Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00059
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: May 20, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00059

Full Text
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THE Belmont arm of the
National Joint Action Com-
mittee invites the people to an
indoor meeting to be held on
Tuesday May 22, 1973, at
7.00 p.m., at the Belmont
Community Centre.
The purpose of this meeting
is to re-examine and discuss
the case of Anthony Joseph
also known as "Santa Claus",
who was shot by the police on
Sunday October 29, 1972.
As you all know, the coroner
(F. Alcindor) ruled 'no felony'

Harps Fete

Orchestra will be holding a
fund-raising fete at their pan-
tent, La Seiva Village, Maracas
Valley, on Sunday June 10,
starting at 8.00 p.m.
Music will be supplied by
Ray Sylvester and his orchestra

Best For Ja

TAPIA Secretary, Lloyd Best
leaves for Jamaica on Sunday
May 20, to continue delibera-
tions- with the Professional
Committee which is investigat-
ing charges against Dr. Trevor
Munroe. Mr. Best will be away
for a week.

IN 1969 would you have
chosen to take Williams
the full distance and win
the game on points? Or
did you think we should
go for a k.o.? That while
the grass was growing the
horse would starve?

After Lloyd Best had
spoken to the Assembled
Opposition at the time of
the Transport Strike, George
Weekes remarked that the
case for chinksing had been
brilliantly argued, with only
24 hours notice. Peter
Farquhar said it was an
altogether admirable presenta-
tion and Vernon Jamadar
agreed wholeheartedly.
Yet they all voted for the
strategy of early confronta-
tion. Take position yourself.
Read The Options Before Us,
pages 6, 7 & 8.


at the end of an inquest into
the matter. Because of the
haste in which this no felony
ruling was made, we requested
through the media that the
said inquest be reopened
This call has gone unheeded.
As the evidence of both
the police and the witnesses
will be read to the people, all
who attend must be prepared
to decide the issue for THEM-
The people's decision will
be final.

and Echo Harps themselves.
Admission is $5.00 a couple
and $3.00 single.

This coming Thursday,
May 24th
Time 8.00 p.m.
Venue Tapia House,
St. Vincent St., Tunapuna.

TAPIA People are
reminded of the Com-
munity Day being
organised by Associates
in Point Fortin.
Please note that the date
is Sunday May 27, and not
the 28th as reported in the
last issue. The venue is the
New Village Community
The morning session
begins at 9.00 a.m. and will
be devoted to wide-ranging
discussions. For the afternoon
a programme of social
activities has been arranged.
Details regarding agenda
and transportation from The
Administrative Secretary at
The Tapia House, 82-84, St.
Vincent Street, Tunapuna,


POLICE have charged 23 Tunapuna youths with obstructing the
freeway on the night of May 15. Charged are Kelvin Millette, Keith
Greaves, Ashton Goddard, Steven Lashley, Leroy Todd, Vinod
Narine, Basilio Govia, Edward Ramesar, Ralph James and Allan
Benny, Sookhdeo Maharaj,. Krishna Naidoo, Deodath Ramlal,
Krishna Sammy, Chunilal Jagat; Norman Cook, Anthony Greaves,
Kelvin Alleyne and Keith Walker; Cecil Mohammed, Carl Mahabir
and Prakarsh Dookhie, and Soonalal Ramnarine.
The case was called at the Tunapuna Magistrate's Court on
Wednesday May 15, and was put off until May 30. Mr. O.E. Williams
will appear for the defence.

Why Only One Fire

Engine In Grande ?

AROUND three o'clock
on Thursday afternoon of
May 3, I was at work in
my barber shop upstairs of
Basdeo's building. Sud-
denly one of the brothers
drew my attention to a
column of smoke coming
from the Bissram building
next door. So we immedi-
ately went to the gallery
to check out what was
going on.

When we realized what was
happening we raised the alarm:
Fire! Soon the entire area was
crowded. In the meantime two
brothers went to the Fire
Brigade Station just about one
block away from Bissram's.
Imagine how they felt when
told that the van was out.
So it. was another half-hour
before the firemen arrived. As
they got down to work the
rotten hoses could only
sprinkle the firemen instead of

spray the fire. It was a hell of
a thing.
Everybody knows that
Sangre Grande is the capital of
of the East. How can the
Government explain only one
van for the whole of the East
when they are spending hund-
reds of thousand of dollars
on guns?

Some people are blaming the
Fire Service but you can't
blame them when the affairs of
Sangre Grande are so tightly
controlled in Port-of-Spain.
Unless we get more power for
the people in Sangre Grande
we will never be able to help
That fire last Thursday put
over forty brothers and sisters
out of work.
Buntin Joseph




TERROR now reigns off
the Main Road east of
San Juan. At nights the
blocks are as clear as if a
curfew were in force.
Police turn beast.
It is the same story in
San Juan, St. Joseph, Curepe
Tunapuna, Pasea, El Dorado,
and Tacarigua. Wherever two
or three are gathered, is into
the police van. No questions,
no explanations. "Get inside,
you obstructing the freeway."
Tuesday gone the van hit
like lightning in Tunapuna
and around. Between 7.30
and 8.30 p.m. nearly two
dozen youths were rounded
up, taken to the station,
finger-printed, and charged
to appear in Court Wednes-
day morning.
A tense crowd gathered
outside the police station to
witness proceedings. Shortly
after 9 p.m. Lloyd Best
arrived with Tapia Chairman,
Syl Lowhar.
The Tapia Secretary told
the desk-officer that it made
no sense to say that so many
people had all been obstruct-

ing the freeway during so
short a period on the same
"It seems that the Police
have launched a campaign to
terrorise the population and
to prevent the entirely con-
stitutional activity of liming."
"Tapia", Mr. Best added, "is
not prepared to put up with
this encroachment on our
Later in the night Lowhar
and Best returned to the
station with Ivan Laughlin,
Tapia Community Relations

Secretary. In a letter to the
Officer-in-charge, they warned
that "the only possible effect
is to breed fear among the
citizens and to generate
antagonisms the ultimate
consequence of which could
be community war and the
rule of violence."
Their letter was copied
to the Minister of National
Security, the Commissioner
of Police and the Police
Association a
See Page 2, Letter.

15 Cents

On news stands every Friday


I 1 9 ,- I I I

Vol. 3, No. 20

SUNDAY MAY 20, 1973

Li 7

A TIDAL wave of violence
is sweeping over the Carib-
bean where neo-colonialist
Governments have conti-
nued to oppress the people
in the fashion of the
imperial masters.
In Bermuda, the Governor,
Sir Richard Sharpies' was killed
by an assassin's bullet; in St.
Vincent, the Attorney General
Mr. Cecil Rawle suffered the
same fate last week. The
question which must be upper-
most in the minds of the
powers that be is who next?
Those in Trinidad and Tobago
must be very worried because
here has been the heartland of
discontent since '70.
In Grenada workers, and
businessmen, have brought
economic activity to a stand-
still, and have cabled the
British Government protesting
the granting of Independence
to Mr. Gairy. The New Jewel
Movement which appears to
be in the vanguard of the
resistance there seems to have
benefited from our political
experiences here. It is calling
for a Constituent Assembly
and Constitution Reform so as
to re-organise the State.


The people will not allow
Eric Gairy and his Mongoose
gang to rule like the Crown
Colony Governor that Eric
Williams has been after Inde-
pendence. Already Eric has
asked Eric for police help. This
is tantamount to the request
for foreign troops which
Williams made three years ago.
Here in Trinidad and Tobago
the Police are enforcing a State
of Emergency. The Govern-
ment has given them wide
powers of search and arrest
without warrant through a
series of repressive laws which
the population has never
accepted. The Governor-
General does not now have to
proclaim a period of public
emergency for civil liberties
to be suspended.
The Sedition Act, the Fire-
arms Act, the Summary
Offences Amendment Ordi-
nance, the Industrial Relations
Act, all passed during the '71
State of Emergency, the second
that was declared in two
years, almost add up to the
total-itarian Public Order Bill
which was defeated by public
opinion in September '70.
Perhaps the laws of evidence
will now be revised to make
hearsay admissible in court and
complete the blueprint for


Violence, like nature, abhors
a vacuum. Everywhere one
turns one sees glaring evidence
that the Government cannot
govern. It is corrupt and
incompetent, bankrupt of
ideas and lacking in moral
authority. Having failed to
create a framework for the
orderly transfer of democratic,
power is ensuring that change
can come only through
violence. In this situation we
can be sure that violent forces
of the right as well as the left
are seeking to fill the void.
The daily press seems to
be encouraging a rightwing
takeover under the banner of
Law and Order. We view with
alarm the photograph of Supt.
Burroughs which accompanied
Merrick's article in the Express

SUNDAY MAY 20. 1973

~~: N!: A' -~ : .t'iWA" 4' '


-I I -

of May 15. Burroughs, pistol in
hand, was made to appear like
a tough customer, very much
in the image of the Latin
American caudillo-dictator.
Everywhere the police are
taking control, and the civil
Government seems powerless
to stop them. During the reign
of terror in '70 policemen
stood guard outside the doors
of Ministers who lived in
doubt as to whether they
were under house arrest or
under police protection. That
was not surprising. It is
dangerous to play with force
in whatever form whether it is
the official force of the State
- the army or the police or
the inherent force in the
people. The ferocious tends to
turn upon the hand that feeds
Both the Government and
the opposition are getting to
realise that their militant
wings can easily seize the
initiative and change the
direction of politics.


