• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Prologue
 The wandering Jew and the spiritual...
 The divided house
 Disruption or fulfillment
 Psychology of rejection
 The pleasures of superiority
 The Christian aim and the world’s...
 Aggression or manifestation
 The Catholic Church and the Christian...
 Epilogue














Group Title: wailing wall
Title: The Wailing Wall
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 Material Information
Title: The Wailing Wall
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Levertoff, Olga
Publisher: A. R. Mowbray and Co., Limited
Morehouse Publishing Co.
Place of Publication: London
Oxford
New York
Milwaukee
Publication Date: 1937
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Bibliographic ID: UF00072114
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica
Holding Location: The Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Prologue
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The wandering Jew and the spiritual ghetto
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The divided house
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Disruption or fulfillment
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Psychology of rejection
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    The pleasures of superiority
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    The Christian aim and the world’s response
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Aggression or manifestation
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    The Catholic Church and the Christian Jew
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Epilogue
        Page 136
Full Text





THE
WAILING
WALL






























































IPIolograirji by .Ilarel Slr rn bv,,ger

OLGA LEVERTOFF










THE WAILING WALL




By

OLGA LEVERTOFF


A. R. MOWBRAY & Co. Limited .
London and Oxford
MOREHOUSE PUBLISHING CO.
New York and Mlwaukee

































First published in September, 1937


PrintIe in Great Britain











Preface


by Canon W. J. Sparrow Simpson, D.D.


THE book contains a forcible account of the
relation of Judaism and Christianity in the
past and the present, and pictures the prospect of
the future. For this great theme the authoress has
exceptional qualifications. She is Jewish by race
and Christian by conviction. Trained in a learned
home, inheriting the great traditions of her people,
passionately sympathising with their pathetic fate,
deeply ashamed of the cruelties inflicted upon then
by the disciples of the true Messiah, eagerly await-
ing the day when her race will acknowledge Him
Whom they rejected, she urges the appropriate way
in which the Jew must be approached if he is to
be won to the Christian faith. This, of course, has
been her learned father's special mission. She cer-
tainly has no need to apologise for the youthful
enthusiasm which enabled her so effectively to con-
tribute towards the reconciliation of the chosen
race to our Lord, for which St. Paul with all his
splendid zeal so eagerly longed and waited.

W. J. SPARROW SIMPSON.
Setpember, 1937.














Contents
Page
PROLOGUE 9

Chapter I.
THE WANDERNG JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO 12

Chapter II.
THE DIVIDED HOUE 8

Chapter IIII
DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT 44

Chapter IV.
PSYCHOLOGY OF REACTION 6

Chapter V.
THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY 90

Chapter VI.
THE CHRISTIAN AIM AND THE WoRLD's RESPONSE 102

Chapter VII.
AGGRESSION OR MANIFESTATION 110

Chapter VIII.
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE CHRISTIAN JEW I17

EPILOGUE 136









THE WAILING WALL

By
OLGA LEVERTOFF

PROLOGUE.
A grey wall stands beneath a burning sky. When
evening's shadows darken it, grey figures gather
near and darken it too with many sorrows. They
mourn and weep, touching it as though for comfort.
For whom do they mourn? It is not for any
person. They weep for themselves, for their past,
for an irrecoverable glory. The wall is a symbol of
that glory and a reminder of its downfall: it is also
a barrier between the mourners and their destiny.
Instead of pulling down this ancient partition which
divides them from Life, these Jews treasure it. They
can neither raze nor rebuild it. The Wall waits.
To-day, these mourners are a remnant. Jewry as
a whole has dried her eyes and weeps no more for the
past. She stands facing a present hatred with bitter
calm or wild complaints; and if her tears still fall,
they do so not for a ruin in Jerusalem, but for the
ruin of the structures she has raised in Europe, in
many a place where she had thought herself secure,
but where now new destruction mark the path of
this apparently ill-fated people as it wanders forth
again to seek another home. So the Wall waits.
Many of her members have even ceased to dream
6f her future. For them there is no "next year in
Jerusalem"; the years ahead are an endless success-
ion of dreary to-morrows filled with the chink of







THE WAIUNG WALL


money, the blare of bands and the fear of death. But
the Wall waits.
Some desire still to rebuild Zion: in terms of
concrete. Their hearts are set on Palestine, their
language is their people's ancient tongue; but they
speak of nothing that the Wall has known. Their
thoughts are not its thoughts. Their desires do not
lie that way. And the Wall waits.
It is a Wall of weeping, of blood, of anguish; a re-
minder of a glory that is past, of a reason for Israel's
existeitee which Israel itself has forgotten. It is a
reminder of God.
It is also more than this: it is a bulwark against
invasions from without, a bulwark round that mys-
terious City, the Jerusalem of the heart: Judaism,
the essence and core of which is an enigma.
It is also a prison wall, shutting out from Jewry
light and life. It is also a barrier, a wall of separa-
tion between two worlds, the Jewish and the
Christian.
The material Wall which symbolises in itself these
many walls that hedge Jewry about, stands in the
midst of the passionate mutual dislikes of Christians.
The petty and wrangling divisions of the Catholic
Body find a happy hunting-ground in Jerusalem.
The Wall watches them with contempt.
No one may scale the Wall. In all save material
reality it is not a ruin but an immense and defiant
structure which cannot be assailed. If any climb it
from within and reach the further side, they are
traitors; if from without, desecrators who desire to
pull it down.
One stands outside and knocks upon its stones,
hoping for a door in the Wall. He has stood there
for a long time, but He is not admitted.
We knock too, because we stand along with Him.
But we become impatient and try to break the Wall
down by force. Yet, since it is the remnant and re-












PROLOGUE


minder of something that once was holy, ought it not
rather to be rebuilt ?
Building Zion . Some of us long wistfully to see
the gleam of those pinnacles, to behold the new
beauty rising upon the foundations of the old, to see
the King in His beauty entering into His own fair
City, the City which once rejected Him, sending Him
to die beyond its walls.
Not the city wall but the wall of what was once
the Temple now bars His way. Did He come to
break down Temple walls, to destroy all memories
of past greatness and past worship? He said that
He came to fulfil. Perhaps that Temple should rise
again, phoenix-like, to acclaim Him whom those
who still weep, remembering Zion, still reject. Who
knows? The dream of those who stand wearily
beside Him, waiting for a door in the wall to be
opened, that dream, so far from reality, ends. The
Wall still stands, the world without is still hostile,
the world within still defiant; Christian factions
still wrangle, drawing scorn from a Jewry still
faithless to her past and doubtful of her future. He
who stands outside still knocks, and we who stand
along with Him still beat with impotent hands upon
the stones of a wall that will not crumble, seeking a
door that is invisible and barred.







THE WAILING WALL


Chapter I.

THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO.

A friend, rummaging in some old papers, found a
brief script which he could not identify. He was
altogether unable to remember whether he had
written the thing or copied it out of a book. He had
no idea whatever as to its origin; the laws of
courtesy may very well be infringed by the inclusion
of the sketch in this volume. However it has interest,
so it shall stand.
Where the Orient and the Occident meet, there
lies the land of Canaan, infinitely small. And the
land of the noon-day sun, the ancient land of Mithra,
stretches out a tongue to touch their meeting-place.
Where the roads from the west cut across the roads
from the east, there lies the city .of Jerusalem, the
fortress of Zion. And the Jews, when they
acknowledge the God of Israel, the One who is
omnipotent, Jehovah, at sunrise and at sunset, stand
with their feet together and their faces towards
Jerusalem, towards Zion; those in the west turn to
the east, and those in the Orient turn to the west, all
at the same hour, all facing towards Jerusalem.
From the Occident there beats a wild continuous
wave upon the land of Canaan: a thirst for life and
personality, a will for action, for happiness, for
power; to accumulate, to gather in knowledge,
possessions and happiness, to live, to fight, to do.
That is the message from the west. But in the south







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO 1
under the pointed pyramids there lie dead kings
embalmed in gold and spices, refusing majestically
to give their bodies to destruction; their images, set
in colossal alleys in the desert, smile at death. And a
wild continuous wave beats from the south upon the
land of Canaan; a passionate cleaving to Being, a
burning desire not to lose form and shape, not to
lose the body, not to disintegrate. But from the east
there comes a message of gentle wisdom: sleep is
better than waking, to be dead is better than to be
alive. Non-resistance, surrender to annihilation,
passivity, renunciation. And the wild continuous
wave ebbs softly from the Orient towards Canaan.
Eternally these three waves flow over the tiny land
and mingle one with another; one clear and resound-
ing of will and deed, one hot and glowing of majestic
refusal to submit to death, one soft and dark of sur-
render and renunciation. The tiny land of Canaan
lies still and attentive and lets the waves flow over it
and into each other.
In that tiny land dwelt the folk of Israel, keen of
eye and of ear. They gazed towards the east,
hearkened towards the west, and scanned the
horizon of the south. It is such a small nation, and
it sits amongst colossi; Assyria, Babylon, Mithra,
and Roman Syria. It must keep a sharp look-out if
it is not to be crushed unawares or swallowed by the
giants. And it does not want to be swallowed up,
it wants to exist, it is a clever and brave little nation.
and it has no intention of being crushed. The three
waves break with constant uniformity. But the
little nation stands fast. It is not stupid, it does not
stand up against the impossible; it bends its head
when a wave comes that is too high for it, and
quietly lets itself be submerged over the very crown.
But then it emerges erect, and shakes itself, and is
there again. It is stubborn, but not foolishly obstin-
ate. It surrenders itself to all the waves, but not







THE WAILING WALL


completely to any one of them. It takes to itself
from the three currents what seems convenient and
adapts it.
Its standing danger compels the little nation to
ignore no movement of its gigantic neighbours, to
be always prudent, to feel, to guess, to sift, to recog-
nise. To sift, classify, and recognize the word
becomes second nature to it. A great love grows up
within it for the means of such knowledge, the
Word. Its scribes despise the unlettered, and the
study of the Word is a religious duty. It harvests all
that the three waves bring to it, and translates into
its own self-created language the bright doctrine of
doing, the stubborn, ardent yearning for immort-
ality, and the gentle ecstasy of refraining from
action and will. And the little nation produces a
literature which has changed the world, the great
Book of the "Wars of the Lord" and the still greater
Book of the "Peace of God which passeth all under-
standing." But the stubborn desire for continuance,
for perpetuation, remains the dominant note in all
its living and writing.
The sons of the little nation go out into the world
and live according to the doctrines of the West.
Causation, struggle, accumulation. But in spite
of all they are not quite at home in action, their
place is on the bridge between action and renunci-
ation. And they always turn back to gaze at Zion.
Often in the fulfilment of victory, in the realisation
of defeat, in the very midst of their career, they
come to a halt with a shudder of awe, hearing among
a thousand brazen echoes a still, dying voice which
says: "Will nothing, do nothing, renounce your
ego."
And many a one follows the road to the very end;
from the wild turmoil of doing, from power, happi-
ness and possession, through a stubborn refusal to







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


renounce, into the bliss of vacancy and passivity,
into the ebb-tide of inaction and abnegation.
This last is scarcely accurate. Complete passiv-
ity is impossible to the Jewish mind. More truly,
the Jew stands eternally on that bridge between
action and renunciation, unable to turn back, un-
willing to go forward.
And yet there is something in that "ebb-tide of
inaction and abnegation" which rings true. It does
seem possible for the Jew to exist in a spiritual
vacuum, in spite of his religious heritage, vocation
and capacity. The individual Jew finds this in-
creasingly difficult if he is intelligent, and only rests
quite easy in the vacuum if his mind is pre-occupied
with gold-digging; but the Jewish community as a
whole-that is, Jewry as a corporate entity-is
comfortably and, it would seem, permanently en-
sconced there, safely walled in by complacency.
Such renouncement is seldom or never a conscious
abnegation like that of an Indian mystic; it consists
rather of a spiritual blindness or laissez-faire. In
a word, when Jewry adopts a policy of "not bother-
ing," it is from mental laziness and not from any
innate desire for passivity. And no bliss is found.
Only the occasional sensitive soul or genius who
having shed all that could superficially be called
Judaism, has completely identified himself with the
country of his adoption, but whom the gentile world
can never fully accept and who thus finds himself
still depressed by the burden of a corporiety which
he has abnegated: only such an one as Jacob
Wasserman, for instance, ever reaches the point
which the unidentified script says that Jewry does.
Wasserman ends his unbearably honest and moving
book, "My Life as German and Jew"* with this
passage written on an earlier occasion:
* Allen & Unwin, 1933.







THE WAILING WALL


"I feel that there is such a thing as justice, per-
haps as a binding force in the crystalline absolute,
but never in human deeds, which themselves become
motor impulses. That crystalline element stands
high above us; words can but grope for it
awkwardly; seek to grasp it, and it becomes error
and falsehood; and if you would express it you must
grow as still as a lake of the plains that mirrors the
heavens." And asks finally, "Does not this say
everything" ?
But he is an exception; and he did not grow still
and mirror-like--he died of a broken heart because
the justice which "stands high above us" seemed
indeed to be confined to that rarer air and to have no
place upon this planet.
The Jew tries to resolve the tension between the
world without to which he may approximate, but
into which he may never be merged, and the world
within, whose voice says, "I am a Jew-yet am I not
a German-an Englishman-a Frenchman? Have
not these sounds, shapes, words, this climate, the
all-pervading atmosphere of this country, become
part of me? Is not this my heritage ? For certainly
I have no other heritage."
And yet he knows that he has another heritage of
anguish, and of exaltation; of despair, and of
arrogant expectation; of a city in ruins, of a broken
wall-and of a Temple re-built. These alien strands
are part of him, for if his father and grandfather
cared nothing for them, his great grandfather must
have done. Again, if he never droned passages from
the Talmud while he rocked to and fro in some dark
little synagogue, his ancestors did. They knew what
it was to be hounded from one country to another, to
see their children murdered and their wives defiled;
he will never know this, he thinks, and buries the
heritage of hope along with that of sorrow-"it all
belongs to the past". But one morning he wakes up







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


to find a new Chancellor in Germany . And he
becomes just another example of a well-known type;
the Wandering Jew. Thus history repeats itself,
and the fate of Jewry repeats itself with monotonous
ugliness in each age, while the Jew still pauses on his
bridge and cannot move. What is the mysterious
force that keeps him there? Of what stuff is he
made? What is Judaism? In "My Life as German
and Jew," Jacob Wasserman describes his dis-
cussions with a friend about Judaism and the gentile
world. He says-"I asked-'What is the dividing
factor? The difference in faith? But I am not a
believer in the Jewish faith, just as you are no
believing Christian. The difference in blood? But
who is competent to judge blood ? German blood has
been mixed with that of French immigrants, with
that of Slavs and Norseman and Spaniards and
Italians, probably also with the blood of the Huns
and Mongols when their hordes invaded German
territory. Excellent, exemplary Germans of defin-
itely non-German descent might be named-artists
and generals, poets and scholars, princes and even
kings. Can the two thousand years of the Jews' life
in the West have failed to modify their blood?
Though it be alien blood, have not the air and the soil
and the water, a common history and a common
destiny, action and work in common, had their effect
even if we exclude actual physical interbreeding?
Despite their own laws and the resistance of the
nations, could they escape the natural laws? Or are
they of a different moral constitution, human beings
of another cast?"
The friend replies:-"That might be so". "To
him they did seem to be of a different moral consti-
tution; human beings of another cast. Perhaps this
was the critical point".
And later: "The concept Jew was not very easy to
define ... As a body, the Jews have never been able







THE WAILING WALL


to identify themselves disinterestedly with the causes
of their host-nations. Within the state they have
withdrawn into social and religious isolation, a
rigid, frozen block in the flowing stream. As long as
their isolation was enforced they could claim martyr-
dom; but now that the restrictions against them have
been lifted their lack of will and capacity for this
identification is evident. A morbid pride in their
tradition still persists in them".
Later, Wasserman himself says: "Only much later,
after decades of inner struggle, was I able to answer
his question, his "What is that opposing force?"
and proceeds to answer it as follows: "From the
earliest times the Jews have called themselves the
Chosen People. The proclamation of their faith in
their election and their mission occurs in all their
myths .. One can see clearly, on the one hand, that a
conviction cherished so obstinately for thousands of
years entails quite extraordinary obligations, which
the group can never wholly fulfil, and engenders a
quite abnormal state of moral and mental tension,
whose inevitable discharge results in a catastrophic
existence; and, on the other hand, such an axiom,
when made the basis of a national existence,
paralyses moral development and replaces it by
moral quietism, which leads to arrogance and self-
righteousness".
S. .. The tragedy of the Jew's life is the union
in his soul of a sense of superiority and the feeling
that he carries a stigma of inferiority. He must
live and find his bearings in the constant conflict and
friction between these two emotional currents".
These passages give expression to three phases of
the complex problem of Judaism, namely: the ques-
tion of whether Judaism is a religious or a racial
entity in the widest sense of that term, the fact of the
"spiritual ghetto," and the concept of a Chosen
People. These three knots must be unravelled before







