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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00044
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: January 7, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00044

Full Text


Vol 3 No 1


RESEARCH INST ITrT
SUNDAY, JANUARY 7, 1970R THE STt(!Dy F ~r ,
162 EAST 78 STREET
NEW YORK 2.1, y



/


LOOK OUT FOR : RACE AND COLOUR IN W I CRICKET


Oilfields may


lay off


THE BIG shadow that
hangs over a roaring '73 is
unemployment in the oil
fields. It is difficult to see
how Texaco and Shell can
avoid laying off many hun-
dreds of men this year be-
cause of rapidly dropping
production of crude oil
inland and in the Gulf of
Paria.
Output in these areas is
down from 140,000 barrels
per day in 1971 to 110,000
barrels at the moment. A re-
surgence is reported in Oro-
pouche and Tabaquite while
Palo Seco and Guapo are said
to be sustaining output due to
the application of new methods
by Tesoro.
B.t Guayaguayare which led
the revival in 1966 is now fall-
ing off quickly as are most of
the 14 production areas inclu-
ding the relatively new Soldado
field in the Gulf.


The rosy predictions which
we have been hearing about an
oil bonanza and more gold for
the Treasury are based on ma-
rine prospects in the East and
in the South. But very few
jobs are involved.

AMOCO

AMOCO was producing 32
thousand barrels per day in
October. Output is now at
46,000, about half way below
target. The addition of new
drilling platforms and the solu-
tion of certain production pro-
blems caused by sand could
bring production to 150,000
barrels by the end of this year.
But when TAPIA checked
in November, we found that
only 125 men were engaged -
half of them directly, the rest
through contractors such as
Alves, Santana, etc.
Conflict is brewing among


THE EXPENDITURE bud-
get is the most powerful
single instrument of econ-
omic management available
to the government. On the
side of revenue, they could
always try a thing by vary-
ing the types and rates of
taxes or by refraining from
taxing altogether, granting
rebates or holidays instead.
Outside the budget they
could fiddle with rates of
interest, with the allocation
of credit, with the avail-
ability of marketing ser-
vices, technical advice and
so on. If is not the PNM,
they might even fiddle well.
But in the last resort, a
government's biggest im-
pact on the country's life
is achieved by spending to
get things done.
The expenditure estimates
should therefore tell you plen-
ty. You cannot get a better
idea of where the government
is coming from than by study-
ing how much it is spending
from year to year and on what.


hundreds


this


workers on the East Coast
owing to different pay for the
same work depending on how
much murder the contractors
can get away with. But the
overriding concern remains the
amount of work available in a
pinching-tight unemployment
situation in the whole country.
The Third Five Year Plan
anticipated these employment
difficulties in oil. A certain


Statistically speaking, that
is. But after 16 years of mor-
ality in public affairs we have
learnt that it is salutary to be
wary of statistics. You simply
can't afford to skip out the
fine print which lies behind the
figures and the numbers. And
that is where the accompanying
Review Of The Economy 1972
comes in.

TACTICS

Current and capital expendi-
ture, we are told this time, is to
jump by $42 million to $474
million in 1973. The develop-
ment budget rises from $107
million to $112.5 million. It is
another in a monotonous series
of record budgets. What does
it mean?
What does it mean in terms
of the long-standing problems
of poverty, dispossession and
chronic unemployment; of in-
equality and privilege, foreign
domination and central govern-
ment control of our lives? By
what tactics does the Govern-
ment intend to deal with the


year


reduction of the labour force
was said to be "the only real-
istic projection".
Between 1968 and 1973,
it was expected that employ-
ment would fall by 1,000 to
12,200. However, approval was
required for any retrenchment
in the industry. Apparently the
Cabinet has held the line thus
far.


current fashion of bewildering
inflation and a galloping cost
of living? How does this year's
schedule of expenditure form
part of some larger overall
strategy that could deliver us
from Babylon for good?
Presumably the Minister of
Finance will attempt some an-
swers when he speaks to the
nation on Friday January 5.
He needs to come good this
time because the entire future
of the old regime is jumping up
in steelband. And the days
when they could present the
nation with half-arsed political
economy are over.
Mr. Chambers can be cer-
tain that the unconventional
press is not going to spend its
pages worrying over whether
the budget is free of tax or not.
Instead, we would wish to
know whether the transfer of
money from the hands of citi-
zens to the coffers of the
government adds up to a better
quality of life. And that de-
pends as much on how the
money is spent as on how
much is raised and by what
means.


Now that the Government
is negotiating new pricing and
fresh terms of participation,
the companies are probably
pressing for more freedom to
cut away excess labour.
The Government is so weak
that it may have to yield and
allow Texaco and Shell to ditch
the whole of the 1,000 during
the course of this year alone.
Certainly the administration
has been much too weak to
contemplate anything like the
kind of price and participation
deal which the OPEC countries
have all been able to swing
since the projected oil shortage
has turned the tables on the
petroleum multinationals.

GLOOMY
The gloomy picture for em-
ployment in oil is unrelieved
by new developments. Tesoro
is producing less than 2,000
of 20,000 offshore barrels per
day promised. The Consortium
on the South Coast will not be
getting off the ground for at
least another year.
In refining, employment in
the construction of the Texaco
desulphurisation plant will soon
tail off permanent jobs are a
mere handful.
When the Point Lisas Liquid
Gas plant starts to build some
2,000 men would be needed for
about two years but this pro-
ject may not begin till 1975.
Shell is expanding capacity
at Point Fortin but this is
certain to make the operation
more automated and less de-
pendent on manpower.
The contradiction between
the golden promises of a new
oil boom and the frustrations
born of large-scale retrenchment
of workers could make 1973
more roaring a year than even
1937.


WILL THE BUDGET MAKE SENSE OF

THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION, ASKS

LLOYD BESTREAD ONPAGE 3


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PAGE 2 TAPIA


TER E


SUNDAY JANUARY 7, 1973



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ABOVE LEFT: The Gurata Serenaders
of Maracas St. Joseph


ABOVE RIGHT: Margaret...


RIGHT: Syl Lowhar and Pat Downes


BELOW: Phulori tray ambushed


LENNOX GRANT

OLD YEARS is conven-
iently a time for reflec-
tion and reminiscing and
traditionally a time for
revelry. Both these
elements were present in
last Sunday's Old Years
Rum Punch Fiesta at the
Tapia House.
The party, hosted by the
Tapia House Publishing
Company Ltd., provided
S an occasion for the con-
genial get-together of
i members,p oli t i c al
associates and business
S associates to mark the end
of the year.
And after the first two hours
the balance between the two
elements of revelry and sober
Reflection became inevitably
blurred.
Members had spent all day
t Saturday decorating the Tapia
House. The "decorations"
were actually a carefully
thought out exhibition spread
out in different parts of the
House.
The idea was to show the
birth and "organic" growth of
Tapia from the New World
S days, climaxing with the

.. larger, more widespread mem-
bership of the present day.

POSTERS

S. Hung on a board headlined
"New World What Next?"
were some rare historical
S. documents: Lloyd Best's
Letter proposing to James
.. Millette in mid-1968, months
t [ ,s before the celebrated "split",
S that a new organisation sepa-
rate from the New World
i Group be founded to deal in
unconventional politics; the
Minutes of the first meeting of
STapia, the list of those present
indicating both the common
origin of such groups as NJAC
and TAPIA and the diaspora
of membership.
SStriking green and yellow
Tapia posters sent a swath of
..' colour across the lengthof the
House. Mounted on another
wall was a complete collection
of issues of TAPIA. Volume
One Nos. I to 29; Volume
Two Nos. 1 to 13, as well as
"specials" and pamphlets in-
cluding our March 1970
"Proposals following the
/ February Revolution."
With all these set up in one
I' place for easy viewing, mem-
bers and guests could reminisce
S: about the old days of TAPIA,
re-reading the "pieces" which
had turned on so many of us,
and marvelling at the change
L that had come over the paper
reflecting both Tapia's gradual
acquisition of new resources
and responses to changing
political situations.
Three boards which showed
main TAPIA headlines since
September 1969 bore this out
most sharply. The two front
page stories of Vol. One No. 1
of September 28, 1969 written
by Augustus Ramrekersingh
and Lloyd Best "THE PNM
S SHIFTING SANDS" and


Continued on Page 11







SUNDAY JANUARY 7, 1973






SA and transport equipment 30%.
Well, the classification in any
case, obscures more than it
illuminates and in this day and
age it is nothing short of scandal
that we are not presented with
more meaningful categories when
most of the economists in the
public service have little or no
work to do.
We are also told'that "rising
import prices have been a major
contributor to the cost of living."
So you can see where they are
* coming from. The 7% increase
in prices in the industrial coun-
tries necessarily affects Trinidad
and Tahnzon "The persistent


IF THE Review of the
Economy 1972 is any guide
to the government's mas-
tery of the issues, we are in
serious trouble which is
not surprising when you
consider how near the prec-
ipice we had been pushed
by 1970 after 14 years of
rahrahrah.
The Review fails entirely to
articulate the vital connection
between the problems which
it simply mentions: of a con--
tinuing domination of activity
by the petroleum sector, of
intractable unemployment in
spite of heavy central govern-
ment spending, mounting pub-
lic debt, galloping prices, de-
teriorating terms of trade and a
dimunitioh in our holdings of
international reserves.
Too often the technique
of exposition employed is just
uncritically borrowed from the
University of Woodford Square:
blind black people with the


spurious science of statistical
precision, bully them with the
weight of evidence from the
outside world pointing inexor-
ably to the incapacity of Tri-
nidad and Tobago to save itself
by any effort of its own.
We are told that in spite of
a large inflow of official and
private capital, the official re-
serves fell to $139.0 million,
a level which is regarded as
"internationally acceptable" in
the light of the pattern of
growth of the country's ex-
ports. What is the significance
of the figure unless we are
shown the cancelling move-
ments that lie behind it.

