Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00045
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: January 14, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00045

Full Text

Vol 3 No 2

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15 cents

1c1 l :






X~r '.' ; g -----~" -

Listening to the hard facts.

come as we expected, with
an ostentatiously People's
National Budget, one which
characteristically, is all tact-
ics, devoid of any strategy
at all. Never has the party
had more than fragmentary
insights into the demands
of an independent people
and this year the Throne
Speech and the Budget are
just another of those frac-
tional adjustments to the
imperatives of the February
Revolution, another pers-
pective for the new society.
Inevitably the action is a
hastily conceived set of half-
measures which can never be
implemented this side of heaven.
They cannot inspire and revital-
ise this disillusioned and long-
suffering country or even act-
ivate the demoralised and dis-
organised public service.
After 16 years of incorrigible
zigzagging so as to maintain
office at any and everybody
else's expense, the government
is totally without philosophical
coherence and theoretical in-
sight; it is completely at the
mercy of a cynical technocracy
willing equally to purvey cap-
italism, socialism, or any permu-
tation that you could imagine,
you have only to name it.
In spite of all Mr. Chambers'
protestations to the contrary,
there is none but the most
superficial plan for guiding and
fixing the path and the pace of
growth. The Budget is nothing
but a-hustle and a scrunt, writ
,large in the radical headlines of
today. There is in effect no
sense of priorities, of sequence,
of what is cause and what effect.
"As in 1972, major emphasis
will be given this year to Agri-
culture, Education, Industry;
Housing and Water Supply; but
special attention will also be
paid to Health, Sport and Cul-
ture and maintaining the level

of employment through labour
intensive projects carried out
by the local authorities and
under the Special Works Pro-
gramme. "(p56)
Everything is equally impor-
tant when you are desperately
threshing about to save your
skin. Everything and therefore
nothing: the Afro-Saxon sense
of incapacity remains unchanged.
Certainly when you look behind
the stated policies for profits,
prices and wages, behind the
programmes for industry and
agriculture and housing, behind
the objectives of income distri-
bution and national participation,
you find a basic contempt for
ordinary citizens and a funda-
mental hostility to the wage
and salary earner.
The ringing radical rhetoric
is just a gimmick. But in this
revolutionary situation, for the
party of the new elite to be
playing fast and loose with
measures of austerity is to dig
its own political grave. The PNM
is not a credible radical force;
its constituency has been built
by bribery and corruption, by
jobbery and paying off. Its
bread is irrevocably buttered
with pears and grapes and ap-
ples, with luxury items of con-
To abandon easy living and
join the hardwuk movement
now is not a way out of the
wood; it will only lose them all
their bosom friends.

You eh coming to the meeting?

THE annual general
meeting of Tapia comes
off at the House on
Sunday February 18,
at 9.30 a.m.
Members are asked
to note this date. Cir-
culars will be in the
mail shortly, and more
details of the agenda
will be announced in
forthcoming issues.

The Govt

wants no










See Page 10








- PAGE 3









THE threatened strike of
taxi-drivers reported in the
December 31 issue of TAPIA
virtually came off for a few
hours on Wednesday morn-
Over 50 drivers on the
Tunapuna Port of Spain
run, parked their cars and
assembled for a meeting
in the Texaco gas station
opposite Bazilon Street on
the Eastern Main Road,
The meeting had been called
to decide on action to meet the
growing pressures taximen have
to endure pressures now made
even more acute by the govern-
ment's increase in the price of
gas and oil.


From mid-morning the gas
station compound began filling
up with Belmonts, Cortinas,
Rekords and Crown Toyotas,
all flashily appointed and ex-
pensively equipped as the keen
competition in the trade de-
But when the meeting was
called to order at about 10.30
a.m., the taximen found there
were still too few present for
the importance and urgency of
the issues at hand. The meeting
was suspended as drivers posted
themselves on the Main Road
to flag down those of their
counterparts still "pulling-bull".
"Drop out the passengers
and turn back!" Taxi-drivers
plying the route perennial
hustlers- were themselves being
hustled by their fellows bran-
dishing copies of TAPIA.

"Look wha goin on here,"
they shouted pointing to the
EN STRIKE". And in the gas
station yard copies of three
back issues of TAPIA contain-
ing articles dealing with taxi-
driver problems were being passed
around and read.
After a while every available
parking space in the yard was
taken up. More cars were parked
along the Main Road. It was a
public meeting, all right, which
attracted the attention of curious
passers-by as well.
Nobody had advised the police
and in any case they did not
arrive until everything was over
when a carload led by a Super-
intendent dropped in to see
what had been going on.
What had gone on was a
typical example of the kind of
action now increasingly being



,j. ," -- ., -,.

Participation is the key... united, the only way to make effective demands for betterment.
East taxi-drivers start long-needed for unity.

taken by all kinds of citizens
enduring an unending burden of
hardships in the normal business
of living and making a daily
Chairman of the meeting,
taxi-driver Shahid Hosein, got
to the point at once: "What are
we going to do to absorb this
increase on gas? We do not want
to raise fares, but this only adds
to our problems with the roads,
the traffic jams, the police, the
lack of taxi stands."
The list of problems was to
be repeated and elaborated in
Turn to Page 11



are you coming?



91, Tunapuna Road, and 82-84, St. Vincent Street, Tunapuna

The house that wuck built




club house


all in one

rests its head



A hustle and a scrunt in



radical headlines

WE, the people of Trini-
dad, Tobago, the West In-
dies and the Caribbean, are
today demanding a whole-
sale attack on privilege,
discrimination, inequality,
unemployment, poverty, dis-
possession and our tradi-
tional dependence on the
metropolitan world for all
kinds of incredible things
including self-respect.
That is the banner of
the February Revolution;
it is the cause of the con-
tinuing crisis.
After years of laylaying, skul-
king and chinksing, the PNM
Government has now suddenly
jumped on the wagon of the
new movement. This wig-and
glove administration which can-
not even take its jacket off, is
now the most ardent advocate
of black dignity, small business
and national reconstruction.
Mr. Chambers' 1973 Budget,
the latest of the "perspectives
for the new society" virtually
rings with rhetoric of "meaning-
ful national participation". The
only thing he forgot to push
this time was the "the most

profound concept in contem-
porary, political, economic and
social thought. They have for-
gotten the People's Sector.
But what is the actual plan
of action? How, concretely, are
we to achieve meaningful national
participation, and equitable dis-
tribution of the national cake,
growth in output and income
commensurate with our material
demands, and, that elusive con-
trol of our own economic des-


What are the specific measures
the marching orders which add
up to an internally consistent
and-coherent scheme acceptable
to the large majority of "law-
abiding citizens?" What are the
broad lines of attack from
which we must mount our
operations from day to day?



wants no



IN THE unconventional ranks we cannot
concede that Mr. Chambers and his techno-
crats of St. Vincent Street understand any-
thing at all on the evidence that we have.
There is no technical reason whatsoever why
they shouldn't or couldn't understand but
the politics would make it too expensive. You
have only to scrutinise the two "basic obli-
gations" which Mr. Chambers chooses to/
identify to see exactly where they are
at (p. 23 -24).

to exploit all the assets we have, particu-
larly the natural talent of the population,
and improve the level of productivity in
all sectors in order to obtain a sustained
increase in the national product.
to strive to achieve an acceptable distri-
bution of the national product and keep
down price increase.
Who is Mr. Chambers fooling? How can you
seriously hang so important an objective as giving
creative expression to our talents on the largely
irrelevant issue of the growth of national product?
Who dares to place the matter of an acceptable
distribution of the national product on par with
keeping down the increase in prices?
The big fallacy in much of the thought about
economic change which we keep importing from
metropolitan textbooks lies precisely in this simple
equation of progress with increasing material pro-
duct. Meanwhile most people are being corralled

The Minister of Finance
seems to think that this last
question is adequately answered
by the Third Five Year Plan.
His Budget serves simply "to
re-emphasize the fundamental
priorities which we set our-
selves in 1969" (p. 96) only a
short while, never mind, before
the eruption of the political
volcano in 1970.
In other words, it is either
that the "Perspectives for the
New Society" are the same old
khaki pants because the Gov-
ernment too harden to learn
anything from the February
Revolution; or, that the an-
nouncements and the declara-
tions about the updating of the
People's Charter are just an-
other of the low dodges behind
which this tireless unbending
Afro-Saxon regime pursues its
hard-ears, stubborn course.
Either one or the other.
Oblivious of these contradictions
and complacent with the funda-

mental assumptions and tra-
ditions behind his party's plan-
ning, Mr. Chambers assures us
that "if we manage our affairs
judiciously, we can look forward
to a satisfactory economic per-
formance in 1973",(p. 22).
If only we could be vigilant
about price inflation, sluggish
agriculture, and increasing in-
come inequality! And so the
scene shifts calmly to the poli-
cies which the Government will
pursue this year and to some of
the issues which require specific


Well, we soon begin to see
what a big-if that vigilance has
to be! The bogey which the
Minister fears may upset the
Government's strategy is some-
thing called "unrealistic expect-
ations, "yes, the very same thing
which, at another level the party
has been insidiously touting as
"the coming oil bonanza".
The self-same "roaring-seven-
ties" which Balisier House smi-


into the drudgery of rubber-stamp existence. We
have more roads, more bridges, more cars and con-
sumer durables, more schools and University places
ask the Doctor and yet, it has been a litany of
pressure, punishment and pain.
The irony here is that material product would
quite probably grow at its fastest if we ignored it and
concentrated on the creative involvement of our
people in mastering our environment. Our failure to
grow as fast as we might have done in the past is
attributable to our obsession with material advance
at the expense of creative expression.
A parallel irony is that-our ability to control in-
flation would most likely be enhanced if only we
could forget for a moment about prices and focus
instead on more equitable income distribution.


