde-,
pendence and the rise of the Pussonal Nonarch.

In the beginning, there is the folk hero, a poli-
tical and cultural maroon, whose pursuit of liberation
does not exclude guerilla war and terrorism. After
the fighting however, it is not the far-sighted states-
man but the grubby caudillo, bankrupt domestic
politician with his cohort of sychophants,,who comes
to power.
From the mythology in circulation in Haiti
Carpentier got his representative figures. Bastien has
pointed out that those who insisted that the inde-
pendence of Haiti was the fruit of voodoo, dwelt on
the exploits of Macandal, a cult leader who was re-
sponsible for an abortive rebellion against the French
in 1757, and Boukman, an houngan who is re-
ported to have incited the outbreak of revolutionary
fighting in 1791.
Curiously enough, on the basis of such a read-
ing of Haitian history, central figures in the fight for
independence such as Toussaint L'Ouverture, Dessa-
lines and Christophe come off badly, for they were
apparently hostile to voodoo.
This curve on the graph of the revolutionary
process would not have surprised Carpentier. It had
even more recently been re-enacted in Cuban history.
From Marti and his idealistic message, there had
been Alfredo Zayas and Machado and later on Ba-
tista enforcing a tradition of corruption and political
By temperament, Carpentier is not a, naturalist
writer and generationally belongs to the group of
Latin American writers, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel
Angel Asturias and others who started to explore
new possibilities in prose fiction.
Thus in El reino de este mundo, one cannot
speak of a plot in the ordinary sense, rather tension
and movement are supplied by commentary or
focused into stylised images in which the characters"
are, as it were, transparent mediums for group







Fo Ilk

Characters such as Macandal and Christophe
are stripped to the essentials of their political
personality by a narrator who is interested not in
their inner psychology but in what they represent.
Thus in the first part of the novel we are
introduced to Macandal as an ordinary slave whose
consciousness is transformed as a result of the loss
of an arm. This physical mutilation leads to a
realisation of the phychic mutilation which is his lot
as a slave and leads him to a discovery of the
terrible art of poisoning as a form of guerrilla war-

He becomes the symbol of the underground
war and is soon attributed the magical power of a
transforming witch. The slaves believed that he could
at will take the form of "a fly, a centipede, moth,
ant, tarantula, lady bug, even a glow worm with
phosphorescent green lights".
He is finally captured, betrayed by the all too
human need for the society of his kind and burnt at
the stake. In his presentation of the execution of
Macandal, Carpentier showed something of his re-

UNE 3, 1973

vised conception of the-workings of "primitive"
imagination and the subtely offolkmyth.
Masses of slaves are gathered in the square to
witness the death by fire of their hero, but they are
festive because they know that at the fatal moment,
Macandal, turning himself into "a buzzing mosquito,
would perch on the company commander's tricorne
to laugh at the dismay of the whites'".
There is some confusion and Macandal is
thrust head first into the flames, but nevertheless the
slaves "returned to their plantations, laughing all the
way. Macandal had kept his word, remaining in the
kingdom of this world. Once more the whites had
been outwitted b9 the Mighty Powers of the other
At first we are led to wonder if the narrator
himself is not laughing at the blacks, pointing to
their capacity for self-delusion. But a careful look at
the episode: shows that what the narrator is really
insinuating is that this self delusion, this naive belief -
in the invulnerability of their hero, is in effect an
affirmation of/the irrepressible character of the
natives' determination to be free.
Macandal, symbol of the liberation struggle
cannot be burnt to death because you cannot burn a
people's resolve to be free out -of existence. Quite

unscientifically they refise thp evidence of their
eyes in order to hold trueto 'the resolve in their
To express the transition from "primitive"
black liberator to Nonarch with the trappings of a
modern state, the narrator introduces us to a pair of
characters who in their: relationship might be said to
prefigure types given notoriety in Soul on Ice: The
Black Eunuch and the white Ultra feminine mistress:
Soliman, a house slave, and Pauline Bonaparte,
Napoleon's sister and wife of Le Clerc, the French
General sent by Napoleon to restore Haiti to slavery.