BORROWING

In the height of the Feb-
ruary Revolution in 1970 when
capital certainly fled like mad,
the reserve position told us
very little because of certain
private and public borrowings


and temporary adjustments in
import spending.
And what on earth is an
internationallyy acceptable" level
of reserves? The level that we
need must relate to some am-
ount of imports that we wish
to cover three months, six
months as the case may be.
But the problem with this un-
imaginative, Afro:Saxon Gov-
ernment is precisely that it is
utterly incapable of economic
independence and takes apples
and grapes as an immutable
way of life.
And that is why the import
of inflation from abroad, the
chronic unemployment of la-
bour with rising wage-costs,
the worsening of the terms of
trade (export vs. import prices)
and balance of payments dif-
ficulties are accepted as a pack-
age deal.
We are told that "the pat-
tern of imports tended to remain
as in recent years". Food 17%,
manufacturers 38%, machinery


price increases over the past
twelve months ... are part of a
worldwide phenomenon." On
to the conclusion that "the
United States of America in-
stituted a freeze on wages and
prices", "the United Kingdom
has had to impose a mandatory
freeze on wages and prices... ".

INFLATION

If this government were not
so weak and tottering on the
edge of a political precipice,
you could have expected an-
other piece of ISA-type legis-
lation anytime now. Based, as
was the original ISA, on a
totally misconceived understan-
ding of the economic oppor-
tunities that we have.
In Tapia we know that there,
is absolutely no valid reason
why we should be slave to
imports and imported inflation
in this way. We have all along
urged that the strategy must
begin with a shutting out of
inessential imports, properly de-,
fined and measured. (We have
made estimates of how much
is involved and we can say
that it is plenty even by a
moderate definition.)
When you shut out imports
you will have a rising cost of
living but one of an entirely
different character from what


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All overseas deliveries airmail.
Surface mail rates on request.
Tapia House, 91, Tunapuna
Road Tunapuna, Trinidad &
Tobago.


-- .' I


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OVES



MOUNTAINS


Yardpaving

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PHONE:662-3610,4152


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THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKS




ANY KIND OF


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PORT OF SPAIN SAN FERNANDO


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TAPIA PAGE 3
you are having now. Rising
prices for nationally produced
goods will provide all kinds of
opportunities for the unemploy-
ed to work and to produce
saleable goods and services.
Farmers and small manufact-
urers, artisans, brothers on the
drag, as it were, will all come
into play seriously for the very
first time. Their incomes will
rise just as fast if not faster
than the cost of living.
This would be constructive,
home engendered inflation. It
would shift the terms of trade
against the parasite privileged
who do not have the skills
to produce anything but clerical
services.

BUY LOCAL

Such constructive inflation
holds the solution to unemploy-
ment. But this strategy requires
that economic participation be
a meaningful thing so that the
Unions would be as much in
charge as anybody else and
would throw their weight be-
hind national reconstruction.
The strategy requires that
people agree to change their
tastes and "buy local". It de-
mands National Service and an
entirely fresh conception of
education, apprenticeship and
community development It dic-
tates equal treatment for coun-
try and town, new relations
between Africans, Indians, Eu-
ropeans. It means the February
Revolution must be concluded;
that we must hang the jack
this year in fact And we will.-
Once you entertain this vis-
ion, it means that participation
must be more than the ab-
straction of State ownership
of equity shares majority,
minority or totality in this
or that enterprise or sector.
There has to be some sense of
sequence, some recognition of
what is crucial for the changes
in behaviour and performance
that we want.
Clearly, participation in pet-
roleum will be meaningful only
if it results in more solid ba-
lance of payments through bet-
Turn to Page 10


i






SUNDAY JANUARY 7,1973


ITHREIONI I


DENNIS PANTIN

BEFORE 1959, a little
over one million volumes
of books were produced
in Cuba.
By 1968, the figure jum-
ped to 13,066,417 volu-
mes, with 15 million plan-
ned for 1969.
More than 70 per cent
of the 13 million-plus vol-
umes produced in 1968
were issued to the people
free of charge.
These facts are contained
in a report of the seminar
on regional problems of
book production and dis-
tribution organised by the
Trinidad and Tobago Nat-
ional Commission for the
United Nations Economic,
Social and Cultural Organ-
isation to mark Interna-
tional Book Year.
The seminar was held at
the St. Augustine campus, UWI
in April last year.
Actually the report on the
Cuban experience, entitled: "Book:
Publishing and. Reading Sti-
.mulation in Cuba", was not
one of the papers presented at
the seminar.
The organizers included the
report as a matter of interest
from part of the UNESCO
series on Studies and Docu-
ments on Cultural Policies.

NEW READERS

It in fact makes a very
fitting last chapter to the re-
port since it shows how rev-
olutionary Cuba has solved many
of the problems raised during
the discussions at the seminar.
Prior to the Revolution, some
books were distributed in Cuba
via a few small bookshops and
reached a small number of
readers.
This was due, among other
things, to the high rate of
illiteracy and the small num-
bers in school, plus the dis-
possession of the people, who
even if they could read, could
not afford the high-cost books.
In 1961, the Revolutionary
Government undertook a vast
literacy campaign, followed up
by special courses in adult
education to make certain that
the new literates would not
forget what they had learned.
However, the Cuban Gov-
ernment did not stop there.

TRANSFORMATION

It nationalised education and
abolished school fees.
A labour dispute between
the owners of two reactionary
newspapers and the workers
culminated in the establish-
ment of a National Press using
the newspapers' machinery.
With the sale of 100,000
copies of its first publication,
El Quijote, at the incredible
price of 25 centavos a volume,
there began the great trans-
formation of the book indus-
try in that island.
One of the problems facing
Cuba at that time was the
inability to cope with the ur-
gent demand for university text-
books, which it was impossible
to produce in Cuba as a result
of the prohibitive laws laid
down by the various copyright
agreements.
Cuba went ahead and pub-


lished the textbooks ignoring
international copyright law.
The Cuban position was ex-
pressed by Prime Minister Fidel
Castro:
"Who pays Cervantes his
copyright royalties? Who pays
Shakespeare? Who pays the
inventors of the alphabet, of
arithmetic, of mathematics? ...
"We give notice that we
consider all technical achieve-
ments a legacy to which all
men have a claim, and to which
the nations which have been
most exploited have a special
claim."
Cuba's Publishing bodies base
their publishing policy on the
needs of the Revolution, and
of advancing culture and tech-
technology.
The publishing companies


Cuba



Who pays





Shakespeare





copyright?


are "also required to treat books
not just as products of an
industry, successive result of
an industrial technology, but
above all as products of the
culture of mankind: the ex-
pression of its scientific, artis-
tic, literary and technical ideas.
The new body was required
not to look on books as mer-
chandise, but as a powerful
instrument of education and
culture."
This can be illustrated by
thethat factof 8,722,000books
produced in 1967, 5,685,140
were educational textbooks.
Cuba has now an Instituto
del Libro which produces sev-
eral types of books, ranging
from textbooks for university,
secondary and primary school
students, to Arte y Sociedad
producing essays on art and
literature.


A school of Printing Trades
Technology which trains the
senior technicians needed for
the development of the printing
industry has been set up.
The country is well on the
way to the stage when it can
rely upon having a skilled en-
gineer in each technical post,
of .every department of every
printing works.
The Cuban story has a moral
for the rest of the Caribbean.
At the actual UNESCO Sem-
inar held at UWI in April,
John Macpherson, the Managing
Director of Caribbean Univers-
ities Press spoke on: "The Pro-
blem of Costs in West Indian
Publishing".
He pointed out that the
costs of producing a book are
borne by the publisher and,
except where paperback and


NASA looks to greater


things in


73


THE NON-ACADEMIC
Staff Association of the
UWI, St Augustine, faces
the New Year with great
confidence. In his end of
year Report, President, Fl-
oyd Archer, dates a res-
toration of confidence from
the General Meeting of
October 5, 1972.
The General Meeting, said
Mr. Archer, was a culmination
of the efforts of those few
members who last May had
made "a positive response to
the frustration and disgust that
had set into the Association."
When "the affairs of the
Association were in complete
disarray, morale was low and
the future looked bleak" the


few persisted. They disagreed
but recognized the greater pur-
pose and stayed together al-
though they alienated "some
mischief-makers and rumour-
mongers."