Prices are not rising on their own; they are being
pushed up by foreign and West Indian businessmen
and by farmers and workers and artisans and by
all those flesh and blood people who are involved in
a dog-eat-dog struggle to live. If you want to con-
trol prices and wages, you must first settle accept-
able national framework for distributing the social
But in any case, social equality is an end which
is important in its own right and of the highest
possible priority. It is quite clear that Mr. Chambers
does not believe in that at all, at all. "The capacity
of the country for development and growth", he
says (p. 27), "is increased when income inequality is
reduced and there is national commitment to
national development."
"Inflation", he continues, "aggravates income
inequality and therefore, makes the development
process more costly and difficult." In passing, he
does throw in the idea of "an acceptable distribu-
tion of the benefits of growth" but, make no mis-
take about it, his aim is this technocrat's obsession
entitled "development:' Equality is nothing but a
means to this exalted end.
We must not fail to seize the grave meaning of this
unwavering PNM stance. The PNM is an elite move-
ment and the elite is selected by the technical com-
mand which it has established over metropolitan
ways of thought.
Williams leads it because he is Oxford's finest
gift to black people in the West Indies, the darling
of the Afro-Saxon strategy of self-deliverance through
taking over European religion, education and culture.
That is why he cannot take his jacket off, that is
why they are fundamentally Monarchist and cannot
deny companionship in the list of royal honours.
Basically, this elite is contemptuous of itself be-
cause it accepts inequality, with the European at the

lingly regards as the flood of
fortune which could no doubt
float all boats while simultan-
eously and conveniently pre-
venting the tide of revolutionary
antagonism from praevalebiting
against the old regime.
From the Machiavellian stand-
point of Trinidad House, how-
ever, these "unrealistic expect-
ations" are leading to excessive
demands upon the Govemment,
requiring an intolerable increase
in debt and in the money
supply, resulting in runaway
prices and a low credit-standing
for the country. They are gen-
erating demands for rewards
which bear no relation to pro-
ductivity, promoting expend-
itures on imports and foreign
travel, building up foreign-held
short-term debt and fuelling
price inflation ......
The Ministry of Finance and
Planning waxes warm. "The
requirements of social justice
impose certain obligations upon
us "A beautiful bramble, smood
too bad, perfectly designed to
dupe the headline readers. You
can see why Richardson and
Lequay, Her Majesty's ideal
Leaders of the Opposition, for-
mal and informal, could believe
that "the Minister recognizes
the problems and has been able
to identify them clearly." If
only he could implement them...

top, as a condition given by God. That is why in the
philosophically incoherent twaddle which passes for
scholarship in From Columbus to Castro, Williams
fails entirely to grasp the significance of the Castro-
Guevara strategy.
In his Cuba, The Economic & Social Revolution,
Dudley Seers points out that the real significance of
Cuba is that "social change has taken place at an
early stage of industrialization ... the distribution
of income has become much less unequal." (p. 6)
With their historical assumptions about them-
selves and the colonial relationship, the PNM are
not interested in equality at all. Chambers mouths
the view that "Government's fiscal policy assigns a
high place to the redistribution of money income."
(p. 27) But they never deal in the concrete situation
which we have to acknowledge, face up to and alter
so as to create that framework for genuine partici-
pation in which alone "judicious management" can
The data which we have published in TAPIA
No's 1 & 20 are eloquent beyond description.
Around the time of Independence, the median in-
come of Indians, at the bottom of the heap, was no
more than $77 per month. For Africans it was $104,
for Mixed $113, for Chinese and Syrians $133; for
Europeans $500 per month.


Later in 1956/66, the median income of agri-
cultural employees, mainly Indian, was only $67
per month. For petroleum employees, $254; in
construction $148. Women were earning on average
only 60% the median income of men, even for the
same work.
These are just fragments of exemplary statistics,
but the picture of irrational inequality by race and
occupation and sex is clear for all to see. And we
have to start the discussion there whether we are
discussing prices, wages, output or productivity;
growth, distribution or diversification.
Camejo's study in 1970 has shown why we have
to be very concrete in planning the strategy of
change. He found that 53% of the business elite are
white, 24% off-white, 10% mixed, 9% Indian, and
4% African. The Census of 1960 had already shown
that one quarter of the European working popula-
tion had the equivalent of University education while
only four percent of the African and Indian popu-
lation had school certificates or above, an infinitesi-
mal, number being in the category of University
The Black Power Movement understood all this


Continued From Page 3
just through the whiplash of everyday experience,
not from any mastery of figures or research. In the
early phase of uncontrolled indignation, the rhetoric
and the demands may have appeared destructive and
essentially confused. But these are revolution-mak-
ing facts that the Government which will salvage us
must face.
"Income inequality threatens to increase," admits
Mr. Chambers. He then offers proposals which only
betray the meal in his mouth. Free and subsidized
goods and services, low-cost housing, Minimum
Wages, Tax Reliefs for 56,500 (ranging from 50
cents to $4 per week), relative price stability, jobs
for the unemployed, increasing agricultural pro-
duction and supporting rural standards of living.
(p. 27- 8)
In the midst of these proposals, tacked on to
price stability, is the casual objective of "ensuring a







satisfactory distribution of income within the coun-
try as between different income groups." What the
hell is a satisfactory distribution of income be-
tween different income groups?
Why must housing be low-cost and high cost? In
1966, 75,000 houses were just downright unsatis-
factory for human habitation. Some 450,000 people
were living in grossly overcrowded conditions. By
1980, we need anything like 165,000 houses if we
are to have the kind of home background in which
education, health, hygiene, family planning and
cultural expression are to be practised in any
serious way.
Housing holds the key to all the major goals.
People would give up imports, consumer durables
and luxury consumption, if they can see a house-and
-land hovering there on the horizon. Building the
houses would make the biggest dent on unemploy-
ment, would demand town planning, real village
councils, community development and all the myriad
things we have been longing for. What therefore,
is this elitist stupidness about low-cost housing in
the control of Ivan B. B. Williams?


The government has not thought about income
distribution at all. Even when the Budget discusses
the International distribution of income (p. 28),
there is no serious coming to grips. We are said to be
a price-taker because our share of world production
is small... which is not necessarily true; we are said
to need foreign investment which is nothing but
economic theology.
When the discussion turns to Prices and Incomes,
the most fundamental strategic connection is just
slurred over in passing as it were: when consumer
spending is diverted from imports to home produced
goods, it helps our own farmers and workers.
These blind colonials cannot perceive this as the
central strategy so they cannot see why we must de-
value to make most imports prohibitively expensive
and put real money in the hands of producers here.
They cannot see that independent inflation can
be a very positive thing provided every family
earns profits as well as wages in making-up the
the annual income.
The whole question of participation has there-
fore to be a matter of involving all citizens in sharing
the ownership and control of business. It is not one
of creating an elite technocracy to run the public
sector and manage the corporations and public


Total confusion in the discussion of profits and
prices. "What we cannot allow is that rates of profits
should increase through rising prices. But there must
also be restraint in dividends." (p. 31) It is just non-
sense to think that there is any way you can stop
profits from rising through rising prices so the pro-
test is just idle demonstration.
The real solution is to make everybody owners
not just the political managers or the capitalist man-
ipulators. And that requires creative social imagina-
tion not just the college-exhibition repetition of

Nowhere is there a greater need for
creative imagination in the service of real
equality than in the matter of rural develop-
ment. Mr. Chambers is hoping in the Budget
(p. 34) that a thriving agriculture "will con-
tribute substantially to our economic deve-
But the fundamental strategic error behind
all of his party and government's thinking is
that this can be achieved by Crown Lands
distribution and by the provision of admit-
tedly important services such as credit,
marketing, research and extension advice and
so on.
"There is no real conflict between the goals of
promoting domestic agriculture and encouraging
export agriculture", proclaims the Second Five Year
Plan (p. 175). But there is, because the roads and
the schools and the temples and the irrigation and
the drainage and the villages and the most accessible
and even fertile land are all in the export sector. The
farmers are in Balmain and Barrackpore; it is pro-
hibitively expensive to open up new country in
Waller Field. You have to start where you are.