Why are the Police behaving
in this way? The first thing
we have to bear in mind is
that there are two arms of the
law a Police Force and a
Police Service. They have been
in conflict for a long time. The
Force is organised around
Burroughs, and consists of

most of the Special Service (SS)
Units. In every Police station,
on every beat, there are those
whose ambition it is to be
'promoted' to the Force.
We suspect that the other
arm is organised around the
Police Service Association.
Hence the perennial conflict
between Secretary Arneaud
and Commissioner Bernard. Up
to this week we were heartened
by the stand taken by the
Association condemning exclu-
sive Police releases to the
Bomb. We have long suspected
that Choko has a hot line from
the Commissioner's Office as
well as other major Depart-
ments of the Government.
The Police Force is behaving
in this way out of fear, because
they are getting the message
that revolutionaries are tired
of being hounded down, and
are now ready to build an
armed resistance. The recent
shooting of two recruits in St.
James, resulting in the death of
P.C. Pritchard has made this
clear. It is also alleged that
about a week ago in the San
Juan area a youth made an
attempt to shoot Supt. Bur-
roughs who as usual did not
fail to make his miraculous
escape. The list of policemen
shot is lengthening -- Cooke,
Leach, Young, Salvary, Trot-
man, Burnham, Pritchard
among others.

The Police Force is also
becoming more and more in-
secure. They can feel the
resentment and bitterness
towards them coming from a
too long harassed population.
No longer can they dismiss
young offenders as tramps and
ragamuffins, the scum of the
ghettoes. Many of the people
on the wanted list come from
'respectable' middle class
homes. They are educated and
by no means destitute. This
rising new breed points to a
deeper malaise in the politics
of the country. Closer scrutiny
would reveal that it is their
parents who supported the
PNM in '56. They are the
products of the 11 plus educa-
tion, of PNM morality. They
are the children who are
carrying the destiny of this
country in their schoolbags, as
Williams once charged them to
Increasingly pressure is
being brought on the Police
Force through the Courts.
There has been a series of
Coroner's inquests which the
country cannot easily forget.
There is the case of Inspector
Peters whose gun went off by
accident, killing a woman in
Curepe. There is the case of
Cowie who died in a cell in
Tobago. More recently there
is the case of Joseph "Santa
Claus" who died of a gunshot
while in Police custody, on his
way to Headquarters. And
now the case of Devignes, shot
to death by a policeman.
Of course we all remember
the Basil Davis case when
Joshua Gordon, the policeman
who fired the shot was allowed
to leave the country even
before the inquest was finished.
If he were committed to stand
trial he would not have been
around. It is now a great

embarrassment that Gordon is
on suspension from duty
pending the hearing of a
larceny charge made by
Inspector James. When one
compares the privilege that
was granted to Gordon in
granting him leave to fly out,
with the denial of bail to
young persons who have no
intention of absconding it is a
grave injustice and a burning


In the hearing of the
Kelshall lawsuit for damages
more embarrassment has been
caused by the statement of
Supt. Brown who contended
that he arrested Kelshall with-
out a warrant and without
knowing why.
But the greatest embarrass-
ment of all is their failure to
apprehend Guy Harewood
whom they have notoriously
branded as Public Enemy No.
1 and other ringleaders of an
allegedly secret organisation
called NUFF (National United
Freedom Fighters).
And this default is in spite
of a string of rewards, some
amounting to $10,000. The
Police have combed the moun-
tains, and the valleys without
success during the dry season
when water was scarce and the
bush thin,
On March 28, they raised
the alarm that they had en-
countered a gang of 40 armed
guerillas in the Northern
Range. They reported that they
had recovered several ham-
mocks and guns. The Regi-
ment was called out. Not a
trace. If the guerillas are so
elusive in the drywood what
will they be in the green?


Representations have been made
to us to the effect that Police
Officers have this evening been
detaining a large number of Tuna-
puna citizens. We then checked at
the Police Station to find that
some two dozen youths from
different parts of the town are
being held in custody.
We questioned a desk officer
who explained that the detentions
had been effected because the
youths had been obstructing the
freeway. Another officer added
that "it is o.k.they may get bail."
We are completely at a lose to
understand how so large a number
of citizens from different parts of
the town can on the same night
have been arrested for precisely the
same charge. We are left to conclude
that the arrests are all part of a
campaign which must have followed
a policy decision to break up
established limes.
We point out that liming is a
perfectly legitimate social activity
which stands within the law.
We view with horror this
totally unwarranted .campaign by

the police to encroach on the con-
stitutional rights of citizens under
the flimsy pretext that the limers
are obstructing the free passage-
We here and now advise the
Police Service that Tapia is not
prepared to tolerate any infringe-
ment of our fundamental rights
under the guise of maintaining law
and order.
Above all, we wish to make it
clear to all concerned that the only
possible effect of arbitrary andun-
constitutional action by the police
is to breed fear among the citizens
and with that to generate antagon-
isms the ultimate consequence of
which could be community war
and the rule of violence.
We therefore urge those respon-
sible for the police action this
evening to reflect deeply on the
Yours truly,
Syl Lowhar.
Lloyd Best
Ivan Laughlin

The existence of NUFF was
first brought to public notice
in April '72 when both the
Police and the Regiment were
involved in manoeuvres against
'guerillas' in the Fyzabad
forests. Intimidation and terror
was the tactic of the Police in
squeezing out whatever they
could from the residents of the
These strong-arm methods
have recently been applied
with a vengeance in the Mara-
cas Valley and Central Trini-
dad. In the scourge they have
arrested Lennox Killian, Ex-
soldier Mehemood, who have
been accused of taking food
to the hiding fugitives some-
where in Cascade. They have
also detained Eric Cameron, a
runaway soldier who does not
want to go back to the U.S.
The obvious picture that is
being set up is that these ex-
sol men have been training


At about the end of
February Geddes Granger,
together with Dorman, and
Louisa Critchlow of NJAC
was arrested without bail on
seemingly spurious charges of
having in his possession a few
rounds of ammunition. For
this they served twenty-one
days in jail.
Now that the Police feel
convinced that the guerillas
are in the urban areas and not
in the mountains, they have
extended the dragnet to the
Just Tuesday night this
week, they made a clean sweep
of Tunapuna. About twenty-
five young men were scooped
up. Presumably this campaign
extended to blocks elsewhere.
Between Wednesday 9 and
Sunday 14, it was announced
that 30 persons had beer
detained in connection with
the Tragarete Road Barclays
Bank robbery which took
place on February 22.
Judging from the Gestapo
methods of coercion and
brainwashing which are being
used we are forced to con-
clude that a Police State has
been formally established in
the land.
In a democratic society
persons ought not to be
charged for any but a breach
of the law. They ought not
to be detained for questioning
for more than 24 hours. At all
times the right of access to a
lawyer acting on behalf of
interested parties ought not to
be denied. If a person is not
caught committing the
offence a warrant ought to be
issued before the arrest is made.
So far all these basic prin-
ciples have been set aside in


SUNDAY MAY 20, 1973


Market Crisis For

Trinidad oi

WITH our production
running at about 200,000
barrels per day, Trinidad
& Tobago is the largest
producer of petroleum in
the Caribbean. Cuba's out-
put is less than 4,000
barrels per day.
In fact our position is unique
because the Caribbean is
essentially a refining area, a
'place where the big corpora-
tions have found the political
climate congenial and very
much to their liking. Most of
our neighbours import a lot of
their crude-oil needs, many of
them export finished products
and none comes anywhere to
being self-sufficient as we are.
In 1972 imports into the
main refining centres, Curacao,
Aruba, Bahamas and the Virgin
Islands as well as Trinidad,
amounted to 833,300 barrels

per day. Now Jamaica has
announced a proposal to build
a refinery with a capacity of
250,000 barrels per day.
Puerto Rico has already gone
ahead with a big petrochemicals
complex and there are smaller
refining units in places such as