PARTICIPATION
The October meeting "res-
ulted in the biggest turnout
and participation of member-
ship we have had for a long
time ... and demonstrated be-
yond any doubt the will of
the people.
The Association has since
elected new Officers. It now
hopes to win recognition from
the University as part of its
programme of "greater things"
for 1973.


other rights are sold in advance
(which is very rare), they have
to be met by the publisher
before he receives any return
on his outlay.
Macpherson argues that a
publisher must therefore be
highly capitalized (meaning he
must have plenty money), and
with rates of interest being so
high, he must decide very care-
fully how best to deploy his
capital and the rate at which
he needs to regain it.
The Librarians, Educators,
and others who participated in
the UNESCO seminar came to
certain conclusions presented
in an Overview by Mrs. Sheilah
Solomon, Secretary-General of
the Trinidad and Tobago Na-
tional Commission for UNESCO.

LIBRARY SERVICES

In the Overview, the case is
made for Rationalization of
textbooks and Supplementary
Readings, ideally on a regional
basis.
A further step advocated
was the bulk purchasing of
textbooks by schools rather
than individual purchases by
parents.
The Seminar considered that
library services should take "ad-
equately funded libraries" to
the people, by mobile services,
etc.
Participants also looked at
the relevance of the books.
It was also felt that books


could be locally-produced.
The Overview by Solomon
makes the point very well:
"The book trade generally,
therefore, does not differ today
in any noticeable way from the
old mercantilist system, Indeed
it has often been said that
West Indian writers, like West
Indian sugar, have to be sent
abroad to be refined and of
course, re-imported".

SOLUTIONS

The problems facing the Ca-
ribbean in book production
are the cost of paper, of ma-
chinery, of skilled technicians,
of a confused textbook market,
and of copyright law.
These were the same pro-
blems which faced Cuba in the
early days of the Revolution.
The UNESCO Report argues
for many of the same measures
to be taken in a situation
which may not be as extreme
as that of pre-Revolutionary
Cuba and in which there are
of course several differences.
The Report calls for serious
and co-ordinated work by the
people of the Commonwealth
Caribbean to bring about such
a change. The Title of the
book: "From Imitation to In-
novation" may in fact be a
beckoning call for all the young
and untapped energies of our
peoples.


n children in class......the revolutionary Government has
>nalised education and abolished school fees.


Read more




than




headlines




-Read TAPIA




Every Week


PAG;E 4TAI'AIA


s


.f
5;
'r~Li







SUNIAAY JANUARY 7, 1973


Community Sport


Basketball on


streets


of Tunapuna


R UTHVENBAPTISTE

FOOTBALL HAS tradi-
tionally been the main sport
in Tunapuna. But over the
last decade or more there
has been a decrease in
ground space a fire bri-
gade station, County Coun-
cil building and commun-
ity centre now stand on
one former field; the other,
Honeymoon, has been un-
der renovation for the last
five years.
Constantine Park has, there-
fore, been the only recreation
ground in the area; youths are
turning more and more to table
tennis and especially to basket-
ball.
The problem of facilities
has been inevitably compound-
ed by the domination by foot-
ball clubs over the existing
ground. Footballers below the
standard demanded by clubs
have suffered most of all.
One such footballer is Vernon
"Pal" Humphrey, tired of being
ridiculed by the "big boys"
disgusted with the roughness
of football ("I cyar beat and
skip like Godfrey Harris an
dem") with his friends turned
to table tennis.

CONSTRUCTION

They used to play under
the house of the E.C. parish
priest, Fr. Doughlin and later
on they shifted their activity
to the small area in front of
"Perseverance Hall", famous in
the big dance era for fete and
fight.
Then their attention turned
to basketball. The need arose
for a backboard and ring which
they could not set up on the
hall's private property. And so
they turned to the next best
spot the block.
Fortunately for them, Free-
ling Street is comparatively wide
and accommodating. A make-
shift backboard and ring was
constructed against a tree near
the roadside.
Starting with a handful of
fellas, the number of part-
icipants has grown to approx-
imately 30 including four girls.
The small advance, however,
did not come too easily. Ini-
tially, nearby residents and the
police were suspicious. One
player was even arrested in a.
police raid.
However both residents and
the police have come around:
Residents are cooperative when
the ball goes in their yards and
the police no longer interfere.
Secondly, they had to raise
$5..00 to buy a proper back-
board and ring. It is a modest
sum, but for unemployed and
underemployed youths, $5.00


a man was not a modest sacri-


The game itself had to be
adapted to the block. Wide as
Freeling Street is, it is only
wide enough for half the size
of a normal basketball court.
Consequently, they play a sort
of "backs and forwards": both
teams attack the same ring.
The team with the ball at-
tacks and the other defends.
Also, each team is made up of
three players rather than the
normal five.
Other blocks in the area are
following suit. Just below the
crest of the hill where Balthazar
and Green Streets junction, a
ring has been erected on a
chenette tree branch overhang-
ing the road. Another has been
erected obliquely opposite the
Tapia offices on St. Vincent
Street.

Basketball in Tunapuni
Self-help in Sport?


There are others of course
but these appear to be leadinir
spots and sufficient devdlup-.
ment has taken place for these
blocks to oppose one another
"Pal" Humphrey and Ih
friends also have plans for ex-
pansion of facilities and for
improving their own game in
the future. They have:acqucied
the services of a Reginment
player, lan Phillip (brother of
Lincoln) who coaches nejill
everyday.
They intend to embark o.r
their most ambitious enterprise
- the erection of a basketball
court on the E.C. school ground.
They already have word of
mouth permission from a Coun-
ty Council official to erect
such and it appears as if formal
permission is well on the way.
In order to raise the necessary
money, a fete isgplanned at the
"Basement" in Well Street, Tu-
napuna. Negotiations are going
on with the St. Vincent and
Green Street blocks, netballers
and girl basketballers who prac-
tise at the UWI, to make the
party a success.
If "Pal" and his friends
succeed, that basketball court
will be the first in Tunapuna.

F&R

HADEED

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Tunapuna.

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Footwear.


Tel. 662-4909,4873.


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:. TAPIA PAGE 5


f'll I a: t a' r a;. f a I-i






PAGE 6 TAPIA
"COMMUNIST!" "SUBVERSIVE!" These epi-
thets, still being hurled at anyone who dares to ex-
press a viewin conflict with the status quo, repre-
sent one way in which unconventional thought has
been suppressed in the West Indies.
In this paper, the third of the New Jamaica ser-
ies written by Dennis Forsythe, (see TAPIA Vol. 2,
Nos 5 & 7) the author,-describes the attempts made
over the last half a century to snuff out indepen-
dent thought.
Apart from outright governmental repression
(jailing, banning, passport seizures etc.) "radicals"
have been subjected to ridicule, ostracism and
abuse. In this, the Press as the voice of establishment
interests, has played a leading role.
The effect, argues Forsythe, has been more than
just personal suffering inflicted on the independent
thinkers: some have become bitter, cynical and with-
drawn; others have been worn down into a kind of
defeated conservatism; yet others have just left.
But more tragically, the effect on West Indian
society has been to create a "poverty of Philosophy"
in which new ideas are discouraged, and the deve-
lopment of indigenous ideology frustrated.


we should not confuse this with "Education." For
while the former concerns purely technical aspects of
communication, Education proper ought to encom-
pass the totality of a people in their quest to work
out a harmonious adjustment to their environment
and to each other.
We will proceed to show how West Indian societies,
embracing both governments and people, have reject-
ed a crucial source of change by outrightly declaring
warfare on "Radicalism."
At the most overt level, the conflict and lack of fit
between West Indian radicals and their societies may
be understood and analysed in terms of a conflict in
values. After all, on the surface it appears that the'
conflict is essentially internal, confined amongst West
.Indians themselves, and to a large extent overriding
class divisions.
In a way this is true. Colonialism and neo-colonialism
have created personality types and a set of values
which permeates deep into the psychic depths of these
former dependents, and has exhibited all the self-
sustaining vigour and the overriding power of a snow-
ball moving down the side of a mountain under its
own momentum.
While we accept the existence of such neo-colonial
values and point to their explanatory powers, we
nevertheless recognize the continuing hard infrastruc-


SUNDAYJANU
Baldwin, who was Governor of the Leeward Islands.
1945-1949. Baldwin established a reputation as a
social reformer, who liberally tolerated trade unions
and defied many of the social barriers by inviting the
common people to parties at the Governor's House.
But the colonial whites and upper middle class
"coloureds" resented this encroachment on their
preserve and some even threatened to boycott
Governor House parties. They directed an unending
stream of complaints to the Colonial Office and
asked for his recall. He was summoned to London.