We need certain basic decisions about the export
sector if farming for home consumption is to emerge
in a serious and sustained way. Are we going to stay
in plantation crops? Are we going to mechanise
them? Who is going to own the estates?
What kind of local government framework are we
going to have? Can we irrigate the Caroni plain?
How are the ,valleys. of the Northern Range,
tortured by the sometimishness of the cocoa indus-
try, to be brought back into the bag of national
productive resources?
There are no decisions about these things, no
guides to allocation, no perspective for action.
Williams and the PNM are totally incompetent to
run this country. And they have the impertinence to
ask who the hell we go blasted put? Well, one of
these days, they go find out!
The fact of the matter is that we are dealing with

an administration which is fundamentally hostile to
the large majority of citizens. Like all the messianic
Doctor movements before and after it, the PNM is
inherently antagonistic to local organisation, that is
to say, to people.
Genuinely participatory local organisation gen-
erates self-confidence and self-respect and therefore
not only makes leadership continuously obsolete but
also delivers us from messianic deliverance for good.
That is why the PNM has always been wary of
trades unions as the most natural basis of local
organisation and popular resistance to central dom-
ination or control.
It is no accident that with the Commission of
Inquiry into Subversive Activities and the ISA and
IRA and States of Emergency, the burden of estab-
lishment pressure has been directed at free expression
and national organisation on the part of militant

Austerity measures

will dig PNM



And what Chambers' Budget reminds us is that
their position has not changed one bit. Labour, that
is to say, the ordinary man in the street, is constantly
under attack.
Discussing his two "obligations" (p. 24), the
Minister begins with a camouflage reference to
"national assets". Oil, he says, cannot be relied
upon to solve our economic problems. So far, so good.
But does the Minister go on to make sense of the
oil boom of 1951 61 and of the PNM experience of
an economy which has relied on the mining sector to
the extent that if petroleum sneezes, Trinidad and
Tobago is Wang-Yued there and then.
According to the Third Plan, between 1955 and
1961 crude oil grew at 11%, the economy at large at
10%. "The stagnation in the growth of crude oil ...
between 1962 and 1966 correlates with a GDP
growth rate only 3-3.5 percent per annum." (p. 11)
Does the Minister discuss why, today, after 16
years, he has to be taking steps to ensure that "the
people of this country are trained, equipped, and
given the opportunity to operate its oil industry ...
that the nation receives an equitable share of the
revenues (that we) use petroleum as a key
ingredient to generate new industries ... for further
diversification of the economy?" (p. 25).
Was it not in theThrone Speech only a fewweeks

-PA GE9 9

AUSTRALIA has announced the touring party
for the forthcoming series in the West Indies, and
in some ways it seems formidable.
The batting line-up is impressive the Chappell
brothers, Ross Edwards and Stackpole have all
been in the runs since last year's English tour.
Redpath has apparently returned to form and must
now, with Sheahan's unavailability, be Stackpole's
partner to open the innings.
Reports are that Walters, who had a disappointing
English tour, and who was out of the runs for most of the
Australian season has just hit two fine centuries for New
South Wales to clinch his place on the team. The other
specialist batsman named is John Benaud (younger brother
of Richie) with a good Sheffield Shield batting record and
an aggressive and attractive 142 for Australia in the recently
concluded second test against Pakistan.
Added to these is Rod Marsh, the much improved
wicket-keeper who has also developed into a reliable, hard-
hitting, middle-order batsman.
Their fielding too seems to be of a high standard the
Chappell brothers, Redpath and Stackpole all have repu-
tations as fine close-to-the-wicket fieldsmen, and Edwards
is supposed to be as good as anybody in the covers.
In bowling they claim the
best opening attack in the world
- Massie is a master of swing
and Lillee the fastest bowler
in the world today. But their
spin bowling is unbalanced,
relatively inexperienced and un-
known. It was a very brave
decision to send out a touring
team without a single orthodox
spinner and one wonders if the
selectors have not asked the
quick bowlers to carry too
great a burden.

My own feeling is that they
will have problems getting us
out twice in five days. Kanhai's
recent statement speaks for
itself: "Massie uses the ball. He
can swing it both ways and he
knows what he is doing. Lillee
is fast and very straight (my West Indian batsmen
italics) if we can hold have grown up with pace
Massie and Lillee, the West ing. Even Hall and Grif
Indies have a good chance of their prime came under
doing well against Australia". most severe punishment
We have seen signs of Lillee the West Indies from
being collared Sobers and colleagues in inter-ter
Kanhai took many off him for cricket.
the Rest of the World in Aus- So without underesti
tralia two years ago and on an Lillee's ability, I certain
easy paced wicket against Pak- not think he will be the
istan in the second test of the that he was in Englar
present series, he had figures summer or that the West
of 16-6-1-90-1 in the Pakistanis' press has been making h
first innings of 574 for eight to be. Sure, he will get



Why can't





the field?



en too
fith in
r their
here in
I their

.nly do
Id last
im out

but he will have to work long
and hard for them.
Of course we have our pro-
blems too the least of which
is certainly not the captaincy.
Sobers should be encouraged
to play and captain the side;
his presence too will give a
start to resolving our bowling
problems he, remains the
most subtle user of the new
ball we have.
I do not envisage any dif-
ficulties with out batting. In
the end it will be a problem

of whom to omit. And maybe
the in-form batsmen will be
the ones to go for. The bowling
remains open and uncertain;
the Shell Shield and the territ-
orial matches against the tour-
ing team will have to unearth
On paper one must give
the Australians the edge at this
stage but the series will certainly
be no walk over. It is not easy
to get the West Indies out
twice in five days. We on the
other hand have the problem

of getting the tourists out twice
in the same time.
If Inshan Ali gets wickets
which will allow him to come'
off a bit faster he could be our
real trump card for the Aussies
have shown real weakness play-
ing against good spin.
One hopes that Dowe has
learnt enough from his six-
week stint in Barbados with
Hall and Griffith to make his
natural turn of pace pay divi-
dends. In this area one must
look carefully at Roberts from
the Islands to see how he
We are less equipped than
the Aussies to go into a test
match without an orthodox
spin bowler. Jumadeen, Willette,
Howard, Campbell from Jamaica
and Ajodha Persaud from Guy-
ana must all come under close
scrutiny in the Shell series.
In the long run, the five-
test encounter may well be one
of very high scores on both
sides. If Ian Chappell's style is
really as positive and adven-
turous as claimed, then we
should see an exciting, closely
fought out series. In the end
one hopes we will unearth the
bowling that will clinch it.





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WHAT ARE THE TACTICS used in controlling
people with ideas and values contrary to the
establishment values? By what methods are
political deviants controlled so as to ensure the
continuity of the so-called "ordered" Caribbean
societies? Prof. Gordon Lewis, in his monu-
mental survey of Caribbean history and de-
velopment, has referred briefly to a number of
such tactics:
The annals of the insular histories are full of liberal
minded individuals who have been socially or economi-
cally ruined for their views. Mr. Duncan has listed them
in his little volume, "Footprints of Worthy West
Indians", from the Claudius Adams who promoted
Sunday School work in the Vincentian country districts
to the Gertie Wood who fought in British Guiana for
equal pay for women. The McCarthy-like witch-hunting
of Mr. Joshua in St. Vincent merely because of his
attendance at a Russian sponsored trade union con-
ference in Vienna is symptomatic...That all "unrest"is
the fault of the 'agitator' has of course been the cardinal
conviction of the Caribbean ruling classes ever since
slavery. It...still thrives there. Hence the continuing use
of long standing colonial legislation against the im-
portation of "subversive' literature, and the deportation
ot 'undesirable' persons, as in the Kelshall case of 1964
in Grenada.


We will consider the control tactics more systemati-
cally in an attempt to derive the common pattern of
control used against West Indian radicals. The pattern
of control seems to characterise all neo-colonial socie-
ties, and in areas like the West Indies, this pattern is
now well established. It consists essentially of a two-
tier system of control which amounts to the denial of
the conditions necessary for sustained protests.
First an attempt is made to isolate progressive ideas
and individuals by regulating the flow, of such ideas and
individuals through such mechanisms as censorship,
control of passports and work permits, and the banning
of individuals. Secondly,having isolated these individuals,
certain other measures are applied to frustrate them,
fo example through social ostracisation and ridicule,
victimisation arid through governmental and legal
Censorship is here taken to mean any governmental
regulation of reading material and the flow of ideas. In
spite of the fact that article 19 of the Charter of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights declared
"freedom to hold opinions without interference," West
Indian Governments have undertaken a stringent con-
trol of reading and verbal material.