o Soliman Pauline represents whiteness and
power and she has for him the value of a fetish,
mesmerizing him, teasing his manhood and driving
him to madness. With Soliman, we are on the way
to the betrayal of the values which Macandal had
Carpehtier may also have intended us to
recognize the type of nigger who caters to the Euro-
pean fad for the primitive. Through Pauline, Car-
pentier was also mocking at the self same fad for the
primitive which had swept Europe in the aftermath
of the First World War.
Emissary from "civilized" .France, frivolous
product of the "Age of Reason", in the moment of
crisis produced by a yellow fever epidemic, Pauline
submits herself to the syncretic abracadabra which
Soliman derives from voodoo ritual.
The voodoo rites disengaged from their con-
text become anr act of absurd mimicry. When a
"Higher Civilization" goes primitive, Carpentier
seems to say, the result is a freak show.

I- -- - -:


j t-- j

. --i.

From Soliman, the black slave who sold his
soul to the Great White Whore, we are led to the
court of Henri Christophe, first Nonarch of the
What most amazed Ti Noel was the discovery
that this prodigious world, such as the French
governors at the Cape had never known, was a
world of blacks. For those beautiful ladies
with the powerful backsides circling'in a dance
around a fountain with tritons were black,
those two ministers with white stockings who
were coming down the staircase of honor with
calfskin portfolios, were black; Black, yes,
decidedly black was the statue of the Virgin of
the Immaculate Conception which stood on the
main altar in the chapel, smiling benignly on
the black musicians practising:a Salve.

But even as he embraced "civilization" and
sought to- fit in to the pattern of conventional
politics of his time, so Christophe came to doubt his
own people's capacity to participate creatively in the
task of nation building, leading him to set up a re-
pressive regime and concentrate power in his own
Schizoid and isolated he eventually falls vic-
tim to his fear of the "white" magic he distrusted
but which fascinated him so much.
It is remarkable but not entirely surprising
that this Carpentier novel written in the forties has
been one of the more neglected of his works. It is
deceptively straightforward, and the exotic look it
wears has led it to be dismissed as a virtuoso effort
rather than as a perceptive account of Caribbean poli-
tical process. But the novel is important in itself and
as a precuisor to his more powerfully orchestrated
account of the impact of the French Revolution on
the Caribbean scene, El siglo de las luces.

You always

wanted her to


makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.






Step hens

_ _

'b ""'""


Our printing-plantis open at TheTapia
House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. Kindly phone orders to:
662 5126.

I 'I




some people work

but they don't get paid

You'd be surprised how many people bank in their purse.
Oh,they do it systematically too: a list, a budget, a
bundle of bills then slowly the money goes.Of course,
some bills get paid. Some, well-you know. Why not
start a saving account with us? Put aside something
for you, when you can,you will be surprised how a little
saving will go a long way. SAVE-its an investment.


Live a Better Life Bank in Your Bank
The National Commercial Bank of Trinidad & Tobago. 60 Independence Square.






Leo Frobenius attained a posi-
tion of eminence among
students of culture not only by
his discoveries of African art
and cultural 'traditions but be-
cause of his championship of
the civilization of Black Africa.
This year celebrations in Ger-
many and in Africa will mark
the centenary of Frobenius'
birth on 29 June 1873. In the
following article, Mr. Jacques
Rial, Secretary General of the
Swiss National Commission for
Unesco, discusses the contribu-
tion Frobenius, who died in
1938, made to a reawakened
sense of their cultural tradition
among Africans.