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


the uncompleted design of the Jewish destiny can be
envisaged from the point at which it diverged from
the pattern-if there be one-traced for it, up till the
present where it seems to have gone so hopelessly
astray. Into the future we dare not look, or dare
we? Only one light can illumine that path, and it
does not shine upon this people yet.
The desperate plight of those Jews who realise
their uniqueness but find it impossible to ascribe it
to any reasonable cause, and fail also to command
recognition as equals by virtue or in spite of it-this
enigma which few Jews care or dare to contemplate
and no gentile can comprehend or explain, has cer-
tainly a solution; but this solution is not to be arrived
at either from a purely racial or a purely religious
consideration, using the term 'religious' in its usual
connotation.
The concept which for Wasserman explained
Judaism is that of "a chosen people". He seems to
have rejected the principle; perhaps it seemed to
him subjective: the projection of individual longings
into the realm of corporate aspiration in terms of
corporate election. The whole thing may have
appeared in this light to be almost childish, as indeed
it may well appear to us and as it would be if it were
subjective. Wasserman decides not to enter into the
basis of the Jewish belief in their mission; he leaves
speculation as to "whether it is based on revelation,
on their relation to the things nearest to their hearts,
or on their historic or legendary destiny," out of his
argument; this is evidently because he does not see
in the belief any relevance to reality. Later he
says:-"Can the mere profession of a faith suffice
for election? That would be irrational and immoral?"
But what if the election precedes the profession
and conditions it ? The faith professed is either just
another projection of human desires or it is the en-
trance of the divine into the human; either something







THE WAILING WALL


reached at from below or something revealed from
above. If we have no means of judging as to this, it
is best to look to history for proof one way or another.
And what do we see? A people assaulted from all
sides, yet surviving; a succession of prophets, relig-
ious leaders, social and political reformers, remark-
able in many cases for their extraordinary spiritual
insight and their poetic insight-as deep as that of
Wasserman himself, but lit more consciously from a
steady fire. We see the usual rabble of primitive
tribes, undisciplined and inordinately stiff-necked;
but we see that among them, within them, condition-
ing them, is being built up the most tremendous
religious concept, the noblest edifice of the spirit; a
structure capable of bearing the heaviest weight of
historical mischance and the accumulating burden of
human speculation; a concept which contains within
itself every implication necessary for man's know-
ledge of himself and of God. We hear much from the
Jewish world to-day about "ethical Monotheism,"
but the phrase only has significance when personal-
ised. As a piece of academic theorising it is value-
less; but within the phrase is contained something
which transcends all phrases. The words are a
symbol of a Life of perfection lived in unity with
Itself, in an eternal present of ceaseless energy; of
an Intelligence beyond our knowing, wedded to a
Love past our divining, in a Peace passing all our
understanding; of an activity never ceasing, never
troubled; of a self-conscious Being conscious of man
and his needs-conscious not passively but in such an
energy of action that inevitably eternity breaks into
time, the unending present into the history which is
man's attempt to use his free will;-the invasion of
history by eternity; the personal relationship of God
to man, of the Creator to His creation; the standard
of justice and the goal of aspiration set as it were not
by the pilgrim about to go forth on his journey, but







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


by One who stands behind him and points over the
pilgrim's shoulder. The pilgrim sees the hand; its
fier shows him a way he does not know, and a goal
which left to himself he could scarcely have guessed
at; yet lo! on the horizon shine the towers of a City,
and the way from there to here stretches even to his
feet. It is the way from here to there; and the One
who shows him knows the way.
Later on, One was to say-"'Whither I go ye know,
and the way ye know". But the pilgrim does not
know that yet.
"I am the way, the truth and the life." He will
deny that assertion when a man makes it: or if he
accepts it, his brothers will deny. But he believes it
instinctively of the One who appoints him to his
destiny, who elects him, who chooses him. A chosen
people; though response to the choice may waver.
Yes, "ethical monotheism" means far more than
it says, far more than people like it to mean. True
Judaism means far more. We see the people with
this heritage, we see them-if we choose to view the
matter so-living on a hope and rejecting that hope's
due fulfilment; we see them cast out of their country,
scattered in all countries, menaced, harassed, des-
pised, hated; we see the members of this people
losing each something-self-respect, or hope, or
courage, or faith. We see them debarred from all
the avenues of normal life, taking to the byways,
huddled together, despairing, their heads turned
back to the past; or forward in a wistful or angry
hope, of fulfilment or vengeance. We see the young
ceasing to care. We see freedom engulfing them in its
dangerous tumult of waters; we see them struggling
in the quicksands of compromise; we see the Faith
going under and the Race deliberately submerged.
e see them tolerated by the nations with whom
they assimilate. We view the uneasy progress of that







THE WAILING WALL


assimilation which never becomes complete, and now
and then the hatred beneath the surface of national
life. "Dogs of Jews ... Somewhere the red tide
surges and is stilled; and the People whom we are
watching are stirred as by a gust of wind laden with
the stench of carnage; their minds are troubled, the
young pause for a moment in the midst of the process
of assimilation and the middle-aged in the process of
laying up treasures on earth. Are these my brothers
and sisters who are being massacred? And why?
Because they are Jews ? But I ... And a shudder
passes over them as the shadow of doubt reaches their
path and casts a gloom over their future. They
kow that in spite of all a hidden bond unites them
with the sufferers, and they "give generously," com-
forting themselves with their capacity for doing so.
But here and there a thinker sits by his open
window gazing out upon the star-lit sky, and into
the silent peaceful night whose cool airs sway the
curtains and bring freshness and sweet scents to the
watcher. While the world sleeps perhaps one such
un-sleeping dreamer ponders on the vast enigma,
vaster than those miraculous enigmatic skies, of the
entity which he, being a Jew, is part of. He sees
those distant worlds, so cold and bright, as though
he were their creator; as though he had tossed them
across the universe to spin and flash; and, dreaming
thus, sees eternity spread around him, patterned
with time; and in time humanity set down to colour
the pattern. And break through it? Achieve
eternity? He does not know; but he knows that he
and all others strive for that, and that the measure of
their striving is the measure of their worth. He sees
a group arise within the group, sees its strivings but
does not know its end. And because he is not the
creator he can only say-"I see that they strive
corporately while the rest of mankind is not so united.
I see that they-that we-belong together somehow;







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


I see that this group is unique; but why? To what
end ? For what purpose ? I do not know".
And because he does not know he cannot answer
the riddle, cannot solve the one problem that en-
croaches on every section and crosssection of his life,
cannot understand what still remains and seems
destined ever to remain an enigma.
The personal problem-"What am I? What do I
want to be? A German or a Jew? An Englishman
or a Jew? A Frenchman or a Jew?" continues to
assail him. He thinks bitterly with Wasserman-
"In my innocence I had always been convinced that
I was a part of German life, of the German" (or the
English or French or Dutch) people, by birth. The
language is the breath of life to me. For me it is far
more than a means of communication, something
casually learned and used; its words and rhythm
constitute my innermost life. It is the building-
material of a spiritual world for the fashioning of
which I feel a vital urge, though the power is not yet
mine. It is as deeply a part of me as if it had been
mine through all eternity. It has shaped my char-
acter and lighted my way, directed my hand, guided
my foot, made my nerves vibrate, taught my heart to
feel and my mind to think, it has condensed into a
unique and irrevocable structure all that I have
seen, all that I have imagined and thought, all that
has reached me through history and the flow of daily
life, through the pageant of human destinies and
familiarity with great works. Was not this more
important than an entry in a register, than a formal
confession of faith, than an ingrown prejudice, than
the rl8e of an alien, maintained out of fear and pride
on the one side, and superstition, malice and inertia
on the other?"
And yet: ". .. while I lived and worked as an
individual I was, in the depths of my soul, closely
bound up with a community which has disintegrated,







THE WAILING WALL


and with another which I wanted to win, which I
must win. I thought I might rise above all this into
a realm which I had conquered for my own ... It
proved to be impossible.
Injustice welds one to those who suffer wrong, and
the hatred that darkens the world makes an inner
obligation of the external appeal ... Fate has made
me a Jew-that is, a man who will dedicate all his
powers, his blood, and his soul, his present life and
future life, to the attainment of a state of balance;
so that it is not surprising that the idea of justice
hangs over me like an empyreal flame".
And the watcher thinks of justice, which seems to
have no dwelling on earth; and of that people which
is a mystery and that "spiritual ghetto" which
claims even those who own no allegiance to nation
or to faith, claims them in spite of themselves,
causing them to be called Jews though they long
passionately to be de-Judaised, casting them out only
when they own one particular allegiance, and that to
a Jew! Yes, claims even such as the watcher him-
self ; so that his spirit is suspended for ever in a state
of unresolved tension, between two worlds.
He thinks again of that pride, so different from the
laughable nationalisms of the young and vulgar
nations around him-that pride in election, which
seems to have become itself a ridiculous burden, a
millstone round the neck of a Jewry whose best
elements no longer believe in the mission of the race,
whose baser elements repudiate their election in
every action, and whose "religious" life, compact of
dryness, unreality and worldliness, envisages in the
mission of Jewry nothing but the attainment of a
singularly boring Utopia. He thinks and wonders
and shrugs.
Might he not-this silent watcher of the skies-
add together the following elements: the amazing,







THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO


the unique philosophy of history implied and ex-
pressed in the Old Testament; the corporate self-
consciousness of the People as elected to some
tremendous purpose, often mis-interpreted but
always believed in; the extraordinary vicissitudes
which Jewry has passed through while retaining-
what? but something, certainly-that mysterious
essence, that core which still claims the name of
Judaism; the impossibility of satisfactorily defining
that something; the tremendous pains taken by Jews
and Gentiles of all types to define it; the irrational
hatred-hatred which remains when all reasonable
and unreasonable arguments have been met and
answered-which has always existed in certain
quarters against the Jews; and above all the very
fact that such rare spirits as Wasserman, as our
thinker himself, cannot escape the knowledge-"I
am a Jew," but are drawn, fascinated, into con-
templation of that image in the glass-the mirror
that cannot be smashed, the mirror that does not,
cannot lie-and when their integrity of spirit forces
them to face the implications of the fact are baffled
by what might be called the "unworkableness of the
material" and remain, in the final issue, baffled-
might not our thinker, reviewing the promises and
the history, the paradox and the conflict, the longing
for a key and the lack of it, conclude that perhaps
Israel was indeed a "Chosen People," that perhaps
this explanation might be the true one, since no other
fits? Could this be possible, could the election be
objective reality not corporate vanity, might not the
present state of Jewry be the result of a hitherto un-
considered tension existing deep within the soul of
the People, unresolved-the tension which results
from a destiny unfulfilled, perhaps?
If the election were indeed an incursion of God into
history for the purpose of using one people as the
"means of grace" to the whole world, then the







THE WAILING WALL


destiny of the Jews must be agreed to be still
unfulfilled.
The solitary, gazing from his window at the night
and knowing himself an exile in a land of slumbering
and heedless Gentiles, rejects the whole concept
because it seems mechanical and easy. The difficult
and honest road seems not to lead that way. But
when he follows the difficult road he finds himself in
a blind alley; or, like Wasserman, he dies with the
question still on his lips.
With Wasserman he would say: "For a people
the idea of election is justified only within a temporal
limit. To sever it from its historic context, and, so
to speak, project it into eternity, is iniquitous; while
the election of the individual is eternal, and has taken
place in eternity".
Yet, has the Jewish destiny been fulfilled even in
time?
And, supposing that eternity were to project its
image, nay, its very self, into time; into the history
and destiny of a people, into its very blood and
language; into its physical and intellectual and
spiritual life, conditioning its past, which was pre-
pared to receive it, desiring to mould its future: if
eternity should so enter into time and space in the
fashion of a Man, and dwell among this people as a
member of the people, in the midst of this race as a
unit thereof, as truly one with all the rest, as the ful-
filment of their hopes, the focal point of their history,
the reason for their existence-if this miracle should
somehow occur, would the election of the people be
projected into eternity in any restricted or restricting
sense ? Would not that election fulfil its purpose in,
as it were, overflowing its banks and communicating
eternity, life-Eternal Life-to the whole world,
while being itself caught up into eternity through
reaching the boundaries of its destiny as an exclusive
entity and passing beyond them into free communion











THE WANDERING JEW AND THE SPIRITUAL GHETTO 27
with the whole world, and with God?
Is there any answer to these questions? If there
is, and if the final one is "Yes," does the question to
which the affirmative is given imply an eventual dis-
ruption of Judaism-a breaking of the vessel when
the ointment has been poured out ?
These questions cannot be answered yet, since we
are not sure whether we accept the premises on
which they are based.
At which point we come to the Person of Christ.
The thinker turns out the light and draws the
window to. The stars are far away and he does not
know.
His brethren laugh, shrug, stare, murmur com-
pliments or shudder at the Name, according to their
kind.
The mystery of the People of God remains un-
solved, because it can only be solved in and through
and by a Person. And He seems to stand upon the
other side of the Wall, an alien, unrecognised even,
unknown, or feared, or hated, or despised.
Meanwhile, within the walls the city has turned
against itself, the house is divided; and no man
knows why he dwells in that city or what it is there
for or who he is or what he stands for.
Only the Wall-of opposition, of past glory, of
tears-keeps the folk within isolated; so the Wall
becomes tremendously important, and anyone who
scales it becomes a meshumad, an apostate. It is as
the daughter of such an "apostate" that I write.







THE WAILING WALL


Chapter II.

THE DIVIDED HOUSE.

When a man says, in nineteen-thirty-six, "I am a
Jew," what does he mean? In the larger sense he
probably does not know, as we have just observed;
the more immediate connotation of the word is likely
to be almost equally problematic and certainly as
provocative of argument.
Our Jew may declare his adherence and explain
that it is a religious profession. The next problem
is, of what brand? He may be an orthodox Jew,
and this may easily be sub-divided not only into the
recognized categories of sefardic and ashkenazic,
mithnagdic or hassidic; but into the more subtle div-
isions of the ardent and the perfunctory, the fanatical
and the compromising.
It is extremely unlikely that in nineteen-thirty-six
he will be an orthodox Jew at all. He is more likely
to belong to the liberal camp. Here the permuta-
tions are infinite. He may be a humanist, a sensitive
intellectual, so afraid of intolerance that he dare not
commit himself, or a lazy person who cannot be
bothered with dogmas; he may be a rich respectable
rationalist unwilling to lose all contact with corp-
orate "worship," or an idealist broken free from the
chains of orthodoxy, desiring a purer air and finding
in 'liberalism' a breadth of view attractive if not
ultimately satisfying. He may retain a number of
his Jewish traditions, or he may adopt a Sunday







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


Sabbath. He may, of course, be attracted to any of
a number of religious bodies whose membership is
not confined to Jews,-Spiritualism for instance, or
"Christian Science". Or he may very easily belong
to a church of one member and be a spiritual individ-
ualist, and as such may vary from the "jolly good
fellow" whose creed is one of empty breadth, to the
just-not-Christian mystic such as the newsvendor
who said: "We are all sparks of God; Jesus was a
flame".
Or he may be non-religious, in a number of differ-
ent ways and for a number of different reasons. He
may be an agnostic, an atheist, or simply a material-
ist. He may find the shams of religiosity repugnant
or he may idealise science and imagine it to be incom-
patible with a sense of spiritual values. He may be
a poet-that is, usually, an individualist-who feels
himself detached from mass emotions and corporate
fanaticism; he may have been sickened by modern
Judaism in his early childhood while retaining a
half-conscious repugnance for Christianity; he may
find Christianity attractive but be assailed by doubts;
or he may be just one of those people who never think
about such things because they are too busy earning
money and spending it. He may be a reformer, a
philanthropist, a politician, and make his pet
pursuit his religion. He may be a Communist or a
Zionist, or both.
In that case more cross-roads come into view. A
Zionist may be a practising Jew of any shade of
opinion enumerated above; actually he is more
likely to be nothing than to be religious, and if
religious, it is improbable that he will be 'orthodox'.
Zionism is avowedly a non-religious concept:
actually it is almost a religion in itself. The racial
side of Judaism is emphasised not necessarily to the
exclusion of the religious side, but as separate from
it, and this separateness leads eventually to a







THE WAILING WALL


divorce between the two and finally to a shelving of
the latter, since the former is so much more in
evidence, needing so much more aid and effort,
causing so much conflict and persecution. Thus racial
loyalties become fixed and religious loyalties dis-
appear.
A Zionist may be passive, desiring a National
Home but doing nothing about getting it. If he is
active he may be an extremist-or "Revisionist"-
desiring to see Palestine an independent national
state; or his desire may be simply for the self-
governing community supporting itself and living
under political conditions much like those which now
obtain; or he may see in Palestine "a spiritual centre
for his nationality," as Achad Ha'am put it.
A Communist is bitterly antagonistic to Judaism
as a religion and to all religions. But he may be a
keen Zionist. The chaluzim in Palestine are mostly
of that type.
A Jew may be as nationalistic as Hitler. Each
Jew is proud of Jewry for a different reason, for a
different quality of achievement. One admires his
people's loyalty to the countries of their adoption;
another-their loyalty to their own; one-Jewry's
conservative stability; another-her capacity for
producing revolutionaries; one-her capitalists,
another-her socialists; one-her financiers and the
business acumen of her sons or daughters, another
-her artists and idealists; one sings her praises and
conceives of Israel as a living temple of God, another
as the great power for experiment and adventure,
another as a racial entity.
On the other hand, a Jew may be an assimila-
tionist. He may love his people and be with complete
consciousness a Jew, and yet see stretching before
Jewry no safe road apart from that which would
lead her to mix with the peoples round about her.
Not many Jews desire assimilation to the point of a