In 1925 an Englishman, after his visit to the West
Indies, reported to the "Manchester Guardian" that in
the West Indies "every effort to start a popular move-
ment is punished by imprisonment and sedition. Last
year a man got ten years in Barbados for a speech that
in a free country no one would think twice about.
Garvey's "Negro World" was proscribed in the
British West Indian colonies of Trinidad, British
Guiana, Barbados, Bermuda, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and
British Honduras. Many islands concocted campaigns
to fortify themselves against subversive literature.
Guyana in the 1950's saw a full fledged campaign
to ban "subversive" literature. Lionel Luckhoo in 1952
introduced the motion in the Guyanese Legislature
aimed at the prohibition of the "entry into the colony
of literature, publications, propaganda, or films which
are subversive or contrary to public interest. Luckhoo
in defense of his bill, argued that communismm is con-

sumingly attractive" and therefore must be curbed.
Nine crates of books belonging to Cheddi Jagan
were seized and burnt. A similar ordinance was also
passed in Grenada in 1951, known as the Importation
Publication Prohibition Ordinance. Table I is the
reduced list of the literature prohibited by the Jamai-
can Government as of 1970, categorised by the pre-
sent author. The list includes much of the material
which is censored by the Trinidad and other West Indian
This list reveals the paranoid fear of communist
ideas. It is as if the islands are in a state of permanent
quarantine against communist infection.


In Martinique, the home of Franz Fanon, the pic-
ture is no less gloomy. Though Fanon is so much rev-
ered abroad, in the Fort-de-France Public Library of
Martinique, only Fanon's first book, which is largely
academic, is found, and the stores will not carry his
other books, or order them for customers. The bio-
grapher of Fanon reports that Fanon is so much hated
in his own island that he was "forced to move" from
his hotel on the Savanne after the patron found out
that he was doing research on Fanon.
Black conferences, which have become an important
source of progressive ideas, are equally censored and
controlled. Between 1966 and 1970, there were five
Black Power conferences, four of which were held in
the United States and one in Bermuda. In July 1970,
the second regional Black Power conference was scheduled
to be held in Barbados.
On the whole, the tone of the proposed conference
was mild. The organizers entreated participants to avoid
speeches with such themes as "I am blacker than you",
"Let us get guns", "Blaqk is beautiful", "You are over
thirty, so forget it". Instead, the aim of the conference
was "to establish a variety of techniques, workable
methods and alternative strategies to help black people
achieve political, economic, educational and cultural
black power in their respective communities".


After elaborate plans had been made by the con-
ference organizers, their efforts were nullified. In a
letter to the present author, Mr. Roosevelt Brown, the
conference chairman explained:
Pressure on the part of persons unfriendly to our cause
has forced the Government of Barbados to withdraw,
at almost the' last minute, its permission for the Black
Power conference to be held there ... It is our under-
standing that European governmental and business
interests, such as hotel owners and sugar planters in the
Caribbean, plus black bourgeois governmental interests
throughout the Caribbean, are fearful of the least ex-
pression in the area of Black Power ... It is a matter of
grave concern that no black government in the area at
present has the freedom or the power to host our con-
ference The conference will have to be re-scheduled
and held in the United States.
The fact that all the earlier Pan-Africanist con-
ferences sponsored by Padmore and W. E. B. DuBois
were held in metropolitan areas attests to the fact that
colonial authorities preferred this arrangement so that
their activities could be closely overhauled. Why then,
was the Black Power conference allowed in Bermuda
in 1969.
Rather than contradicting the above hypothesis, it
verifies it. One is forced to agree with the Common-
wealth correspondent for the English "Guardian", who
in 1969, argued that there was a commonsense realism
behind the permit to allow the conference in Bermuda:
The. visitors who may number as many as 500 when they
have all assembled in Bermuda from points all over the
Western hemisphere can be carefully checked and listed
as they pass through immigration and control. This,
means that for future reference British security services
will have a long and virtually complete list of all the

W~1 k I- mjwjmmu


1f~.:, *

*.{~S F PAI &L '

brown racialists who are likely to cause trouble in the
Caribbean in years to come.
Reinforcing this point was the fact that it was re-
ported around this time that "West Indian governments
have been meeting secretively to discuss ways and
means of dealing collectively with so-called subversive
elements in the region." The Trinidad "Express"
became -alarmed:
The news is even more disturbing in the light of our
suspicions that what these governments usually define
as subversive is simply anything and anybody opposed
to their present practices and policies as governments.
How else can we construe their interpretation of rad-
ical activities on and off campus, among students,
academics and workers exercising their democratic right
of free speech and organisation, as inimical to the
interests of the society ...?
Similar in effect to censorship was the tactic of cut-
ting off the communication link of West Indian radicals
with progressive forces abroad. Garvey's correspondence
was searched by Jamaican and American postal autho-
rities. In early 1929, it was reported that United
States postal authorities had intercepted some 40,000
letters sent out by Garvey to his supporters.
Mrs. Amy Jacques Garvey has also reported that in
Jamaica Garvey's mail was tampered with and that
many American supporters complained that some of



133:. P

NUARY 14, 1973

HOE[] ^^^

wo 101^ ^^ ^l^

their letters sent to Garvey were returned to them
marked "Addressee Unknown" or "Fictitious Address".
Bannings are often imposed by island governments
and British authorities so as to restrict the movement
of radicals. The list of individuals banned by the
various islands is long and is always changing, and see-
ing that it is impossible to compile a complete list of
such cases, some ad hoc illustrations will suffice to
stress this modality of control.
In 1928 the British Government refused to grant
Marcus Garvey and his wife a passport so that they
could visit British Guiana and the nearby islands. In
1937 Clement Payne, a Trinidadian opera singer was
deported from Barbados under the pretext of some
minor technical point; but the real reason was his
known friendship with the fiery Trinidadian Trade
Union Leader, Uriah Butler.
During the war years, Caribbean governments banned
and thereby confined such leaders as Councillor
C. V. Mathura, Eric Gairy, MacDonald Stanley and
Lucius Mondizie. In 1954 W. Adolphe Roberts, the
well-known Jamaican writer, who had acquired Am-
erican citizenship, was actually banned from his home-
land. This move startled even the local press:
We cannot suppose that Mr. Roberts has done any-


thing to deserve it We are. compelled to suppose
that there has been some blunder ... It is things like
this which make a country ridiculous, and even odious.
It is very dangerous for a country to appear to
strike at distinguished authors and journalists.
In 1949 Janet and Cheddi Jagan were both banned
from St. Vincent, and in 1952 from Trinidad. and
Grenada. In the 1950's, the Guyanese Government, to
use this example, imposed a ban on the entry of such
West Indian labour and political leaders like Ferdinand
Smith, Billy Strachan, John LaRose (President of the
West Indies Independence Party of Trinidad and
Tobago), Qunitin O'Connor (Secretary of the Trinidad.
Trade Union Congress), John Rojas (President of the
Oilfield Workers Union of Trinidad), and Richard Hart
(Secretary of the Caribbean Labour Congress).
The Jamaican government had imposed a ban on a
number of widely acclaimed Guyanese intellectuals of
a progressive hue: Dr. Drayton and his wife were ban-
ned in 1958, and Colin-Moore shortly after; Dr. Walter
Rodney and Dr. Clive Thomas were both banned in
more recent years,


Dr. Norman Girvan and his wife (Jamaicans) were
both refused work permits in Trinidad and so were in
effect banned. Dr. George Beckford and Robert Hill,
both Jamaican lecturers, have been denied their pass-
ports in recent years so that-while this restriction
lasted, they were effectively confined to Jamaica.
To a people who have been reared to accept such
social standards as pride, perfection, dignity, respect
and personal composedness, frustrations can easily be
inflicted by efforts to smear the characters of indivi-
duals by way of sarcasm, cynicism, accusations and
ridicule. "Throwing words" is in fact a cultural
weapon used in interpersonal disputes in Caribbean
The smallness of Caribbean societies, which allows
for more personalised associations, contributes to the
effectiveness of this device in the West Indies.
W. A. Roberts, co-founder of the Jamaica Progressive
League of New York, was subjected to this, as W. A.
Domingo noted:
The editor of the "Daily Gleaner" has persistently
opposed and ridiculed the political ideas of Mr. W. A.
Roberts ... The editor has sneeringly referred to him as
a minor poet and a romantic dreamer ...
This method of control is most sharply exemplified
in the case of Garvey who suffered constantly from a
weathering tirade and barrage of smears against his
personal character. The "Gleaner" perpetually derided
Garvey in the most cynical and condescending form. It
reported only the mishaps of Garvey.
After Garvey's rendezvous with the KKK, the
"Gleaner" described the move as "obviously audacious
and apparently imbecile ... He is a dealer in words, in
promises, in spectacular appeals He has accom-
plished nothing for those who he claims to be the
leader." Most of the "Gleaner" editorials relating to
Garvey were cynical vapourings which discussed Garvey
with amused contempt and scornful sarcasm:
We have a kindness for Garvey .. We honestly wish
that he may continue his successful march. After all,
the folks in America who subscribe to his propaganda
can well afford to do so, and they get a lot of fun out of
it. Why shouldn't they pay for their fun? It took a Jam-
aican to liven up and make them dream dreams of Empire.
A white Catholic missionary took time off from
preaching so as to castigate Garvey. On the occasion of
Garvey's return to Jamaica, he wrote a nasty anti-
Garvey tract which is preserved at the Institute of
Jamaica. He called Garvey an "impudent nigger" and
"a false prophet in sheep's clothing," and told an
effacing story meant for Garvey's "benefit":
Aesop the Greek tells the famous story of the Jackdaw,
a bird like our Kling-Kling.,The proud Jackdaw dressed
himself up in a peacock's plumes, and strutted forth to
his friends. They, seeing the cheat, stripped him of his
fine plumes, and falling upon him with their beaks, sent