Frobenius And The

IN 1936 a French transla-
tion appeared of Leo Fro-
benius' Kulturgeschichte
Afrikas (Cultural History
of Africa). Among those in
Paris who read the book
with enthusiasm were a
handful of students from
Africa and the Caribbean,
including the formulators
of the idea of Negritude:
Leopold Sedar Senghor,
now the poet-president of

Idea Of


Senegal, Aime
novelist, and

e Cesaire, the
poet and
Leon Damas,

What The Future


TIME was when emperors and
kings turned to astrologers and
soothsayers to predict: their
fortunes. Today it is the
m mathematicians, economists
and information specialists who
provide the answers.
And in keeping with the
times, our contemporary pro-
phets examine neither entrails.
nor the stars, but computer
The results of a December
1971 meeting of twenty five
experts who met in a seminar
sponsored by Unesco on trends
in mathematical modelling,
Shave recently been published.


One of their projects was
the selection of ten events that
would have the greatest impact
on the state of the world by
the. year 2000. Through succes-
sive rounds of questionnaires
and computer processing of
results, an original number of
'ninety possibilities was whittled
down to the following ten:
*- Zero population growth
is attained for the entire
*- A world-wide revolu-
tionary movement of the
"have-not" nations is
started against the "have"
*- Controlled thermonu-
clear power becomes avail-
*- Economic desalination
of water becomes feasible;
*- An economically accept-
able means of producing
artificial protein is dis-
*- An energy storing de-
vice is developed which is
capable of storing very large
amounts of energy at low
*-- The UN is given more
power aid a kind of world
government is set up;

*- Permanent education
(life-long education) re-'
places the present system of
*-In developed countries,,
automation has made it pos-
sible to cut down the num-
ber of working hours to 25
per week;
*- The economic gap be-
tween the developed coun-
tries and the Third World
continues to widen.
Asked to list possible ac-
tions the world could take "to
affect the likelihood of occur-
ence" of these events, the
gathering of experts in Venice,
Italy, suggested the following:
*-Introduce and enforce
international regulations to
prevent pollution of the sea,
air and land;
*- Let there be an inter-
national agreement which
effectively halts the arms
*- Set up an international
technology assessment
agency to centralize, har-
monize and complement
national assessments of the
world-wide consequences of
technological developments;
*-Give the UN more power.
and set up a kind of world
Some commentators have

expressed doubts about the
efficacy of such measures, and
hence about 'the chances of
attaining some of the goals.
Alvin Toffler, the author
of Future Shock, accused his
colleagues of expressing "pious
wishes" as ways to deal with
world crises and of overlooking-'
the element of conflict in social
Toffler also took a swipe
at the "econocentric" side of
technocratic planning which
"makes the assumption that
if we can get the economy to
work, everything else'will some-
how fall into place".
He added that, in his
opinion, technocratic planning
fails because it assumes unde-
mocratically that experts know
more than the so-called masses.
"Ordinary people, even the illi-
terate, know things that ex-
perts aridthe elites they serve
sometimes do not know ...
We shall have to take greater
account of the wishes, the
goals, the problems and even
the dreams of ordinary folk."
Toffler was among those
who criticized the technocrats
because they don't see far
enough ahead despite the fact
that "we now know that cer-
tain social processes have 10,
*25, 50 or even 100-year rhythms
and lead times".

the poet from French
Written in a difficult style
that was already anachronistic,
the History created its strong-
est impact by the originality of
'Frobenius' approach. He gave
to African culture a place equal
to that enjoyed by the civiliza-
tions of the Mediterranean, the
Far East and Central America.


In Frobenius', the young
Negro writers found confirma-
tion that the stories they had
heard as children, the epics
told by their elders were true
history. This history of Africa
described the rise of empires
on the banks of the Niger and
Congo rivers, in the mountain-
ous country of :the Fouta
Djallong (in what is now the
Republic of Guinea) and along
the great rivers to the south.
These empires had social
systems, laws, an ethic. In them
craftsmen became artists, dia-'
lects languages, superstitions
religions, and myths philoso-
phy. Frobenius gave back to
Africa its dignity and thus
opened the way for Negritude.
As we know, the word
Negritude, coined by Senghor
and Cesaire in Paris, has made
its mark. It is still the subject
of many a grave symposium,
still being explained, invoked
and exploited, although it has
come under serious criticism
from a whole generation of
young writers. Negritude, ac-
cording to Senghor, was ori-
ginally defined as the whole of
Black Africa's cultural values.


