LIGHT and DARKNESS
A' MISSIONARY SURVEY OF UGANDA, ANGLO-
EGYPTIAN SUDAN, ABYSSINIA, ERITREA AND
THE THREE SOMALILANDS
I, Tudor Street, London,
UjIjVUSiTY .F FLURlA LIBRPIPC
Made and Printed in Great Britain by
I ilson's Printing Company, Ltd., 67b, Turnmill Street, London, E.C.I
II C --.
eJ S / ^3ir : 3
Xt. rL/ Ii J
AliaBiana MaieS i-
rn) ar 1G Cutra1 iI:a
D ErSK tT nA&kJ4
/, i i^ A^J ? ^ *A ^ / -'I" .
-iA Sd 'tftnhO k^^'^^ ^^^
'N 0 e6r""^ive j*,7)A^^-^^S
-L l c J J f ^ V c - - W f - - 1. -t-. 1 pL
d "; /e ? ^sC Btii *fi^ ^ -%
<^~~~~~~- -> .-'^^^r^ --. r'-^^"
16^/ 1_ ______^ $Teb.. Atb J ^.eb." S. ^ A ^J
AIAW ioan. flr Iqi ff 4eJ l
WA! z anJLV& C~4t'm \1
^S*., ~~~~~~~~~ ~ 6~ r -j~aLA >I \ -P/ J
I* A r< / N* ft o fTt f blS^^'W&
*4 -/^.^H: ^-
'-~; 4. ~
/ /^,- /-" -i *8---xe1^ ^^^ ^^
lbi ydrtafdh--''^^^ -^^
I IF -.g\t* / 0 -^ 5%?'^fM ~fwr" "
I ^. A ~- ^'/ .---e^^^^ ea~^
| -ef ~if. 1(r '' -e/ /jafelta ..n
flOm Mo oC \~Darea 1443~E~8Y
''Ii I !
I~., GU: "^ r" ^i- .^ 'r'- .; ...~; -A1&1^ Br^^^ehl^^T'E^X
I4LLE~Yq -^ .^^ ^%' w '<^. '/". 0tTaI5 ie~or ^^" '-1/\ Jb^la
./'I~ w^1e ~L~ -^ anntt-/ ^A -' ~hs ''^ ^^Sk y
?A-'-cr i:si '~o~ ^ /'-^^f' .^*^i
*,^ ______^.ta- ^*j~^^j ^iea ag^ ~jS/ ^^^,
16 ---- t, Gamg *. '""i"" ,'~om~ dci 'E Sat ^ ^ -Mb 1 '*.-" jc-e ^ '
----^ G3e K.b" A~~Od W ^Tb ^ ^ ^yrr ^-.^-.^
I 'Iom^-l)r-S-^W^lifyyri** ^~al~tTO
\$llh -Mrai G,~n r/Y /zI ^^^^^^0
\ ~, G-e~e / if/ if .!"'^st^^J ^ ^^^ ^ -YSAh
Ib / ./i :t ^\ \^ > t T-lMV-1
\~ro -~ 6^^^, / Ra ^ -S--^^ -3 ^ 4^^
I~~~IL~ iaas N'^X^/ BrMfu i/^,J il/r.MrwJli^3iaid
Zema. ,n.-,i D^'?'^ 0 /^6^^1 (p
S^^.i^'J~,^ i /^^^S ^.^^T^&a^
T HE WORLD DOMINION SURVEY SERIES
attempts to describe briefly and clearly the
situation in various countries as viewed from the
standpoint of the Kingdom of God.
We hope that we may be able to cover the whole
world in this way, and to re-write each survey when
changes in the situation demand a re-statement.
The present survey covers seven countries of East
Africa, beginning with the great work of the Church
Missionary Society in Uganda and ending with the
unoccupied Somaliland countries.
The Uganda chapters have been compiled from
information supplied by Mr. W. J. W. ROOME, F.R.G.S.,
the Report of the East Africa Commission and other
sources acknowledged in their place. We are indebted
to Mr. ROOME also for the information used in com-
piling the map of Uganda.