As a country with a large'
surplus of oil to export, we
obviously have an interest in
seeing that the Caribbean area
wins its economic indepen-
dence from the oil corpora-
The next government of this
country is going to have to
settle the oil question once
and for all. The industry must

be localised so that control of
decisions would pass to the
Unions, the municipal adthori-
ties and other local interests
as well as to, the central gov-
When we assume control, a
marketing crisis is sure to
emerge in much the same way
as Guyana faced a crisis the
moment the Burnham Govern-i
ment, very much a creation of,
Washington, resolved to
nationalise the Demerara
'Bauxite Company.
Obviously, the markets to
which we will- have to turn
when the critical moment
comes are the markets of
countries like ourselves in
Latin America, Asia and
Africa. This means that'the
radicals in the diplomatic
service must start their work
from now because the end of
the old regime is now only a

matter of time.
On the surface the Latin
American prospects seem good.
Petroleum production grew to
1.522 million barrels per day
in 1972 from 1.461 million in
1971. Consumption was much
higher, increasing from 2.128
million to 2.256 million in the
same period.


In order to cover the deficit
Latin America we do not
include Venezuela in this dis-
cussion had to purchase
871,000 barrels per day, of
which 533,000 came from
Africa or the Arab countries.
Only 318,000 barrels were
purchased from Venezuela,
where U.S. control and higher
costs make prices very-high.
It will take far more change

of the kind now sweeping
Chile, Cuba and Peru for
Trinidad & Tobago to be able
to take advantage of our
natural outlets on the Ameri-
can Continent. More Govern-
ments will have to free them-
selves of the giant trans-
national corporations such as
Standard, Shell, Gulf and
We must therefore scan the
whole of the world picture.
India, certainly, comes high on
the list of countries with
which we must begin to
hammer out petroleum deals.
IndiA still imports a great deal
of crude petroleum and even
some finished products. CuJ-
tural ties give us an important
The new Government would
.have to give early considera-
tion to a. scheme of technical
co-operation with India in the
field of petroleum develop-

THE March 8 issue of the
New York Review of
Books carries an analysis
of the situation in Viet-
nam and of the ceasefire.
agreement by I.F. Stone, a
prominent liberal journalist
and longtime opponent of
the war in Southeast Asia.
Stone's article in entitled
"Toward a Third Indo-
china War."
Stone argues that "Nixon
and the military had to 'get
out' (of Vietnam) in order to
stay in." Only by withdrawing
U.S. ground forces could
Nixon assure "popular acquie-
sence' in maintaining offshore
and on nearby bases a huge air
and sea armada ready for
renewed intervention."
"A second key to coming
events lies in the lop-sided
character of the ceasefire
agreement," he explains. "It
effectively obligates Thieu to
nothing at all," while ".
Hanoi is obligated to maintain

begin again.
"The signs point toward a
third Indochina war," Stone

the ceasefire agreement with
the U.S. no matter how much.
Thieu stalls on negotiations.
And Thieu must frustrate
these if he is to retain power.
The setup now, gives Thieu a
blank check for resumed
American bombing if the other
side balks."

"Obviously," Stone states,
"the scenario is for Thieu to
wipe out his domestic opposi-
tion while we (the U.S.) keep
the military balance in his
Pointing to the role of the
Soviet Union in subverting the
gains of the Vietnam revolu-
tion. Stone writes: "In 1954
(the date of the Geneva
Agreements on Vietnam), as.
now so close is the parallel
- the Soviet Union was ready
to curb Vietnamese military
action in return for a European
security conference."

For Peking, Stone says, U.S.
promises to reduce its forces
on Taiwan made the Chinese
leadership very co-operative
with U.S. efforts in Indo-
"Hanoi, Peking, and Mos-
cow," Stone continues, "kept
their part of the bargain for
many years after Geneva. The
failure 'to hold the 1956
'elections passed without real
protest. The reprisals against
political opponents were
openly carried out by Diem
without reaction from the
communist capitals. It was'
Diem who stirred up the'
revolt, and that revolt came
not because of but against the
communist party line."
The struggle in the South
developed on its own, without
support from any of the
workers' states, says Stone.
And as Thieu carries out his
campaign of repression that
struggle' in the South will

concludes. We are back
in 1954, and the tragedy begins
its replay."
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91, Tunapuna Road,
Trinidad & Tobago.


June 30


- ,-L'


ABFTM Ow war, after
tlw Yanke t eInd aroweid
dNV* f townl Fttfiag

ki uwmployed youth
1S00M& for "nojar Uap to

?iemin of opportufifl
for moboty whkh et Tri--
n&d4 on the road to the
sosl ituflaotin of today:
A~ tfh forturns ofJaho aind
Mi ah dip"d, th @f affnd
d_ i tera of eth@ fragile lo@f
ffiddi glag waa making it
pward df@Uh tho e@fltdaiy
A#invigAtion might show
that @o @of the rfidi ts oef
VasAyn and other "nfle" hous-
ing ar~as, now accustomed to
the lag car, were once at home
in the small house.


The youth of that era have
become doctors and lawyers,
University professors, Chairmen
of Boards, politicians, soured
civil servants and customs
They are the people who
commuted from San Fernando
and Arima to get to St. Mary's
and Q.R.C., the scholarship
In the established Indian
doctor of today lurks the youth
who tied out the cow in the
morning and cleaned the pen,
in the Chinese bigwig, the girl
or boy who did a compulsory
stint behind the counter selling
a half-pound of rice and a cent
salt, in the black Permanent
Secretary the sulking child who
had to take the "po" out to the
pit latrine and fought like a
wild cat at, the back of the
dusty dilapidated primary
We have had little or no
imaginative account of this
period in which kids who were
schooled in cricket with a coco-
nut bat and football with a
windfall recognized that they
belonged to the growing minor-
ity destined to break into the
system of rewards of the Crown
Colony society.


We see many of them today
halteredin coat and tie, dancing
madly to calypso in the Hilton
ballroom, respectability andthe
ability to swing incongrously
JPan Beat by Marion Patrick
Jones attempts to introduce us
to a group of such people,
sixth former and their girl-
friends of the late forties.
Miss Jones' book perhaps
has the inevitable defects of a
first effort, a first effort at
writing a novel, a first effort
at focusing on a social group
which is so slightingly referred
to by an established writer
like Naipaul.
She undoubtedly started
with a useful perception; name-
ly that the post 1945 creole
lower middle class felt a call to
two different worlds. This is
expressed in terms of a group
of secondary school students
who defy the conventions of
rising aspirations by getting
a stedelband going.
One thinks of groups like
Silver Stars and Dixieland. The

existence of these bands pin-
pointed a reality: namely that
beyond the slums and ih front
of The Bridge, the ste'elband
as a local form had gripped
lower middle class interest and
that middle classish-youth who
could feel themselves being
alienated by the study of Latin
and the totally non-indigenous


NINE special awards and
25 merit awards were presented
to selected craftsmen by the
Prime Minister of India, Mrs.
Indira Gandhi in New Delhi,
on March 21, in commemora-
tion of the 25th anniversary
of India's independence. Cash
prizes of Rs 10,000 and Rs 2,500
were given-to special and merit
award winners respectively
along with certificates.
Merit awards were given for
crafts such as kalamkari, tar-
kashi, silver engraving, wood
carving, carpet weaving, bronze
casting, stone; sandalwood and
palm leaf carving, painting on
wood, bamboo work, filigree
work and enamel work.
Presenting the awards Mrs.
Gandhi said that the work of
handicraft is part of our nation-
al life and resources.
This, she said, is one of the
good things of our tradition
which must be maintained if
we are to keep our individuality
and for true progress and deve-
lopment of the human being.
Indian & Foreign Review

reference system of what was
defined as education tried to
cling to some kind of form
which seemed to express their
own realities.
What one might have hoped
for fromPan Beat was an image
of how the youth of the period
were forn apart by contra-
dictions or sold out to the



TAP0000; AP 7n,

system, or went mad or escaped
into exile., What we get is a
pallid account of the failure at
the emotional level of a group
of such youth.
The fact that the ..:.!:
boys beat pan at a certain
stage no more affects their
lives than if they had joined
the Sea Scouts or limed at the
comer smoking cigarettes
One becomes a priest, another
jumps in the Thames to commit
suicide, one young lady whom
the nuns at Convent never
cared for turns prostitute in-
London for two years, before
marrying a homosexual The
sad truth is that as readers we
find it hard ao cae-
Mr. Andrew Sailey, the well
known West Indian novelist
got a lot more aut of the mnoae
than this reviewer-.