A Trinidadian Labour paper, the "Clarion" re-
ported: "The sugar producers (employers) of the
Leeward Islands are rejoicing at Baldwin's recall to
London and openly boasted that he has dared to take
a stand against them in issues affecting labour."
Similarly when Sir Stafford-Cripps, the British
Labour leader, gave his full support to the birth of
Manley's Peoples' National Party, the official and pro-
pertied classes of Jamaica, led by Herbert de Liser
(editor of the "Gleaner") took offence because of the
radical overtones of Sir Stafford-Cripps' speech.
The value systems of colonial territories are in-
variably outgrowths of the prevailing and past econo-
mic relationships. Hence values can serve as the


Repression,


radicalism


change





West

THE WEST INDIES means different things to
different people. Some see the West Indies es-
sentially as a geographical entity, a type of
naturalistic paradise, blessed by its fauna and
landscape. European geographers and travellers
had their field-day from the 17th century on-
wards, exploring and reporting on the WestIn-
dies from this angle.
The 20th century tourist image of the West
Indies as a place of sea, sun and fun is the new
adaptation of the previous image of the West
Indies. For black West Indians, however, the
West Indies has meant enslavement and colo-
nisation, structural conditions which resulted in
illiteracy, disease, malnutrition and cultural ge-
nocide.
For these reasons West Indians today are an
alienated people, some unconscious of their alienation,
while others are very much aware. The former are
essentially middle-class people who have opted for the
twisted and false ideas of our old colonial masters,
and who are perpetually at war with themselves
through what we call self-hatred.
For most part these individuals religiously and
arrogantly close off their minds to alternatives, a type
of convenient ignorance, all the more recalcitrant be-
cause it has proved profitable. Then there are the
others who are conscious of their alienation, and in
moments of desperation, either retreat into religious
fantasies, demand repatriation to Africa, or engage in
desperate schemes to register their frustrations.

In sum, both our personalities and our institutions
are permeated with the imprints of our historical
antecedents. To that extent we still live in slavery.
While this tragico-comic drama continues, our
politicians mouth the rhetoric of change. Change is
supposedly their goal. But the qualified nature of this
change and the slow pace of change exemplify either
of two things: either that our politicians do not under-
stand the nature of change or that they have divorced
knowledge from action. Both explanations are.valid.
In this paper we set out toshow that there can be
no fundamental changes without causative or corres-
ponding changes at the levelof people's minds. Despite
this basic truth, it will be shown here that a whole
series of devices have been used in the past to
destroy the source of any new set of renovative ideas
that could irrigate the sterile, imitative landscape of
the colonial mind thereby precluding meaningful and
rapid change.
To eradicate the Augean stable of colonialism in its
varied form there is need for a free flow of progressive
ideas. While learning to read and write is an imperative,


in


and





the


Indies

ture behind these values, consisting of the economic
and political power imbalance between West Indian
societies and their European and American overlords.
Economically, the West Indian social structure is
white on top, brown in the middle and black at
bottom, but normatively the whole social structure
has a white colouration because white values and white
behaviour patterns are still the working models.
We are not merely repeating a hallowed Marxist pro-
position ritualistically; the point is a hard ascertainable
fact. Whenever the values are sufficiently threatened
and when the West Indian middle class (who live
under the illusion that theyhave power) seem in-
effective in reinforcing these values, the power of the
economic oligarchs comes into play.

Paul Bogle and the Jamaican rebels of 1865 en-
countered the full fury of English guns. Britain sus-
pended the Constitution of Guyana in 1953 when it
was feared that Jagan was moving too much towards
socialism. Castro and the Cuban people had the ex-
perience of the Bay of Pigs. In 1965 the Santo
Domingo affair showed that the American military
power would interfere to protect their interests. In
1969 when Britain sent 315 troops to Anguilla, the
fact was again illustrated.
In 1970 Imperial ships stood off the coast of
Trinidad ready to give military aid to Eric Williams
against internal rebels. Even when the British authori-
ties allowed the Black Power Caribbean Regional Con-
ference in Bermuda, July 1966, the Governor of
Bermuda requested Royal marines, and 100 "angels of
peace" flew from Britain to the Bahamas and were
transferred totwo frigates which were stationed off
Bermuda.
But even on the islands themselves, there is
a minority of such propertied oligarchs who live
locally and who serve as watchdogs,thereby sounding
the alarm and taking quick measures when the system
is threatened. After the 1937 riots in Trinidad, for
instance, in which oilfield workers, under Uriah
Butler, engaged in unprecedented militant outbursts,
the Governor of Trinidad, Sir Murchison Fletcher,
diagnosed the situation in terms which were highly
offensive to the local business oligarchs:
The employing class is largely white, the employed
almost wholly coloured and most West Indian...
There is one complaint to the effect that the
employing class contains a number of men from
South Africa, and we all know that the South
African colour question is closely studied in Trinidad.
The local business' oligarchy strongly disapproved
of this speech on the ground that it was "partisan."
They brought pressures to bear on the Colonial
Office, and the Governor was promptly transferred.
Another instance may be cited in the case of Lord


organising focus for analysing the reaction of Carib-
bean societies to radicals who come in conflict with
such values and the economic hinterland of suchvalues.
Our first task is therefore that of depicting the
core or key values with which such radicals come in
conflict.
The values remain latent taken for granted -
but are spelled out and enunciated in times of crises.
A survey of the editorial columns of such establish-
ment papers as the "Gleaner" of Jamaica and the
reactions of the middle and upper classes to what they
perceive as threats, reveal some of the most sacred
values held by the upper classes and, to a large
extent, shared by the lower classes. Crisis situations
mobilise values so that they may be objectively
detected at these points.
West Indians have been indoctrinated into a pas-
sionate commitment to the rule of law principle.
"Order" therefore ranks high on the West Indian
scale of values. "Order" itself may be broken down
into such sub-aspects as respectability, stability, inte
gration, consensus and conformity.

The stress on order comes out repeatedly in the
columns of West Indian newspapers, either as norma-
tive prescriptions of the editors (who represent
established interest) or as the gut-reactions of citizens
to particular events.
As an instance, take the general reactions evoked
in Jamaica by the University of the West Indies
study-report on the Rastafarian cult. It was felt that
the University academics who undertook the study
were "irresponsible" because, by studying this pheno-
mena, they were helping thereby to legitimise it.
A few of the letters to the "Gleaner" on this issue
are here cited to illustrate the point:
We hear so much about the Rastafarians these days,
but I for one am sick of seeing their dirty, nasty
importance on the streets. I have a solution and
that is, take every last one of their disgusting selves
and let them go to their spiritual Africa. No decent
African country could want them, anyway...What is the
use of working for these thieves...Let us hang thieves. I
used to think that was terrible, but now I agree.
What they really need to me is washing and brain-
washing, not ships to Africa...
Look at the sacrifices being made by Jamaicans to go
abroad and these dirty, lazy hooligans want to be sent
where they want to go free.
Every effort should be made to turn Rastafarians into
normal human beings with normal thinking.
Nothing short of dictatorship will quell them.
Rehabilitate them? Impossible, my dear Sir! Nature is
incurable. Enforce our laws! Get them off the streets
lest their filthy appearance and foul words drive
visitors away, and make life unsafe for people.
When Garvey planned to visit Trinidad in 1928, a







MRY 7, 1973
group of schoolteachers opposed his visit. The
"Teacher's Journal" stated:
We share the opinion with the 'Guardian' that no
good purpose will result from the Government allowing
Mr. Garvey to land in Trinidad. His presence will sim-
ply upset the peace and harmony which at present
attain among the various races in the colony.
In every phase of Caribbean history, each possible
threat and disturbance issues in a call for order, for a
closing of ranks so as to control divisive forces. In
Jamaica the Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry
of Labour and National Insurance, in an address to
Home-Economics teachers and students advised that
Black Power was still in Jamaica trying to undermine
society and authority. She said: "I am asking you
that wherever you find it, to regard it as a challenge
to the stability and peace of this country." This has
been the modal response of Caribbean citizenry to
Black Power.
Any type of behaviour that does not fit into the
existing status-quo is defined and decried as "disorder.'
At the social level, disorder is characterized as "hooli-
ganism," and as "uncivilised," "indecent" and "dis-
respectable" behaviour. At the political level, disorder
is defined as "subversion" which is further broken
down into "racist" and "communist" subversion.
Respectability seems to have been and still is -



4 : ' -. *. .' .