The remaining chapters have been compiled from
articles by the Rev. J. J. COOKSEY, long a missionary
in North Africa, and from Government and Mission
reports. In this connection we would gratefully
acknowledge the help of Dr. LAMBIE, of Addis Ababa,
now Field-Director of the new Abyssinian Frontiers
Mission, and of Mr. T. PERCIVAL BEVAN, agent of
the British and Foreign Bible Society in Abyssinia.
Our thanks are due to the Rev. R. KILGOUR, D.D.,
Editorial Superintendent of the British and Foreign
Bible Society, for the chapters on the Bible in the
The object of this review is to give a comprehensive
idea of the extent of missionary and Christian occu-
pation and to indicate the problems arising therefrom.
Details in maps and figures may occasionally be
open to criticism, but we believe that the presentation
of the situation is substantially correct.
The title is indicative of the fact that the light
that has come to Uganda has penetrated to a decreasing
extent to other territories reviewed till we arrive at
the Somalilands, where little or nothing has y t been
done. If this survey does anything to deepen the
missionary interest of the Christian public, especially
in those lands which are still in darkness, it will have
accomplished its purpose.
UGANDA AND ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN
ABYSSINIA, ERITREA AND THE SOMALILANDS
UGANDA AND ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN.
PREFACE .. .. .
THE COMING OF THE LIGHT .
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE .
THE BIRTH OF A NEW UGANDA
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH..
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA..
I. NURSING A NATION
II. BUILDING THE KINGDOM IN THE SUDAN
III. THE BIBLE IN ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN
STATISTICAL TABLES OF UGANDA AND ANGLO-EGYPTIAN
By His Excellency the Acting Governor of Uganda,
E. B. JARVIS, C.M.G.
T HE Protectorate of Uganda is unique amongst
British Dependencies in Africa in that it pos-
sesses within its borders no less than four indigenous
kingdoms, those of Buganda, Bunyoro, Ankole and
Toro. Each of these has its own native Ruler, and
a Parliament with duly appointed officers of
The work of administration is to that extent
simplified, as these Parliaments have their recog-
nized spheres of influence under the guidance of the
Beyond the borders of these kingdoms there are
many tribes of other peoples to whom reference is made
in these pages.
Uganda is also fortunate in that it has just cele-
brated the Jubilee of the arrival of the first Christian
missionaries. The story of their arrival and the
resultant spread of Christian civilization throughout
the land is also given in this story of Uganda.
As one who has served in the Protectorate for many
years, in close co-operation with the rulers of the
native kingdoms and also the missionaries of the
Christian Church, I feel the country owes a deep
debt of gratitude to these latter for their loyal and
self-denying services and for the great scheme of
education initiated by them which is still so largely
carried on by their agency.
With the appointment of a Director of Education
and the adoption of a far-reaching programme of
education for the whole country by the British Admin-
istration, I feel confident that the cordial fellowship
that has existed hitherto, and still exists, between
the British Administration, the native rulers and
the Christian missionaries, is a happy augury for the
future well-bLing of the country.
TESTIMONY OF THE FOUR KINGS.
Recently the four kings of Uganda have sent
messages to the British and Foreign Bible Society
from which we have been given permission t:> quote.
H.H. Sir Daudi Cwa, K.C.M.G., Kabaka of Euganda,
says : Christianity unites the Kingdoms sun wounding
Buganda in love. Former hatred and war have ceased.
One of the great signs which prove this is evident in
the united effort of the building of the Cathedral."
The Mukama of Bunyoro says: The Bible is
being read by most of my people all over my knridom.
I trust that the Bible will be of great value t( all the
people all over the world."
Over the door of the study of Andereya, :he late
Mukama of Bunyoro, was the text, In Thee, .) Lord,
do I put my trust."