Not only did Frobenius'
writing contribute to the defi-
nition of the literary and poli-
tical doctrine of Negritude in
this first form, it also inspired
two major themes..dealt with
by 'young black writers before
the African countries attained
These were the return to
a Golden Age, what Senghor
called the country ofchildhood,
an untouched Africa before the
coming of the white man, and
a sense of the cultural unity
of the black world.

In a well-known passage,
Frobenius writes:
When they arrived in the
Gulf of Guinea and went ashore
at Vai'da, the captains were
astonished to find well laid-out
streets, bordered for a distance -
of several leagues by two rows
of trees; for days they crossed
country covered with magnifi-
cent fields, inhabited by men
dressed in brilliantly coloured
clothes made from cloth they_
had woven themselves. Farther
south, in ,the kingdom of the
Congo, a swarming crowd(
dressed in 'silk' and 'velvet',
'great states well ordered down
to the smallest details, power-
ful rulers, prosperous industries.
People civilized to their bones.
And conditions were the same
on the east coast, in Mozam-
Sbique, for example.

In his first book of verse,
Chants' d'Ombre (Songs of
Shadow), Senghor refers in
several places to the theme of
an African Golden Age. In one
poem, he speaks of the king
Koumba Ndofene, Dyouf and
, his father:

Peaceful cousins, they exchanged
gifts on the banks of the Saloiiim,
Precious skins, bars of salt, gold
of Boure and gold of Boundon,
And high counsel like the
horses of the river.

Aime Cesaire's Cahier d'un
retour au pays natal (Notebook
of a Return to the Native Land),
although marked by the bitter-
ness of the diaspora Negro,
also has Frobenian resonances:

No, we never were Amazons
of the king of Dahomey, nor
doctors in-
Timbuktu when Askia the Great
was king, nor architects in
nor Mahdis, nor warriors.

This is how Frobenius
thought of the cultural unity
of Black Africa:

And everywhere where we can
still evoke that old civilization,
it carries the same mark. When
we visit the great museums of
Europe... everywhere we recog-
nize a spirit, a character a
similar essence. From whatever
part of Africa the scattered ob-
jects come, they speak to us in
the same tongue.
The mystique of That im-
mense thing, Africa. .. Africa
of unique poetic talents, unique
artistic creation, was shared
by all those who wrote of
Negritude and especially by
Aime and Suzanne Cesaire, as
in the first issue of their mili-
tant review, Tropiques, pub-
lished in Martinique in 1941.
Senghor, in a brilliant essay,
also wrote:
Once again, contrary to the
European world, the Negro-
African art gives us additional
illustrations of this truth.

It is a belief Senghor has
reiterated many times.
Unesco Features


LAST week a high-powered
team of nine businessmen
from India spent four days
in Trinidad. They were here
they emphasised "to ex-
plore and to see what
best," they could do for
our country.
And from indications given at
a Press Conference, held at the
India High Commission on
Saturday, May 26, 1973, their
Trade Delegation had made
quite a solid knock on our
trade door indeed.
"Fantastic" was the manner
in which Raunaq Singh, the
leader of the mission, and a
major industrialist, described
the potential for trade between
India and Trinidad and Tobago.
They felt that they could
help us and other developing
countries to industrialise by
spreading the slogan of self-
reliance which their Govern-
ment had given to them; and
by backing the idea of indus-
trial development which was
based on a low capital/high
labour ratio.i:

This concept, they noticed
in their meeting with the Tele-
phone Company, was not pro-
perly understood. For when
sophisticated equipment goes
out of order one had either
to import skills, or to do with-
out them.
India, they pointed out,
by relying less on sophisticated
equipment and plant in which
there was a low ratio of labour
to capital had done a lot them-
selves to get rid of unemploy-
[ And after twenty-five years
experience in industrialising
their country, they were now
ready to assist their "develop-
ing country brothers" to do the
same. i
"Today," one trade mem-
ber said, "India can and is,
producing every sort of heavy
equipment and products. We





TION which visited Trinidad
last, week states that it was
their intention to tender for
the contract to modernize
Caroni Limited. This they pro-
mised to do at the appropriate
They had examined docu-
ments concerning the Govern-
iment-controlled company, and
found that the capital stock
had apparently become out-
dated over the last 15 years
or so.
Because of this the Govern-
ment of Trinidad and Tobago
had negotiated with the World
Bank for a loan for the purpose
of modernising the company's
plant and machinery. This loan,
they stressed, was not meant
for increasing the plant's capa-
city for production.'
The loan amounts to ap-


India Wants To

feel we can part with technical
know-how and expertise."
Developing countries, they
felt should try their best to
industrialise as cheaply as pos-
And by virtue of their low
prices, of their high quality
goods, and of the existence
of a. shipping line once per
month to Barbados, India was
now in a position t9 assist
poor countries in the region.
To demonstrate that India
was able to meet the claims
they were making about them-
selves, the Delegation pointed
out that India now had expert-
ise and skills in sugar manufac-
turing equipment, textiles,
cement, fertilizers, refining,
transport, locomotives, trucks,)
buses, railway lines, bicycles,
pipes, tubes, sewing machines,
electronics among other things.
Their'1capacity for irender-
ing industrialaid was exempli-
fied too, by a :iumbr of joint
ventures with several countries.
In the line of power genera-
tion and distribution India was
not found wanting. The most
recent indicator of this was the
state of Haryama which had
been supplied with power

proximately $24 m.
Their interest in the project
stemmed from the fact that a
World Bank loan meant that
tendering had to be worldwide.
In addition, sugar, they
emphasised, was an area in
which India had more or less
technological independence,
They had developed machinery
and equipment for sugar manu-
facturing from the cane-bleed-
ing stage to the most sophisti-
cated level of manufacturing.
Despite all that, the Trade
Delegation anticipates some
difficulty in marketing Indian
sugar manufacturing equipment.
For / example there were
countries in which certain
British firms which controlled
sugar production also manufac-
tured their own plant and equip-
;ment as well.
Continued on Page 12

through skills, materials and
know-how from India.
They were also active next
door to the Caribbean, in the
USA, and Canada. In America
they had constructed a trans-
mission line which boasted of
complete Indianessin materials,
expertise, and know-how. In
Canada too they had built a
huge plywood plant.
Britain, the Delegation re-
counted was today a benefi-

ciary of India's technical know-
how in machine tooling.
However the great volume
of their trade with the rest
of the world was from the light
industrial sector. For example
one quarter of the $22.5 billion
exported last year, was made of
small sector goods. This sector
was also responsible for pro-
ducing 2.4 million bicycles
The members of the Dele-




nation included Raunaq
Singh, the leader, and Chairman
of Engineering Export Promo-
tion Council; Dev Datt Puri, a
sugar industrialist, and one-time
delegate on behalf of India to
United Nationp Sugar Confer-
ences; G. K. Devarajulu, a text
tile specialist; Ashish Kamani;
Bridgemohan Lal; Manmohan
Singh; Dr. R. K. Singh; and
M. Balaji.
The team also has expert-
ise in transmission line towers,
cycle manufacturing, industrial
refrigeration, engineering pro-
ducts, and chemicals.
This year India celebrates
its Silver Jubilee.