him away. Then these wise birds preached him a
sermon: 'If you had been content to be a simple
Jackdaw you need not have come to this.'
Even long after Garvey's death, especially when
news was issued that Garvey's body was to be exhumed
and taken to Jamaica, this anti-Garvey crusade took on
renewed vigour. Commenting on this, the "New World"
group remarked:
With iconoclastic glee a number of fair-skinned native
sons sweetened their verbal chisels and chipped away
with incensed vigour at the hero-image of the long
dead Garvey. They filled the columns of the "Gleaner"
with a rubble of evidence: Garvey was a cheat and a
fraud and a felon; an opportunistic speculator whose
every enterprise ended in failure and in jail.
In Trinidad, radicals like James met a similar type
of resentment and ridicule. The Trinidad "Chronicle"
came out full blast against James:
All right C. L. R. James, you asked for it. The people of
Trinidad think that you should leave Trinidad. Go
somewhere else and preach your raging anti-American-
ism. The people want to know where you learnt your
journalism. Not having spent a day on a newspaper in
your life, they want to know how you suddenly become
an authority on writers Dr. Williams should get a
little further away from a fellow like you. Your brand
of chip-on-the-shoulder fanaticism breeds ill for any
government. The people want to know what happened
to your return ticket to England.






Russia Today
Russia Today Newsletter
New Times
Soviet Weekly
History of the Cummunist
Party of the Soviet
Soviet Union
Moscow News
Soviet Woman
World Marxist Review
All publications of the
Trade Union Pub-
lishing House


Verde Oliva
Cuba Socialista
Woman's Journal
Che Guevara's Guerilla
Warfare and Manual of
Civilian Training
Manual for Guerillas


All Publications of:
World Peace Council
World Federation of Trade
World Federation of
Democratic Youth
International Union of
Women's International
World Federation of
Scientific Workers
International Associa-
tion of Democratic
World Federation of
Teachers Union
International Organ-
isation of
International Radio
and T.V. Organ-
International Fed-
eration of
International Med-
ical Association


All publications of
Peace (Hong
Eastern Horizon
(Hong Kong)
Canadian Tribune
Carib (London)
The Minority of
One (U.S.A.)

Chinese Literature
New Observer
Peking Review
China Pictorial
China Reconstructs
Chinese Youth Bulletin
Selected Works of Mao
Tse Tung
China's Screen
China's Sports
Red Sun
Chinese Literature


Prague Newsletter
Information Bulletin
Czechoslovak Youth
Peace and Socialism


Korea Today
The Korean Trade
Korean News


Robert F. Williams'
The Crusader
All publications of
which Stokely
Carmichael is
author or co-
All publications of
which Malcolm X
is the author
All publications of
which Elijah
Muhammed is the


All publications of
de Lawrence
Scott and Co.,
Chicago, rel-
ating to dev-
inatlon, magic,
arts or other
esoteric sub-
jects, e.g.
The sixth and
Seventh Book
of Moses, the
Book of Black
Magic, The
Magic Key,
the Great Book
of Magical Arts



we re s
CRIMES ON THE rise, a war's raging just overseas?
People are dying. Babies die for lack of food and
mothers grieve as they look on at their sons and
daughters facing the realities of this "everyday life".
Tears fill their eyes and Fathers drink. "Drink and be merry
for tomorrow you may die." He's on his own scene, man, the
feet of a restless, youthful country such as ours spill over the
sidewalks as we hustle from the party to the blocks in search
of kicks.
Love! love's the answer. "Cool man, cool," comes the sim-
ultaneous reply.
"Gimme a light" and as you turn you're faced with the
weatherbeaten face of a girl whom you find difficult to believe
when she informs you that she is only 16 and continues her
negotiations with you as to whether it's for the whole night or
"Equal parts thereof'.
"Dis country hard we, boy. Ah want to get mih papers fix
we, flee to New York!" Moving, our roots severed, yes, more
money to the psychoanalyst as we become befuddled with the
complexities of the cold and inhuman "concrete jungle".
Moved we have from an unconstituted society to an under
developed mess.
"Me man, look I cool yes, all you lime, doh tief nah. All
you fraid but when I make mih raid, only watch me as ah step
out in mih crimplene and a stepping slow, mih bread in mih
"Ah wuk fo it, doh ask mih for nutting cause way ah get
mine it have day for all you."
"Go way, leave mih house, you cyar stay here, not you an
dat chile .. Dis is my house, ah wuk too hard for it fo you to
come and disgrace it."
And my Sister pays for the only thing she has probably ever
really enjoyed. The wrong is unpardonable for she has brought
the results of the wrong into full view of the public and in our
society this is wrong isn't it?
She leaves, that younger Sister of ours, remember her? She
was the one that earlier asked you'for a light.
My younger Brother watches from the pavement of upper
George Street, wranglers loosely held around his waist, by

fu nk




some shopkeeper's discarded grocery wrapper.
After all, this is where it's at, isn't it? You look directly at
him, and become surprised on realising that he's not seeing
you for his eyes are drooping from lack of sleep.
You wonder, no man! Don't you understand he's cool man,
he's been cool and cooling it since he was born cause there was
"Go to school chile, get ah education". Mothers speak not
realising that what you learn there is the medium of com-
munication, an education you are not getting.
'A trade yes! a trade" Okay sweetheart what's your name?"
says that unforgettable character sitting behind the wooden
desks carrying out the interview. "You fill out dis application."
After the agonizing experience you are told that "we have
about seven hundred people on the waiting list'" The neck
muscles seem to give way and your head droops as if snapped
.by the hangman's noose, "However, maybe there is something
I can do for you, just between us of course and for a small fee".


So my older Sister's determined to go straight. "A job,
she says, "I need a job," as she hustles through the crowded
streets of Port of Spain determined that she can make it hon-
estly. After three days, her looks are more important and that
determination fades.
Again she tries, sickened even more by the stench of the
garbage piled up over three days. No one pays attention; after
all, it's now a common sight isn't it? "So what type of work
are you looking for?" "Anything, it's a job I need."
She awaits a reply that seems never to come.
"The job is a job just for you only. You will probably be
working on Saturday and Sunday." "But I thought the store
wvas closed on Sunday?"
The once beautiful smile on my older Sister's lips has van-
ished as she plods her way to "work" on Saturday and Sunday.
She is no longer like I used to know her; the weekends must be
Things are different now, man, it's pure funk, and we're so
cool man, well aren't we?

--'t." .:
'.-;:.' ,;, ,
'M "
.3' .. ."
...l , +,,+
. r-f.,


4h1 jji


4U6 RHONDA 3 PCE. LIVING ROOM SUITE Selected Bri-Nylon Fabric Upholstery



The Am ic Store



"' Y

: IT

... .


saves South
THE LAST water short-
age that hit the country
saw the Southland and its
Capital, San Femando, with-
out water for four success-
ive days. San Fernandians
can relate stories of the
hunt that ensued in search
of water for cooking etc.
Hundreds of people could
have been seen at the South-
ern Roundabout surrounding a
little, the only one within the
town's radius with water.
Some say that rioting would
have broken out if the short-
age had continued one day
longer as people began to storm
private properties to get at
cisterns storing water.
Meanwhile W.A.S.A. assured
Fedchem, the giant metropolitan
fertilizer complex that every
effort would be made to supply
their normal usage of water -
one million gallons per day.
But the people of San Fer-
nando know the horrors they
faced during the last crisis,
and ever since they, in the
popular mood of today, have
been protesting.
So much so that, for the
present water shortage in the
country, W.A.S.A. has decided
to cut back on Fedchem's wa-
ter supply.
The result is that the metro-
politan Fertiliser Corporation,
third on the hit parade of the
economic giants in the country,
is being forced to operate at
half production rates in order
that people can have just enough
water to drink.

UD JA R 14, 17 TP
0 S 0 0- S 0

[1IAyI1i mare___________

* Continued From Page 4
ago, that we were urged that "the first emphasis is
necessarily on our oil resources". (p. 2)
Yet there, as here in the Budget, the discussion
of petroleum only scratches the surface of the
problem and for the very good reason that the
Government is too weak and insecure to do anything
serious with oil. In 1970, they asked Texaco for'
participation and were rewarded with a big big bouff.
Now the Government is talking about an Institute
of Petroleum and about diplomatic initiatives among
the petroleum producing countries. These are the
Tapiagproposals being cogged about 16 years too late.