For nights and days at August Town there was a wild
indulgence in African animalism veneered with Christian
practices...We must choose, now between tolerating
West African survivals on a gigantic scale and preserving
the name of Jamaica as a country civilised.


A letter to the "Gleaner" pointing to discrimination
at the airport called forth the following reply which
shows a similar value:
The Jamaican masses misbehave themselves in such an
indecent, uncouth and distasteful manner...I am afraid
that not until the Jamaican common man learns to
behave himself like a civilised human being and not as a
savage will he be allowed to go anywhere he pleases
without decent people showing concern.
Another letter typifies the reaction of the middle
classes to any infraction of the norm of respectability:
Sir This evening as I stood with the crowd on King St.
and listened to the booing of the Jamaican Prime
Minister, Mr. Shearer, I hung my head with shame, and
for the first time in my life, I had regrets about being a
Jamaican...We must learn that good manners, good
breeding and decorum take precedence.
On the political level, disorder is decried by dubbing
such recalcitrants as "trouble makers," "racists" and
"communists." These are the slogans used to smear and


TAPIA PAGE 7'
up all business of every kind and terrorised the popula-
tion while the police and government stood by either in
careless concern or...culpable ignorance of the state of
affairs.
In Jamaica there was a strike craze longshoremen,
car conductors, motormen, cigar makers, and many
other unions went on strike. For the month of January
1920, letters filled the columns of the "Gleaner" con-
demning the "rampant hooliganism" in the city. One
letter remonstrated that it was "the duty of every
respectable citizen to fall in line with any endeavour to
suppress hooliganism on the part of an irresponsible
and disreputable class of the community."
The editorials of the "Daily Gleaner" provide a good
mirror to the thinking of the middle and upper classes
at the period towards the general social upheaval. On
January 3, 1920, the editorial read:
With another few days there will be peace and harmony
again; and the men who have struck or may strike will
be back at work, in as good spirits as ever, and on ex-
cellent terms with their employers. For in this country
bitterness of feeling does not long endure, and...a good
many of the strikes we have been witnessing are the
result of a mere ebulition of emotion, a sort of ex-
pression of excitement, and not a manifestation of
that class war which is doing so much to embitter the
relations of capital and labour in so manyother coun-
tries...We have great faith in the triumph of reason.


O''


One face ofkthe West Indies.
the supreme aim of the middle classes. They cultivate
a circumspect type of behaviour, avoid manual labour
and regard the civil service job as the ideal. Visitors
from England would often lecture on "What is a
Gentleman."
For instance, in December 1920, His Honour, R.E.
Noble lectured that a gentleman "was himself con-
trolled and the master of his own soul...(and who)
always stand out in sharp antithesis to the violent,
self-assertive, pushing personage. Whilst the gentleman
was always calm and dignified, his opposite the 'cad'
and 'bounder' was ever loud, restless and overbearing."
Many individuals wrote letters expressing their heart-
felt appreciation for this type of lecture:
Sir I would suggest to those who have not yet read
the reported address that they should endeavour to do
so. We sadly need more of these plain, practical talks in
Jamaica by men of influence.
This type of genteel indoctrination soaked deep
into the thinking of the West Indian middle classes
and even percolated to the lower levels of the society,.
thereby becoming a general rule of righteous conduct.
When Mr. Glasspole, Minister of Education in Man-
ley's Government, went to the airport on a hot Sunday
afternoon to meet the Prime Minister, he wore a re-
laxing Guyabera shirt. This act of wearing such a shirt
called forth the wrath of the Jamaican middle classes
whose respectable sensibilities were greatly offended.
They wrote irate letters to the "Gleaner:"
I refer to the photo...depicting our Premier's return...
what a disgusting picture of lack of culture and general
slackness. Is Mr. Glasspole trying to emulate the dress of
people in some uncivilised state, that he puts on a shirt
looking rumpled and hanging over its pants, no collar,
no tie, no jacket?
Surely we are still in Jamaica and decent people dress
in the style to which one is accustomed for decent
occasions...Definitely some of us look upon this as an
insult to Mr. and Mrs. Manley and to the office of the
Premier of Jamaica and thus to the people of Jamaica.
Another letter stated:
...When a ministerial member of the Government is
represented as appearing as a functionary...in the garb
of a roust-about, it seems that civic minded citizens
should experience feelings of deep concern.
The "Gleaner" editorial responded to situations in a
manner which similarly illustrates the norm of "respec-
tability." In 'response to the Bedward politico-religious
cult that sprung up in Jamaica in the 1920's, a "Gleaner"
editorial declared:


decaptitate the efforts of political protesters. Referring
to Garvey and other West Indian militants whose
activities in New York were making an impact locally,
a "Gleaner" editorial commended:
Unfortunately, their frothy utterances have trickled
down to the West Indies, the land of their birth, and
have caused a good deal of trouble. There is no room
for race hatred in the British West Indies, and so it has
become necessary to nip in the bud every effort of those
leaders of thought (?) in New York which they have put
forward to stir up strife in some of the Caribbean
colonies.
When Garvey was about to be deported from
America, a "Gleaner" editorial warned of "Trouble
Coming," followed by sagacious comments to Garvey
and others.
Whether Mr. Garvey is here shortly or five years hence,
there can be no doubt that he will prove a dangerous
element in Jamaica unless it is made unmistakably clear
at the very beginning that the authorities are not pre-
pared to tolerate any nonsense on his part..:His business
is agitation along racial lines...Jamaica is not New
York; what makes no impression there might crack and
rupture our very well established social order.
In 1960 Amy Jacques Garvey was reported as say-
ing, "as black men and women, you must stand up and
claim your country, dedicate your life to Jamaica,
acquire the economic stability the 90% of the popula-
tion should have in relation to the 30,000 Chinese
here." People took offense to this, and Alexander
Bustamante, who was then leader of the opposition
party, denounced this as "racialism" which he saw as
"a menace to our society."


The early 1920's was a period of great social unrest
in all of the Caribbean islands. The main grievances, as
expressed in letters to editors of newspapers, were high
prices, long working hours and increased income tax.
In Trinidad, strikers crippled the city of Port-of-
Spain, an episode which the "Gazette" termed "hooli-
ganism," and gave a post-facto analysis which it hoped
would help to forestall, the repetition of such ex-
periences.
If the local forces had been called in, and if necessary
posting about the city fully armed for eventualities, and
if later on, when the warship arrived, a strong detach-
ment of her men had been at once landed to preserve
order, it would not have gone down to history against
the fair fame of the city that for three days, during the
discontinuance of a stevedores' strike, the rabble held


*Garvey's mail was censored

SJagan's books were burned


Michael Manley can now wear a shirtjac without giving offence.
But time was when a Government Minister aroused the
indignation of Jamaica's "good citizens" by appearing in a
Guyabera shirt to meet Prime Minister Norman Manley.

Five days later (January 8, 1920),having seen that
moral coaxing had not worked, a long editorial gave a
menacing warning to strikers and other dissidents:
...It is as sure as the sun shines in heaven that if these
rowdies, or any other persons endeavour to loot any shop
or disturb any peaceful person in our streets they will
meet with immediate and terrible punishment. We say
today, and it cannot be too often repeated, that the
Government is determined to maintain order in every
part of this island at any cost, and those who refuse
to heed the warning will most bitterly repent their
folly...The authorities and respectable section of our
population are determined to stand no nonsense...We
have had enough of strike nonsense and 'unrest'...It is
the duty of those who have education, a responsible
position, and the substantial interests of the island at
heart, to do what they can to bring conditionsback to
normal.
On January 12, 1920, the strikers having received
certain concessions, the "Gleaner" editorial called for
reprisals:
The dockers were not wise when they walked out of the
wharves. They were wise when they returned...Now that
the strike is over, we want the police to be far more
severe with our hooligan element than they have been
for a long time past...We trust the police will bear
down hard on the hooliganism;they must rid the city of
some of the worst of these people.
It is also worth noting that in-between reports on
these West Indian strikes, the "Gleaner" carried reports
of the anti-communist campaigns in America. One such
report carried a picture of six of the leading Bolshevists
who were part of the 249 expelled communists who
were put aboard the "Soviet Ark" bound for Russia.
The report unfailingly delivered its moral punches:
"This collection of blasphemous creatures are for the
most part through with the United Stats':forever and
their going ought to be a good lesson for the noisy
Bolshevists."
The report further described them as "arrogant
vultures who are being hustled off where they can do
least good." A follow-up report mentioned that some
4,000 warrants were issued for the arrest of com-
munists, and that this anti-communist campaign was
going so successfully that over 4,500 communists were
arrested, about a half of whom would be deported
from America.