In the prologue he says
that "it is really a novel about
the vagaries of colonial failure,
and more particularly, about
the abject failure of the new
Trinidadian middle class of te
"It is also about the wilful
i-; :-.iie-: :r. and the '::.,,lri,

a-nd g-itt- in the Fhe Tia i-
ban wmendazians e ..
Bind te ea Bridge i, from Itie
rest ofc s ie ty".

Mr- SAle: a o feaen n de-
picted isIhe slhreagh, crua
dadian womena ..
aMr- SalkTer. -war& fed ace
in the reader the sre ~iall
of rising epeatfim Sr ffeds
in the scene io whid the u gh
priest feels an effrtfim camwig
un WA he breakwew gWaHmll?
Does MaiJa SSESS i ffak
new gaomnd? If thxe wtnmik
riqg of Sajr:e rw'-i cfei'inec- "*acsrx ,S
a chad IM yea,T ed te manidla

a ,m -

You always

Wanted her to
. sew...

S I makes it easy--
and an ideal

Gift too.






soft, light

- and delicious.

SUNDAY MAY 20,1973



lloyd King reviews

Pan Beat Marion

Jones'novel about the

new middle lass



peace and love on the
blocks these days. Instead
there is the anxiety that
any passing car could be a
police vehicle on one of its
"cleaning up the streets"
Over the last two weeks'
San Juan and Mt. Lambert
have experienced sudden
police swoops made in the
early liming hours of the
night resulting in scores of
young men being carted
down and charged with
Men say that the bad old
days of, the vice-squad are with
us once again the difference
is, however, that now the police-
men are coming armed and, if
we are to judge from the ex-
periences in the past, ready to


The San Juan situation is
interesting in that it demon-
strates the unhappy situation
in which policemen have now
found themselves.
The tightening up operations
in San Juan have come in the
wake of three shooting inci-
dents stemming from a bid by
some men to seize the leader-
ship of the East Side steelband.
One man has been killed.
two wounded, and there is no
doubt that San Juan is simmer-
ing. So much so that East Side
is clamouring for police pro-
tection. How they want this
protection is significant.
According to East Side, some
bad-johns from yesteryear are
SItrying to muscle their way into
the band in defiance of the
band's constitution which states
that new membership must be.
ratified by the executive.
The police, says East Side,
'knows who these men are, so
all that is needed for peace to
return to San Juan is for them
to lock up the.trouble-makers
on any trumped up charge -
"after all," reasons the band's
PRO, McKarm, "they do it with
innocent people all the time."


Moreover, the band claims
that the shooting might .have
been avoided if the police had
kept their promise to arrange
a meeting between band-mem-
bers and the "other side". That
such meeting was not held
has led to the fantastic charge
that the violence at San Juan
has been politically inspired
with the aim of bringing about
yet another State of Emergency.
Police Commissioner, Eustace
Bernard, might be amazed at
this line of reasoning,-but what
Mr. Bernard seems not to under-
stand is that the country is
seeing the police as having a
political role to play.
This vision of the police
is also evident in the response
by, the young people in Mt.
Lambert. Here the claim is that
the police are not so much
interested in charging people
for loitering as in the oppor-
tunity presented to fingerprint
those arrested. The plan being
to have somethinglike a nation-
al file of the fingerprints of
hundreds of young people

SUNDAY MAY 20,1973

Police harass

east side


whose only crime, really, is
that they have left the hot
stuffiness of their overcrowded.
homes, and since there is noth-
ing else to do, talk in the
relative coolness of the streets.
That seems to be an under-
standing beyond the police
hierarchy, so it is easy for .them
to see in every knot of young
men a band of criminals. It was
the police chief, himself, who
at the opening of the Con-
ference on Crime talked about
crime disguised in political
clothes a ready argument
for one who refuses to under-'
stand that the spate of crime
we are having is the effect of
the deep-seated malaise in the


The trouble, however, with
this straight law and order
approach is that it leaves you
with very few options "-San
Juan is a trouble area, therefore
the thing to do is to sweep peo-
ple off the streets. In the pro-
cess, however, the innocent is
tumbled in with the guilty, and
East. Side, ironically enough, is
dissatisfied with and fearful of
the "protection" that it is getting.
But what are the policemen
to do? Threats are still in the
air, the San Juan affair is far
from finished and today the'
police are in no position to use
their good offices to bring about
a settlement to the dispute.
As it is East Side points out
that there is no internal dispute
within the band and they can
.only tolerate just so much
terrorising from outside forces.
Who, then, is to intervene?
Who is to impress upon people
that an organization's constitu-
tion is to be respected cer-
tainly not the Government. In-
deed,,the Minister of Education
and Culture was approached,
but what could he, poor man,


Pan Trinbago, perhaps? But
what can they do? It is not now
a matter of deciding who is in
the right the case is clear. It
is a matter of having the author-
ity to induce* people to rise
above gun law but showing
people how to rise above the
methods of the government in
power is a long and arduous
So that we can expect that
the police campaigns will be
continued and extended to
other areas. The scenario is
becoming clearer under the
umbrella of preventing crime
the police can effectively terri-
fy the population even more
than it already is.


_. Community__


That is why one is wary of
the blueprint drawn up at that
Crime Conference. Mr. Bernard
has not disclosed much, on the
really puerile reasoning that the -
press must not know what the -
recommendations are before the
regional governments.
Continued on Page 10 A section of the membership of East Side Symphony






OF /




Y -- ---


Three choices which split the assembled opposition during

the May 1969 transport strike

THE CHAIRMAN has said that all who
were present last night agreed that if we are
to dramatise the issues behind the bus strike
and to lend moral support to the striking
workers, we should present ourselves before
the buses tomorrow morning and form a
human blockade. With all due respect, I do not
think that, personally, I gave the meeting
any such commitment.
After 15 years of living abroad, except for
numerous visits and three short periods of return, I
have only been back home for the nine months sifice
last October. I am therefore a new boy in the political
field. So I spent most of the time at yesterday's
meeting just observing, listening and sizing up the
I would like to suggest that we re-open the dis-
cussion that we had. My hope is that my observations
on last night's proceedings might lend us a greater
sense of deliberation and help us to make decisions
that are realistically based and sound.

First, let us begin with the negative side. When I
tot up the missing elements in last night's discussion,
they come out to a total of seven. Though I am not a
superstitious man, I hope this is a good omen because
we will certainly need a great deal of luck.
The first thing we neglected last night was
systematic political analysis both historical and
situational. It would of course be presumptuous of me
to suggest that an assembly' of this kind does not
appreciate the need for political analysis and I assure
you that I intend no such implication. But political
meetings are a very special kind of interplay between
persons and they tend to take on a course of their own.
Yesterday the analysis definitely slipped through
our fingers. Tonight it could be useful to see what is
to be yielded by a study of the forces which have
brought the country to the current crisis resulting in
an assembly here last night and again this evening of a
most improbable collection of individuals ahd groups.
The second ingredient from which the meeting
could have benefited if we had been at our best last
night, was a keener sense of strategy. We did talk a lot
of tactics and I was greatly impressed by some. of the
considerations advanced by Geddes Granger,Lennox
Pierre and Darcus Owusu as well as the two DLP