But even with the fudging there remains so much
medicancy and servility throughout the Minister's
mouthing. Seemingly unaware of McIntyre and
Watson's computations that outflows of income are
one and a half times inflows of capital, Mr. Chambers
reiterates the orthodoxy without qualification. "we
welcome private foreign capital ." Perhaps it is
just an Afro-Saxon habit.
The weight of words is reserved for an attack on
the general population. The boo-boo man is that

irresponsibility which allows revenues earned in oil
to be frittered away in wages for a few. Visions of
George Weekes and Manswell in public sector and in
Well, in Tapia, we have made sense of the
experience since 1950. We know that the oil boom
once gave the country the self-confidence to kick
out a corrupt and inept government and to replace it
with one which has done no better in the end but
which could have made an enormous difference if
only it had been able to mount a radical attack on
the old regime.
We also know that "irresponsibility" is the means
by which the citizens are expressing their opinion of
the disappointments that they have had.
The scramble for wages is quite deliberate, the
low productivity is a reaction to corruption bribery
and morality in public affairs.
The lecole biche and the idling on the job are an
answer to the insensitivity, the arrogance, the Doctor
politics; to the failure to heed advice and entertain
legitimate opposition; to the willful refusal to re-
duce the voting age, to grant radio and television
time to political groups; and to the absence of all

humility, humanity, democracy or equity in the
relations between the State and the citizens.
Irresponsibility is nothing but a political weapon.
It has not always been like this; there was a time
when people were willing to give and in fact gave
their hearts to the cause. Now we have learnt the
game of political and economic blackmail.
After Chaguaramas, the Unions were the first to
take up, the struggle. They joined those people in the
country, mainly Indians, who had never been
persuaded by the consummation of Afro-Saxon
hopes in the appearance of a philosopher-King. In
the ten years almost the whole country has joined
the stream, many just interested in holding the old
regime to ransom.
In 1968 70, the youth and the students and the
intellectuals and the unemployed and the blacks all
linked. up with the militant unions to produce the
quickening of the February Revolution.
Since then, journalists, doctors, lawyers, concerned
clergy, housewives and a multitude of different
interests have converted that stream into a flood.
Productivity Year, Mr. Chambers makes no sense
of the February Revolution. It is doomed from the
very start. Doomed to drown in that flood *

Amin ups

Third World

KAMPALA (AWA) GEN harno of Indonesia, "a strong
Idi Amin has launched a anti-imperialist leader who con-
national campaign "inten- vened the first non-aligned con-
ded to give the people .of -erence in Bandung" andPandit
Uanda self-resect and pr- Nehru of India, "a very strong
Uganda selrespect and pr believer in Afro-Asian solidarity
ide in their country as well and in the dignity of man."
as their heritage". \
The first part of the cam-
aign involved the renaming of MAU MAU
roads, national parks and other
institutions to bear the names Also honoured were Chief
of great leaders of Africa and Albert Luthuli, "who courage-
the Third World. ously fought against the racists
Gen. Amin considered it of South Africa and died mys-
"only fitting that Ugandan Af- seriously"; Dedan Kimanthi, "a
ricans and other international Mau Mau leader, who for many
individuals that have done com- years fought imperialists in Kenya
mendable and historic deeds until he was slain in battle"
for the freedom of the Afro- and John Aki-Bua, "the first
Asian world should be remem- Ugandan to get a gold medal
bered in a fitting way in the at the Olympic games" during
daily lives of the people of competition/ this summer at
Uganda." Munich.
A major road in Kampala
was renamed Malcolm X Avenue,l Gen. Amin also said that he
in honour of the man that would immediately begin con-
Gen. Amin praised as "a strong sultations with Kenya and Tan-
Afro-American political leader, zania "with a view to agreeing
who bravely exposed and re- on a new name for Lake Vic-
sisted the activities of the im- toria."
perialists." T,,n TTo Ugndan ntrks and TT -


Queen's Road became Lum-
umba Avenue, in honour of
Patrice Lumumba, assassinated
leader of the Congo, who Gen.
Amin called "one of the great-
est Africans that has ever lived."
"He strongly fought against
the imperialists and the Zion-
ests for the freedom of Africa
and it would be a good thing
for all Africans to follow the
techniques, practices and prin-
ciples of Patrice Lumumba,"
announced the Ugandan Leader.
Other greater leaders of the
recent past that were honoured
included Kwame Nkrumah of
Ghana, "a firm advocate of
African Unity and a great Pan-
Africanistf Gamel Abdul Nasser
of Egypt, "whose teachings
and beliefs still remain strong
in the whole of Africa and the
Arab world and in Asia and
'Latin America;" Achmed Suk-

anda's highest waterfall were
given African names. One park
and the falls were named after
Ugandan King Kabarega, who
fought against British pene-

SELF-Discovery Through
.Literature is a booklet writ-
ten and published by Anson
Gonzalez from a series of
radio programmes. Here,
Gonzalez takes a national-
istic approach to Trinidad
and Tobago literature. His
attempt may be described
as a search for the/roots of
our literature and an at-
tempt to prove that a tra-
dition of letters exists.
Gonzalez places the birth of.
the Trinidad novel and short
story writing in the production
of Legends of the Bocas in
1922 by A. D. Russell. C. L. R.
James and A. H. Mendes pioneer
the short story tradition, having
some of them published in
Best Short Stories in the World
in 1928.
Even back in the '30's, The
Beacon, brainchild of Albert
Gomes, committed itself to the
task of forging a West Indian


Another of Gonzalez' aims
is to honour every prophet of
Trinidad and Tobago letters. All
relatively unknown poets like
Ganessingh, Clarke, Telemanque,
Olga Comma-Maynard and Neville
Guiseppi are mentioned.
1956-57 saw the heyday of
Selvon and Naipaul, our most
prolific writers.


The tradition of playwriting,
however, goes back much further
than the possible 1907 begin-
nings of the Novel. C. L. Joseph
first published a number of
short plays in 1833, but stir-
ings began in the Trinidad theatre;
since the 1820's.
Among the earlier playwrights
are L. O. Inniss, De Wilton

US backing South Africa

corporations recently have initiated two multi-million
dollar projects in South Africa.
General Motors has signed a $560 million agreement for the
supply of about 30,000 pounds of platinum a year from South
African mines. The platinum is earmarked for the pollution control
devices that American cars are required by federal law to begin in
American oil firms are presently supporting South Africa's search
for oil offshore, with the blessings of the American government.
American Ambassador John Hurd recently joined South African
authorities during ceremonies aboard a giant American drilling rig.


Rogers, A., Roberts and M. P.
Later came Errol John with
Moon On A Rainbow Shawl,
produced by poet-playwright
\Derek Walcott and the Triri-
dad Theatre Workshop in 1967.
Including Errol Hill, Slade Hop-
kinson and Freddie Kissoon,
Gonzalez counts 23 playwrights
who have had their works pub-
In this book Gonzalez un-
earthed an unsuspected wealth
of works by nationals. As he
repeats, one of his aims was to
add to the sense of national
identity and consciousness which
he feels is for our self-realisation
as a people.
Self-Discovery Through Lit-
erature was written with the
10th year of Independence in
mind. The author is aware that
a lack of self-knowledge was
partly responsible for the break-
up of the Federation.
He ends with a call for old
and valuable copies of rare
pieces to be turned in to the
Libraries and the hope that
local publishing companies would
follow their earlier Jamaican
counterparts in attempting to
produce inexpensive copies of
local writing to foster a wider
interest and reading of the
national literature.

Honour for all the




soft, light

Sand delicious.

~_II _~~_ ~___






The Owl and the Pussycat
went to sea
In a beautiful pea-green
Not exactly pea-green, but
what ICI calls "Light Admiralty
Grey" the official colour of
the Trinidad and Tobago Coast
Guard. And not, of course, an
Owl and a Pussycat but Captain
Bloom, Lieutenants Brash and
Roach, and a crew of twenty.
Definitely, however, a boat
- not a ship but a Fast Patrol
Boat with a semi-planing hull,
built for fast and not particu-
larly economical operation in
sheltered waters.
True, with her sister-ships -
sorry, boats she, arrived in
Port of Spain on her own bottom
from the Vaspers yard in Britain,
via the Canaries and Brazil;
but the South Atlantic Crossing
is not arduous and the boats
took their time about it, with
no freight but their own fuel
and supplies.