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


complete submergence of Judaism with all its racial,
religious, social and cultural traditions and char-
acteristics. In other words, not many assimilation-
ists follow their arguments to their logical con-
clusion.
But many Jews-even religious Jews-favour as
complete an assimilation with the nations around
them as is compatible with the retention of their
religious traditions. The unfortunate thing about
this attitude is that in practice such an assimilation
-semi-assimilation-is never sufficiently complete.
It gets just far enough to imbed Jews firmly in the
national life of their adopted country, to place a
number of them in influential positions and to enable
their sons and daughters to imbibe the gentile culture
with which they are surrounded to an extent which
leads them to think of it as their native soil, their
breath of life, the essence of their existence and the
background of their strivings and aspirations. It
serves to weaken the ties of Jewish tradition until,
for good or evil, they become imperceptible or are
despised, even hated by the young. But this semi-
assimilation goes no further. The Jews are still
aliens to their gentile neighbours. And when the
crash comes, the Jews are but hated the worse and
harried all the more unmercifully for each rich,
influential or highly assimilated Israelite unearthed
and put to scorn. Because the legend grows up that
the Jews are sly, that the ramifications of their
secret powers and connections are numerous and
hard to spy out, that they have been secretly digging
themselves in, all these years, the better to under-
mine the very foundations of national life.
Many Jews would like to assimilate as individuals
and some succeed in this. But an inner tension
remains which cannot be resolved. Wasserman
says: "German Jew-you must place full emphasis
on both words. You must understand him as the







THE WAILING WALL


final product of a lengthy evolutionary process. His
two-fold love and his struggle on two fronts drive
him close to despair." The same words are applic-
able to any sensitive assimilated Jew, though per-
haps the tension is nowhere as acute as in Germany,
where it made itself felt even before that catastrophe
occurred which precipitated the whole problem into
the most vital of issues by stating it in the crudest
of terms and writing it in letters of blood. Similar
catastrophes are not impossibilities in other
countries, however, and many a complacently
assimilated Jew may some day be rudely awakened
to the realisation of the tremendous questions which
perhaps he has never yet formulated and certainly
never yet answered.
An assimilationist may be a painstaking thinker
who honestly tries to decide what he must sacrifice
-for something must be, has to be sacrificed; or he
may be merely an opportunist who does not mind
what he sacrifices so long as his impermanent but
momentarily satisfying security is assured.
Most peoples accept themselves without discus-
sion: Jewry alone must perpetually discuss, evalu-
ate, disagree and conjecture in the effort to formulate
some sort of manifesto, to state conclusively what
Judaism is. But no such statement has ever been
evolved, because no present-day theory seems to fit
in with the multitudinous sectional theories current
in present-day Jewry.
It seems unnecessary here to give a' rdsum6 of
Zionism's history and ideals;* as for materialism,
it is too obvious and too widespread to be either over-
looked or misunderstood. Assimilation has been
treated above, and is in any case a problem implicit
in the incomplete and abnormal condition which in
its turn is dependent on historical and spiritual exig-
* Cf. for these N. Sokolow, "History of Zionism," 1919.







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


encies and on a vocation; the consequences of these
facts as well as the facts themselves crop up in every
chapter. We are left with Orthodoxy and Liberal-
ism and the whole position and condition of spiritual
life in present-day Judaism.
What front do the labels "Orthodox" and
"Liberal" really cover? Orthodox Judaism is at its
best when completely uncompromising, like most
other things. A small community living its own life,
completely self-absorbed, held together by common
and very narrow interests, and by the shadow of
persecution and contempt, may be a very stuffy
organism, but it is certainly an admirable field for
an experiment in communal concentration. Such a
communal concentration on a particular kind of
learning, on a special sort of piety, on one variety of
person and one way of life formed Jewish types such
as we read about in the sketches of the greatest
Hebrew and Yiddish writers.
For the formation of saints a stable structure is
needed, a spiritual or social framework not in the
least necessarily compatible with saintliness, but a
framework which makes inner concentration poss-
ible. Some will demur here, on the grounds that
saints, mystics, poets, make their ownbackground,
form it for themselves; wrest it, if necessary, from
the midst of the unsuitable surroundings into which
they are born. Of course this is true, but it does not
contradict the former theory. Wasserman built his
life, his thought and his art on a foundation of pain,
an ugly home background, a loveless childhood, a
tortured youth and an embittered maturity. He had
nothing but the beauty of natural surroundings to
help him. Surely he wrenched beauty from stupid
chaos and formed his life of the spirit for himself?
Assuredly: yet had he never suffered, never known
sordidness and spiritual exile, he would not, could
not have become a whole man, an artist.







THE WAILING WALL


The spirit of genius moulds history and shapes
backgrounds-and the weakening of orthodox
Judaism's spirit can be said to account for the
break-up of the background which best suited it.
Conversely, the "progress" of Western civilization,
which can by no stretch of imagination be imputed
simply to any section of Jewry, has rendered unstable
the very foundations of that old life which alone
could sustain the enclosed and self-sufficient world
of the orthodox Jewish community and which pro-
vided and maintained a sort of pressure, an
insistence on a few essentials, turning the mind of
the pious Talmudist inwards and thus affording the
stimulus so greatly needed both by creative minds
and by the lesser order of talents. There is no doubt
that orthodox Jewry produced saints. Their piety
and their legalism were wedded, often with slightly
comic, always quaint results; their brand of holiness
may not invariably appeal to us; but it certainly
existed. There are probably still venerable Jews in
obscure Polish towns whose simplicity of heart is
matched by their ingenuity in casuistic arguments.
The Hasidic, i.e. mystical, movement of the 18th
century released all the incipient mysticism in
Judaism. Jewry has always repressed this tendency,
preferring to be known to the world as a legalistic
rather than as a contemplative people. Yet genuine
Jewish spirituality is found in Hasidism and in the
cabalistic movements which preceded it.*
Here is a Hasidic exposition of repentance. "True
repentance consists in the longing that God should
let His Countenance shine upon us; that His re-
lationship to us should be the relationship of one
personality to another: that He should know us
from the depths of His Being, and that His forgive-

* Cf. Paul P. Levertoff, "Love and the Messianic Age," London, 1923.
and Die religiose Denkweise der Chassidim," Leipzig, 1918.







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


ness should come to us from the innermost part of
His Will-not like that of a man who throws a gift
behind his back to his enemy, in whose face he
cannot look. Like the Messiah, the awakening of
the sinner to repentance comes unexpectedly; it is
above our understanding and knowledge; it is a gift
from God which proceeds from "the light of the
Upper Countenance".
Again:- "The sinner, in whose soul the light of
the Divine fire has been quenched, is greater when he
repents, than the righteous who have no need of re-
pentance. He lifts himself up above time and space.
Since he possesses nothing in himself that could
awaken spiritual life, he throws himself entirely into
the arms of God."
And finally:- "Everything is longing for that
Messianic redemption, through which God's
Immanence will be fully realized. We must enter
deeply into this groaning of Creation, and listen with
the ears of the spirit to the plaint of the imprisoned
soul of Nature and its longing for redemption.
For in the days of the Messiah the inner nature of
God will be revealed, and His light will permeate
Man. And if Israel would only pray in the true
spirit, the Messiah would reveal Himself in all His
glory now".*
Is not this a phase of Judaism more attractive and
less familiar to the Gentile mind than the Talmudic
lore usually quoted? It is indeed a very odd fact
that official Judaism has always been slightly
ashamed of the strong vein of mysticism which has
always run through it, dismissing Hasidism, for
instance, as a sort of Dervish sect, bent on ecstasy
and attempting to attain to a state of elevation by
mechanical means. It is perfectly true that the

* "Love and the Messianic Age," p. 45.







THE WAILING WALL


Hasidim often do dance to the glory of God: but they
do more than that. They have produced a type of
mysticism, piety and meditation which approaches
uncannily near to the Christian method and spiritual
language. Jewish mysticism at its best does really
equal, or almost equal, the mysticism of, say, St.
John of the Cross. In fact, it is not at all impossible
that Christian influence may consciously or uncon-
sciously have operated on the unknown authors of
that unique compilation which has come to be known
as "the Bible of the mystics": the "Zohar," or
"Brightness," which is the most important mystical
work produced by Jewry in the Middle Ages.
The Zohar influenced profoundly the mystical
thought of future generations; it was also known to
Christian scholars of the period, and was a mine of
theosophical and gnostic lore as well as of weird and
pseudo-scientific information on astrology, physiog-
nomy, and other ingenuities. Purporting to be the
work of Shimon ben Jochai, a second century rabbi,
it was supposed to have been discovered by Moses de
Leon (1250-1305) who later asserted that he had
written it himself. In reality it is, quite obviously,
the work of many hands. Much of the material goes
back, in all probability, to a very early date, per-
haps indeed to the 2nd or even the 1st century, but its
sources and its authors lie buried in the past and its
whole history is wrapped in the mists of obscurity.
It is a literary curiosity, a historical enigma. Its
style is cryptic to the point of being perfectly
incomprehensible at times. It purports to be a com-
mentary on the Pentateuch. So it is, but not in the
least a commentary on the Pentateuch as we read it.
Every word and syllable, every phrase, every
incident, has an inner-a "supernal" meaning, and
these meanings build up into a sort of code of images,
an airy structure on a quite different plane of reality.
And everything is twisted out of its mundane con-







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


text in order that it may yield a "supernal"
implication.
The book is therefore not the slightest use as a
commentary to the Pentateuch! But as a guide to
the intricacies of Jewish mystical thought, as a sign-
post to a strange dream-country which has its own
solidity and its own verities, which in time one comes
to recognize with a sort of familiarity-as such a
pointer the Zohar is extraordinarily illuminating.
It is written mostly in Aramaic, and in a kind of
cryptic abbreviated and allusory style which re-
sembles nothing so much as some sort of "supernal"
shorthand. So that the desires of English readers
would probably remain unfulfilled, were it not for
the complete translation of the Zohar issued recently
by a Jewish publishing house, the Soncino Press. In
this edition, Harry Sperling, L. Simon and my
father have attempted between them to tackle the
almost superhuman task of turning the vast mass of
involved, obscure and often quite incomprehensible
material into English, not merely as a text-book for
students, but as a piece of literature capable of inter-
esting the general public while retaining the flavour
and as far as possible the manner of the original.*
The headings of the various sections and sub-
sections of the work are simply the first words of the
verse of the Pentateuch lectionary reached by the
"commentary". The verse is quoted, then the com-
mentary takes up the tale, probably with some such
phrase as, "Rabbi Hezekiah, discussing these words,
quoted this verse". Then follows a verse from quite
another portion of scripture, which is commentated
on at length by "Rabbi Hezekiah" without any
reference whatever to the actual verse under con-
sideration. Then we hear that, "Rabbi Chisdah and

* "The Zohar," five volumes. Translated by R. Sperling, L. Simon and
Dr. Paul P. Levertoff. Soncino Press, 1931-1934.







THE WALKING WALL


Rabbi Judah were going on a journey from Usha to
Lud. They arose before dawn," etc.,-and we then
get a long story of the fairy-tale variety about a Jew
with a donkey whom the worthy Rabbis met on their
journey, and who behaved with extreme folly. This
Jew (they are all Jews but he is singled out thus for
some reason) eventually proves to be an angel in dis-
guise, or possibly the prophet Elijah. He converses
with them on holy matters with such supernal
wisdom that they fall to the ground in ecstasy. When
they awake, Rabbi Judah says, "Now all is clear to
me," and they go to Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai, the
master and leader of the whole esoteric circle, and
recount their adventures to him. He rejoices and
weeps and they all fall to arguing about the verses
considered by the supernal stranger. With each
argument more verses are brought in, and as each
verse gives rise to a fresh commentary and none of
the commentaries has any but the vaguest connec-
tion with the verse it is based on, we emerge
considerably wiser but somewhat confused at the end
of the disquisition, when we find that by some
miraculous and mysterious juggling all the periphery
has somehow been brought into line with the
original verse on which the section is supposed to be
a commentary! At this point some mythical but
sententious Rabbi is certain to say, "These, however,
are only the outer mysteries contained in this verse.
The inner supernal mysteries are only revealed to
the wise".
The construction of the Zohar is far more method-
ical than it appears to be at first sight, but the
method is so gloriously mad and so completely
elastic that really anything can be introduced and
any subject dealt with. Poetry, sorcery, stories,
astrology, all jostle one another in its crowded pages;
but the pure gold of a truly "supernal" spiritual
apprehension may be found there as well. Here are







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


a few passages chosen at random, which may, in
common with the whole of the foregoing section, give
some idea of a phase of Judaism which is little known
to gentiles but whose value is great, and whose sig-
nificance as a bridge between Jewish and Christian
thought will be referred to again more fully in a later
chapter.
"Rabbi Judah sat one day at the feet of Rabbi
Simeon, and he began to expound the following
verse: 'The voice of thy watchmen, they lifted up
their voices, they shall sing altogether ... when the
Lord shall return to Zion'. (Isa. lii. 8). 'These
watchmen,' he said, 'are those who watch for the
time when the Holy One-blessed be He-will
rebuild His House once again.' The words 'when the
Lord returns to Zion' are understood as meaning
'When the Lord brings back Zion'.
For when the earthly Jerusalem was destroyed,
and the community of Israel was scattered over the
face of the earth, the Holy King drew Zion up to
himself and stretched it out before him, because the
Community of Israel was banished. When the
Community of Israel shall be restored, however, the
Holy King will restore Zion to its place, and the
children of Israel will sing 'He is my God, and I
have prepared for him an habitation.' Concerning
this it is written: 'This is the Lord, we have waited
for Him, let us be glad and rejoice in His salvation'
(Isa. xxv 9)."

We open our eyes To trembling now fall
And straightway behold As they sing and rejoice
The holy chariot's From below to above
Swift-rolling wheels. In tune with the song:
Voices of song Standing who stand
Making lovely the air, Joined who are joined
A joy to the heart, In multitudes thronging,
A grace to the ear. Four hundred and fifty
Thousand on thousand Thousands of beings-









THE WAILING WALL


Gifted with sight are they
Yet see and see not,
Two hosts them encompass
As great as the first.

On the left hand is sorrow
Is crying and moaning-
The Lords of Weeping
Their dwelling here set;
Their being is judgment,
And chastisement their end.
The Judge is there ready
And the books are open.
At this hour and moment
The Lord of judgment
Ascends to His Throne
The singing ceases
And silence falls.
Judgment begins.

The Lords of the right hand
Who see and perceive
And eighteen thousand
Angelic companions
Fearlessly sing
And trumpets ring forth
And a trembling begins.
Once again do they sound
And the voices are silent.

Then rises the Lord
From the Judgment throne;
On the throne of reconcilement
The Merciful now sits,
And utters the Name-
The holy, the blessed,
Source of mercy for men
And life-giving to all.
"Yod He Waw H'" He cries ;
Now murmurs anew
The song of the myriads


Of holy turning wheels.
In ecstasy they chant
"Blessed be the Lord's glory
From the place of His
Shekinah."

The secret Garden
In worlds of light hidden
-A hundred and fifty
Encompassing worlds-
Where Shekinah's splendour
From splendour proceeding
Its splendour sends forth
To the ends of creation,
In the fulness of glory
Is revealed in its beauty
To the eyes made seeing-
The Garden of Eden.

The Ancient, the Father,
The Holy One speaks
His Name again pronouncing,
"Yod He Waw H1" again
Gloriously crying.
Then speak the lightful Hosts
Making brave music:
His thirteen paths of mercy
They gladly proclaim.

Who sees those mighty ones
High in the Heavens
Mighty in beauty I
Who sees the chariots
Holy and glorious ?
Who sees the Hosts in
The bright courts of glory
Exalting and praising
In awe and in fear
In joy and in wonder
The Holy One's Name 7


From "The Zohar on Exodus," translated by Dr. Paul P. Levertoff.







THE DIVIDED HOUSE


We have now gained, perhaps, a little insight into
what may be a byway, but which is certainly a sig-
nificant and beautiful one.
As to the sefardim, or Jews of the Spanish and
Portuguese ritual, and ashkenazim, or German and
Polish Jews, the former, embracing the Jews dwell-
in in Spain and Portugal, in Provence, Italy, North
Africa, and Turkey, were, in 1492, at the time of the
expulsion from Spain, the most important branch
in wealth, in learning and refinement, but have later
receded into the background. In North Africa and
the Near East (Palestine included) they still con-
tinue to speak Spanish and retain many traits of
mediaeval Spanish life. The Sefardim and Ashken-
azim differ not only temperamentally but also in
their mode of life and outlook. The former, although
more conservative than the latter, assimilate more
easily with the mode of life of the countries which
they inhabit. This is true not only of the Spanish
and Portuguese Jews in Morocco, Turkey and the
Near East, but also of those in France and England.
Religiously they differ in their ways of pronouncing
Hebrew. The Sefardim have on the whole maintained
the classic pronunciation of Judea. The Ashkenazim
have, on the other hand, brought with them the pro-
nunciation of Galilee, from which district a great
colony is said to have been deported to the lower
Rhine in the days of Hadrian. Thence their
descendants overflowed into the north of Europe,
especially Bohemia, Hungary, Poland. There is also
a difference in the method of intoning prayers and in
the manner of liturgical reading from the Law and
the Prophets. The sefardic chants are essentially
oriental, moving in a very narrow compass, while the
Ashkenazim have allowed a strong European element
to enter their religious music. There is also a con-
siderable divergence between the sefardic and ash-
kenazic service books.