The story continues

in next and


*Commission


into Subversive Activities


coming TAPIA






SUNDAY JANUARY 7, 1973


Only Believe


Tonight, A poem tc
you might find that chanting fi
you face,
the sudden and final
flight
into E -
turnity
no turning back
from
the fast falling of the evening tide.

Tonight.
you might find
your tongues aflame
with private truths.

Tonight you will feel
POWER
the wonder working Power
found in the blood
of the Lamb,
Amen;

So, Sisters in Christ,
let the candle grease of
faith
burn to the depths
of your hearts

earn your place in Christ Kingdom.

Let us not leave here
a broken heart,
a fount of tears ...

For only God is the answer
only
he
is your maker

not the politician weeping
into the wayside -
wayward microphone
not
the stone studded
statue gazing into
the wilderness of your
bewilderment.


Sbe performed with drums and
rom the audience.


Brothers from CROSS FIRE
only God
is your sponsor
Don't let
your feelings be
trapped in a groove
of steel
Noah's ark
must remain
your canopy of sound
the flight of the tenors
your dove
of peace.
Children of Zion
beware.
Beware of the blue bottle
in Time's garden.
Beware
the beetle's battle with
the praying -
mantis
Beware of the spirit-lash of fate -
Nature's drunkedness.
Beware of the maljo of diseases,
Jehova's witnesses
hovering like flies in
dry season.
Children of Zion
don't be squatters
in the valley of disbelief
Children of Zion
you won't be squatters
in God's heaven
Children of Zion,
only believe.
ONLY BELIEVE.

Amen.
Victor D. Questel.


I


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AQUAMARINE

BILLOWS

GO LOVER,
go to the rising sun,
for I have past my prime
one decade now.
My heart,
tougher than langue-Boeuf leaf
has no serrated spikes to wound.


Go to that lonely spot near the Cabanas
where sand is parchment scrawled with memory
thoughts will return like moss on rolling pebble.



You of the watersign whose bloodless claw
echoes the ocean's music like a shell,
the salt wind and the sea hold their dominion
and blow your mind with an enchanting spell.



Your navel oozing light, your afro hair
and bulging eyes, your limbs that flow
like wind and water, ripples of delight.
Howl have loved you deeper than the sea,
supp'd on the pap overflowing from your womb.



Gasping my last,
I have descended like a winding shaft,
touched the pulsatings of primordial jelly
lodged in your vortex like a stingaray.



Your restlessness reminds me of the sea,
of billows that explode, diffusing foam
hissing upon the calm aquamarine.


SYL LOWHAR


-- ------ --- 1--~-


u


i


PAGE 8 TAPIA











S


-P


A WORRIED, foreign
tourist hurriedly tries to
close the windows of his
elegant automobile. Too
late: two little boys have
just thrown a bucket of
water inside the car. But
at Carnival time in Panama,
this is a gesture of good
humour and not an offense.
This scene, repeated over
and over again, takes place in
the city of Las Tablas, capital
of Panama's western province
of Los Santos, and is part of
the atmosphere that reigns dur-
ing the rule of King Momo,
symbol of carnivals.
From a balcony which looks
over the city's main plaza, a
group of old women gleefully
throw pots of ice water on
passers-by below.

WHO SLEEPS?

Panamanian humour, how-
ever, reaches its height when
the "Hour of the painted peo-
ple" comes. Hundreds of per-
sons of all ages paint their
faces and walk through the
plaza throwing water on every-
body they meet. After the
battle, the streets run streams
of water, tinted with the face
paint in rainbow colours.
When this reporter asked
about the regional importance
of these carnivals, he received
an enigmatic answer: the car-
nival in Panama is the one to
see, the carnival in Colon is the
one to photograph, but the car-
nival in Las Tablas is the one
to have fun in.
One suddenly reaches the
conclusion that the same an-
swer has been given to thou-
sands of other people.
Peaceful by nature, Las Tablas
wakes up on the first day of
carnival, overcrowded, gasping
because of the numerous for-
eign tourists.
Does Las Tablas have hotels?
The US tourist wearing colour-
ful bermudas, a shirt painted


-L-A


SUNDAY JANUARY 7, 1973



S ARQUELES MORALES,
H Prensa Latina Correspondent


Is Mas


THIRDWORL


Panamanian style


with red birds, a golf cap and
three cameras hanging from his
neck (one for colour pictures,
another for colour slides and
the third for black and whites)
asks a perplexed inhabitant.

Whoever heard of asking for
a hotel room during carnival
time? People come to Las Tab-
las to have fun and then to
sleep on a nearby beach or
simply not to sleep at all.
One thing intrigues foreign-
ers: When did the carnivals
begin and why are they so
popular? When asked, people
shrug their shoulders. There is
no concrete reply. The car-
nivals just exist and that's all.
At night, when the streets


have dried and the painted
faces disappear, music reigns
and the rhythmic beat pervades
all, and whether one likes it or
not, the clumsiest feet take on
agility and grace. The hour of
the "Tunas" has arrived.
From two different parts of
the city, the two Tunas or
dancing groups make their way
to the plaza they are the
famous dance Tunas of Down
the Road and Up the Road.
However, the two groups have
an essential difference: their
social class.
' Today the two different dis-
tricts of the city have inter-
mingled: rich people live Down
the Road but they dance and
sing Up the Road; workers
and employees live Up the


Road but their hearts and feet
move to the rhythm of Down
the Road.
The Tuna advances accom-
panied by strident trumpets
and beating drums. The spec-
tators feel the rhythm vibrate
in their bodies and jump into
the crowd: nobody dances with
anybody else, the Panamanians

France to give


TAPIA PAGE 9
dance for everybody, and above
all, for themselves.
Suddenly from the other
side of the plaza, an immense,
lighted-up float announces the
arrival of the other Tuna. The
musicians play the war song of
Down the Road ("Crybaby,
crybaby, crybaby/don't cry any-
more/I have a handkerchief/to
give you as a gift...") and the
Tuna advances for the encount
er with its rival
To the spectator, the-gallop-
ing advance of both Tunas
seems to foreshadow a genuine
street battle: Central America
is usually like that and comedy
frequently turns into tragedy.
But Panama is different and
Las Tablas proves it.
During the day an incredible
amount of rum and beer has
been drunk and the dancers
sometimes lose step for a sec-
ond but nobody gets violent,
everybody smiles with joy. A
glance at next day's newspaper
confirms it: there was no tra-
gedy.
Both Tunas meet, advance,
recede, singing and dancing. At
times the atmosphere is elec-
trified and there is tension
but it is quickly dispelled by
the contagious glee of the part-
icipants.
On the last day of carnival
the fun reaches its climax:
everybody gets ready to bid
farewell to the carnival of 1972
with increased vigour, in this
city of 10,000 inhabitants,
which, during this time of year,
has an almost equal influx of
visitors.

LAS' LAP

One Tuna tries to prevent
the other from gaining access
to the plaza. Up the Road is
ostentatious, with more cos-
tumes, but it must pay a higher
price: its impressive float, with
Queen on it, gets stuck between
some electric wires, and its
rival occupies the square.
For more than two hours,
the "well-to-do" float tries to
enter. "Sharpshooters" from
Down the Road hold the square
with thousands of firecrackers.
Sometimes the firecrackers
miss their target and explode
in the multitude: there are
movements of the crowd run-
ning back, a few women scream,
but nothing more.
In an audacious attack, the
"shock" forces from Up the
Road open a gap and behind
them come the Queen and her
float. Down the Road with-
draws but from behind the
electric light posts comes a
shower of coloured lights, pa-
per bombs and firecrackers.
Meanwhile the dancing con-
tinues. Later when everybody
is tired, the long caravan of
cars and floats slowly start
marching home and the city
of Las Tablas returns to its
normal every-day rhythm. The
carnival has ended.

U ganda aid


KAMPALA (AWA) FRANCE will be filling much of the "aid"
vacuum caused by Britain's recent decision to halt a $24 million loan
to Uganda. The British decision followed increasing displeasure with
General Amin's actions, particularly the Asian expulsion.
President Idi Amin has accepted France's offer to send technical
experts to the country and to train Ugandan students in French
universities. The offer, delivered in a message from French President
Pompidou, also included an undetermined amount of money to help
Uganda with its present economic efforts.








PAGE 10 TAPIA


From Page 3

ter prices and more control of
marketing and technology, more
value added in refining as well
as saner wage patterns. What is
the point of nationalizing Ca-
roni Limited if that does not
bring rationalization of rural
economic life, mechanization
and streamlining of plantation
exports, and diversification of
food and raw material output
for home use?

MERCENARIES

Against such a background,
the discussion in the Review
of participation is a hopelessly
academic one. This issue of
popular involvement is not even
broached because the mandarin
technocracy is satisfied merely
to feed the inward hunger of
the centralizing oligarchy.
Participation in Trinidad &
Tobago means simply that the
government has been establish-
ing a stranglehold over people's
jobs and exploiting its dom-
ination of the labour market
to entrench a political party of
better-village-community-devel-
opment mercenaries. Participa-
tion in this form has nothing
to do with economic change.