Above all, HMTS Chaguara-
mas is not a freighter. Her air-
conditioned crew-space, ammu-
nition magazines aid storage
for her own fueling and vic-
tualling needs leave hardly any
room, except on deck, for
The 40 tons of "relief sup-
plies" with which she was loaded
for her voyage to Nicaragua
will also make her dangerously
unstable, especially since her
speed must be reduced to 15
or 16 knots to conserve fuel.
A displacement hull can take
deeper and deeper loading with
only slight increase in fuel
consumption and up to a
certain point no loss of
stability. A boat 98 feet on

the waterline with a shallow
V-shaped underbody must move
fast to conserve fuel and retain
stability. In rough conditions
she will be unstable even if
lightly loaded heavily loaded
she is in constant danger of
broaching or ploughing under.
They took some honey and
plenty of money
Wrapped up in a five-pound
But they didn't have to re-
fuel. HMTS Chaguaramas will
not get away with a five-pound
She has two Paxman diesel
engines which produce 1400
horsepower each at 1500 revs,
drinking sixty gallons an hour
in the process.
Her tanks hold 4900 gallons,
of which about 4750 are usable,
since the engines cannot drain
the tanks. The journey to Nic-
aragua is 1500 miles.
The money Captain Bloom
has had to take with him is
$10,000 US twice the value
of the supplies he carries. It is
in cash, because the boat must
refuel and revictual at least
once on the outward and once
on the return journey at
Cartagena and Curacao.
And east of La Guaira the
Trinidad Government has no
agent to make the arrangements,
nor was there time for any
advance requests to Colombian
or Dutch authorities.
So it is cash on the nail, and
an unknown period of delay in
each port while the necessary
clearances are obtained on the
spot. It is a case of:-
Dear Pig, are you willing to
sell for one shilling
Your ring? Said the piggy "I
So they took it away ...
Let us hope Captain Bloom
is as fortunate in his shopping
as the Owl and the Pussycat.
The Owl looked up to the
stars above

And sang to a small guitar:
"Oh lovely pussy, oh pussy
my love
What a wonderful pussy you
are. .."
As far as we know Captain
Bloom is not a guitarist but he
will have a lot of time to con-
template the stars, since he will
be away for at least a fortnight.
Any serenade he sings to the
political fat cats who despatched
him and his argosy, though it
'may include the word "pussy"
(perhaps even "deaf bitch"),
will certainly not be a ballad
of love.
.The meeting of Williams,
Padmore and Pitt which dreamt
up this fantasticvoyage insisted
on its being carried out in the
face of all advice and every
argument of common sense.


Their sole motivation was
Sthe desire to ingratiate them-
selves with the governments of
the OAS an aim as futile as
it is abject, since any govern-
ment in its right mind is more
likely to be amused at the
idiocy of such an enterprise as
impressed by its dubious human-
In any case, what makes the
enterprise criminally wasteful
as well as ludicrous is the fact
that the supplies were not neces-
sary. Managua was inundated
with supplies.
The relief coordinating cen-
tre in Miami advised the govern-
ment to this effect; so did the

OAS; so did the Secretary of
the Inter-Caribbean Emergency
Relief Organisation, "Vap" Priz-
gar, who in return for his advice
found himself making the trip
with the crew.
The costs of the project must
include, as well as the value of
the supplies of the 9000 gallons
of fuel, and of the victualling
and other items, the loss of the
services of the boat and crew
during its absence.
In fact, during last week the
Coast Guard had to request
the help of the Jamaican Coast
Guard to search for a ship that
was reported overdue.


Among the advice disregarded
by Messrs. Williams, Padmore
and Pitt was the fact that of
the other three Fast Patrol Boats;
possessed by the Coast Guard,
Buccoo Reef bent her pro-
peller shaft running aground
at Chatham, Courland Bay has
only one serviceable engine and
both of Trinity's engines are
in such bad condition that she
cannot venture outside the Gulf
of Paria.
"They sailed away for a
year and a day
To the land where the bong
tree grows..."
and a lot of other trees
besides. The only piece of ad-
vice that the politicians did take
was that the Chaguaramas should
not go through the Panama
Canal to the port of Managua,
which is on the Pacific Coast.
First of all, the delay would
be considerable; secondly, a ship

has to have "Panama Fair-
leads" fitted to enable her to be
towed by the mechanical mules
which haul ships through the
locks of the Canal.
For Chaguaramas this would
have been a difficult business
since she is so small that her
lines would be almost vertical
when she was being towed.


So instead of cancelling the
whole thing, the politicians in-
sisted that Captain Bloom find
a port on the Caribbean coast
of Nicaragua. The best of these
is a place called Blue Fields,
which is separated from the
disaster area, Managua, by 150
miles of rough mountainous
What communications with
Managua are like, and whether
the Nicaraguan authorities would
find it worthwhile to accord
any priority to the transport
of Chaguaramas' forty tons of
supplies, is unknown; but what
is known is that the last time
such a relief mission was mounted
on the occasion of the Caracas
earthquake, nobody in La Guaira
knew anything about the ship-
ment and the Coast Guard had
to leave it on the dock and
As this goes to press, the
Chaguaramas is reported to be
in Curacao, having got as far as
Cartagena before being stopped
by rough seas. She has trans-
ferred her supplies to a Colom-
bian destroyer which will take
them on the Blue Fields.
The relief mission has had
to be relieved. But' the people
who can risk human life for
such a farce are still with us.


Every Week



is Stephens



N* >





THE traditional Tapia
Open House sessions have
been continuing on Thurs-
day nights. With one dif-
Now members and as-
sociates contemplate the
state of the nation while
folding the pages of TAPIA
to appear on the streets
the next morning.
In a remarkable exam-
ple of cooperative mental
labour and manual, we have
been assembling in shifts
from as early as 7 p.m.
every Thursday to begin
"breaking the back" of the
centre-page spread, norm-
ally the first to come off
the press,
Coffee and breadfruit
"boil-down"; biscuit-and-
cheese and White Star; com-
ments on thp current paper
and reflection on the move-
ment generally; lthIe have
enlivened the sessions which
on late weeks have run to
the "small" hours of the
Nevertheless, the Thurs-
day night- sessions have
been grow in number of
of members, friends and
associates, and you can,
too, if you wish join the
movement to the Tapia
House, 91 Tunapuna Road,
next Thursday.


you can

help sell


Secretary Ivan Laughlin is
asking all members and
associates who would like
to help distribute TAPIA
on Friday mornings to get
in contact with him or
Allan Harris at the office,
82i.4- St. Vincent Street,
The "South-run" now
legendary in the organ-
isation since Ivan's story.
has dieveopd into an tia-
portant political exerdse,
Laughlin and others who
accompany him establish
and service a series of
political contacts whose
association with Tapia is
made on the basis of dis-
tributing the paper in their
However, there remain
many other areas in which
outlets have to be opened
up, and the call goes out
for members and support-
en to come and take part
in this properly uncoven-
tional method of distri-
buting "the review of un-
conventional pAiisw" and
in expanding the movea-
All you need to do is to
give a fkw hours early o.
FHiday mAorigs and to
supply transport it you
have it


From Page 2
the course of the meeting. Taxi-
men are naturally the most
knowledgeable people on the
problems of transport, and they
have seen few solutions im-
plemented over the years to
alleviate their and the travelling
public's suffering.
"Our words have fallen on
deaf ears," Hosein continued.
"Now we must do something
demonstrative. We have to hold
some kind of demonstration."
The idea of a demonstration
found enthusiastic favour among
the taximen. Indeed when it
was suggested that a motorcade
demonstration be held on a
Sunday to avoid disruption,
there were shouts of protest:
"Nah, Nah, Nah! We want
disruption, man. That is the
only way you could get atten-


Another driver, George Pope
recalled that an offer of a
stand for Tunapuna taximen
had come as the result of
previous agirtiiion However, for
some reason or othet it had
not been taken up.
Pope declared that the Bud-
get cutback on purchase taxes
for low-prices cars was "no real
ease" because every kind of
taxi costs more IIh.Ii 5'l,000.
He was for a complete removal
of purchase taxes, noting that
farmers got if off for the pur-
chase of Land Rovers and that
Government Travelling Officers
did not have to pay it either for
their cars.
"We are rendering a better
service, but we don't be treated
right," Pope continued. "We
deserve better treatment, and
if we can't get it peacefully
a demonstration is the last
Pope and every other taxi-
man who spoke at the meeting
stressed the need for unity
among the brothers in the trade,
an end to the dog-eat-dog busi-
ness in which everyday work
had to be a scramble every
man for himself.


As Shahid losein had put
it: "As a taxi-driver you are
nothing. But as a body you
have the 'iciSng1t to make your
presence felt and make your
demands be effective."
By the time it was the turn
of Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best
to speak the problems had been
aired many times over and the
mood favoring action now
pervaded the gathering.
Best urged that the taxi-
drivers once and for all abandon
their individualistic attitudes and.
unite to address themselves with
clarity to the problems and
ssible solutions
The major *'.\'':' as he
saw it was congestion 45
minutes for the it -mile drop
to the city. He was immediately
eorteeted: one and a half to
two houns is more like it In t
fet, they said only six to seven
trips were possible in a te-thout
wotul g day,

Best called taxis an essential
service on par with police, fire-
men and the like. Before the
Budget TAPIA had called for
removal of the purchase tax on
taxis, but what the Government
had done was to reduce the
tax on the mere 15% of cars in
the lowest price range.
What was more, he reminded
the drivers, to get H-rights you
had to get a minister to say you
had no other source of income.
So it was corruption and nepo-
tism adding to all the other


Analysing the effect of raising
the price of gas and lowering
the tax on some cars, lie told
the drivers:
"So the Government say
they're putting money in your
pocket once every five years
when you buy a car but they
are taking it out your pocket
every five hours when you buy
Acco' idimn to his calculations,
the one cent more per mile per
five persons that Mr. Chlumbeis
claimed the gas rise would
cost in fact meant an additional
expenditure of $480 per year.
That figure Lloyd Best said
should be one month's salary
for ;m\ one working for a decent
Muimimni W.gec.
Taking up the Government's
figures of 37 accidents per
million miles, the Fapb SecL rtary
pointed out that this amount
meant higher insurance pre-
miums to go with the higher
prices for gas, for cars and for
parts. "And what is more, your
life is at risk!"