THE WAILING WALL


But alas! The Synagogue, whether sefardic or
ashkenazic, no longer breeds saints. The young care
little for religious traditions and observances which
to them are merely a shell and which no longer en-
close any reality.
The Jews themselves at times, overcome by an
access of objective perception, write diatribes about
the failure of the religious leaders to keep in touch
with the young, and so on. The "Jewish Chronicle"
is a reliable calendar to the feelings of nominally
orthodox Jews in England; with the best will in the
world one cannot say that it exhibits any but the
most depressed of spirits, or that the circles with
which it deals are not choked by the cares of this
world and by ephemeral social activities.
As for Liberal Judaism, it is a contradiction in
terms; not because Judaism cannot be liberal, but
because the basis for such Liberalism as exists to-
day is fundamentally unsound.
"In the belief," says Dr. Montefiore, "that
orthodox Judaism, as a religious whole, has broken
down, and that only fragments, disparate and un-
harmonized, are left, liberal Judaism is an attempt
to make Judaism a living, working religion,
harmonious and consistent in all its parts"* Very
good; but the harmony and consistency are never
attained, because "ethical monothism" as a mere
academic concept simply does not constitute
Judaism. There is no warmth, no glow of life; only
compromise and eventual 'humanism'. A Jew who
defines his conception of religion as "the spiritual
reaction of man to the vicissitudes of life," as an
American Rabbi actually has done in print,t can
hardly be called a Jew in the religious sense. And
the racial sense he refuses to admit; he will allow
* "Some Rough Notes About Liberal Judaism."
t Dr. Kaplan: "Judaism as a Civilisation."













THE DIVIDED HOUSE


neither the responsibilities nor the privileges of
Jewish nationahty. Those responsibilities may, it
is true, be habitually shelved by the people who do
admit them, and the privileges may be dubious; yet
the fact remains that when every racial tie is broken
and Judaism is conceived of as being a religion
alone-"Israel was once a nation: it is now a
Church," as Montefiore asserts-then the distinct-
ively Jewish elements in the Jewish belief fade away.
This is another argument on the side of the con-
tention that Israel really is a Chosen People, divinely
appointed to a great vocation; since the whole relig-
ious life of Jewry is impregnated with a strong and
very definite belief in the mission of that People. A
mere ethical code does not express the religion of
Isiael. When Jewry widens her boundaries they
become so wide that no horizons are visible.
There is an element of truth in the Chief Rabbi's
dictum that-"liberal Judaism is a moving stair-
case taking those who have taken their stand on it
out of Judaism . Cut flowers wither; the tree
alone with its roots deep in the soil survives. Those
who sever themselves from the tree of historical
Judaism doom themselves to speedy disappearance
and death". ("Affirmations of Judaism.")







THE WAILING WALL


Chapter III.

DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT.
No subject-as Wasserman knew too well, as we
have seen in all our considerations of the problem-
could be more difficult of treatment than the present
position of the Jewish race and its relation to the
Gentile, and above all to the Christian, world.
That people's whole heritage of glory and of
shame, of trust and of betrayal, of uniqueness and of
debasement, of affirmation and of rejection, must be
taken account of. All the vicissitudes of history, all
the complications of human fallibility, all Time's
chances and all Eternity's obscurities must be borne
in mind. The Hebrew race, chosen by God, as we
cannot but believe when we look upon the history of
that race, for a special purpose, and refined by His
Spirit from its first primitive crudity into a vessel
which, though flawed enough, was to be the harbour-
age of the Truth-that Truth which was manifested
first in the stern and purified vision of its leaders,
poets and prophets, and finally in the Revelation
which was to be the salvation to be prepared "before
the face of all people" and the focal point of light
gathering up into eternity the fruits of time and ful-
filling for ever the expectations of the faithful-this
race so highly favoured failed, in the final issue, to
perfect its own destiny. The Light became indeed "a
light to lighten the gentiles"; but instead of being
"the glory of Thy people Israel" became its shame.







DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT


And with that rejection the seed of corruption
which had been growing stealthily side by side with
the seed of life shot up ano blossomed; decay
flourishing unashamed, not only in the burdens
wherewith history made tragic the days of Jewry,
but in the very core of her spiritual life. Instead of
life was mere existence: instead of the affirmation of
truth, only incessant denial of supposed falsehoods;
instead of faith, fear ....
As for the Gentiles, they, having seen the light,
frequently demonstrated their acquaintance with its
effulgence in the curious manner familiar to all
students or victims of religious fanaticism and per-
secution; and looked with contempt and loathing on
those who had betrayed not only their future but
their Lord. That the first bearers of the Light were
Jews, of one blood with these, became less and less
positive a fact in the minds of Christians as time went
by. And the complexities of fear, guilt, pride,
scorn, arrogance and ignorance built a wall of hatred
and blindness between the Jewish and the Christian
worlds; a wall which, as we know, grew ever higher
with the centuries and which time only succeeded
in cementing.
As the modern civilisation evolved, two curious
things happened. The Christian world, having
accepted Christ officially, began to take Him for
granted and to be more consciously a merely
"gentile" world, in which true Christians remained
as islands in a stormy sea. The Jewish world,
having before the era of emancipation risen to
worldly power deviously,. now, as we have seen,
began to throw off the yoke of the ghetto and to
mingle on an equal footing with the life around it.
And, in proportion as it partook of the benefits of the
growing modern civilisation, it shed-at first
hesitatingly, with reservations, unobtrusively, but
with increased boldness as the years went by--each







THE WAILNG WALL


now embarrassing mark of distinction between itself
and the civilisation which it had in a considerable
measure helped to build up and which was now
according it a grudging or a generous welcome; at
any rate, freedom, a place in the sun. All this we
have seen, have heard out of the mouths of Jews, and
can observe around us in the "modern" Jews of all
types who live in our midst and are, perhaps, too
clearly and plainly noticeable.
Vitiated by excessive legalism and lacking, in the
main, the compelling power of a truly spiritual
motive, the Jewish entity had little force wherewith
to withstand or repel these encroachments: of an
outer world and its gilded baits, of an inner failure,
a running down of the machine.
At this point an all-important problem had to be
faced; namely, that presented by the fact that
Judaism involved two things--a religious aspect and
a racial or cultural or social. Obviously the inter-
dependence of these two factors could no longer be
taken for granted, as in the days when the people
of Israel were fighting for or had obtained possess-
ion of their own land and were marked off from the
rest of the world by their distinctive faith. The
inevitable march of merely human "progress" had
aided and abetted the tendency of the religious aspir-
ation and impulse to weaken and grow less power-
ful. And the surrounding culture, like a smooth but
dangerous sea, threatened to engulf racial unique-
ness in the gathering waves of an intellectual
broadening of outlook and widening of horizons,
and in the tidal wave of "assimilation"; a word
whose fascination was increasing.
The more virile and; progressive elements in Jewry
thus paved the way for racial disintegration, while
the reactionary elements only prepared the same
path by ministering to the forces of decay within the
structure, in a vain endeavour to stem the tide of the







DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT


sea whose waves beat upon that structure from with-
out.
Such is the situation today, intensified a hundred-
fold by the increasingly unpredictable vicissitudes
of present-day history, by the ever heavier pressure
of social, political and economic circumstances and
the more and more evident lack of vitality or con-
structive aim within the community itself.
To recapitulate: the Jewish people, the "People
without a country" can only be preserved as a racial
entity on the basis of a strong religious unity. This
can only be obtained or retained through tenacious
and enduring mass loyalty to one common ideal.
Out of such an ideal was the Jewish people born, and
through this alone does it survive to this day.
Where that devotion weakens, the walls of defence
crumble and become powerless to defeat the attacks
of time. Where it remains unimpaired, it is only
strong enough to defeat itself. It rang its own death-
knell as a supreme force nineteen hundred years ago,
when it rejected, half unwittingly, its own salvation
and fruition. Since then the history of the Jewish
people has been a perpetual compromise with its own
mistakes. Its "glorious heritage" has become an
empty phrase. And yet they will cling tenaciously
to the letter of their Jewishness even if the spirit
escapes them, because this is their bond of union,
this holds them together. This is at least the symbol,
at most the whole justification, of their existence as
a separate-a chosen-race. And, little as its
present members bear out or are fully aware of the
true significance of its heritage, this people was
born to a destiny and with a purpose different in
character and kind from that of any other race.
So far we have traced the chequered history of the
Jewish people in relation to its own destiny and in
relation to the outer, Gentile, world. But what of
the nominally Christian world? So far from fulfil-







THE WAILING WALL


ling their hopes, Jesus of Nazareth seems to the Jews
to have caused disruption. The Christian Church,
which was born in Jerusalem and was composed of
a handful of Jews-devout traditionalists to a point
which practically endangered the future of that
Church: a Fellowship opening its doors freely to all
only through the exertions of another and as char-
acteristically Jewish a Jew, St. Paul-this
Christian Church is to Jewry a purely foreign body;
a factor in civilisation; a mark, often a blot, in
history; a political force; a social power; or, in
modern life, a sleeping partner; but in all cases a
body having not the slightest connection with Jewry,
except in so far as that at various times she has used
the Jew financially, learnt from him, instigated per-
secutions against him, or finally put him and herself
to the greatest possible indignity by pursuing and
trying to catch him with a view to changing and
absorbing him into herself. The principal aim of the
Church m so doing appears to the Jew to be to
destroy Judaism by stealing away its essence and
substituting for it an utterly alien background and
a completely incomprehensible worship.
That substitute complex is hard to eradicate. It
is the result of centuries of growing prejudice on the
part of Jews and a lack of vision on the part of
Christians, who have consistently tried to unjew the
Jew, so that to-day "to become a Christian" means,
for a Jew, a clean break with everything, a denial of
all that has made him, the renunciation of his relig-
ious traditions if he has any, and, in addition, of al
that he means, racially, socially, by "Judaism".
Why must these things be renounced?
Wasserman's friend said, "The question is
whether they-the Jews-can become Christians in
any but the superficial sense, as the majority of
Christians themselves are; the question is whether,
after conversion, they cease to be Jews in the deeper







DIsRUPrIoN OR FuiLMENT


sense. We do not know, and we have no way of
finding out. I believe that the ancient influences
continue to operate. Jewishness is like a concen-
trated dye: a minute quantity suffices to give a
specific character-or, at least, some traces of it-to
an incomparably greater mass".
Surveying the character and life of a Christian
with whom I have been in the most intimate contact
all my life, I see the above dictum in action, as it
were. The ancient forces do operate; the racial
characteristics are plainly visible; what is gone is
the narrow racialism and the perpetual sense of
being "on the defensive".
In myself, the second generation, half gentile by
blood and not "Jewish" in any official sense of the
word, Jewish only by the traditions which go deepest
and by the "new" traditions of Christian Judaism:
Jewish as one perhaps of a new type-even I see
in myself the dye operating, giving the specific
character.
I have known many non-Christian Jews whose
non-religious or assimilationist upbringing and
inclinations have caused far more de-Judaising than
Christianity has ever been known to effect.
But the battle cannot be fought or won or the
issue decided on an empiric basis. Such facts can
only serve to prove what needs to be argued on firmer
ground.
"What then of the future?" asks a non-Christian
Jew. "Will the 'normalized' Jewish people remain
the 'People of God'? According to present indica-
tions, the answer might be in the negative. But there
is another factor to be considered. The future of
religion itself is at stake. Those who consider it
merely as a need of the human soul can and must
believe that the substitute gods of Nationalism and
Labour have displaced God for ever, for He was
only a need of the human soul. But he who believes







THE WAIucNG WALL


that religion does not exist because there are relig-
iously minded men, but because God exists, must
hope and trust that He will again reveal Himself
more clearly than in those substitute gods, which
also could not exist without His will. Such an one
feels that the longest and most dangerous way to Him
is really the nearest.-"The Jewish Review", Sept.
1933.
That "dangerous way" which is in truth the
nearest may not, for the author of the above passage,
have any connection with Christ. For some of us He
is Himself the long untried but still the only way for
the Jewish people, as for all other peoples and
individuals.
"Only Galuth-that is, exile-psychology is
responsible for the fact that we have allowed such a
movement as Christianity, which originated in our
midst, to be torn out from our history," says Dr.
Martin Buber, the distinguished Jewish scholar. "It
was on Jewish soil that this spiritual revelation
burst into flame; Jewish men carried the movement
far and wide. We must overcome the superstitious
terror with which we have regarded the Nazareth
movement, a movement which we must place where
it properly belongs-in the spiritual history of
Israel".*
The reasons for the perpetuation of that 'terror'
into our own day, and the difficulties which con-
front both Jews and Gentiles as soon as they embark
on any attempt to fit the "Nazareth movement" into
its historical background and to evaluate its
spiritual significance in the light of Israel's destiny
-these problems belong to the next chapter. But
here we may well glance backward to the subject of
the preceding chapter for a moment, in order to see
more plainly that the unrest of mind and unease of


* Drei Reden fiber das Judentum.







DisRurnoN OR FuunLmEw


spirit which characterise the Jewish people to-day,
the inability of Jewry to define the meaning ef the
word "Judaism," and the divisions, the violent and
extreme diversities of thought which obtain within
the camp, are all but signs of a great spiritual
decline. It is, then, that decline which must concern
us; both as the root of Jewry's inner problems and as
the hidden reason for the persecutions which Jews
still have to suffer. For these are the reactions of
unenlightened people to an enigma which cannot be
explained or resolved except in terms of a spiritual
vocation still unfulfilled and a religious genius
apparently lost.
No better field for the study of this inner decline
of Judaism can be found than the realm of worship.
A comparison between ancient and modern thoughts
on this subject will yield some startling results.
"Rabbi Eleazar meditated on the words of the
Psalm: 'God be merciful unto us'. Said he: 'King
David rose and praised and thanked the Holy King,
and when the north wind awoke and touched the
strings of his harp, so that it made music, David
began to study the Torah. Now, what was the song
of the harp? Come and seel When the Holy One
moves towards the chariots and the hosts to give
nourishment to all those supernal beings-as it is
written: 'She riseth while it is yet night and giveth
food to her household and a portion to her maidens'
-all are filled with joy and song. They begin their
hymning with the words: 'God be merciful to us and
bless us, and cause His face to shine upon us,' and
the north wind, when it wakens and breathes upon
the world, sings: "That thy way may be known upon
earth, Thy salvation among all nations'; and the
harp, when it is played upon by that wind, sings,
'Let all the peoples praise Thee, O God, let all the
people praise Thee.' As for David, when he was
awakened, the Holy Spirit roused and moved him,







THE WAILING WALL


and he sang, 'Then shall the earth yield her increase,
and God, even our God, shall bless us; God shall
bless us, and all the ends of the earth shall fear
Him'. This he sang in order to draw down the
goodness of the Holy One-blessed be He-from
above to the earth below. Later, David harmonised
all these songs into one psalm, a unity of praise
formed in the power of the Holy Spirit."
Thus the Zohar, that "Bible of the mystics"-
which, in common with most bibles, is more talked
about than known-sums up in a characteristically
pictorial and luminous imagined scene the essence of
ideal worship, which in its pages becomes real and
constant. That a psalm of David originated in a
manner so logically and intimately described here
seems natural and inevitable when one has for a
little steeped oneself in the atmosphere of legend and
poetry with which this, perhaps the most unorthod-
ox "commentary" ever penned, is crammed! In itself
the quoted extract exemplifies all that can be said of
the perfect act of worship, its intention, necessity
and inner compulsion. David's praise, and the
praise of the north wind and of the harp were a unity
of devotion and ecstasy, "formed in the power of the
Holy Spirit." And the supreme beings, they who
began it, were filled with joy and song, because of
the presence of their King in their midst.
And what was the end to which their hymning
tended? There were two: one, that which is actu-
ally mentioned as David's reason for singing, namely
the desire to draw down the very essence of the
Holy into the sphere of common mortal life; and
secondly, the other purpose, which is unhinted at
here because there is no necessity for a reminder,
since it is the final aim and all-prevailing theme of
the whole Zohar, and the reason at the back of the
whole order of its philosophy; namely the desire to







DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT


effect and complete the unity of all things in one
volume of glory and perfection-union of the different
aspects of the Divine Personality: union of the two
ultimate aspects of the universe, Justice and Mercy;
union of the celestial and terrestial spheres; union
of God and Man. But whereas in many modern
minds too great a stress is laid upon this last unify-
ing intent in its subjective aspect, in the minds of the
unknown spiritual artists whose testament and
apologia the Zohar is, even the mystical ideal of
fusion with the Divine-that "God-realisation" so
beloved and so misunderstood by non-Christian
mystics-is made subject to and but a part of the yet
higher aim of glorifying ever more perfectly the
Divine itself.
Thus Man becomes at once more humble and more
noble-an instrument only, but actually an instru-
ment with power to exalt and aid the splendour of
the majesty of the Most High! No theory of worship
can surpass this in dignity, in objectivity, in its
stupendous simplicity. There is no room here for
mere emotional satisfaction, self-glorification or cold
righteousness. Everything glows and burns with
the bright steady flame of self-forgetful ecstasy, of
will concentrated fiercely on one point and to one
end, of heart subdued by the discipline of the spirit,
until the point is reached at which the suppliant
becomes the giver, the co-operator, and the partaker
in delight. He is then one with the celestial life of
praise, and his heaven is begun while yet on earth;
this world being but a pre-figuring of what is above,
man but a copy of the angels, his world a lesser
heaven,. or, if he will it so, an anticipation of
Gehenka, if he chooses to be ruled by those principal-
ities of evil, the rulers of "the other side." These
principalities, however, are themselves within the
Creator's scheme, being the "Lords of Judgment,"
by whose accusations the self-destroyed soulmay be







THE WAILING WALL


duly punished: though even for such souls there is
some final hope.
In this all-embracing scheme of life, whose uni-
verse, being at once limitless and God-created, must
of necessity include all things in the gigantic sweep
of Divine intention, the incomprehensible is not
caged nor is poetry tied down into bundles of formal-
ism. Perhaps as a result of the long silent watches
of mystical contemplation which at last receive
their reward in this wise (for "at present there is
indeed an appearance as of separation between the
Creator and His Creation .... because of the scum
of wickedness which as yet still clings to the hem of
the garment of righteousness, and therefore, although
even in this time we proclaim the Unity, we do so
silently . . But in the time that is to be, when
the Messiah will reign and sin be banished, then
shall that unity be proclaimed openly ....")-
perhaps as a result of that mystical absorption, the
Divine somehow comes down at some unremarked
moment into the simple ways of men and is found in
their midst, becomes familiar and comprehensible at
last. What wealth of Christward implication could
be found were the Zohar to be interpreted in the light
of Messianic fulfilment!
Said Rabbi Simeon: "It is written 'And she (the
Shulamite) said unto her husband: Behold now, I
know that this is an holy man of God which passeth
by us continually. Let us make him a little chamber
in the wall, and let us set before him a bed, and a
table, and a stool, and a candlestickk. 'Here,'
said the Rabbi, 'we have an allusion to the order of
prayer. 'Behold now I know' refers to the con-
centration of will during prayer: 'that he is an holy
man of God' refers to the supernal world where He
sits on the throne of His Glory and from whence
emanate and proceed all sanctifications and bless-
ings, which issue forth from the source of all bounty







DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT 55
and grace to enlighten, purify and sanctify all
worlds, both above and below, in the splendour of
His might and the tenderness of His merciful kind-
ness; passeth by us continually'-with all the
sanctifications with which the worlds above are
nourished He also sanctifies us here below, and of all
blessings that are above we also partake, for there
can be no completion of the sanctification above with-
out sanctification below; as it is written: 'I shall be
sanctified in the midst of the children of Israel.'
Therefore 'Let us make a little chamber': let us have
corporate worship and an ordered service, that we
may supply by our hymns of praise and our prayers
a pleroma of energies to the Shekinah (the Imman-
ental aspect of the Divine Personality) .-'A bed, a
table, a stool, a candlestick.' By our evening prayers
we provide Her-the Shekinah-with a bed; by our
hymns of praise and by reciting the 'sacrifice' in the
morning we provide her with a table; by the morn-
ing prayers which are said sitting, and by the pro-
clamation of the Divine Unity-the so-called Shema
-we provide Her with a stool; and by means of
those prayers (known as 'Amidah') which must be
said standing, and of the Kaddish and Kedusha
prayers and benedictions, we provide Her with a
candlestick. Blessed is the man who thus concen-
trates daily on giving hospitality to the Holy One!
Blessed is he in this world and blessed in the world
to come. For these four potencies equip the Shek-
inah with beauty, joy and colourfulness, that She
may greet Her Spouse with delight and ecstasy day
by day, through the worship of the Holy People ...
Therefore the Holy People must direct its mind to-
wards the supernal world, and prepare for the Lord
of the house a bed, a stool, and a candlestick, in
order that perfection and harmony may reign undis-
turbed every day, both above and below.
At the time when Israel is proclaiming the Divine







THE WAILING WALL


Unity with a perfect intention, a light comes forth
from the hidden supernal world, and divides into
seventy lights, and these seventy lights into seventy
rightful branches of the Tree of Life. Then the
Tree and all the other bright-leaved trees of the
Garden of Eden emit sweet smelling savours and
praise their Lord .... and all the supernal potencies
unite in one longing and one will to be concordant in
perfection, without any separation soever. Blessed
is the people which perceives these things, ordering
its prayers in accordance with this mystery of the
Faith!"
Blessed indeed; for Israel no longer perceives
them. Behind the involved and laboured imagery,
behind the tortuous thinking and the quaint exegesis,
one sees the reality of a passionate desire for God;
for the beatific vision, if you like.
On the other hand, a modern Rabbi" remarks in
the course of a sermon that "religion is but another
name for the highest expression of the best in human
life", and suggests that it is necessary "to adjust a
great conception to the modern standpoint"-the
great conception being that of praise as the due ser-
vice of Creation to the Creator, and the modern
standpoint being that of the present-day religiously
inclined Jew.
The sermon was intended to be a plea for a renew-
ed sense of worship: as a matter of fact it is or
becomes a piece of anti-separatist persuasion, setting
forth with both earnestness and passion the indubit-
able fact that "the separatism of the Jew was his
salvation in days gone by. It is to-day, and will be
increasingly in the future, the great menace to his
existence. The Judaism that retains it in its old
form has already seen the writing on the wall. Not
all the tears and the supplication of the people can
* The Rev. Vivian Simmonds, in a sermon at the West London syna-
gogue, reported in the Jewish Chrois U i 1932..







DIsaulmoN OR FuunLmum


wash away the prophecy of doom. In the days when
all loyalties were narrow, our forefathers knew of
little beyond them. Separation was a necessary evil,
yet the narrower loyalties, right or wrong, we
absolutely refuse to surrender. We, who see farther,
retain the narrower affections, but strive to enlarge
our horizons ever further and further".
These are interesting extracts and, in a sense,
good signs, in so far as the mental attitude of what-
ever section of thought the -speaker represented are
concerned; still more so are the passages in which
he speaks of "the inspired teachings of Jewish rabbi
and Christian saint", and asserts that "the true
spirit of Judaism is the true spirit of Christianity,
or of any other creed".
Remarkable as these phrases are, however, even
startling, since the preacher was not a Liberal Jew
-they disappoint on closer scrutiny. One feels
baffled and disappointed, as though one had looked
to find a thoroughfare and found instead a blind
alley ending in a stone wall. The Wall in a new
manifestation, yet still the same Wall.
For, what did the preacher want to say? He
wanted to speak about worship, but unfortunately
he could not do so. Why? Because before he ever
started, his notions of "worship" had become
inextricably mixed with his ideas about "religion",
and these are two concepts so illiminably distant
each from each that the very universe itself could
scarcely span the gap between.
"Religion" is a word so soiled and sullied by much
bandying from mouth to mouth and from pen to pen
-most tipped with venom or dipped in gall-that it
should certainly be discarded at last and banished
from the dictionary. Perhaps, indeed, it should
never have been invented; one may search the
Scriptures in vain for any mention of it (epr)o-,ce
means 'worship'). Its significance is of such a sort







THE WAILING WALL


that it can be made to mean anything from vague
world-betterment and good-fellowship to the partic-
ular sect of fanatics to which its user belongs.
Our Jewish preacher can certainly find no place
in the latter category, but he undoubtedly approaches
dangerously near to the former. His estimate of
man's idea of worship extends very little further
than the "formality of reciting words and songs of
praise", for which he appears to consider it necess-
ary to apologise, and the religion whose chief
function it would seem to be "to provide .... inspir-
ation and satisfaction for a community." He may
be right in this estimate of present-day Jewish spirit-
uality, but one cannot help feeling that he acquiesces
far too readily in such a shallow outlook and stan-
dard to be able in any way to rise above it. It is not
unlikely that this very standard and outlook may
have been fostered, if not actually bred, by the well-
meaning but unfortunate efforts of mild reformers
ever too ready to propitiate time-bound fallacies and
prejudices. Born of vanity, these prejudices only
bask in the sunshine of such tributes and wax large,
ultimately trampling on the nobler conceptions of
minds too moderate to enforce, even for themselves,
the sterner aspects of the outlook they advocate.
Our rabbi is no exception. He is most zealous in
intention, but begins too soon-at the very beginning
in fact-to be conciliatory. Says he: "God does not
need our praise .... is one way in which the modern
revolt against public worship, such as it is, is made
.... It is true that the old Jewish attitude" (how
coldly that phrase rings upon the ear, and how
world-far it makes the 'old-Jewish' past seem from
a present apparently so utterly divorced from it!)
"was that God did indeed demand our praise. Obvi-
ously such an idea was the natural conclusion to be
drawn from the necessary obedience to a Law held
to be divine in substance as well as in origin .....







DIsRuprIoN OR FuLFILmmN


To-day the religious mind still praises God. But if
and when he does so, it must be the response to an
impulse, not to a command."
Is there not something a trifle querulous and child-
ishly petulant in the sentiment and phraseology of
this passage, and particularly of the last sentence?
Is freedom of the kind apparently desired by the
modern Jew anything to do with true liberty, or with
true worship? Says the Zohar: "Freedom from the
angel of death, from subjection to the kingdoms of
this world, from all things earthly and from all
things evil .. . And what is freedom? It is the
seal wherewith the world to come is sealed: it is the
password into eternity; the key which unlocks the
heavenly gates, and the treasure which is found in
the inmost depths of- the King's treasure-chest; the
final and best reward of the righteous. And this
seal, this key, this password, this treasure was given
into the keeping of Israel, as a gift and as a charge;
so that she held in her hand the very source of all
aspects of freedom; for the law which was entrusted
to her contained the essence of perfect freedom, since
it is only in true obedience that true liberty can be
found. But when Israel sinned against the Lord and
caused the tablets to be broken, she sinned against
that freedom and broke in twain the seal which was
the seal of the holy mystery-; and the key was lost,
and the password forgotten. Ah, if only she had not
disobeyed and fallen away! All the doomful things
which afterward befell would then have been far
otherwise, and the Israelites would have been formed
in the likeness of the supernal angels above-lucent,
victorious, memorably bright; with the glory of the
City of God decking them in garments of splendour;
and the perfection of beauty shed about them as a
guardian; and the majesty of truth their banner; and
innocence their defence. Alas, for that they turned
away from the true path!"






THE WAILNG WALL


Alas, indeed! One is more and more inclined to
think that these words of "Rabbi Jebba the ancient"
enlighten many a dark place with a new and sad
radiance-the light Of the Divine compassion,
perhaps.
Once again we are brought up against the failure
of this people to respond to its destiny. It is not
prejudice that makes us return to this point, but the
evidence of facts. That evidence causes us to believe
that only in Christ the Fulfiller, will Jewry re-dis-
cover its religious genius.
Is it, then, possible for the essence or soul of Jewry
to be retained within a Christian framework? Per-
sonally, I have never had cause to feel ashamed of
my Judaism. On the contrary, every kind of influ-
ence around me has tended to make me proud of my
heritage. Yet I do not feel closer to the Jews whom
I meet than to the Gentiles. I feel, to be sure, that
I am far nearer to them than any Gentile could be;
but I also feel that I am in some strange way nearer
to most Gentiles than they are to each other. Is this
the Jewishness in me? I feel nearer to believing
Christians than I do to Jews: but then I feel nearer
to believing Jews than to Gentile pagans.
And when I think of Jewry as a mass-either as
a stubborn or as a promising entity-my heart beats
high with a feeling indefinable but quite distinct from
any other; and to Gentiles I will defend my race with
enthusiasm, even with heat.
This is more than many non-Christian Jews feel.
Far more. I am satisfied, then, that my Christianity
does not destroy my Jewishness.
And there is another country which I see afar off.
Because of that new Jerusalem I value my racial and
religious heritage as no non-Christian Jew can ever
do.







DISRUPTION OR FULFILMENT 61
Because of the higher loyalty, the lesser one is
quickened to a new undreamt of ardour, while the
embers of a Judaism untouched by Christ's flame die
slowly into ashes.
Why does Jewry refuse to be lit by that flame?
That is the question which we have to answer.
S S S S S







THE WAILNG WALL


Chapter IV.

PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION.

Few people realise today-no Gentile does-the
immense antipathy that the Jews have to the Christ-
ian doctrine of the Incarnation. Christians talk of
"converting the Jews"-little do they know of the
Jewish soul, with its irrational and almost ineradic-
able aversion and suspicion for what appears to be
completely alien. "Irrational". And "alien".
There you have the psychology of rejection in a nut-
shell. No historical survey of the Jewish attitude to
Christ from the beginning until now, can fail to
indicate ever afresh-in varying terms for each age,
it is true, but with the same accent of blind fear and
the same closing of the mind-that abiding irrational
terror and that continuing wall of partition which
set Christianity apart as something alien.
The shadow of the Cross overhangs all our con-
siderations of the Jewish problem. It is the fact of
that tremendous rejection which has brought the
religious vitality of Judaism to a dead end, has dried
up the springs of hope and expectation and left
nothing but the bare bones of legalism, the formal-
ities of empty observance and the unending quest for
a firm and valid basis for continued existence.
So we come at last to a consideration of what
Jesus of Nazareth came into the world to be to His
people, and what they have forced Him to become to
them. In order to evaluate correctly this signifi-







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


chance both historically and theologically, it is
imperative to any consideration of the Jewish
problem that a survey of the Old Testament concep-
tion of the Messiah and its record of spiritual dis-
covery and preparation, should be taken, in the light
of modern historical criticism. For the following
sketch I am indebted to a paper on "The Divine and
Human Factors in the Messianic Hope," read by my
father to a clerical society in 1933.

About the year 750 B.C., under the reign of
Jeroboam II, a warning voice was raised in the royal
sanctuary of Bethel by a prophet who perceived the
underlying rottenness of the spiritual and moral
condition of the nation. Into the soul of Amos fell
the dark shadow of the coming judgment:
Woe unto those who desire the day of the Lord!
To what end is to you the day of the Lord ?
It is darkness and not light.
To the prophet the "Day of the Lord" meant a day
when Yahweh would manifest Himself as King, as
Judge against sin, a day of doom, which should be
visited first upon Israel. To the people "the Day"
would be a time of light and bliss to Israel, and a day
of terrible disasters to the other nations. It must
have been the case in Israel as in the rest of the
ancient world that even in early days expectations
were current concerning a golden age. In fact, these
words of Amos show that there must have been a
fixed and developed eschatology among the people,
and from a considerable number of fragmentary
allusions in some of the earliest sources of the Old
Testament it is possible to reconstruct a fairly
detailed picture of this eschatology even in the pre-
monarchial period. Indeed, even the thought of a
coming Saviour, who should inaugurate the expected
time of bliss, must have already existed; for when
the prophets first began to speak of the holy remnant







THE WAILNG WALL


which should survive the periods of distress and of
the Saviour who should come, they assume, as we
shall see, that these ideas were already well known.
In the so-called oracles of Balaam we have a direct
proof for this expectation of a time of bliss and of a
ruler who would come to subdue all Israel's enemies
and give the people of Yahweh lasting victory. The
ruler is designated "the star of Jacob", i.e. he is of
heavenly origin.
During the wars with the Philistines the people
longed for a saviour. Saul was anointed king over
Israel. The institution of the monarchy was the
means by which the people's hope was kept alive,
but on the other hand, this expectation of a saviour,
far from being the result of the monarchy, as it is
usually assumed, was at first brushed aside by it and
allowed to lapse into apathy. This was effected in
a double sense:
(a) Now it was not any longer the future saviour
of whom it was expected that he would inaugurate
the era of bliss, but the empirical king. In hymns
and psalms the king was acclaimed as the expected
saviour and benefactor. This resulted in an extra-
ordinary tension. On the one hand the expectation
was kept alive among the people by hopes based on
the monarchy; a good part of the early conception
can be reconstructed by means of a perception of the
nature of those hopes. On the other hand, this trans-
ference contributed to a turning of the vision away
from the distant future upon the present, and the
nearest future. Besides, all those hymns became in
time mere ceremonial formulas, a form of court-
flattery doubtless acceptable to the ears of a king
even if obviously inapplicable.
(b) But also in another direction the nature of the
expectation must have resulted in a certain tension
The ancient hope knew nothing of a fixed place or
tribe whence the saviour would come; on the con-