MOCKERY

The data given in the Review
on Banking and Finance reveal
quite clearly how abstract are
the notions of participation
and localization. The question
is never posed as to whether or
not the changes in the legal
status of the metropolitan branch
banks and the establishment of


SUNDAY JANUARY 7,1973



1M1 CHAMBERS":



:15] 'c4i


two nationally owned banks
are leading to a different pattern
of credit allocation favouring
groups and activities determined
by a strategy of eliminating
poverty, unemployment, ine-
quality and dependence.
We have only a mechanistic
interpretation of statistical in-
formation even in regard to so
vital a thing as instalment credit.
No connection whatsoever is
established between banking,
finance and credit, spending
on imports, inflation, employ-
ment, etc. The vital question of
shifting funds towards job-cre-
ating, housing and away from
imported cars and stereos is
nowhere raised making a
complete mockery of the ex-
ercise.

BETTER LIFE

Without some discussion of
fundamentals, what sense can
we make of "Central Govern-
ment Operations" and of the
rising level of public expendi-
ture fiom year to year?
The size of the Budget has
jumped by over five times since
1956. We are reminded in the
Review that prior to 1970 the
increase in current expenditure
averaged about 8.5%. Between
1970 and 1971 the increase
rose to 26.3%, between 1972


and 1971 20%. This year the
increase is 10%.
The conventional Budget ques-
tion here is whether the in-,
crease in expenditure would
procure for the public sector
any increased command over
goods and any increased cap-
acity to generate much needed
jobs. We know from the ex-
perience of the 1951-61 oil
boom that wage increases tend
to eat up extra revenue. And
now price increases are only
serving to make matters worse.
The government has become
the largest single employer of
labour but without making any
real dent on unemployment.
The failure here is partly
responsible for an increasing
for the development budget.
We have been borrowing in-
creasingly, both at home and
abroad. This has resulted in
queries about the size of the
national debt. Characteristally,
the Review presents statistics
to show that the debt burden
in this country is lighter than
in most other places but this
assurance entirely misses the
point at issue which is one of
trust.
In the UK the national debt
is 79% of Domestic Product;
in Trinidad and Tobago, 9%. If
people are more worried here,


it is because they cannot per-
ceive how the tremendous ex-
penditures on emoluments and
on crash programme schemes
which produce no worthwhile
output can justify the mor-
-tgaging of tomorrow's revenue.


In what way does Mr. Chambers'
spending contribute to that
elusive better life?
It is not enough to point
to dramatic increases in the
allocations for Education or
for Tobago or for this or for
that. The time for statistical
headlines is done.
Mr. Chambers must show
us the validity of the under-
lying strategy and persuade us
that the tactics from year to
year add up to a coherent sen-
tence making complete sense.
Will he on Friday 5th? Never
happen. Not to judge by the
Review.


S 406 RHONDA -


3 PCE. LIVING ROOM SUITE Selected Bri-Nylon Fabric Upholstery
VIOLA 1021 CRESTA COFFEE TABLE


J.C. SEALY

STHE BOOKSHOP


RACE & NATIONALISM IN TRINIDAD
AND TOBAGO

SELWYN B. RYAN

111 Frederick Street & Campus St. Augustine


Read TAPIA





Every Week


..
r --


Stre








SUNDAY JANUARY 7, 1973




W1VW GM


From Page 2

"THE COMING ELECTION";
the devastating satire of
"PLENTY PARTIES, PLENTY
BALLS"; "THE MIXTURE
AS BEFORE" and "MR.
SMITH SHIP SINK"; "NA-
TIONAL CRISIS" and
"POWER TO THE PEOPLE"
reflecting the agitational langu-
age of 1970.
In 1971 TAPIA posed the
question of the age: "WHO
WE GO PUT?" Then the
Court Martial kangaroo trials
provoked the priceless rare
"THE PRICE OF INJUSTICE"
and the pamphlet of Shah's
speech "YOUR TURN TO
CHOOSE".

REPRESSION

One could see another agita-
tional phase mirrored in head-
lines at the beginning of 1972
"WELL, WE ENT FRAID
KARL"; "LET US BLOCK
THIS POLICE STATE" and
"REPEAL THE GOVERN-
MENT" the militancy a
response to a situation made
perilous by the government's
repressive actions in continuing
the State of Emergency to
pass the IRA, and pursuing a
vendetta against the soldiers.
Then the "constitutional"
phase. The big political news
of mid year 1972 was Tapia's
decision to attend the Con-
stitution Commission public
sessions in the hope of creating
a forum of national discussion.
Headlines "PEOPLE'S
PARLIAMENT OR CIVIL
WAR" and "THE PRICE OF
BLOOD" emphasised our
view that it was the last chance
for a non-military, non-bloody
solution to the national crisis.

FOCUS

And then the current phase
of the paper and the politics.
Evidence in headlines of a clear
spread of editorial focus
around the country sport,
the communities, the arts,
science. The weekly TAPIA
was on the way "NAVET
DASHEEN F A R M E RS
THREATEN SHORTAGE";
EAST COAST. REBELLION
BREWING": "SUGAR WORK.
ERS SIGNED SEALED AND
SOLD OUT".
With the weekly, the head-
lines have become more
"newsy"; the paper more
topical in orientation:
"NEW RUMBLINGS IN
THE ARMY" ... "BAND ON
THE MOVE" ... "PAN
TUNERS FORM OWN
BODY" ... "BROTHERS
CHARGED; SEDITION?" ...
"TAXIMEN THREATEN
STRIKE"'..

PLAY MAS

At the Old Years fete, if all
these things occurred to us
they occurred to us against a
background that rather invited
abandon and play mas.

The vastly improved Black-
pool Hilltones served their hits
with great eclat. The Guarata
Serenaders Parang band from
Maracas St. Joseph had Denis
Solomon dancing "castillian"
for half an hour non-stop.
Pat Downes and others cir-


culated with trays of hot
phulori and sauce. Arthur
Atwell mixed jars and jars of
rum punch, blending the in-
gredients with characteristic-
ally unerring precision.

The biggest hit of all was
the "doubles" man brought
by Baldwin Mootoo who
couldn't pack channa barra
into the flaps fast enough for
the dozen or so hands that


permanently remained stretch-
ed across the counter.
After about four hours at
nearly 4 p.m. parang and steel-
band packed up. If Tapia's
Old Years, Fiesta had any
unpredictable effect it was
that it disrupted many mem-
bers plans for Old Years night
feteing; few indeed were able
to get up again to "start the
New Year right" in the conven-
tional way.


The Folk in Caribi


REFERERENCES


1. Lamming, G.


2. ibid
3. ibid
4. ibid
5. ibid
6. ibid
7. ibid
8. Brathwaite, E.



9. RedfieldR



10. Goveia, E.



11. Sewell, W. G.


12. Marshall, W. K.




13. Miner, H.



14. Brathwaite, E.


15. Walcott, D.


16. Walcott, D.



17. Brathwaite, E.


18. Ramchand, K.


19. Crowley, D. J.



20. Gomes, A.


Gomes A.
Gomes, A.


22. Howes, B.

23. Rohlehr, G.



24. Morris, M.



25. Nettleford, R.

26. Scott, D.


THE PLEASURES OF EXILE,
Michael Joseph, London
1960, pp. 38 39
p. 40
p. 40
p. 45
p.45
p. 215
p. 216
"Jazz an the West Indian Novel",
BIM Nos 44, 45, & 46,
(Jan May, 1967), (Jun -
Dec, 1967), (Jan May, 1968)
"The Folk Society", THE
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
SOCIOLOGY, Vol 52
(Jan 1947)
A STUDY ON THE HISTORIO-
GRAPHY OF THE BRITISH
WEST INDIES, Mexico 1956,
Chapter 4
THE ORDEAL OF FREE
LABOUR IN THE WEST
INDIES, New York, 1861
"Notes on Peasant Development
in the West Indies since 1838",
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
STUDIES, Vol 17,
(Sept 1968)
"The Folk- Urban Continuum",
THE AMERICAN SOCIO-
LOGICAL REVIEW, 17,
(Oct 1952)
"Sir Galahad and the Islands",
BIM, Vol 7, No 25,
(Jul Dec 1957) p. 11
"Leaving School", VIII,
LONDON MAGAZINE
EDITIONS, 1966, pp. 144-136
"What the Twilight Says: An
Overture", DREAM ON MON-
KEY MOUNTAIN AND
OTHER PLAYS, N.Y. 1970
"The New West Indian
Novelists", BIM, Vol 8,
No 31, (Jul Dec, 1960)
THE WEST INDIAN NOVEL
AND ITS BACKGROUND,
London, 1970, Ch VI
"The Midnight Robbers",
CARIBBEAN QUARTERLY,
Vol 4, Nos 3&4, (1956)
pp. 263 274
TRINIDAD GUARDIAN,
Feb 12, 1947

THROUGH A MAZE OF COLOUR,
Unpublished Ms.
(ed) FROM THE GREEN
ANTILLES
"Review Article: Islands",
CARIBBEAN STUDIES,
Vol 10 No 4 (Jan 1971)
pp. 173 202
"On Reading Louise Bennett
Seriously", JAMAICA JOURNAL
Vol 1, No 1, (Dec 1967)
pp. 69 74
Introduction to JAMAICA
LABRISH, Jamaica, 1966
(Interviewer) "Bennett on
Bennett", CARIBBEAN
QUARTERLY Vol 14,
Nos 1&2, (Mar Jun, 1968),
pp. 97 101


TAPIA PAGE 11


.. PUBLISHING

S", COMPANY
y TREASURER
ATWELL

A COOLER
I' 'PERSPECTIVE









bean Literature

THIS ARTICLE WAS PUBLISHED IN TAPIA
Vol 2 Nos. 11 and 12 December 17 and 24, 1972


27. Bennet, L.


Scott, D.
White, G.