E.S. Kahaya, M.B.E., Mugabe of Ankole, says:
" From the Bible I learn about Jesus Christ who died
for me and saved me from my sins. Therefore I love
Daudi Kasagama Kyebambe, M.B.E., Mukama
of Toro, writes: The Gospel was first brought into
my country of Toro in March, 1896. In th same
year I was baptized, also many of my people followed
and became Christians. Since the translation of the
Scriptures into our native language my people and I
have benefited greatly and Christianity has advanced
more rapidly throughout the country."
The Coming of the Light
H M. STANLEY, the explorer, is universally known,
but we do not hear much of Stanley as a
pioneer missionary. Nevertheless, during his short
stay with M'tesa at the Court of Uganda, he talked
with the king more about the Christian faith than
about any other subject.
From April 5th, 1875, to the I4th day of that
month-when he wrote his famous missionary chal-
lenge to England and America-hle had no fewer
than ten interviews with the king, all directed to his
enlightenment and conversion. M'tesa's readiness
to learn so elated him that he wrote : Though I am
no missionary, I shall begin to think that I might
become one, if such success is feasible."
At this time, the Arabs had obtained great influence
over the king. The fact that Stanley arrived when
he did and made the Christian faith the subject of
much of his conversation with M'tesa probably fore-
stalled the king's acceptance of Islam as the state
religion by a very narrow margin of time.
Linant de Bellefonds-one of Gordon's officers-
happening to arrive in Uganda at this time, volunteered
LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
to convey Stanley's letter by way of the Nite. But
as the unfortunate Belgian was travelling down the
river through the Bari country, he was attacked by
the Bari, who had suffered recently great wiongs at
the hands of the Nubian slave-traders. Linant de
Bellefonds was murdered in the vicinity of Gondokoro,
and his body, rotting on the river bank, was. subse-
quently recovered by a Government expedition sent
to enquire into the attack. In one of the long knee
boots which the officer was wearing, was discovered
Stanley's message to The Daily Telegraph ard New
York Herald. It at last reached London, thanks to
Gordon Pasha at Khartoum, and its publication met
with an immediate response. Mr. Henry Wilion, of
Sheffield, was so moved by Stanley's appeal that he
responded with a gift of 5,ooo. This was given anony-
mously as from an Unprofitable Servant." Others
increased it to 24,ooo, and this consecrated giving
was crowned with the dedication of eight n en to
The eight men who answered the call w re all
laymen save one: two died on the long trek nland
from Zanzibar, three were invalided and three re ached
the Great Lake at Kagei in May, 1877.
In response to an urgent message from M'tesa,
Lieutenant George Shergold Smith and Rev. C. T.
Wilson pushed on to the capital, leaving Mr. T.
O'Neill at the south of the Lake in charge cf the
The king received them handsomely, and was duly
THE COMING OF THE LIGHT
impressed by the letters they presented, one of which
was from the Sultan of Zanzibar, and another from
the Church Missionary Society. The latter, written
in English, was translated into Swahili for the king
by Mufta, a pupil of the Universities' Mission at
Zanzibar, whom Stanley had left to instruct him.
Two years had now passed since Stanley left
M'tesa, and the interval had been improved upon
by the Arab traders at the Court. So that, when the
two missionaries were received in audience the following
day, the king tried to bully them into making powder
and shot for him. In the evening, he admitted to them
that fear of the Arabs had kept him from asking
them in the morning whether they had brought him
the "Book"; and, in his vacillating way, he appeared
to be pleased when they told him they had, and
that they hoped to give it to him soon in his own
Just how near Uganda was at this time to becoming
Moslem we shall never perhaps fully know; the
Baganda people as a whole did not want any change,
but M'tesa and his Court for years perilously dallied
with Islam. The reason may be gathered from a
letter written by Alexander Mackay four years later
in 1881, in which he says: I may safely say that
the King of Uganda keeps a fresh force of six thousand
men, without a month's intermission, all the year
round engaged in the openly avowed act of devastating
the neighboring tribes, merely for the sake of slaves.