These conclusions drew spon-
taneous response from the assem-
bled drivers:
"And they telling you you
can't increase the fares!"
One driver added that after
two years the car firms no
longer want to import parts.
"So you have to buy thief
parts sometimes if you want
to stay on the road."
With all these hiin,. Lloyd
-Best continued, c.ic ,c..toiv. n
had to be eui-ctuei. "!Ic:.1
going in and out more than the
Government ,- f-lts huCE to
learn to drive here."
As there are 60 70,000
re'Fp'e -l.e-;Flp;yd. and taxis
just cant turn around fast enough
to pick up passengers the PH
men had to come in the game.
Then the meeting moved to
consider possible solutions now-
The Tapia Secretay proposed
that immediate solutions had
to be found until some larger
national pz i r :r'n n.rr zc ld
be implemented by a competent
*A road joiningg Maloney
Surte't to F;:.::. Stret passing
over the oid t:: ;,:;
Lay-bys along tihe rai for,
stopping to pick up and drop,
*Cut a road along the train
line froma Tuonmpuna a mnaiket to

*Circular flow at the Croisee:
traffic going to town turns left
at Aranguez into Fifth Street;
for East-bound cars, one-way
*No parking on the Eastern
Main Road from Picadilly Street,
South Quay to Tunapuna from
7 to 9 a.m. and from 4 to 5 p.m.;
no double parking at all.
Terminuses separate for all
destination taxis.
SStaggering of working hours
to lighten the crush at "peak"
*One way feeder streets all
along the Eastern Main Road,
especially in the heart of Bara-
taria, San Juan and Tunapuna.
As immediate requirements
these were unanimously en-
dorsed by the taximen. But
how to translate them from
ideas into action, real change,
real improvement, better con-

A tide-race)

Ceopatra, washed tp nude, spmawled
amoitg the sphinxes. That last bite
and spring-tide of love she chose hcrstef
f.rt :::d her buttocksand ripped her Shids

71Tf11 the ein Set her drop and swed
north, eatingMediternmneani

When the oilslicks of the north
crawled south to die on island shores
the remu
went under-ground Rose under Peru.

If one day this dull-eyed sea
between the barracks and Gasparee
should boil as at a sharks'feast, know
the remu is passing, mulatto.

By love deceived you backed off from
the remu's subterranean whim.
Now your child is dying, look,
ague shaking him!

-.Valle in de .:.. .
Fhl beali;t so, he pwC st uw
J"r:. mrak.'"e de: s
Remzne Sak' he en' gone

America and Africa
hurled themselves apart,
twin cliffs in the nightsky 's blue
Between them rose the islands,

Between them raced the remu, like panzer-men
through the Ardennes, already in France

I see a chd's hand, swept ':.: -
whr dthe Se mIm swigs to the open i m ma

.- AUth .Ad n %-v ja MJmr
w ndid write 7.<*'-* .* n -- Iw.:a 1awW
iup tiE hit? iasss fmierat sztaweas
Am~seiss thts &sn e tm;.

It was agreed that what was
.required was a serious organ-
isation of the taximen united
to make demands in their own
interest. An Association of East
taxi-drivers was proposed and
Lloyd Best then suggested
that the Association should start
a sou-sou to set up its own
parts shop and even gas station.
Somebody added: an insurance
company too.
The Association should ac-
quire a fleet of mini-buses which
its members could drive in
eight-hour shifts. It should be
a co-operative in fact, the Tapia
Secretary continued.
The general participation in
the discussion of proposals and
:solutions created much interest.
It was time and again lamented
that more drivers were not able
to attend the meeting.
And the meeting ended with
a decision to hold a second at
the same venue on Tuesday
January 16, at 10.00 ajn.


R6 01 872
Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Insto for the Study of Man,
162 East 78th Street,
New York 10021, N.Y., U.S.A.



is the new delicacy, in-
troduced to Tunapuna
Road last Sunday. The
occasion was Blackpool's
"Block-o-rama" which
they called "Tunapuna
Since Block-o-rama has
been established as a pop-
ular form of community
entertainment, the open-
air, Carnival-type get-to-
gethers have attracted sun-

foot souse
dry local entrepreneurs,
eager to push this or
that type of delicacy or
And so chicken foot
souse joined the sno-cone
vendors and the orange
vendors, and took its place
alongside the drinks, the
hoopla, the darts board,
the over-under-lucky seven
and the three-card stalls
where people mostly lost
their coins.


Of course, the gnarled,
jointed toes soaking in
the cucumber and onion
sauce turned off most
buyers initially. But after
tentative samples, the chic-
ken feet soon won over
all but the hog-features

on "Tunapuna Day"

It was the right place
to launch that dish. In an
atmosphere where people
are grooved into the new
and the unconventional
- especially where this
means making greatest use
of abundantly available
material chicken foot

souse would be bound to
go down well.
Teeming at the block
of the corner of St. Johns
Street were the Tunapuna
young, sporting the threads
enjoying the good wea-
ther, the Hilltones steel-'
band and the funky sounds
powering forth from the
stereo boxes of Fat-man
In between, the Black-

pool drummers palmed
and pounded the now
typical music of the blocks.
By the time it got dark
on Sunday afternoon,
there were nearly. thtiu-
sand people thronging the
Traffic had long since
been diverted to allow
free rein to youthful
exuberance and give free
expression to dynamic
community spirit.


THIS WEEK about 400
to 500 persons employed
by bakeries are likely to be
without jobs.
These persons are eim-
ployed with the 50-odd
bakeries, members of the
Trinidad & Tobago Bakers'
Association Limited, who
have decided to stop pro-
duction when their present
supply of flour runs out.
The Association says that
it is uneconomical to con-
tinue in business because
of the large increase in the
prices of flour, and other
inputs into the baking in-
However, the shortage of
flour does not only affect the
It will also affect people

who make bread at home or
may be now thinking of this
and also housewives who make
roti for home consumption or
for sale.
Members of the Association
also estimate that another 1,500
persons small parlour owners
- who buy bread for re-sale as
sandwiches will also be affected
by the flour shortage.

The Bakers Association wrote
to the Minister of Industry and
Commerce, the Prime Minister
and the Prices Commission, in-
forming them of their decision
not to import further supplies
of baker's flour from the first
day of this year.
The rise in the price of
flour to local producers is the


result of an international short-
age of wheat.
The United States, the largest
wheat exporter, has been selling
the grain to China and the
Soviet Union, who have had
shortfalls in their production.
As a result, the price of
wheat has skyrocketed through-
out the world.
Then the price of sugar, the
other main input in the baking
industry, has gone up.
Bakers also envisage greater
hardships with the increased
Budget taxes on fuel and con-
sequently, transport.
The Poultry Association is
asking for an increase in the
scheduled price of chicken of
the nature of 20 cents.
A "high-powered" govern-
ment committee is supposed to

report by the middle of this
At present, black-market op-
erations have already developed
as some chicken vendors are
selling below the counter.
The Bakers' Association has
not met with Government Min-
isters. In fact, its letter has
not even been answered.

The Poultry Farmers Associa-
tion had made several proposals
to government to solve the
One is that government should
subsidise the price of feeds to
keep the price down for the
Another is to put all feeds
under Price Control.
Similar proposals could also

apply in the case of flour.
The Bakers' Association is
asking for a rise in the scheduled
price of bread.
Feed millers are reported to
be having secret talks with
government on the issue.
The prospects are thus for a
shortage of bread, flour for
bread or roti and an increase in
the price of poultry within the
At least 500 persons are
likely to be without jobs, not
to mention parlour keepers whose
business will definitely be affected
and roti vendors.
The other possibility is that
the government can reach some
agreement with the interests


These issues are indeed bread
and butter ones.
Yet the government does
not think it is important enough
to make a statement to the
country explaining the problem
and possible alternatives.
Instead, we keep hearing
that the increased price of
foodstuffs and other commodi-
ties are not larger than this,
that or the other country, that
things could be worse.
How does this help the house-
wife when she has to stretch
every dollar to feed the hungry
pack at home.
When there is not enough
food to go around let her
lecture to them that in Nigeria
the price has gone up by this,
and in Australia by that...
The present situation invol-
ving the Poultry Industry and
the Flour Industry can only
make us think that as in so
many different avenues of life
in the country, WATER MORE
THAN FLOUR. Except that
it ent have water either.







f Topsoil



Dynamic community spirit.

I Cmmnity ]l