Rohlehr, G.


Rohlehr, G.



Rohlehr, G.











30. Hill, E.



31. Elder, J. D.



32. Rohlehr, G.


33. Hogg, D.



Beckwith, M.


Jones, L.


Keil, C.
36. Quevedo, R.



37.

38. Walcott, D.







39. Walcott, D.



40. ibid
41. Nettleford, R.


ONCE UPON A TIME:
JAMAICAN ANANCY
STORIES, FRM, 129
Federal Record, Manuf. Co.,
Kingston, Jamaica
op. cit, p. 100
"Rudie Oh Rudis", CARIBBEAN
QUARTERLY, Vol 13, No 3,
(Sept 1967)
"Sounds and Pressure: Jamaica
Blues", MOKO, Nos 16&17
(June 6 & 20, 1969), Trinidad
"West Indian Poetry: Some
Problems of Assessment",
TAPIA, No 20, (Aug 29,1971),
pp. 11 -14, Trinidad
"Afterthoughts", TAPIA, No 23,
TAPIA (Dec 26, 1971)
Trinidad
Several examples of contem-
porary Jamaican writing can
be found in SAVACOU 3/4
(Mar 1971), ONE LOVE,
Bogle L'Ouverture Public-
ations, London, 1971, and
the Art and Literature
sections of recent editions
of JAMAICA JOURNAL.
"Calypso Drama", CARIBBEAN
QUARTERLY, Vol 15, Nos 2&3,
(June Sept 1969) pp. 81 98,
especially pp. 87 89
"The Male/Female Conflict in
Calypso", CARIBBEAN
QUARTERLY, Vol 14, No 3,
(Sept 1968) pp. 23- 41
"Sparrow and the Language of
Calypso", SAVACOU, No 2,
(Sept 1970), pp. 87 99
JAMAICA RELIGIONS: A
STUDY IN VARIATIONS,
Unpublished phD Dissert-
ation, Yale, 1964
"-Jamaican Proverbs",
PUBLICATIONS OF THE
FOLKLORE FOUNDATION,
(1925)
(same as 29)
BLUES PEOPLE; NEGRO MUSIC
IN WHITE AMERICA, N.Y.
1963
URBAN BLUES, Chicago 1966
"Introduction", SOUVENIR
COLLECTION OF TRINIDAD
CALYPSOES, Port of Spain,
1949
TRINIDAD GUARDIAN,
(Jan 17, 1950)
See poems such as "A Far Cry
From Africa", "Veranda",
"The Train", Plays such as

DREAM ON MONKEY
MOUNTAIN and IN A FINE
CASTLE, and "What the
Twilight Says" ref. No 16 abow
"What the Twilight Says: An
Overture", DREAM ON
MONKEY MOUNTAIN AND
OTHER PLAYS, p. 17
pp. 7 10, & pp. 26 27
op. cit., p. 16
(Same as 29)
(Same as 27)






SUNDAY, JANUARY 7, 1973


THE MOVEMENT SWINGS.... WAILING AT TAPIA OLD YEARS RUM PUNCH FIESTA LAST SUNDAY See Page 2


Chicken





home b


DENNIS PANTIN

HOUSEWIVES will know
by the middle of this month
whether they have to pay
more to put that chicken
on the table.
And from all indications,
they will have to pay 20 or so
cents more. The decision rests
with a "high-powered" gov-
ernment committee, appointed
by the Prime Minister, of course,
to look into the operations of
the $50 million Poultry indus-
try.
These facts were revealed
at the monthly meeting of the
Trinidad and Tobago Poultry
Association held on Wednesday.
Secretary of the Associa-
tion, Mr. Edgar Baker, and a


member of the Executive Com-
mittee, Mr. Neville Cross, who
chaired the meeting, brought the
poultry farmers up to date on
the situation.
Early last month the Asso-
ciation announced that it was
uneconomical to rear chickens
for sale at the present price
because of the high cost of
feeds. The Association threat-
ened certain action and re-
quested a meeting with the
Prices Commission.
The Minister of Industry
and Commerce intervened and
called members of the Asso-
ciation to a meeting. Since the
13th of last month, the Poultry
Association has held six meet-
ings with government represent-
atives one with the Prices
Commission, four with the Min-


0 OFFSET PRINTING


PRINTING CO


to


hit


budgets


ister of Industry and Commerce
and one with this "high-pow-
ered" committee which has
now been appointed.
Cabinet had earlier turned
down a proposal by the Min-
ister for a six cents rise per
pound in the price of chicken.
The government committee
is made up of members of the
Ministeries of Agriculture, Indus-
try and Commerce and the
Planning Division.
The background to the crisis
in the Poultry Industry is what
the economists call "imported
inflation". China and Russia
have had shortfalls in their
production of wheat. The United
States, the largest exporter of
grain, has been selling wheat
to these two countries.
As a result there is a shortage


* EDITING SERVICE


Attractive Rates Reliable Service




TAPIA
91, TUNAPUNA ROAD, TUNAPUNA, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.,


PRINTED BY THE TAPIA HOUSE PRINTING CO. LTD. FOR THE TAPIA HOUSE PUBLISHING CO. LTD


91,TUNAPUNA RD.. TUNAPUNA


on the International wheat mar-
ket leading to profiteering: as
the "free-enterprise" system op-
erates, the less the quantity,
the more the price.
The four main feed mills in
Trinidad .and Tobago are for-
eigh-o.wned: Master-Mix, Wayne,
Lipscomb and Larro. They are
not standing the bounce of
increased prices and are passing
these on to the poultry farm-
ers, who in turn want to pass
on the increased price to the
consumer.
'Shortly after the Poultry
Association requested the price
hike, the feed millers raised
the price of feed for layers. It
is only the feed for broilers
which is under price control.
The millers have also raised
the transport cost to poultry


farmers from 14f per bag to
between 254 and 304 per bag.
The Poultry Farmers Asso-
ciation has made several pro-
posals to government to re-
solve the situation. One is that
government should subsidise the
price of feeds to keep the price
down for the consumer. An-
other is to put all feeds under
Price Control.
If these suggestions are not
accepted, the Association is
asking for 824 per pound of
wholesale chicken, and 924 per
pound of retail chicken.
The government committee
is now considering this and
other possible solutions to the
poultry crisis which threatens
to upset the budget of thou-
sands of housewives in the
country. Chicken has in fact
become the salt-fish of the
70's.

WHO VEX, LOSS
The Committee is to report
by the 14th of this month.
Yet the government does not
think it necessary to inform
the country of the situation.
As usual, they will decide,
and who vex, loss.
It is this government by-
crisis which waits until the
situation becomes chaotic to
set-up a committee to "look
into the poultry industry".
The predicted shortage of
grain has been known for quite
some time now. What has the
Prices Commission and the Plan-
ning Division been doing about
this situation?
Has it been looking for cheap-
er markets for grain? Or sub-
stitutes for grain, or of con-
trolling the price of feeds on
the local market? Has it con-
sidered looking into the pos-
sibility of a research centre in
conjunction with other Carib-
bean and South American coun-
tries into the production of a
feed from soya beans, for in-
stance?
Has it set-up research fa-
cilities into the possibility of
cassava bread being utilised,
not for the Poultry Industry,
but for the bread Industry;
because the wheat shortage does
not only affect the poultry
farmers but also the bakers. Or
will they think of these things
only when the crisis breaks?
In a situation where, as a
small country, we are affected
by international price move-
ments, we require nimble
and efficient administrators who
would know how to beat the
international racketeers at their
own game.


PREPARATION OF
MANUSCRIPTS




PUBLISHING CO


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