But tactics are a short-run matter which if they
are to be most effective, must be placed in the context
of a longer view. We need clear objectives and a cogent
internally consistent plan. We need particular projects
and concrete targets and we must have the organisation
and the machinery for their execution and fulfilment.
I hope to show what this implies for what is to be
done tomorrow and what can indeed be hopefully at-
tempted. I am sure that we all appreciate how
important would be a tactic such as bluffing or such as,
say, planned mistiming in order to gain from surprise
when you are in this kind of situation.,
The third thing we need is greater cool. I would
not wish for one moment to subvert our sense of
moral indignation at the injustice and the tyranny
which are passing for public policy in this country
today. Nor am I suggesting that we should ignore the
immediacy of our problems and slip complacently
into a state of quietism ... I am myself moved to act
by the unspeakable outrages of this iniquitous regime.
But we cannot afford to let any 'of these laudable
emotions get in the way of sober assessment. If we
make that error, we may attempt all kinds of desperate
measures which could only lead us to disaster.
The fourth thing which I think we needed in our
discussion was a sense of the other side, so to speak.
We have to put ourselves in the position of the enemy
in order to be able to anticipate his responses and
plan for the feedback. The enemy always has options
and, like us, he may choose to do this rather than
that. It is only if we can guess'what he will choose
that our strategy would come out right.
Number five on the list is the mandate that we
have. This is the democratic consideration. If we are
talking as leaders we must know whom we represent

and what relations we have with them. The DLP
members here did raise this matter and it is important
that we take it seriously so as to be able to make a
realistic estimate of the resources upon which we can
count. The key resource that we need is the support of
the people in the various organizations. The kind of
victory that we need cannot ever be won by leaders
Ingredient six is self-knowledge. I think we must
make a reasonably clinical assessment of the weight
which singly and collectively, we have in the country.
The PNM Government must surely be making such an
assessment as part of its own strategic planning. As the
new boy here 1 have necessarily to be very conserva-
tive about my own personal self-estimate. All of us
are political animals with political histories all our
6wn. We must know the possibilities and the limita-
tions set by the records which we bring. I cannot ima-
gine that we would want to jeopardise the outcome
of this crucial struggle by being in any way careless on
this account.
Finally, we need a much greater sense of security
than we seem to have. This is a matter which has
already been raised by Mr. Jamadar. There are all
kinds of ways in which the enemy could' shatter our
already brittle solidarity and one of the surest ways
would be to get information. You can be sure that he
has multiple methods of doing just that.


In fact, you can be sure that the Government is
represented among us here tonight. Anything that we
plan for tomorrow morning will be fed into whatever
plan he will work out as a counter to ours. With these
remarks, I therefore suggest that we immediately
transfer this meeting to another place and take
appropriate measures to secure our plans.
At this point, Geddes Granger intervened to
propose that immediate steps be taken to ensure
security, that we.all be made "security officers.'
I would like now to try and identify the options
facing both Williams and ourselves after which, with
your permission, I will make some tentative proposals
for action.
Broadly speaking, there are three options: the
Government and the Opposition can choose to go for
an early confrontation; or, we can opt for some kind
of compromise; or, we can chinks and embark on a
.war of attrition. Let us approach the choices by
putting ourselves in Williams' position.
In doing so, we need a background of what,has
been going on here over the pastso many years, we
need our.sense of strategy and we must make those
cool assessments of situations and those exact evalua-
tions of our own worth that we have talked about
earlier. Ytu will see that my interpretation will
naturally be coloured by my own judgement and by a
grasp of these matters which may be quite different
from yours.


The 01


against the population would necessarily introduce a
number of imponderables about his own security and
this to my mind constitutes for him a decisive argu-
ment against confrontation at this time.
Now I want to argue that on our side, confronta-
tion ought not, to be a front-runner either. It is true
that we do havesome strength largely because the new
leadership and the emerging organizations have good
references. They are unknown quantities and still
have the ear of the country. In politics this receptivity
is crucial especially now that the record of the PNM
has pushed the Country into scrutinising every possi-
bility that there is.
Yet I do not think that the organizations which we
have would be appropriate to the task of confrontation.
A crisis would certainly aid our mobilization but we
might not be able to stand the strain of an extended
political fight. We simply have not been doing the
necessary planning in advance.
If we went now and over-politicised this situation
with the TIWU, Williams would stand a very good
chance of winning. The country could become
completely demoralised and terrorised because the
fight would be vicious. Williams could- probably
swing a deal with the army, militarise the situation,
adopt a phony version of black power so as to
consolidate Negro support and divide the spoils with
the big metropolitan corporations.
It would be a kind of high-level Duvalier solution
which would give the Indians and the other ethnic
minorities a ring-ding time. There would of course be
the usual tokenism: token Indians, token Europeans,
Syrians, Chinese, etc. These crooked collaborators

Conf ront a t i on

FRANKLY, I do not rate confrontation as
a strong candidate on Williams'side. Of course,
we know that he has been preparing a Public
Order Bill in case there is an "emergency".
And a meeting such as this, let us note, could
be interpreted in such a way as to tempt him
to go for a quick kill of almost the entire
opposition in the country.
SThe police could well trump up evidence to prove
that this is a conspiracy, they could arrest all of us
tomorrow morning and tell the country that it.has
been saved by the skin of its teeth. Williams is quite
capable, I assure you, of adopting this method of
tainting and suppressing the new opposition if he is
impressed by it and if he is not afraid of the credibility
of the established opposition forces.
It is a method he could fancy but at the moment
I can see two reasons why he would be cautious here.
The first reason is that he simply cannot trust the
troops. The cause of this mistrust is something I leave
you to speculate on.
The second reason is that even if he were able to
trust the troops, bringing them out for the first time




Liberals, DLP,


ae Us

would, make a killing for themselves but the country
as a whole would be finished, I am very sure of that.
We therefore have to guard against any rash over-
politicisation of the situation. We have to deal with
genuine black frustrations in a serious \vay. We must
set standards of honesty which would act as a defence
against the cheap trickery which the Government may
try on the Negro people and which in fact, is already a
feature of PNM campaigns at election times.
So you can see that confrontation holds grave
risks. Although I have not been able to measure how
far it could take us, I must remind you that Williams
has the police and the Treasury and the other
resources of the State; he also has constitutionality
and a number of other assets on his side.

2 Compromise

THE SECOND choice open to the 'Govern-
ment would be to arrange a compromise
solution to the strike and to the issue of the
ISA. This is really the best horse that Williams
has but he probably does not know it.
If the Government abandons its legalistic position
in regard to the ISA, the tension would automatically
go out of the situation and it would be so much more
difficult for us. to shift the public conscience further
away from the PNM and in the direction of the
up-and-coming political movement.
By compromising now Williams would win some




IFP, NJAC, Tapia

sympathy from the general public which as radicals
we must note -'is never as interested in politics to
the extent that the politicians and the political people
are. The public gets tired quickly and is soon eager for
settlements that avoid the continuing stress.


If Williams is clever, as presumably he knows how
to be, he can present himself as a reformed man and
get some mileage from it. Remember he can evoke
many memories to which many still wistfully cling.
And in addition to the machinery of the State, he has
powerful friends outside, especially up to the North.
The problem is that if he compromised,we would
then have the chance of upping the demands that we
make. This is the risk that the Doctor is probably
seeing most clear. He must know by now that the
country is.running riot with discontent. No doubt he
fears that any concession he now makes would only
open the floodgates because it would be seen as a
sign of weakness.

Voices: He don't want any compromise.
Still, I judge a compromise to be the best of the
options he has because the tempo of the adjustment
would give him more room to manoeuvre than any
other course he could pursue. It follows that we must
not choose any compromise because our business is
to set the country free from this monster. And this
brings us to the third of our options.

3 Chinksing

THE THIRD OPTION is to chinks and
develop the struggle in a very gradual way. I
think that this is what Williams has opted for
and I argue that we should choose exactly the
Continued on Page 8
|L'; : ..-,r ,;;',Y, : "'- '!' / "'
.t.. .. .: .'. , .. .' .'. '

Transport Workers demonstrate on March 13,
Bad luck for the ISA

: i'

z r,
' ~Z`

s w s t

Choices which split the opposition

* Continued from Page 7
same strategy and play him on that very same
Williams must be planning to orchestrate this
issue very carefully so as to drive us into errors as a
group. We must never underestimate the enemy nor
must we fail to understand the personality we are
dealing with.
A totalitarian personality must be very attracted to
the idea of a complete clean-up. Moreover, the
:strategy of chinksing is the simplest one for a govern-
ment which is in a difficult corner because it would
allow them to temporise and it involves a much more
-onstitutionalist road.
SAs I see it, Williams must on the one hand aim to
erode the support of the Transport Union, then to
finish off Joe Young and finally to intimidate
organised labour as a whole not least by maintaining
the ISA largely intact.