M'tesa is the greatest slave-hunter in the world, and
16 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
he carries on his mischievous raids on the strength
of guns and powder brought up country by the Arabs,
prices thus: one musket, two slaves; one red cloth,
one slave; a hundred percussion caps, one female
Canon Baskerville, speaking of the Arab hostility
at this time, says: They at once saw that were
Christianity accepted, their position as Mohammedan
traders would be imperilled, and with it their two
great sources of wealth-ivory and slaves."
How real the Arab power became we shall see later,
when they were able to set up a king of their own
choosing, and expelled the missionaries, both Protes-
tant and Roman Catholic. It was the reality of the
Moslem menace which stirred Cardinal Lavigerie's
White Fathers from Algiers to enter Uganca--an
event which later led to grave difficulties. But we
anticipate, and must resume our narrative of the
fortunes of the first band of missionaries from En gland.
After interviewing the king, Shergold Smith
returned across the Lake to bring up O'Neill and
the baggage. He arrived there safely, but ur fortu-
nately they became involved in a quarrel which arose
between an Arab trader and the natives, and both
were slain on the island of Ukererwe.
Wilson thus alone remained of the first pa-ty of
eight, and the terrible loneliness of the year which
followed was at last relieved by the arrival of Alexander
Mackay, in November, 1878, who obtained a p.;ssage
from Kagei at the south of the Lake in boats sent
THE COMING OF THE LIGHT
by the king to fetch a company of Roman Catholic
The next six years, to the death of M'tesa in 1884,
formed one of the most important periods in the history
of Uganda; it witnessed the firm planting of the
Christian Church, and threw into bold relief the
consecrated devotion of the workers. There was much
coming and going of missionaries : Wilson was forced
to retire in 1879-after only a few months with
Mackay-and Pearson took his place, and during
1880 was a great strength to him. P. O'Flaherty
arrived in March, 1881, and remained four years;
Cyril Gordon in 1882, and did twenty years' service;
and R. P. Ashe arrived in 1883, and stayed three
years. Pearson appears to have left in the meantime,
so that after 1886 Mackay was once more alone.
But during that period enough continuity had
been maintained in the work to assure its permanence,
which was finally evident when, on March I8th, 1882,
from a number of readers five were solemnly baptized.
The critical point had now been passed, but how
near disaster had loomed in 1879, has been well
expressed by the Right Rev. Herbert Gresford Jones
in his recent work Uganda in Transformation "
(pp. 29, 30) : Matters were such just then that a
complete withdrawal from Uganda was considered.
The Roman Catholics did, in fact, withdraw for a
time, 1882-85. This is only to disclose more evidently
the plain fact that, amid much coming and going
and under circumstances appalling to think of, this
18 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
young Scots engineer in his thirties . did quietly
live on undismayed. And not only this. He lived
on so openly and engagingly and with so beautiful a
spirit, and so blameless an example, and all T:his in
such nearness to the natives themselves, that in doing
so, he infected them with the contagious faith of his
own life to such a degree that they were in a few
short years prepared to die for the faith h( thus
The Land and the People
IT is not surprising, therefore, that Uganda has
been associated in most minds with the names
of H. M. Stanley and Alexander Mackay. Some can
still remember the visit of Stanley in 1875 and
the departure from England of the first band of
missionaries in 1877. Since then only fifty years have
passed and a great work of evangelization has been
Uganda was fortunate in having attention directed
to it so dramatically. There are many unoccupied
fields in the world to-day to which no band of mis-
sionaries have gone, because no such appeal has
reached the Christian West as came from Uganda.
Yet in Uganda, in spite of great successes, there are
great problems. The light has come, but every nation
must work out its own salvation.