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Denim Shorts
9.95 5.99


Ordered To


THE Permanent Commission
of the Partido Revolucionario
Dominicano (PRD), to avoid
division in the party, on May
2 authorized its leader, ex-
Dominican Republic President
Juan Bosch, to leave his under-
ground position and to return
"as soon as possible" to
public life.
Mr. Bosch and other PRD
leaders went into hiding when
Mr. Bosch was implicated by
Pres. Balaguer in the "guerrilla
invasion" of last Feb. 4.


The decision to have Mr.
Bosch resurface came only
minutes after the unity of the
party was threatened by the
resignation of the PRD's No.
Two man, Secretary-General
Jose Francisco Pena Gomez,
who claimed that he had not
seen eye to eye with Mr.
Bosch lately.
At least 10 PRD leaders,
including ex-Senator Pablo
Rafael Casimiro Castro, have
been expelled in one week,
precipitating a crisis that has
divided the party into 3 forces:
One that endorses Mr. Bosch
and his thesis of dictatorship
with popular support; another
of leftist tendency, that would
follow the fiery 35-year-old
Pena Gomez; and 3rd, a con-
servative faction, represented
mainly by the leaders expelled
at April's end.



HANOI IF anything did
capture attention here, it was
the cool manner in which the
Vietnamese treated the Ameri-
can prisoners, who shortly
before had been dropping tons
of bombs on densely popu-
lated quarters of Hanoi and
other cities.
I visited one of the two
"Hanoi Hiltons", where the
last American military prison-
ers in North Vietnam were being
held. I was accompanied by
members of the Four Party
Military Commission and the
International Commission for
Control and Supervision.
The prison camp was a
complex of brick buildings
with slated roofs. There was a
cinema and courts for volley-
ball and basketball.
The buildings, former go-
vernment offices, were sur-
rounded by stiaw-roofed,
earthen-floored little dwellings
where the Vietnamese live.
One of the "tortures" to

9 -

The freed U.S. pilots who grinned broadly as they boarded planes
at Gia Lam Airport now claim they were tortured, harassed and
beaten up. What is the truth behind their stories? Miguel Rivero,
who covered the war in Vietnam for the Cuban News Agency is
one of the few newsmen to have visited the "Hanoi Hiltons" where
the Americans were held..

which the pilots claim to have
been submitted was having to
sleep on matting and wear
pyjamas all the time.

"But what did they
expect?" people ask here. Mil-
lions of Vietnamese sleep on

One Italian newsman blew
up when he read the news of
"torture" which the American
pilots had undergone.
"I saw," he said, "the 40
,Brazilian political prisoners who
arrived at Algeria after being
swapped for an American offi-
cial. They looked a whole lot
different from the pilots every-
one saw leaving Gia Lam Air-
port. Torture leaves an in-

delible mark on people, you can
see it in their physical appear-
The "Hanoi Hilton" we
visited was damaged by bombs
during the December raids.
The B-52's scored several near
hits, and the prisoners were
close to being killed by their
own comrades.
The Vietnamese point out
that President Nixon and the
Pentagon chiefs were to blame
for the risks these prisoners ran.

When we were taken in to
see the "torture victims" they
were hanging round the yard,
some of them reading, others
playing with a ball, and some
arranging their belongings.
A few hid their faces with
books to avoid being photo-
graphed; others turned in to
face a wall, like small boys
punished by their school-

The "torture victims"
formed up in the yard, some
stripped to the waist. There
was not a single scar or bruise
from their "beatings" to be
And these were the crew-
men of the B-52's, who fell
into North Vietnamese hands
at a time when tension was at
a peak, at a time when the
bombers were committing
The "torture victims"
marched with smiles on their
faces, with firm paces, giving
smart salutes to General Russell
Ogan at the airport.
Perhaps at that time they
did not know that they were
going to have to become actors,
reciting scripts about the con-
ditions they had undergone.
But that's military
discipline, they will doubtless
say later. Orders are orders.
Prensa Latina