On the other hand, he will take one or ,two
insidious measures to recover lost ground, regain some
of the peoples confidence and boost his own morale.
The strategy here would be to holdup a dazzling
rainbowof an impending petroleum boom and to take
a few steps in a leftward direction by going for a
moderate Government partnership in the sugar and
petroleum industries. He may also make a more
determined attempt to pose as the Father of regional
Simultaneously, the plan would be to muzzle the
new movement in the University and to win back the
bureaucrats, and the technocrats by revising the
development plan.
It is easy to see why this strategy is the most
attractive one for the PNM. It would save the Father
of the Nation and the image of Capitalism & Slavery.
More pragmatically, it involves only limited stress.
It is a strategy that suits us equally well because
we also need stress of a limited kind to give us the

right blend of urgency and leisure with which to put
solid political organisation in place. Ours is a very
delicate operation. We need time for building but
tension tb pace the movement.along.
Given a programme of serious field work and hard
planning, our strategy must be to carry Williams the
full distance until 1971 while upsetting all the
assumptions that he would have had to build into his
plan to retrieve the game.
The tactical implication is that we must hold out
with this strike for as long as is humanly possible
without modifying any of the demands we have made.
Ultimately, this may mean "losing" the strike, leaving
the workers to go back frustrated,
The question therefore arises' as to whether it, is
morally defensible to give up a bird in the hand for
two in the bush somewhere. I wonder if we really have
the choice in the light of all that I have said.
If you agree that we have no choice but to hold
out, let us consider the following proposals.
These proposals arise from the options before us.
As the leaders of the assembled opposition, it is our
duty to face them squarely.

Let us establish tonight a Conmmittee for the Defence of the
Population. Let it operate with the strictest security precautions and
let it be endowed, with clear lines of liaison to organised labour and
to, the rest of the country at large. This must be the nucleus of a
permanent community organisation.
*' Let the declared aim of the Committee be to see that the
strike is not directly politicised iby any act of confrontation. The
most political act we can now take would be to take politics out of
the strike, while carrying the political issues to the country partly by
analysis and information and partly by putting organisation on the
Let the Committee busy itself to raise funds and supplies to
succour and protect the workers who are out on strike.
Let the Committee issue a newspaper or broadsheet to keep
the public informed of how the situation develops. Here we have an
excellent opportunity to establish practical and meaningful collabora-
tion between the students and intellectuals in the University and the
militant Unions which have been going in the same direction. We
have many writers in the University and the Vanguard has already a
printshop. We must counter government propaganda.
Let the Committee assist the public to get transport to go
about its business. We should organize a liaison service with the
taxis and pressurize the government to rationalize the transport other
than buses. This is not a stone to be left unturned.*

Tupamaro leader charged

sidered one of the founders
of the National Liberation
Movement (Tupamaros),
has been indicted by a
military court eight months
after being wounded and
captured by the army.

Sendic 48, was captured on
September 1 in a house in the
old part of Montevideo by an,
army patrol after a heavy

The leader of the movement
which a decade ago began armed
struggle against the present sys-

tem resisted until a rifle bullet
destroyed part of his jaw and
Sendic began his political
work as a member of the
Socialist Party, which he left
-while still a law student to
join the caneworkers of north-
ern Uruguay.
He organized the Artigas
Department Sugar Workers
Union, the embryo of the future
Tupamaros, who took their
name fromthe Gaucho army of
Jose Artigas, early nineteenth
century leader of the struggle
against Spanish colonialism and
the rule of the Buenos Aires

Joe Young, Krishna Gowandan, Clive Nunez,

George Weekes, Selwyn St. John. Vernon Jamadar,

Alloy Lequay, Peter Farquhar, Stephen Maharaj,

Basdeo Panday, MASA Khan. David Murray, David

Darbeau, Geddes Granger, Lennox Pierre, Kelshall

Bodie. Lloyd Best, Lloyd Taylor, Syl Lowhar

Augustus, Ramrekersingh. Gerald Bryce, Darcus

Owusu,Trevor Contaste.

inla su 'I p rt

- j ia~~ae

'IN SPITE OF the fact that
the international community
has been waging a determined
struggle against racial discrimi-
nation, in any form and any-
where in the world, it still
remains a harsh and bitter fact
of life, particularly for millions

of non-whites in southern Africa.
These unfortunate people
are denied, even basic human
decencies and their aspirations
for equal rights are, in the
existing circumstances, destined
*to know no fulfilment'.'
This was stated by Mr. Swa-

SUNDAY MAY 20, 1973
ran Singh, India's minister of
external affairs, in a message
issued on March 21 in New
Delhi on the occasion of the
day for the elimination of racial
The international day of
remembrance declared by the
United Nations, Mr. Swaran
said, should be seized as an
opportunity for reappraisal at
national and international levels
and for launching a new drive
*for more energetic and co-
coperative action to root out
this evil from our planet. "The
support, both direct and in-
direct, extended by powerful
foreign and financial interests
to the racist regimes in southern

Africa must be ended once for
all," he added.
India's commitment to up-
holding the dignity of the hu-
man person, he added, is of
long standing. "We shall con-
tinue our relentless quest for
building a world community
of equal human beings who
can share alike in peace, pro-
gress and prosperity," he said.


Speaking at Geneva on
March 21, Mrs. Leela Damo-
dara Menon, India's representa-
tive and vice-chairman of the
29th session of the commission
on human rights, observed that

discrimination based on the
pigment of skin is not only an
affront to the conscience of
mankind but also a crime
against humanity.
Asia, as a whole, she added,
extends its staunchest support
to Africa in their struggle against
She also said that eradication
of poverty from two-thirds of
the world, mainly consisting
countries of Asia and Africa,
should receive the highest prior-,
ity at the hands of U.N..to
enable the poorer sections of
the world to realise speedily
their economic and social rights.
Indian & Foreign Review

Cyprus in muted conflict

conflict between the two
communities in Cyprus is
complicated by a host of
external factors.
Cyprus has a 500-year-old
civilisation and with its 9250
square kilometres and 650,000
inhabitants it is one of the
world's smallest national units.
It is the last staging post
between Europe and Asia, a
flourishing: cultural and com-
mercial centre in the past and
strategic NATO linchpin in the
present. The"Greek-Cypriots
form 72% of the population;
the Turkish-Cypriots 18%.
The Turkish-Cypriots are the
descendants of Turkish soldiers
who stayed on in Cyprus after
the Ottorhan Empire was ob-
liged to withdraw from the
island following three centuries
of rule.


After the arrival of the Bri-
tish in 1878 they lived in the
island though outside the main-
stream of its problems, which
then were centred on the strug-
gle against British colonialism.
There had been no substantial
conflict between the two com-
munities till Britain introduced
Turkeyin 1955 as an interested
party in the Cyprus question.
The Turkish minority, like
almost all the Near East Minor-
ities,latched on to the problems
of the majority to win ad-
vantages and in general to colla-
borate with the colonial power.
When Britain was forced to
grant independence to Cyprus
after a long and heroic struggle
by the Cypriot people, Turkish
intervention and British desires
to favour the Turkish com-
munify forced the Greek-Cyp-.
riots to accept the 1960 Con-
stitution drafted in Britain
which makes the future of
the Cyprus Republic condi-
The 1960 Constitution pro-
,vides the basis, or at least the
Greek-Cypriots maintain that
it does, for the idea of the
partition of the island between
the two communities, a theory
propounded from 1956 by Sir
Anthony Eden.
The 1960 Constitution es-

island where Europe

and Asia meet

tablishes that the President has
to be Greek-Cypriot and the
Vice-President Turkish-Cypriot,
each separately elected by their
respective communities, that
the Council of Ministers must
have seven Greeks and three,
Turks,, and that both Greek
and. Turkish should be official
It gives both the President
and Vice-President the right
to veto any international agree-
ment or disposition considered
harmful to one of the commu-
nities. Ea~,h community has its
own representative chamber,
gathers taxes and takes charge
of matters such as educational
and religious affairs of its own


The administration has to
be composed 70-30. of Greeks
and Turks, the Army 60-40 of
Greeks and Turks. Separate
municipal authorities exist in
the island's five main cities,
and in the case of agrarian
reform nationalised land can
only be distributed among the
members of the community to
which the owner of the nation-
alised land belonged.
On top of all that, the 1960
Constitution has a series of
further-provisions which tend
towards the de facto segregation
of the two communities.
In 1963, only three years
from independence, the inappli-
cability of the 1960 Constitu-
tion led to violent inter-commu-
nal conflicts. Intervention by
Greece and Turkey and the
divisionist attitude of the Bri-
colonial administration must
bear much of the blame for the
impossibility of serious under-
standing between the two com-
munities, which fiercely hang

on to their identities.
The Greek-Cypriots speak
Greek, follow the Greek-Ortho-
dox religion and identify them-
selves with the Hellenic tradition
and the Turkish-Cypriots speak