In these pages we would emphasize the distinction
between evangelization and Christianization. The
first is the contribution which the Christian Church
*of the West can make, and it should govern our future
policy; the second is peculiarly the work of the
Church of Uganda, and the contribution of the West
to this, while possible, is an exceedingly delicate
20 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
matter, and one which has to be very carefully con-
sidered. It is so easy, with the best intentions, for the
foreigner to do more harm than good when a certain
point is reached in any people's development. [t is
difficult to see when that point is reached, an I it is
peculiarly difficult to work so as to be ready for it
when the time comes.
In facing these difficulties Uganda has been
distinctly fortunate. The fact that there has never
been a large foreign staff, that the average sojourn
of a missionary has only been twelve and ;t half
years or so, that there has been little money spent
except on necessities, that it was tried in the ire of
persecution and not found wanting, have all contri-
buted to make the growing Church develop on
indigenous lines and largely under native leadership.
This set of circumstances have had much to do with
the success of the work, and there is a great esson
here for other Mission fields in voluntarily choosing to
work in ways which circumstances made unavoidable
in the case of Uganda.
The Protectorate comprises the four kingdoms-
Buganda, Bunyoro, Ankole and Toro-all of which
lie to the west of the Nile, and the rest of the country,
which in the shape of a triangle, lies between the
Nile, Kenya Colony and the Sudan (see Map).
A great well-cultivated slope descends gradAally
from Lake Victoria Nyanza to the Sudan frontier,
passing north and east into more arid country. On
the western frontiers are highlands where Ruwenzori
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE
raises its snow-clad peak 16,ooo feet above sea level,
which with the Lakes (Albert, Edward and George)
and the Mfumbiro Mountains separate Uganda from
Belgian territory. The remaining portion is the
Lake country. One-seventh of the total area is full
of swamps and lakes, but fertile and well populated.
Every kind of country is found, therefore, fertile
valleys, great rivers and lakes, swamps and tropical
forests, vast upland plains, snowy mountain ranges,
and the mighty craters of Mount Elgon. Some of these
uplands (3,000 to 4,000 feet) are favourable for Euro-
pean residence, and there are two hundred European
estates. The great Rift valley, however, is an oven of
blazing heat and steaming forest swamps, where
sleeping-sickness, plague and other epidemics are
The great fact to notice is that practically the
whole of Uganda forms the drainage area of the Nile,
and the great depression formed by the Victoria Nile
and the Kioga Lake system cuts into the great
plateau dividing the country into a northern and
southern part. The northern section, forming one-third
of the total area, is healthy, but hot and dry. The
southern area, about the lakes and southward, is hot
but fertile country, and here most of the economic
wealth of the land is found. Great areas, however, are
still not under cultivation owing to the scarcity of
population (3,036,518* in 1923), which is only thirty-
The estimated population of the Rudolf Province which has been
attached to Kenya has been deducted.
22 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
three to the square mile. Although this is the most
densely populated part of East Africa, the problem of
scarcity of labour is very acute. The population,
which for a time decreased, is now slowly gr wing,
except in Bunyoro where there is a steady decline.
South-west of the Victoria Nile is the legion
inhabited by the Bantu people, and to the north-
east that of the Nilotic negro race. The aboriginal
inhabitants, the pygmies, are found in the ex-reme
south-western Semliki forests. The Nilotic :ribes
were probably driven down the Nile by the Haim-ites,
a Caucasian race who have established themselves as
a superior nomad pastoral people in so many parts
of East Africa.
Inter-marriage has done much to modify original
racial stocks, but the Hamites have retained most of
the characteristics of their Eastern ancestors. There
are a number of such tribes in Uganda, among which
the Bahima is probably the most important, anc, the
Bantu kings claim Bahima blood. These tribes are
mostly pastoral, tall and handsomely built, with
features of an almost European cast.
The modern Bantu tribes are the Baganda and
Banyoro and others. They originally formed a great
dominion known as Kitwara, which once ruled Irom
the Ruwenzori Mountains to the Kavirondo court try,
and later split up into the different kingdoms. The
Baganda were notorious for human sacrifices, while
the Hamites worshipped lions, which they regarded
as embodying the spirits of their dead chiefs.