61 Oueen Street .P.O.S.




Thursday Night


Continue i



Tapia people are reminded that Thursday night is still
the big night up at the House on St. Vincent Street,
Open house discussion proceeds as usual and
is assuming even more importance than in 1969/70.
We have reached the second and final round of the
February Revolution.
Now that we have established the printing
plant, we also have an increased number of odd-
jobs to be done stock control, folding, despatch-
ing, mail orders, and so on.
Our economic dependence can be won only if -
volunteer services add something to the hardwuk
put in by our full-time hard-core.
Our political independence can be won only if
all Tapia people secure a stake in the movement that
we are building.

-- --

1's. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of ian,
162, East 78th Street,
zid YORK, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,
wm ~u -

/ /

Soccer players

must master

skills F-r*


THE two match series between Trinidad and Hull
City of England has been drawn with Trinidad winning
the first match at the Oval 2-1 and Hull City winning
the return at Skinner Park 2-0.
But, the sorry state of our football is still
with us. Since the decline of Malvern after the mid
sixties we have not produced a team that can match
the performances of pre-
vious years, despite the RUTHVENBAPTISTE
emergence of players like
Archibald, Cummings, De-
leon and Lincoln Phillip.
leon and Li n P said that if you want to play
Trinidad's performance in said that if you want to pl
this series has been uninspiring soccer you must master the
and lackadaisical. While pos- ball.
The other setback is the
sessing in defence Selwyn Mur- e oe ebacks
ren, Raymond Moraldo and absence of able wingbacks. How
Lawrence Rondon, three play- could a non-player like Winston
ers of genuine class, the rest of Phillip represent Trinidad so
the team is comprised of medio- consistently? The only attr-
crities whose creativity is bute that recommends him is
limited to square passes and his long throw. His position-
back passes to the goalkeeper. ing, ball skill and distribution
are non-existerit.
The immediate needs are a are non-existent.
creative halfline plus disciplined In the first match at the
and skillful wingbacks. Oval he even resorted to push-
ing out his bottom to an on-
TECHNIQcoming opponent to stop him.
TECHNIQUE Yet is is said that he is the
best left back available.
The present half line is The problem arises both
shared amongst Headley, Spann, from coaches and players. On
Husbands and Morgan, good the one hand coaches seem to
club players, but not of inter- be of the opinion that because
national standard, especially a player is a stopper for his
when compared with Franco, club he cannot play at wing-
Sedley Joseph, Doyle Griffith, back; players on the other hand
Bertrand Grell, stars of the don't like to play wingback.
recent past.
The difficulty they present
to the team is that because of FRACAS
their failure to feed the for-
ward line properly it devolves To many it's the "dog"
upon the forwards to run back, position on a team. The prob-
work the ball up for themselves lem can be easily solved in the
and then set about the task of short run by converting anyone
scoring, of our good stoppers to that
The pressure is too much. position.
Our halves are so bogged down Finally, we have produced
in trying to master technique since the mid-sixties players
that they are unable to plan such as Archibald, Cummings
and execute creative plays. and Deleon whose ability
is unquestionably of interna-
EXERCISE tional standard. The talents of
these players have been ex-
Their lack of ball control, ported to the American pro-
and by that I mean precise dis- fessional league and the socio-
tribution, clean collecting and economic reasons that forced
trapping as well as running with them to take that option are
the ball, reflects the inadequacy among the factors underlying
of their preparation. To my our lackadaisical displays.
mind the emphasis on physical The minor leagues demon-
exercise at the expense of station of 1969, the Pele fra-
sharpening ball skills is the cas at the Oval and striking
essential fault in our training footballers also attest to the
programmes. underlying malaise which con-
A player will start his first tinues to frustrate our chances
class career not heading pro-
perly and finish his career that of enjoying a consistently high
perly and finish his career that standard of football from our
way.Di Stefano,the former Real
Madrid and Spain player, once players.