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


trary, God could raise him from any of the tribes of
Israel, preferably from an obscure district. But now
the king took this expectation as his own prerogative,
thinking at the same time of his descendants. Thus,
that which was originally expected of a special era
could be spread over a greater and greater expanse
of time, the eternal reign of the great saviour could
become the unending chain of the descendants of the
dynasty. Eventually, however, the hope took on the
form that after a succession of natural rulers from
the house of David, the great Saviour would arise
at the end of time. This was the Messianic expect-
ation in the narrow sense.
The separation of the ten tribes from the Davidic
dynasty must at first have caused an almost annihil-
ating blow to the great expectations of a world ruler
and a time of bliss. How should such hopes be
realized when Israel itself, to whom all the nations
should be subjugated, was torn to pieces? It is,
therefore, no wonder that for about two centuries we
hear nothing of those expectations. And when in
spite of this the contemporaries of Amos in the year
750 B.C. dreamed of and longed for a time of bliss, it
proves how deeply this hope has entered into the
soul of the people.
What we know concerning this hope we know only
in the special form which the literary prophets
caused it to take, and that brought to it one totally
new feature. All of them, from Amos to Jeremiah,
were convinced, in face of the sin, the immorality and
the idolatry, as well as of the false cults of their
contemporaries, that it must first descend much
further down hill; that a terrible judgment will come
upon both Judah and Israel: "darkness is the day
of the Lord and not light". Thus not by way of the
natural development of the existing conditions, as
the people believed, will the era of salvation come,
but out of a catastrophe and the overthrow of all the







THE WAILING WALL


existing institutions, as the dawn after a dark night,
as a gift of Divine grace and Divine mercy. And at
the moment when this was proclaimed for the first
time, the expectation, especially that of a saviour,
became something quite different from what it was
before, something new, something that, in spite of
outward analogy, stood in direct contrast to the
whole former popular hope.
In the anxious time of the Syro:Ephraemitic war,
Isaiah appealed to king Ahaz to take heed and be
quiet, not to be afraid and faint-hearted, but trust
the Lord. As a proof that Yahweh can and will
help, the prophet invites the king to ask for a sign.
Ahaz declines. Then followed Isaiah vii, 13-17.
Was it meant to be a good sign or a bad sign ? His
hearers understood quite well what he meant by "the
virgin", by "Immanuel", by "milk and honey".
That, according to the whole context, the prophet
was implying a sign which would contain punish-
ment, is clear, also that he intended to proclaim
something wonderful, something parallel with his
first offer, a sign from "the depths" or from "the
height above". Thus it is not merely the promise of
a future time of bliss-the birth of a Messiah-nor
merely the announcement of impending punishment
to king and people. He wished to announce a sign
containing warning and punishment. Could he have
given anything more cutting than this turning of
what was expected as bliss into the opposite, just as
Amos did with the "day of the Lord"? King and
people expected a wonder child, born of a virgin, an
Emmanuel, i.e. a saviour full of power, who would
eat milk and honey, that is, paradise food, corres-
ponding to nectar and ambrosia, the food of the gods
among other nations, for instance, the Babylonians.
Vv. 14 and 15 can be conceived as a quotation from
the popular apocalyptic terminology. "Yes", the
prophet says, "this sign God will indeed show you,







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


and that right shortly, only it has a reverse side of
which you do not think: milk and honey is not only
the food of paradise--for a civilised people it also
signifies primitive conditions, when everything
becomes a wilderness, when the judgment comes".
Isaiah also expected the Divine hero: what is more,
he believed that he was coming soon; "but," he
implied, "just his youth"-with which, according
to the people's hope, the time of bliss and light
would commence-''will be the epoch for the break-
ing out of judgment and punishment over the
people".
In this episode with Ahaz we hear nothing yet of
hopes which the prophet connected with the coming
of this mysterious person: the king had to be
informed that because of his unbelief the judgment
would come upon him, upon his house, upon the
land. But what the prophet's own hopes were in
connection with Immanuel, we find in ix, 1-6:
The people that walked in darkness have seen
a great light.
They that dwell in the land of deep darkness,
upon them hath the light shined ....
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is
given ....
This hymn in praise of the expected Saviour is of
the greatest significance. We see here the contrast
between the prophetic conception of the coming
Messiah and that of the people. The foundations of
the Saviour's reign are justice and righteousness.
The basis of his kingdom is ethical. We hear nothing
more of wars which he leads in order to subdue
nations. Especially is it evident in xi, 1-10. -
The scheme is the old one, but how transformed!
The whole picture is put into a new sphere. The
return of Paradise has a moral and spiritual motive,
it comes because under the sceptre of this Saviour
there is no wickedness more, but the knowledge and







THE WAIUNG WALL


fear of God: "They shall not hurt nor destroy in all
my holy mountain, for the earth shall be full of the
knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea."
Similarly with Isaiah's contemporary, Micah.
He accepts the hope of his people. The Saviour will
come. But first comes the judgment; cf. Micah v.
Jeremiah, the last prophet before the exile and the
fall of the Davidic dynasty, went a step farther in
this transformation of the old Israelitish expect-
ation. He proclaims to the "shepherds" of the
people, that is, primarily to the princes of David's
house, ruin and decay, xxii, 1-30; cf. xxiii. But
also for him it is not the absolute end; on the
contrary:
Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I
will raise to David a righteous branch.
He will rule as a king and shall prosper,
And shall execute judgment and justice in the
earth.
In his days Judah shall be saved
And Israel dwell safely.
And that is the name whereby he shall be called:
"Yahweh our righteousness". (xxiii, 5, 6).
In one sense we have here a retrogression from the
expectation of Isaiah and Micah. We hear nothing
of the relationship of the future ruler to the nations;
the expectation, as the breaking down of the state
stood immediately before the door, became more
moderate, more narrowly defined. But from the
religious point of view the above oracle of Jeremiah
forms, therefore, the culminating point of the pre-
-exilic Messianic hope. Here we find no vestige of a
thought of wars and military victories; all ideas of
political power and expansion have disappeared;
only the righteous reign of the King is emphasised.
Of course, it is also found, as we have seen, in Isaiah
xi, but what is new in this saying of Jeremiah is the







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


thought that during the reign of the Davidic branch
it is Yahweh Himself who will be all in all. Not only
that God will be the cause of safety, but-for the
name "Yahweh our righteousness" opens up a new
perspective-that in this name and through this
name Yahweh grants His righteousness, His salva-
tion, to every member of the people, which becomes
a people of Zedekaiahs.
Indeed the name was formed in conscious contrast
to the then living king Zedekiah, whose name means
"Yahweh is my righteousness". The deep contrast
between the empiric kingdom and the future one is
herewith expressed; now there is one at the head of
the nation who claims for himself the righteousness
of Yahweh, but under the king of the future Israel
will become a people of Zedekiahs, a redeemed com-
munity. It is the first time that an interest in the
individual members of the people has become an
essential part in the Messianic expectation. Thus in
this oracle an almost New Testament height has been
reached: the former warlike saviour has become the
spiritual Redeemer of his people. It is not surpris-
ing that we find this prophecy uttered by the prophet
who also proclaims the new covenant, cf. Jer. xxxi,
31-34.
We have seen how the ancient expectation was
transformed by the pre-exilic prophets into some-
thing quite new. The expectation of a glorious future
which will finally appear in the course of the historic
development like a natural process, has become the
hope of a gift of grace which God will freely give to
the saved ones after the night of judgment for the sin
of the people; the war hero becomes a King of peace,
the mythical person of inconquerable strength-a
miraculously righteous, mild and wise Ruler; and
once, quite at the end, sounds already, although as
if from a far distance, the faint first note heralding
one who should be a Redeemer of the individual







THE WAILING WALL


members of the people from their moral and spirit-
ual need.
What Judah's prophets have foretold during more
than a century has by this time come into being.
The world power of the East crushed down the small
Davidic kingdom. The Judean king Jehoiakim
refused to pay tribute to Babylon. Then came the
hosts of the devastator into the land and enclosed
the city whence the Davidic branch was to rule over
the ends of the earth. Gone was the glory. In order
not to let it come to the worst, so that the dwelling-
place of the living God should not be destroyed, the
eighteen year old Jehoiachin, who had in the mean-
time become king, and who without any guilt of his
own, entered into the heritage of ruin, did a noble
act: he delivered himself to the enemy, and thus
saved for the time being the city and the country.
The Babylonians withdrew and dragged with
them to the Euphrates the king, together with his
nobles and best warriors. Judah has now already
become a Babylonian province, the new King
Zedekiah of David's house is a prince only by the
grace of Babylon. When the latter, after a reign of
ten years, showed signs of independence, an end was
made to his illusionary reign. After a two years'
siege his city fell; he himself was blinded, then also
deported in chains, and with him this time larger
consignments of the people; the "eternal" walls of
the city were razed, the house of Yahweh, unto
which the peoples of the earth would in latter days
come on pilgrimage (Isa. ii), went up in flames.
The effect of all this on Judah's religious thought,
feeling and hopes, is not easy to exaggerate. It must
have called forth an inner revolution in all concep-
tions. But if ever in the history of Israel the hand of
the living God can be discerned, it is here. Out of
the wreckage of the past faith and hope a new thing
emerged, which could and should convey, not only







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


to that small people, but to all humanity, a new
vitality.
This is true also in a special sense of the
Messianic hope. The reason why it did not then
break down entirely must remain an unsolvable
riddle to one who ignores the operation of the Holy
Spirit upon the minds of the prophets: he must be
content to forego an understanding of the inmost
essence of the religion of Israel. Those who were
extolled as the "'life breath of the people", as "rulers
for ever and ever", languished in chains and bonds.
And yet the expectation of a saviour was not
shattered; on the contrary, it rose anew, like the
phoenix, from the ashes of dead hopes.
Ezekiel, who experienced both national catas-
trophes, never doubted that this was not the end.
He was firm in his belief that the fallen kingdom
would be followed by a new and a better one. As
long as Zedekiah still sat on the throne, the
prophet's expectation was expressed and made
pointed through constant contrasting of the future
ruler with the present one. Cf. Ezek. xvii, 22-24.
In the picturesquely parabolic style it is here pro-
claimed that the dethroned Zedekiah will be fol-
lowed by another Ruler, one blessed by God, whose
sphere will extend over the world. But he will
emerge from small beginnings and altogether by the
grace of God. Evidently the catastrophe of the year
596 has pushed the expectation even farther along
the road on which it had moved already in Isaiah
xi, 1, Micah v, 1, Jeremiah xxiii, 5, and had become
an even stronger contrast to the empiric represent-
atives of the kingdom. The same implication is also
contained in the terrible threat which the prophet
slings against Zedekiah in xxi, 32:
I will overturn, overturn, overturn it,
: And it shall be no more, until he come
Whose right it is and to whom I shall give it.







THE WAILING WALL


Zedekiah, illegitimately appointed king by Baby-
lon, is here contrasted with the legitimate Prince of
the future.
But, when what Ezekiel perceived has become a
reality, after an end has been made of the last rem-
nant of the Jewish kingdom, Jerusalem destroyed
and Zedekiah deported, then even the hard preacher
of judgment begins to comfort; then he stands up
boldly, his message is yet more clear: there is yet a
time of salvation for the people of Yahweh, and a
Saviour:
I will set up one shepherd over them, he shall
feed them,
My servant David, he shall feed them, he shall
be their shepherd.
The announcement of the covenant of salvation, of
the destruction of the wild beasts, of showers of
blessing and peace, follows this. The legitimate
representative of the Davidic dynasty is a prisoner
in Babylon, and yet such an expectation! Evidently
Ezekiel expected the arrival of the time of the "end"
immediately after the return of the exiles.
In the second book of Kings we read the following:
And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year
of the captivity of Jehoiachin, king of Judah ....
that Evilmerodach, king of Babylon, in the year
that he began to reign, did lift up the head of
Jehoiachin, king of Judah, out of prison, and h1
spake kindly to him, and set his throne above the
throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon
(2 Kings xxv, 27-end).
The man who derived from this event quite x new
expectation is the so-called "Deutero-Isaiah", the
prophet of hope, to whom we owe Isaiah xl-lv. This
is not perceptible at a first glance. We possess of
this man a work which he published only between
540-538 B.C., during the advance of the hosts of
Cyrus against Babylon. In this book he sought to






PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


inspire his contemporaries with the confident hope
that the hour of deliverance was approaching, that
Israel was the chosen servant of Yahweh, destined
to proclaim His glory before the whole world,
through the glory which the people should now
experience. But in thus endeavouring to bring home
to the mind of the people what bliss and wonderful
blessings they were about to experience, he quoted
to them some songs which he must have composed
before on another occasion, and which could not
originally and literally have been intended to be
applied to the people; namely, the "Servant sons",
xlii, 1-7; xlix, 1-9a; 1, 4-9; lii, 13-liii, 12. his
prophet had emphasised again and again that Israel
is a sinful, stubborn people, deserving of all that has
come upon them; thus it is quite out of the question
that he could originally have written of the people
such a poem as the last one, in which it says of the
servant of the Lord that "he was oppressed and he
was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth .... he
hath done no violence, neither was any deceit in his
mouth". This "servant" is also quite definitely
differentiated from the people in vv. 2-6, and xlii, 7;
xlix, 5; where it states clearly that the "servant"
will bring out the captives from exile. Therefore we
must assume that the songs must in the present con-
text have been transferred to the people. Such
transference of earlier material to later events we
find again and again, in the psalms, for instance.
Originally these songs dealt with quite a different
kind of "servant of the Lord" namely the great and
wonderful Saviour, who will bring about the era of
salvation after the time of the tribulation of the
exile.
The song which comes first in the present book
describes the servant as one who will bring forth
"judgment unto truth" to the nations, for whose
teaching "the isles wait", as the mediator of a new







THE WAILING WALL


covenant for Israel. The weapons of his reign and
the instruments of his power are the spirit of the
Lord.
The same sentiment is expressed in the second
song, xlix, 1-6, 8, 9a. Here the servant complains
that he has labouredd in vain and spent his strength
for nought", but comforts himself that his "judg-
ment is with the Lord and his work with his God".
The meaning of this becomes somewhat clearer in
the third song, 1, 4-9. And when we come to the
last and greatest of these "servant" songs, lii, 13-
liii, 12, we realise still more clearly the new note in
the Messianic expectation. "Of whom speaketh the
prophet this? Of himself, or of some other man?"
The answer given by St. Philip to the chamberlain
of Ethiopia (Acts viii, 35) is still the answer of the
Church to the Synagogue. But the objective reality
of a revelation is not impaired by the fact that the
revealing operations of the Holy Spirit proceed
always within the laws of man's spiritual life;
neither is it impaired by a candid acknowledgment
of the conditioning and determining influence exer-
cised upon the prophet's revealed message by the
prior elements of his consciousness. Now a con-
siderable portion of this song evidently deals with
what has taken place in the past, to a person known
both to the prophet and to his contemporaries.
In his book "Israel's Religion and Destiny", first
published in 1905, my father suggests that the
"servant" songs originally referred to Jehoiachin.
Here was a man who suffered much and of whom it
could yet be expected that he would lead out the
people from the exile and inaugurate a new era. In
his sufferings and death would, in the poetic style of
the ancient East, be reflected the dethronement,
imprisoning and captivity of this King, who volun-
tarily delivered himself to the king of Babylon for
the sake of his people. Imprisonment and death are,







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


in the language of the ancient East, identical. And
this king, after being in prison for 36 years, where
he did not find his "judgment"-his right-was
freed and again recognized as a prince by the king
of Babylon. Should not this wonderful event have
been a cause for the Messianic expectation to have
been awakened again ?
This interpretation, also held by Professor Ernst
Sellin in his important book "Die israelitisch-
jiidische Heilandserwartung", 1909, can still be
considered the most satisfactory. As Sellin says, the
Jewish poets at court had a peculiar style of their
own. Hopes and expectations in connection with
the Messianic Age which they carry in their hearts,
suddenly burst forth at special historical events, in
connection with a definite historical personality, to
which they transfer the hopes of the future, some-
what transforming them according to the concrete
conditions of the time. But the orientation of their
expectations is in quite a different dimension from
any that the life and fate of an historic king can
offer, and so the contemporary framework is
stretched, and what they say of the empiric king
becomes at the same time a prophecy of the future,
a prophecy in regard to a quite new era, in which
the transcendent majesty and glory of the Lord will
be miraculously manifested. Here the prophet sings
of what has happened to Jehoiachin and the still
more glorious things that will happen to him, and
yet he does not in fact sing of him, but of an infin-
itely greater than he, of something utterly trans-
cending the form of Jehoiachin's experience, of
something which belongs not only to the history of
Israel, but to humanity as a whole, of something
that will and must come, no matter whether
Jehoiachin will succeed in realising it or not, of the
time of salvation for Israel and humanity, which will
be built on the voluntary suffering and dying of the