Turkish, practise the Moslem
religion and identify with Turkey
The ethnic and cultural segre-
gation thus maintained blocks
the appearance of a purely
Cypriot political conscience.
Since the 1963 conflicts,
the communities have been
practically totally separated.
The country is divided by lines
that separate cities, urban
zones, streets and even houses.
The problem had become more
complex after 1957 when the
United States appeared on the

scene, not in the search for
a real solution to the problem
of Cyprus, but to guarantee
NATO strategical interests.
After 1963 each of the com-
munities received a military
contingent: the Greeks from
Greece, the Turks from Turkey.
And the United Nations has
sent an additional force in a
bid for reconciliation.
A dialogue has been estab-
lished, but there seems little
hope for a successful outcome 0




SS te PAIhens

DURING the last two
decades India has made
significant progress in the
development of a petro-
leum industry and in ex-
ploration and drilling,
refining, transportation and
marketing of oil in the
With the exception of
kerosene and lube oil India
is almost self-sufficient in
major petroleum products

From Page 5
When, then, are the people
to know? What happens if, as is
very likely, the governments
keep the report to themselves:
in the interests of "public secur-
ity"? For instance; is keeping
people off the streets, part of
the recommendations? Given
public distrust of Mr. Bernard
and his police service, should
not the public be given the
opportunity to scrutinize what-
ever plans his colleagues and
himself have in mind for crime-
fighting in the Caribbean? Or
are we to take the plan on trust?
In all this, of course, it is
the average policeman who is
in the firing line. People whom
we know, friends with whom
we have 'grown up, but who
listening to the propaganda of
his chiefs cannot really be sure
that because you oppose this'
onerous system you are not,
,part of that enemy outthere.
So his is, in fact, a friendless
world. Mr. Bernard, fortunately
for him, has his friends in high
circles those owners of wealth
and property who, without
question, toe his line. It is, after
all, a Party line.

such as motor gasolene,
naptha HSD, oil, fuel oil,
asphalt, paraffin and petro-
leum coke.
India is rich in oil deposits.
According to a recent tentative
survey, the area ;of potential
oil-bearing regions in India is
estimated at about 1.03 million
square miles.
In 1948 India's indigenous
production of crude oil was
255,000 tonnes, consisting of
kerosene oil, gasolene, petrol,
diesel and furnace oil used. for
running industrial plants for
generation of electric power.
Since then, however, crude
production has risen to about
8 million tonnes nearly 30
times more than 25 years ago.
The demand for oil has also
increased from 2.6 million
tonnes to 22 million tonnes
during this period.
Recent indications are that
petroleum consumption will be
nearly 31 million tonnes in
1975 and about 45 million
tonnes in 1980, as against the
'expected output of nearly 11
million tonnes.
STo step up indigenous oil
production, the government of
India established an oil and
natural gas commission (ONGC)
in 1956 for undertaking oil
and gas exploration.
A programme of exploration,
refining and marketing was also
formulated in 1956-61, As a
result of the commission's ef-
forts, about 17 oil and gas fields
were discovered in the country.
By January it had drilled 935
Its drilling capacity rose to
90 wells in 1970-71 from 45
wells in 1961-62.
The commission has also-
organised a large number of
survey\ teams which explore

SUNDAY MAY 20, 1973 .




hydro-carbon bearing structures.
At present it has 14 geological,
5 gravity and 22 seismic teams.
Offshore exploratory drilling
for oil commenced for the first
time at Aliabet in the gulf
of Cambay. Work has also been
undertaken in offshore areas
of the gulf of Mannas, Palk
straits and Coromandal coast..


Since 1965, the commission
is participating in an inter-
national venture to explore off-
shore areas in the Persian gulf.
There was only one refinery
at Digboi in upper Assam in
India in 1948 which could
process 0.25 million tonnes of
oil annually. By 1971 the num-
ber of the refineries had risen
to twelve and their capacity
to 19.6 million tonnes.
One more refinery under
construction at Haldia (west
Bengal), will go on steam before
the end of the fourth plan
1969-74)::The construction of
the 11th refinery atJBongaggon,
(Assam) has also commenced,
while a 12th refinery will be'
established near Mathura in
Uttar Pradesh.
S In 1947 India had a small
body ,of petroleum technolo-
. gists working in the Assam oil
corporation. With the establish-
ment of ONGC and the Indian


4 1

oil corporation, India has ac-
quired technical competence
'in all phases of the industry.
2An institute of petroleum'
located at Deura Dun (Uttar
Pradesh), deals with refineries
and product application. The
IOC is also setting up af oil
research centre at Faridabad,
which is expected to be ready
by inid-1974.


As the consumption of petro-
:leum products has increased
from 2.7 million tonnes in
1948 to 20.5 million tonnes
in 1971, a distribution network'
for 3,300 km of pipelines for
crude oil petroleum products
-and natural gas been laid.
Before independence, five
foreign companies were market-
ing oil and petroleum products.
Since 1948 a policy was adop-
ted for undertaking distribu-
tion which was undertaken by
IOC a year later. The share of
private sector marketing con-
panies in distribution of oil
and its products, which was
,about 92% in 1960 has declined
to 42% in 1971.


The pattern of imports of
crude products has also changed:
considerably. Prior to 1955'
petroleum products were mainly
imported, but' imports have
since declined, from 3.1 million
tonnes in 1970. Crude imports,
however, increased from 3 mil-
lion tonnes during this period.
Keeping in view the gap
between domestic output and
demand, an extensive develop-
ment scheme has been formu-
lated recently.
Under this scheme, it is
proposed to raise the crude
production rate to 7.5 million
tonnesiper year by March 1974
and to 8 million tonnes by
The cumulative production
of crude will be 3,748 million
tonnes. A gas output rate of
1090 million cubic metres per
annum by 1978 is also en-
It is further proposed to
establish a total recoverable
reserve of 150 million tonnes
of crude
Indian & Foreign Review






Full bodied beauty Safety, style, comfort,' performance. A good
looking, reliable car with plenty of room: room to move and room to
manoeuvre. Low slung body gives excellent road holding. You corner
in" safety. There's ample room in the boot for luggage so you can travel
relaxed. And with Cortina you can get 1300 or 1600cc engines, standard
or automatic transmission, bench or bucket seats, saloon or estate car -
The choice is yours. Motoring's so much more pleasure. The Cortina L.
Really alot of car.

1iEc E nearney
Port of Spain 62-32731, San Fernando 652-2741,
Scarborough 639-2160

;1 ,.

SUNDAY MAY 20. 1973
wm ,. -,"f e it 1 1 jj


EVERYDAY now we realise how difficult it is to
break from the degraded life that colonialism has
imposed on us and which Williams and his bunch have
perpetuated and intensified. The brutalities of life
here, the apparent futility of living without direction
and purpose tends to engulf us. We become weary

in body and mind.
It is at times like this we
understand the importance of
being part of an organisation
where men and women share
a common purpose. Where
men and women struggle
together to break the long
tradition of impotence. An
organisation where you can
lean on your brothers and
Yes you feel the need to
seek refuge among your
-brothers -But, you also begin
to hanker for your early
roots. To feel for your politi-
cal beginnings. -
My early roots are deeply
imbedded in La Seiva. A
small village at the entrance
to the beautiful Maracas
Valley and extending from
Wharf Trace to the fourth
bridge on the Maracas Royal
Two weeks ago, on a
Thursday evening, I drew up
opposite Wharf Trace. It was
six o'clock, few people were
around, only Raymond was in
the panyard knocking a few
notes. The others had not yet
The pan-tent is now a neat
wooden structure roofed
with galvanize and floored
with concrete.
I well remember a Sunday
in 1967 when we started
building the home of the

The auve

not won panorama but...