Continued from Page 1
Another requirement is that
the man must not be charged
for political crimes. This was
why such a big stink was
caused some years ago when the
British Government returned
Chief Enaharo to the Nigerian
These days the British are
wiser than that. With political
instability everywhere, the
times certainly demand much
caution, and even much dis-
For example there is the
case of the attempted assassina-
tion of the Moroccan King.
The air force men from Morocco
who were involved flew in heli-
copters to-GibraTtar.
The British Government did
not wait for them to seek poli-
tical assylum. They merely told
Gibraltar to send them back to
ensure the defence of the
colony. For as they argued there
were Moroccan workers in
Gibraltar and this could lead to
A little guile is also useful
In the case of Malik,
Guyana, and Trinidad the story
is quite a different one from
that of the Moroccans. Malik
was not given a hearing at all.
In fact his lawyer Miles Fitz-
patrick was not allowed to see
him, even though a hearing was
called for.
As a purely administrative
matter the Guyanese Govern-
ment gave him over to the
police. Malik was thus bundled
over to Trinidad like a wad of
old clothes, ear-marked for

CARONI Limited has begun
the first phase of its drive to
modernise its operations.
The company revealed that
last week it had invited tenders
for the supply of transport and
field equipment, the cost of
which may run to $1m.
In keeping with the terms
of the World Bank loan tenders
were invited from all countries
affiliated to the said bank.
This information was re-
leased in a morning paper
shortly after a team of business-
men from India expressed an
intention to submit tenders for
the project.

some mercy mission. In Inter-
national Law this was com-
pletely illegal.
But for the Government of
Trinidad and Tobago this kind

of fix-up is nothing new. For
it has shown no respect either
for the principle of Interna-
tional Law, or for accepted
features of international prac-
The case in point occurred
when Williams sent back a few
years ago, an F.A.L.N. crew



Continued from Page 10
The delegation wanted to
ensure that the granting of
tenders was impartial. To this
end they had been to see our
Planning Commission, our Ex-
ternal Affairs Minister, and our
Minister of Industry and Com-
As far as sugar exports were
concerned,lndia's fortunes were
not so good, and in fact fluc-
tuated in the same way as ours
Elaborating on this Dev
Datt Puri pointed out that
India, like ourselves, partici-
pates in the Commonw' ih
Sugar Agreement. And if Bri-

who had hijacked a plane to
Trinidad. It is just not accepted
practice for a Government to
send back persons who are
known to be wanted for poli-
tical crimes in countries of
their origin.
They can be asked to leave,
and go elsewhere. But sending
them back is quite another
It was no surprise then, that
the next day the Trinidad Em-
bassy in Venezuela was
machine-gunned. Granado the
therAmbassador came scurrying
home without even reporting to
his family. He had come, as he
claimed, for consultation.
Because the principle of
reciprocity is the rule in such
matters Latin Americans view
extradition with extreme deli-
cateness. You can never tell
when you are next. This of
course gives Williams an idea of
where not to go should his turn
be next.
More over, there is con-
siderable evidence to show that
in certain cases such dubious
practices are merely indicative
of the servile deference which
the Government of Trinidad
and Tobago shows towards the
rest of the world.
Why for example should
the Government of Trinidad
and Tobago provide the services
of the Coast Guard to assist
the Venezuelan Government
in deporting our people from
that country?
In the meantime we are
waiting to see how the ace
crime-fighter tangles with the
intricacies of International Law.


tain did not buy, India would
have to find another market for
her sugar.
In fact, he said, the stand
taken by India on the question
of Britain's entry into the
European Common Market was
identical with that taken by
the Government of Trinidad and
India is negotiating for
guarantees in regard to quotas
and prices, and hopes that the
obligations now borne by Bri-
will be taken over by the
expanded European Economic





re Now