THE WAILING WALL


God-sent Saviour. Ultimately it is not a question
of Deutero-Isaiah's political calculations, nor of his
religious consideration; in connection with a won-
derful historical event, of which he became a witness,
a higher power laid hold of him and lifted him above
this event, and from the pinnacles of a higher watch-
tower caused him to see the way by which alone the
true Kingdom of God could come to all the nations
of the earth, through the suffering and voluntary
sacrifice of a righteous servant of the Lord.
Although not in such glorious forms as it was
expected by Deutero-Isaiah, the restoration of the
Jewish people in its own land did become a fact.
Thanks to the edict of Cyrus in the year 537 B.C.,
the foundation of the Temple could be laid and the
people could settle in Jerusalem, which, however,
was only a Persian province. A new governor was
appointed in the year 521 over this province, a
prince of the Davidic dynasty, and a grandson of
that Jehoiachin of whom so much was expected,
namely the young Zerubbabel who was born and
brought up in Babylon. And about the same time a
revolt broke out in the whole of the Persian Empire
against Darius.
So far the longingly-expected Messianic era had
not come; should not this crisis among the nations
of the world be the first sign of its coming? What
if this Zerubbabel be the hoped-for saviour of his
people, the inaugurator of the blessed latter days
Now finally the dream of the fathers would become
a reality.
Two prophets, contemporaries of Zerubbabel,
gave to this expectation a definite expression:
Haggai and Zechariah (cf. Haggai ii, 6-9, 21, 23;
Zech. iii, 8-10, vi. 12f).
What effect this had on Zerubbabel himself and on
the people, we do not know with certainty. But one
thing is absolutely certain: the high hopes were







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


followed by bitter disappointment and the Messianic
expectation in Judah was quenched for centuries.
The hope for a saviour from David's house was
dead. The people had become accustomed to the
idea of a small community under a spiritual head,
under a foreign governor, under a Law (Priestly
Code) which neither knew nor wished to know any-
thing of a prince of Judah.
However, the Jewish community could not re-
nounce the hope of the future; the hope only took on
another form.
The expectation of a saviour from the house of
David had almost vanished from the people's con-
sciousness, but another branch of the apocalyptic
tree blossomed now with greater vigour, namely the
hope of the coming of God Himself to His people.
It was an ancient expectation, which had run
parallel through the centuries with the expectation
of a mediating saviour, but overshadowed until now
by the latter. This aspect is connected with the
"Day of Yahweh". He who since Sinai has be-
come the King of His people, will manifest Himself
again, in order to hold judgment over all the powers
that are inimical to Him. Yahweh, the God of
Israel, is the only true God; to Him alone, therefore,
must every knee bow and every tongue swear. As
Creator of heaven and earth, IsraePs King is also
King and Lord over the whole earth, the King of all
kings and the Lord of all lords; therefore all peoples
must serve Him and obey His command. In pre-
exilic times this expectation had been pushed into
the background, since the hope had then been
centred in the coming of the wonderful human
saviour. But after the disappointment with
Zerubbabel this line of thought came to the fore and
remained predominant for a long time, and this hope
is pictured in glowing colours in the so-called "Trito-
Isaiah" (Isa. Ivi-lxvi), probably belonging to this







THE WAILING WALL


period, as well as in the apocalyptic chapters, Isa.
xxiv-xxvii, Joel iii and iv. Even in Malachi iii, 1, it
is the coming of Yahweh Himself that is the centre
of the prophecy. In Psalms xcii-xcix, the theme of
which is: "Yahweh is King", the whole creation is
called to join in the Hallelujah: "He cometh. He
cometh to judge the world". These and other psalms,
probably belonging to a time between the fall of
Zerubbabel and the Maccabean period, are now
considered by some scholars to have had a liturgical
origin in connection with the New Year's Day cele-
brations of Yahweh's enthronement as King.
This was the expectation with which the Jewish
community comforted itself for the actualities of life:
for the poverty and insignificance, the contempt, the
loss of all political independence, the apparent
futility and blotting out of all the prophetic lightful
pictures concerning the great Kingdom of the
saviour of David's house, for all the ignominy which
they experienced in the Persian and Greek periods.
Israel's God is the God of the whole world, and from
this the community derived the faith: the Kingdom
must be His.
In the days of the Maccabean revolt the expecta-
tion of a Messiah was again intense, but the heavenly
"son of man" of the latter Apocalyptic is an angelic
being and has no this-worldly traits whatever; he
comes entirely from the transcendental sphere. The
hope of an immediate redemption became a ray of
light in the dark period, when every possibility of an
historic realisation of the older expectation of a
dynastic saviour seemed to be out of the question,
and when natural aids seemed to have utterly failed.
A change began at the moment when the Macca-
beans succeeded in throwing off the Syrian yoke, and
particularly when Simon established an independent
ewish state. Then the people began again to look
at the present with' different eyes and it actually







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


appeared as not impossible that out of the Jewish
people a ruler would arise, one in whom would be
realized what the prophets have predicted.
When, however, it became evident that the
Maccabean family, tending more and more to world-
liness, had disappointed all hopes, and when, in the
last pre-Christian century, the struggle of the
Pharisees against the dynasty began, and when the
Romans under Pompey began to enter oppressively
into Judah's history, the pious remembered that
God chose David and not another one to rule over
His people. In contrast to the Hasmonean princes,
"the sinners", a Pharisaic poet sketched a picture
of the true Messiah (Psalms of Solomon, xvi) :
A righteous King and taught of God is he that reign-
eth over them,
There shall be no iniquity in his days in their midst,
For all shall be holy, and their King is the Lord's
Messiah.
He shall not put his trust in horse and rider and bow.
Nor shall be multiply unto himself gold and silver for
war.
Nor by the glitter of armour shall he gather confi-
dence for the day of battle,
The Lord Himself is his king and the hope of him
that is strong in the hope of God.
And he shall have mercy upon all the nations that
come before him in fear,
For he shall strike the earth with the work of his
mouth even for evermore.
He shall bless the people of the Lord with wisdom
and gladness.
He himself also is pure from sin, in order that he
may rule a mighty people
And rebuke princes and overthrow sinners by the
might of his word.
And he shall not faint all his days, because he lean-
eth upon his God,







THE WAILING WALL


For God shall cause him to be mighty through the
spirit of holiness
And wise through the counsel of understanding with
might and righteousness.
And the blessing of the Lord is with him in might,
and his hope in the Lord shall not faint.
And who can stand up against him? He is mighty
in his works and strong in the fear of the Lord.
Tending the flock of the Lord with faith and right-
eousness, He shall suffer none among them to
faint in their pasture.
Half a century later and we find ourselves in the
Augustan period. The whole ancient world is filled
with the expectation of a saviour. The old oriental
hope has encroached by various channels upon the
boundaries of the West. In Rome, a few decades
before, Virgil prophesied in his fourth Eclogue of
the birth of a wonderful child who should inaugurate
a new era of peace and happiness. These ideas are
derived partly from Greek representations of the
Golden Age, and partly, it would seem, from the
later Sybilline prophecies, tinged with oriental
ideas.
And the Divus Augustus permits himself to be
everywhere acclaimed as the saviour, who "will
make an end to all war and fashion everything
gloriously" (inscription of Priene, cf. Horace,
Carmina i, ii, 30f). In Egypt "the greatest King-
dom of the immortal King, the Holy Ruler, whose
sceptre will dominate the whole earth in all the
eternities of passing time" is expected (Sibyll iii,
47, 48). In the sphere of Parsism the Saoshyant is
expected, born of a virgin, and able to free the world
from death. And wherever the cult of Mithra
enters, the "mediator" between God and man is
celebrated, who, being a god, is born into this world,
bringing light and redemption.







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


And in Palestine? There can be no doubt that
the Messianic hope which we find expressed in the
Psalter of Solomon (between 80 and 40 B.C.), was
also the expectation of the masses of the people in
the Augustan period. The hope for the coming
"Son of David" echoes forth from the Gospels. The
time was fulfilled, the earth ripe for the harvest.
And behold! In the district of Caesarea Philippi,
in the extreme north of Palestine, stands a Man of
the people. He had gathered round Him a few
fishermen, "publicans and sinners", with whom He
passed from place to place, healing the sick, drying
the tears of the mournful, proclaiming the word of
God, words which captured and enthralled the
masses like a power from another world. And now
He asks His disciples: "What do ye say that I am?"
And when Peter replied: "Thou art the Messiah,
the Son of the living God", Jesus designated this
confession as a revelation of His heavenly Father,
Who caused Peter to recognize the reality behind the
appearance, the eternal behind the visible. And in
this moment our Lord Himself solemnly accepted this
confession: "Yes, indeed, I am the One for Whom
my people waited and longed through the centur-
ies".
But did we not hear that already the ancient kings
in Israel, and Zerubbabel, and perhaps also the
Maccabean princes, were similarly exalted, not to
speak of the fact that also in Babylon, Egypt, and
Rome, the rulers allowed themselves to be acclaimed
after a like fashion, And did not soon after the
appearance of our Lord a certain Theudas "the
Egyptian" and others claim Messiahship? What
proof have we that He alone was the One in whom
the millenium-old expectation received its "yea and
amen" ? The many striking harmonies in His whole
manner of life with the individual features in the
picture of the Old Testament saviour? His birth







THE WAILING WALL


from a Virgin in Bethlehem? His healing and
miraculous activity? His royal entry into Jerus-
alem? His suffering and death? All this can,
perhaps, only confirm, but it cannot prove, for it
might have been partly a touching up, by enthus-
iastic disciples, of His image with ancient and
appealing colours and partly an adaptation by Him-
self of that ancient portraiture.
The one convincing and irrefutable proof is that
of the spirit and of the power. What the natural
expectations of the time were aiming at, we gather
from the Gospels. We see it also in the Psalter of
Solomon as well as in the Baruch Apocalypse and
4th Esrah, written several decades after the coming
of our Lord. According to these writings, the
Messiah himself will kill the last regent of the world-
kingdom, and all enemies of Judah will be destroyed.
Even Philo, the moralist and mystic, had no higher
conception of the Messiah than this. And we know
that even the minds of the disciples were tinged with
such ideas. The Messianic expectation was a great
but also a fatal heritage which the Jewish people
carried on from generation to generation, a heritage
for which it finally bled to death; for the aim of this
expectation was and remained, in spite of all ethical
and religious embellishments, the restoration of the
earthly Davidic throne.
But that He, the One and only One, in spite of all
the temptations, accepted, out of all the varigated
forms which the Messianic expectations of His
people had taken down the ages, only the eternal,
prevailing against all earthly, particularistic con-
ceptions, and yet standing at the same time firmly
on the earth, not losing Himself in apocalyptic
speculations-this proves to us that He was indeed
sent and anointed by the same living God, whose
Spirit awakened in the course of centuries the ardent
and wistful expectation in the hearts of inspired







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


prophets and singers. In this expectation there had
been progress but also regress, and yet in spite of all
temporary failures of understanding, or comprom-
ises with time, it was all along guided pedagogically
and directed towards one definite aim. All those
prophets and poets painted the portrait of the
Saviour with the colours of their time. Certain as
it is that they were far in advance of their people
in regard to the Messianic hope, yet not one of them
could free himself entirely from the bond of the con-
ceptions and images of his time; the epochs which
followed one another painted the Expected One in
turn as a war hero, a wonder-man, a Paradise-
bringer, a son of God, a king of righteousness, a
prince of peace, the Branch of David, the light and
bliss-bringer, the propitiating Servant of the Lord,
the coming God, the heavenly Son of Man. These
various views all aimed at one thing: salvation,
redemption. Yet they overlapped and fused in
various combinations, partly contradicting one
another: at one period one type predominated, at
another, another. In the latest apocalypses some are
artificially added, others, especially that of the
suffering Servant of the Lord, have never been fully
understood after Deutero-Isaiah.
And now suddenly one Person digs, through all
this rubble of time-bound fumbling with which the
Messianic expectation had been so long covered up,
straight down to the clear brooks of life, which here-
tofore had bubbled up only here and there among the
people, and directs all the branching streams into
one channel; and suddenly a miracle is accom-
plished before our eyes: the various threads of
expectation and defeat and hope and blindness and
despair join together and are blended into the
single strand of longing, which has animated all
those so varied manifestations, and that longing
becomes fulfilled at last in one historical personality:







THE WAILING WALL


of flesh and blood, and yet heavenly Man; a branch
of the house of David, and yet God; a Wonder-Child
from Bethlehem and Deliverer from natural suffer-
ing, but at the same time Redeemer from all sin.
Yes, in spite of, and through, the centuries of mis-
understanding, He forms a direct contact with all
the best and deepest, with the eternal verity in the
words of the Prophets of His people, and finds His
work as Saviour in saving those that are lost, in
healing and comforting, in doing good and bringing
sinners to repentance, in forgiving sin and in doing
acts of love to the despised and rejected, and finally
in giving Himself as a ransom for many.
Therefore the living God has acknowledged Him
as the Saviour sent by Him: "Why seek ye the living
One among the dead? He is not here, He is risen'.
And this tiding flashed like a lightning through the
whole world, which was now ready for its accept-
ance; the Saviour is here, He lives: He was
crucified, but He rules as King. In that wonderful
fulfilment of the Israelitish-Jewish Messianic Hope,
in which the last specifically Jewish features were
obliterated, the longing of the whole ancient human-
ity, their cry after a redeemer-god, also came into
its fulfilment in the Kingdom of the new King, in
the Kingdom of peace and righteousness, of love and
holiness, and its limits are now no longer the frontiers
of one country but the ends of the earth alone, and
even they fail to ensnare within the boundaries of
time and space the eternal boundless Present of the
Incarnate Glory.
But He came unto His own and His own received
Him not. Christ pleased nobody, neither the
zealots who wanted a political agitator, a sort of
super-Nazi with a strong army, nor the legalists who
haggled over the minutiae of outer observance and
rejoiced in their superiority, nor the placid tradition-
alists, nor the politicians, nor the greedy, nor the







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


temporal powers. He did not come with the pomp
expected of a Messiah. His demands were uncom-
promising, His way difficult; He offended the rich
by fraternising with the poor and the respectable by
paying attention to the needs of sinners. He
irritated the worldly-minded by basing everything
on a spiritual reality, strong as a rock and lasting as
eternity. He was and is incomprehensible to all who
prefer dreams to reality, and utopias to the King-
dom of God; pietists and pie-in-the-sky-ists have no
part in Him, while those who whittle Him away and
make of Him merely a great teacher, a prophet, a
visionary, a reformer, and so try to dispose of Him
and create some comforting dope for the solace of a
benighted humanity-such never draw near to Him
as He stands before us in His exalted, though hidden
glory: the Word made flesh. He is known to us in
the cradle of His Divine humility, or in the bitter
triumph of the Cross, or in the Breaking of Bread-
but always and only as the concentration of the
eternal in the temporal, of the Divine in the human.
It is this Christ who was a 'disruptive' influence
on the Jewry of His day-the future of the faith
would be endangered by any slackening of rigidity;
the future of the people would be endangered by any
slackening of exclusiveness. And above all they
rejected Him-as we would have done, as we do
every day-because surrender was so hard, because
love involves pain and courage demands suffering
and possessiveness is hard to slough off.
So between them all they got Him out of the way.
But they had performed the fatal and tragic act of
doing away with their own Messiah. And neither
He nor that act were really got out of the way.
Jewry has had to reckon with both ever since.
With the dispersion the struggle for preservation
as a racial entity began. It was a fierce battle
against persecution from without: not yet against







THE WAIUNG WALL


disruptive influences from within, though the seeds
of such disruption had already been sown. Paradox-
ically enough, it is Jesus who stands as the disruptive
influence which led to the once unimagined situation
of a Jewry unanchored, as it were, to religious
reality, and caught in the net of racial complica-
tions. That this position has been reached through
the rejection of the Christ, we have already seen.
We know also that a Jewry with its back to the wall,
a race of refugees, hampered and enclosed on every
side, persecuted, reviled and discriminated against,
did not always develop the best characteristics of the
"People of God".
A Christian Jew has written:
"When we look more closely into this tragic fate
of Judaism we realise that after the loss of the
national state-existence, and after the conversion of
the pagan peoples to Christianity, which soon be-
came an almost entire merging of Christianity with
the state-power and the worldly powers of former
paganism, the Jews could only preserve their
national individuality by means of a rigid religious
conservatism .... The Jewish people in the course
of the whole Christian era had set before it the awful
alternative (a truly religious antinomy) : to either
give up its individuality and so to prepare a final
end for the chosen people of Israel, in opposition to
the prophetic promise, or to deny the Messiah and
the greatest revelation of God proclaimed by Him.
The positive solution of this antimony is made
impossible through one final circumstance: namely,
that when the Christian Church became a world
power and when on the other hand the Jewish people
was being persecuted for its faith, every conversion
of a Jew to Christianity had the appearance of a
treasonable act against the people and its religion-
an act for the sake of worldly advantage. To perse-
vere in spite of sufferings and retain loyalty to the







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


people is considered the highest ethico-religious
virtue, and every sincere Jew, even if personally
without any religion, is moved by this feeling. Thus
no treason could be more flagrant than an apparent
denial of this standard .... This religious tragedy
of Judaism is thus closely connected with the tragedy
of historical Christianity. Although, historically
considered, the secular power exercised by the
Churchwas necessary for a certain period, since it
helped the Church to spread the Gospel and to
Christianise the life and customs of the nations, yet
it is beyond doubt that this dominant position
brought with it that great danger to the inner being
of Christianity which is the reverse side of the medal
in every case of dubious advantage gained through
a certain amount of compromise with the world out-
side and its secular powers. Christendom is also to
a great extent responsible for the continuance of the
Jews in their attitude to the Church of Christ."*
How true that is! It is a fact borne out by all the
subsequent events and by all the other reasons for
the Jewish rejection of Christ which we are to touch
on here.
Christianity as something alien, then as something
antagonistic; Gentile imagery, infinitely distant from
Jewish comprehension; concepts of eternal worth
and cosmic import expressed in Hellenistic terms;
an apparent contradiction to the whole basis of
Judaism-its monotheism; and, above all, a passion-
ate defensiveness against, and a great fear of a force
more vital than the thing to be defended.
Then came the false messiahs to ravage the Jewish
community with hope and leave the bitter taste of
disappointment and growing cynicism in the mouth:
Bar-Kochba, Moses of Crete, David Alrui, Abraham
Abulafia, Alkorzano, and Sabbatai Zevi. Many a


* "Bine Heilige Kirche," ed. by F. Heiler, July, 1934.