La Seiva

Members with Ilene Carrabai
* TOP RIGHT: Practice Session

* CENTRE: Deep Concentration

* RIGHT: Ivan Laughlin,
Tapia Community Relations

Echo Harps Steelband. We
levelled the land and erected
what was nothing more than
a jupa covered with cocorite.
A bingo in the com-
munity centre, attended by

rA AiIur

A scheme known as "youth
against famine" for involving
India's youth in development
work programmes, mainly di-
rected towards the prevention
of famine, has been finalised
by India's ministry of educa-
tion and social welfare in co-
operation with leading national
youth voluntary organizations.
Under the scheme a cam-
paign will be launched this
summer which is likely to in-
volve as many as 100,000
young men and women from
all parts of the country.
The cost of the scheme,
estimated at about Rs 13.8
million, will be met entirely

by the government of India.
The participants will be
mostly university and college
students at about 1,000 youth
camps proposed to be organ-
ised under the programme.
The programme marks a
major effort towards the crea-
tion of a framework for launch-
ing a national youth move-
The development works to
be taken up by the youth
in this programme will be pro-
duction-oriented, and will in-
clude construction of dams for
water conservation, water tanks,
small earthen dams or contour
bunding for soil conservation,
and afforestation
Indian & Foreign Review

nearly the whole village,
provided us with some
dollars. "Scorpion" tuned our
first set of pans. He really
stung us. It was difficult to
play do-re-mi, far less for
fa-so-la-ti-do. But we hung
the pans on wooden stakes
driven into the ground and
practice started. That was
the beginning, our beginning.


Six long years ago and a
lot of music hasflowedunder
the bridge since then. We
have had our ups and downs.
Maybe it was more downs
than ups. But the Harps are
still here.
We have never played at
Panorama, we have never won
a pan festival but after six
years Echo Harps has become
a landmark in La Seiva.
Nearly all the brothers have
been a part of it at sometime.
The members began trick-
ling in. A lot of new faces.
But the old stalwarts were

still there Andrew, the
captain, Aubrey, Lennox
(three of his brothers beat
now), Raymond, Carlos,
Nick, Gerard and of course
The membership is now
twenty-four. Last year it
was only nine. But Andrew,
Foods and Gerard held it
together and with Carnival
'73 in the air the member-
ship increased. It has not
declined since. It seems the
old spirit has returned to
give vitality to the new
A sister Ilene Carrabai beat"
a tenor bass, she is also
treasurer, Bunny Boodoo has
taken over as secretary from
his brother Peter while his
younger brother Richard is
now an accomplished traps-
man. Carl Greenidge from
Laventille is the arranger,
Lennox the president.
The band is now embark-
ing on a fund-raising drive
particularly for new instru-
ments. There are plans for

cultural shows both in Mara-
cas and with other steclbands
in the surrounding areas.
There is a maturity, a
sense of confidence, about
the band. Clearly the six
years has allowed the Harps
to take solid root and now
to begin to blossom.Meetings
are held once a month, the
finances are kept in order,
there is organisation at all
levels. All the members feel
that it is now time to make a
leap forward.


On that Thursday the
music sounded extra sweet,
the sounds echoed through
the valley once again. I felt
a lightness to my mind, a
newness surged through my
body. In the midst of all the
attempts by the old order
to beat us into submission
there is a concerted rallying
in the country. Whether it is
Corosal in the south or La
Seiva in the north our young-
men have awakened to our
responsibility of building a
new order of life a
I. Laughlin



veil '


;,jns. .Andrea Talbutt,
Research Tnstitute for
Study of i'sn,
162, East 78th Street,
i-JT YOR~, N.Y 1.0021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,

burn down the old Carib-
bean regime is now ketching
fire in Uncle Gairy's house-
hold. On Sunday May 6,
a People's Convention as-
sembled at Seamoon and
brought into the open the
colossal opposition to a
system of government,
politics and economy which
threatens to grind Grenada
in the dust.
The trouble has been brew-
ing for a long time. Gairy's
performance has been the most
flagrant example of Doctor
Politics yet witnessed in the
West Indies. It has been arrogant
one-man rule with a swaggering
vengeance. It is said that beauty-
queen contests are on a par
with education or economic
policy, so whimsical is this
flamboyant caudillo, papadoc
writ small.
The counter-attack against
this system began to organise
itself in 1970, encouraged by
developments on the wider West
Indian stage since 1968 and
galvanised into action by the
boiling over of the Revolution
in February 1970, a hundred
miles downwind in Trinidad
and Tobago.


Since the now famous strike
of doctors and nurses, the silent
mobilisation has embraced civil
servaiis, professionals, the
farming community, teachers,
secondary school students,
youth along with the growing
number of unemployed and
The official response has
been to arm the police fully
and openly and entrench a
paramilitary force of "Police
In 1970, a Voluntary In-

doctors, nurses and sympathi-
sers in 1970 as aftermath of
the February Revolution in
Trinidad. The occasion marked
the beginning of a link-up be-
tween different occupational
levels. Thirty-two people tried
for riot. Case dismissed.

FEBRUARY 1972 elect-
ions put Gairy's GULP back
into office 13-2. Results reveal
inadequacy of system of gov-
ernment and politics. Wide-
spread dissatisfaction that a
corrupt and incompetent gov-
ernment could still be the better
choice. Reaction against con-
ventional politics.

formation Protection Unit was
recruited to "deal with" the
Black Power demonstrations.
Later disbanded because of
a near-empty Treasury, it has
recently been revived. Gairy
has described it as700of "the
roughest and the toughest".
They were personally selected
by him at his home, Mount
Royal. Among the 500 police
there is now a Night Ambush
Squad, charged to sweep the
streets clean.
Even more effective in act-
ivating opposition than police
brutality has been the rising
cost of living and the complete
mismanagement of the econo
omy. Such uncertainty has been
bred by capricious land-reform
interventions by the Premier
that inflationary pressure comes
both from higher-priced imports
as well as from home shortages.


Meanwhile government poli-
cy is anchored on the dis-
credited strategy of winning
foreign investment mainly in
In practice, this means land-
deals galore with North Ameri-
can speculators and gangsters,
with the usual kickbacks to
political middle-men and their
uncles. Grenada has become a
welcoming society par excell-
ence, an isle of true-blue spice
and everything nice ...
Matters have now come to
a head on the explosive issue
of independence. Gairy wants
the whole bread and has gone
to London to get his free
paper. With control over foreign
policy, his negotiations with
foreign investors would at last
be totally untrammelled.
Seeing where Uncle is com-
ing from, the unconventional

mic distress. Reduced spending
by Government leads to grow-
ing unemployment and shorter
working week. Cost of living
also rising steeply.

POST election increase
in police brutality as Official
response to popular restlessness.
MARCH 1973. Secondary
School students demonstrate.
Union of Secondary School
Students appears on the scene
to protest the Night Ambush
Squad established by Police
to keep brothers off the block.
MARCH Convention of
New Jewel Movement held in
St. David's. Focus on Assem-


Gai ry s


on fire

movement has been forced into
the rather dangerous stance of
opposing the present brand of
At the People's Convention
of May 6, a vast multitude of
citizens resolved that one-man
rule be replaced by a system of
People's Assemblies before in-
dependence and that a radical
new programme of social and

blies of the people and un-
conventional politics.
APRIL 1973. Strike called
by Technical and Allied Work-
ers' Union. Power struggle in-
side Government provides an
opportunity for grand demon-
stration involving technical,
-clerical and waterfront workers
Three-day standstill.

GOOD Friday April 20.
Jeremiah Richardson shot by
Police. Decision taken at Satur-
day funeral to protest and 300
go to Grenville Police Station.
Sergeant refuses audience -
Group of 100 decides to occupy
airport on Sunday.

EASTER Sunday. One

economic transformation be put
into force.
Gairy's response at a rally
held the same day, was a pro-
mise "to cinderise the New
Jewel Movement." It looks as
if a confrontation is coming.
Its outcome will depend on
whether or not the new move-
ment has real roots in the
grass and can harness the dis-

thousand people turn up at
airport to conclude three-mile
protest march.
EASTER Monday. Ten
shot by police at airport as
crowd estimated up to 4,000
take over airport.
MAY 6. Gairy's GULP hold
rally which draws far fewer
people than the People's Con-
vention of the New Jewel Move-
ment held simultaneously at
Gairy promises to "cinderise
the NJM". People's Convention
operates a people's parliament
with free discussion from the
floor. Fantastic response re-
ported. Innumerable citizens
take public position against
the old regime.

senting citizens behind organi-
zation and plan.
One fear is that there might
be intervention from outside
to prop up the gangster regime.
There are reports, so far un-
authenticated, that the Trini-
dad and Tobago Coast Guard
does duty for Grenada; that
Venezuelan arms and assistance
are being made available to
the Government; and that Bar-
bados is providing aid to the
Grenada police.


These reports are probably
no more than an indication of
how little trust people have in
the entire Caribbean regime.
But even if they were true, it
would only reinforce the case
for grounding the new move-
ment so fully in the people
that intervention would only
be another Bay of Pigs.
If you have to shoot the
whole population down, you
can intervene till you are blue
in the face, you simply cannot



_ ~I~

I / i i
i I i i