THE WAILING WALL


strange tale could be told of their exploits, tragic
and comic.
The Ghetto enclosed the inner as well as the outer
life of Jewry so thoroughly that Jesus found no way
free for entrance.
His very name was anathema, His "cult"--an
unknown horror as an actual religious factor; only
as a social entity was it known, and as such Jewry
saw it in no very favourable light.
When Jewry emerged into the world arena, how-
ever, matters did not improve. The age which
released them could not from any point of view be
considered as pre-eminently an age of faith. Young
Jewry was only too eager to discard gradually all
that was embarrassingly distinctive about itself, and
so the remains of religious vitality faded away,
leaving nothing in their place.
Christ was as far away as ever, and still is.
The Jews distrust believers in Christ, because, as
Christianity spread and became gentilised, the
Christians persecuted the Jews in His name. They
think of Christianity as an alien religion which has
nothing to do with them. They distrust us because
they know that up till now all the Jews who have
become Christians have ceased to be Jews, and they
not unnaturally conclude that if all Jews were to
become Christians the Jewish people would cease to
exist.
That is the crux of the matter. The psychology of
continued rejection has its roots in the "You were a
Jew-now you are changed" complex. 'One may be
an agnostic and a Jew, even an atheist and a Jew-
but, with supreme illogicality, one may not, cannot,
be a Christian and a Jew. Even a Jew who con-
ceives of Judaism purely in terms of race would deny
membership of that race to a Christian Jew. It is
a mad, but an undeniable, fact. Only under the







PSYCHOLOGY OF REJECTION


pressure of racial persecution, does this attitude
break down.
Obviously, then, the reason for this strange aber-
ration is that to a Jew Christianity seems a force
which irrevocably sweeps the Jew out of his environ-
ment into one utterly alien to him. And is not this
actually so, in the majority of cases?
Again, many Jews have nominally attached them-
selves to some form of Christianity for social or
political reasons. The result of this deplorable
circumstance is a profound contempt on the part of
the Jews for the "converted" Jew, and for the "con-
versionist" organizations which "trap" or "bribe"
him into baptism.
Finally, the tenor of modern life does not make
for a deepening desire on the part of Jews for a re-
newal of spiritual life. That life has to break through
the wall of self-interest, vulgarism, spiritual dry-
ness; as well as through the mass of accumulated
ignorance about Christ and His Gospel.
The position is well summed up in a phrase and a
laugh. I said to a non-religious Jewish singer-
"My father is a Jew who became a Christian". He
stared, laughed, and said: "He must be a clever
man."
How can that laugh be silenced, that sneer done
away with?
Wasserman says: "Their undying hatred had to
turn against Christianity, for toward Christianity
their feeling was that of a mother whose womb has
given birth to a traitor-the betrayer of their
people, of mankind, of God. What could ever equal
such hatred? What could ever mitigate it?"
Only Christ's patient and passionate love for His
stricken and desolate people.
How can they be turned from that hate to a
sudden beholding of His outstretched arms?







THE WAILING WALL


Chapter V.

THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY.

"To be proclaimed inferior as an individual is far
more easily borne than disparagement of one's race;
suspicion of one's character is far more endurable
than suspicion of one's birth. One can defend one-
self against aspersions on one's character by refuting
the error; or at least by imagining one is refuting it.
Against libels of the race, however, all arguments
and proofs are ineffectual, and the inmost and most
carefully guarded mirror of the consciousness grows
dim andtarnished .... Nothing is more deleterious
to probity and freedom of action than the combina-
tion of innate pride with the dread of humiliation."
Thus Wasserman in his psychological study of the
Jewish problem. This says all that is necessary in
the way of generalisations about the "superior-
inferior" business.
How well I remember a Summer School which
met to discuss the race problem, and at which one
of the speakers continually emphasised "Not super-
ior, not inferior-just different!" The phrase
became a sort of catchword with us, till at last we
shrieked with laughter if anyone so much as framed
the word "superior". Little did we realise how the
iron of inferiority-mass inferiority-has entered
into the soul of several unfortunate peoples in the
world to-day. At least, how little did we compre-
hend what such a position means. We realized that







THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY


it existed. We were sorry, even grieved; but we
ourselves were lucky superior people, and so could
not really understand.
Even I myself could not fully know, since no one
has yet bothered to impress me with a sense of my
racial inferiority. The reason for this is probably
that I am not readily to be identified with my race,
and that I am apt to thrust the fact of it down other
people's throats with a somewhat aggressive pride.
But then I can only do this because lam safe. I get
all the ha'pences and none of the kicks, as it were.
I dare not think where my racial pride would be if
I were in present-day Germany-not as myself, with
all the privileges of a special position as a Jewish
Christian within a Christian community in a toler-
antly indifferent country, but as a Jewess whose
parents and grandparents could remember pogroms
and Jew-baiting in other countries in the past, a
long trail of blood and violence: or as a child of
thoroughly assimilated Jewish parents, feeling my-
self entirely and completely German and caring
nothing for the heritage of Judaism.
I do not say that my pride would be non-existent:
oi course it would not. That is just the tragedy.
But it would have become something sullen, touchy,
always ready to become arrogant when released; a
blind pride, founded on defensiveness against brutal-
ity instead of on appreciation of the history and
destiny of my people.
Perhaps it was just as well we laughed, at the
Summer School. Laughter is the only antidote to
something too irrational to argue about and too
insidious for many people-even good people-to
understand. If some of those who laughed really
laughed the hateful growth of the superiority com-
plex out of their systems, then something was
achieved at the School.







THE WAILING WALL


Let us see this matter in a true and objective light.
Why do I choose to dwell here on the sneers, jibes,
insults, calumnies, persecutions and hatred that the
Jews have had and still have to suffer and endure?
Not, emphatically not, because I want to make
Jewry a martyr or gain special sympathy by "spec-
ial pleading." But I dare not leave out these
persecutions because they are simply the logical
outcome of the unfulfilled vocation of the Jewish
people. Why is there a Jewish problem, a problem
for statesmen, politicians and police ? Why are the
Jews the first scapegoats and the best ?
Surely it is not far-fetched to answer that a world
which cannot understand the vocation to which this
people was appointed, has to view the spectacle of
that people after it has rejected that fulfilment: has
to see Jewry wandering without an aim, because of
its rejection of Him whom a great part of the
Gentile world is also now rejecting or has perhaps
never accepted-a people without adequate basis for
uniqueness, yet still umque, "a parallel to humanity,
but not a part of it".
Therefore I talk about hate. There is a deeper
reason too, but it does not make itself apparent at
this point.
Let Wasserman speak once more. No one has more
right to speak than he; for he suffered more deeply
than most, being more responsive to pain; and he
dared to illuminate a path which most Jews prefer
to keep dark. During these weeks of writing and
of concentration on the inner meaning of outer events
that seem dark and incomprehensible, I have come
more and more to feel that he, whom I never met,
never had any dealings with, save those most import-
ant dealings of all, the meetings with his characters
and the traversing of his landscapes-that he stands
looking over my shoulder, guiding with his honesty
the wavering pen of my purpose. In life he might







THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY


well have disagreed with me. In death I think that
he must understand.
Let Wasserman speak then-but remember that
he speaks for all of us, for me too, for I belong with
them, I am part of the history, I am prouder than
the others are of the destiny, I have accepted Him
who is the fulfilment of my people's hopes and the
completion of their vocation-therefore I must also
identify myself with the sufferings of my people.
Says Wasserman: "Let us survey the last twenty
centuries of Jewish history. Or we might consider
only ten; the last ten; that would be enough. It is
a path of sorrow and tears unparalleled since human
tears and suffering have been recorded. People for-
get this, erase it from their minds. How else could
they continue to live? The individual wants no
share in the misdeeds of his contemporaries, nor
posterity in those of its ancestors. Whether a hun-
dred or a thousand or thrice a hundred thousand
men perished at the stake at the hands of murderers
instead of dying of old age in their beds, may possibly
make no difference five centuries later, or even
twenty years later. Some derive comfort from the
consideration that mankind is beyond all cure and
help. Yet every occurrence is preserved in the group
or tribal memory, and constitutes the experiential
nucleus of history and mythology.
To this constant confrontation with the past, the
Jews were more exposed than any other nation, for
their entire spirit-life has always had its sphere in
the region between law and legend. Now let us
visualise these centuries of accumulated criminal
fury, ruthless massacre, spiritual and bodily ravish-
ment, malicious slander, systematic blood-baiting,
mitigated by no scruples whatsoever, fanatical
persecution to the point of utter exhaustion of the
victims, orgies of greed and cruelty under the cloak
of religion, and with the ulterior motive of abolishing







THE WAILING WALL


business competition: true, only a dullard can live
on without realising that this Christian Europe is
a shambles dripping with human blood. Of expia-
tion and reparation, however, there is not and never
was a sign; the miserable alms granted in a brief
period of humanisation are too insignificant for con-
sideration. The fathomless hatred has never ceased
to smoulder; the Jew drew a deep breath whenever
it did not actually scorch him. The means of perse-
cution have become more refined. The indictments
no longer cite well-poisoning and the crucifixion of
the Saviour, but they go even farther: they under-
mine life itself, human and civil rights as such, and,
when they carry the matter to its logical conclusion,
extend the anathema to the very Person of the
Saviour. A sycophantic science serves to perpet-
uate the lies which even without it were ineradicable.
They are brought forward when wars are lost. For
someone must bear the guilt, and who can bear it
better than the Jew? The transgressions of individ-
uals are interpreted as indicating the- degeneration
of the group: their anarchistic spirit, which harks
back to their exclusion from the law; their con-
sanguinity and solidarity, which are due to the
social barbed wire that bars them off; their pre-
ponderant commercial and mercantile interests,
which go back to the centuries of prohibitions and
special measures that permitted them to act only
as money-lenders and the bankers of princes; their
intellectualism which is the fruit of centuries of
pressure, of their total spiritual isolation among the
nations, their sole salvation having lain in meditat-
ing upon the meaninglessness of life while facing
death; their conspicuousness, their industry and
shrewdness, and that radicalism, translated into
action by their ancient fear and desperation, which
runs the gamut from petty independence and in-
subordination to the destruction of the existing







THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY


order; their alleged physical cowardice, which,
where it is not actual fear and trembling, branded
into their hearts by the experiences of centuries,
represents nothing more or less than an easily
libelled expression of the fact that the Jew shuns
violence; and, finally, their inability to become
assimilated in a larger community ... No exception
is admitted here. In the case of every people on the
globe a few noble and outstanding individuals are
taken as indicative of the merit and culture of the
group; only in the case of the Jews are all judged
by the basest. This would not let me rest, even if I
were not a Jew; I know that I should not be able to
rid myself of the sting, the reproach, the call of
conscience, the feeling of a festering wound in the
body of the nation. But fate has made me a Jew ..."
Yes, and fate has made me a Jewess, and I also
cannot rest under this monstrous injustice. I need
not waste time in recounting incidents of brutal
persecution, though God knows I could make many
pages by doing so. I will not make a sentimental
plea for a condescending tolerance or superior kind-
ness on the part of "Christians". I will rather say
with Wasserman: "If I see a driver abusing his
weary horse so unmercifully with his whip that the
beast's veins are bursting and its nerves quivering,
and one of the passive if compassionate bystanders
asks me: What is to be done ?-I tell him: First
take the whip away from that savage. If someone
then rejoins: The horse is stubborn and malicious;
the horse only wants to attract attention; the horse
is well-fed, and the wagon is loaded with nothing
but straw-then I tell him: All that can be investi-
gated later. First take the whip away from that
savage. Cerainly, as far as I can see, Germany can
do no more. But it would be much. It would be
enough."







THE WAILING WALL


My dear readers, you are nearly all savages. The
whip must be removed from your hands too.
Admitted, Germany is a special case. The disease
has gained a firmer hold there. To quote Wasser-
man again:
"For the first time I encountered that dull, rigid,
almost inarticulate hatred that has permeated the
national organism. The word 'antisemitishi does
not suffice to describe it, for the term reveals neither
the nature nor the source, neither the depth nor the
aim of that hatred. It contains elements of super-
stition and voluntary delusion, of fanatical terror,
of priestly callousness, of the rancour of the wronged
and betrayed, of ignorance, of falsehood, of lack of
conscience, of justifiable self-defence, of apish malice
and of religious bigotry. Greed and curiosity play
their part here, blood-lust and the fear of being lured
or seduced, the love of mystery, and deficient self-
esteem. In its constituents and background it is a
peculiarly German phenomenon. It is a German
hatred."
Is that true? I hope so, because although any-
thing so madly irrational fills me with terror, it
safeguards England and the rest of the world from
any sudden surge and overflow of these loathsome
hate-waves. I hope... But I am not sure.
You do not know why you hate us so. I will tell
you: It is because you see before you a people which
is different from any other, whose members are not
like you. They have not the means nor the position
which could act as a suitable background for this
racial idiosyncrasy of being different from You; their
arrogance must remain unsupported; therefore they
are suitable marks for your shooting practice. In
addition and above all, you cannot explain why
they are different-nor can they do so. This puzzles
and enrages you. Finally, they are always com-
mitting the crime of being cleverer, more capable







THE PLEASURES OF SUPERIORITY


and more industrious than yourselves. They can
celebrate your victories: after helping to win them;
they can glorify your literature: after having
assisted in making it glorious; they can die for your
country: after having lived for it, while you were
perhaps, bringing it down to the dust by your moral
laxity and social unrighteousness.
What is more offensive than success?-in another,
that is.
Success is the crime of which Jewry stands
accused; inevitable, fatal success.
How useful is the Jew as a scapegoat! You ought
to be grateful that we exist to serve your purpose so
well. "Whenever things have gone badly ... after
every defeat, in every difficulty, in every trying
situation, you shift the responsibility for distress on
to the Jews. So it has been for centuries. The
menacing embitterment of the masses has been
diverted into this convenient channel. Even the
Rhenish electors and archbishops knew that when
their military exploits had failed and their treasure-
vaults were exhausted they had only to institute
massacres of the Jews to secure an infallible means
of control." Intelligence is not necessary in order
to be an expert in this kind of hatred. Those who
are afflicted with this terrible malady are powerless
to reason, to think, to evaluate: "their instinct is
silent when it is not confronted with a caricature".
Are you sure that in you there does not lurk one
drop of the poison of that hatred, a drop so small
that you can conceal or excuse it by giving it the
name of "prejudice"? Prejudice, like religion, is a
word of great potency and of grave danger; it can
mean anything or condone anything. It is nauseous;
let us be clear about that. Whether it is prejudice
against a people, a tongue, a colour, a creed, a
class, or a profession-it is horrible, born of ignor-
ance, fostered by brutish folly or what Wasserman







THE WAILING WALL


calls apishh malice", and productive of all that is
reactionary, dull, coarse, selfish, cruel and wicked.
Prejudice makes wars, prejudice burns witches,
prejudice maintains disease and superstition; all
that is wasteful of life and beloved of the Devil
wallows in prejudice.
Superiority is the pleasure of the brainless, of
those who are "too big for their boots", of all the
great vulgar-that is, those who do not cultivate
humility, imagination or charity. Says Wasserman:
"With the realisation of the hopelessness of effort
the bitterness in one's breast becomes a mortal agony.
Vain to adjure the nation of poets and thinkers m
the name of its poets and thinkers. Every prejudice
that one believes to be disposed of breeds a thousand
others, as carrion breed maggots.
Vain to present the right cheek when the left has
been smitten. This does not move them to thought;
it neither touches nor disarms them; they strike the
right cheek also.
Vain to interject words of reason into their crazy
shrieking. They say: He dares to open his mouth?
Gag him.
Vain to set an example in your life and behaviour.
They say: We know nothing, we have seen nothing,
we have heard nothing.
Vain to seek obscurity. They say: The coward!
He is creeping into hiding, driven by his evil con-
science!
Vain to go among them and offer them one's hand.
They say: Why does he take such liberties with his
Jewish obtrusiveness ?
Vain to keep faith with them, as a comrade-ia-
arms or as a fellow citizen. They say: He is Proteus,
he can assume any shape or form.
Vain to help them to strip off the chains of slavery.
They say: No doubt he found it profitable.




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