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE
The Nilotic tribes are confined to Northern Uganda.
They are of fine physique and are good cultivators
A full description of the tribes belonging to these
various groups would prove tiresome reading. A
table is appended showing that the present population
can be divided into representatives of forty-seven
tribes, thirteen of which, however, are from among
Among these peoples and in this varied country
the Christian faith has won converts from practically
every tribe. This was not done without paying a
great price. Light did not immediately dispel dark-
ness, nor, of course, has it completely done so yet.
The struggle was long and bitter, and can only be
briefly set forth in the following chapter.
A more detailed account of a few of the chief tribes is to be found
in the Appendix.
The Birth of a new Uganda
STANLEY'S appeal in The Daily Telegrapl also
met the eye of Charles Martial Lavigerie, later
to become Archbishop of Carthage and Algiers and
Primate of Africa.
His first contact with Mohammedans was on May
IIth, 1868, when he landed in North Africa in a time
of famine. His instant success in forming Christian
villages of necessitous Arab children, apparently
misled him into hoping for a wholesale conversion
of the people. His enthusiasm was unbounded, and
he wrote, C'est la que j'ai connu enfin ma vocation."
In 1874 he founded the order of the White Fathers,
whose task was to plant a chain of Mission stations
across the Sahara into Equatorial Africa, which 1erri-
tory had been placed under his charge by Pius I.1.
From 1881-84 he so raised the prestige of France
in Tunisia that he charmed Gambetta, and equally
so the Pope who, on March 27th, 1882, made him a
Cardinal, and, by a bull of November Ioth, 1884,
re-erected in his favour the Metropolitan Sec of
At once a keen French statesman and an ardent
missionary, he perceived the unique character of the
THE BIRTH OF A NEW UGANDA
Uganda appeal, which presented an opportunity of
erecting a barrier against Islam, of winning the fore-
most African people and of serving France. He did
not hesitate, and by the end of 1878 his missionaries,
as we have noted, had reached the great Lake, and
Uganda lay before them.
Their coming synchronized with a dark hour
in the fortunes of the Church Missionary Society
in Uganda. Wilson alone remained, for death and
sickness had claimed the rest. Mackay arrived, and
within a few months saw Wilson leave for England.
Circumstances favoured the ambitious Cardinal, who,
from Algiers, watched anxiously the debut of his
White Fathers at M'tesa's capital. He had himself
drawn up the rule under which they lived and worked,
enthused them with his aims and ideals, and personally
sent them forth. To know Lavigerie is to understand
the fifteen years of religious and political strife which
followed upon the arrival of his men.
M'tesa was frankly nonplussed when he heard it
said that the English missionaries who had come in
response to Stanley's appeal were traitors to the
Church, and teachers of a lying and false gospel."
Then said the king, Let the white people settle their
own quarrels first, and then let them teach us, when
they have come to an agreement as to what is really
The Arabs now joined in the fray, and perceiving
that the Protestant position rested upon the shoulders
of Mackay, they assured the king that he was an
26 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
insane murderer, fugitive from England, who on
arrival at Zanzibar had murdered several persons,
had tried to shoot the Governor of Unyanyenbe, and
that he had been on his knees to them to implore
them not to reveal his crimes to the king." Whatever
M'tesa may have thought of the story, he affected
to believe it, for, though unwilling to part with the
Englishmen who were so useful to him, he did not
want their religion, and he wished to keep in favour
with the Arabs, who hated them.
Of the twelve years Mackay gave to Uganda, six
were passed under M'tesa, to whom he says: I am
engineer, builder, printer, physician, surgeon, and
general artificer." In short, he was too valuable to the
king to be sacrificed either to the Roman Catholics
or the Moslems. And when, in 1884, M'tesa (lied, and
M'wanga, his son, succeeded him, the Church under
Mackay's nurture was unshakeably rooted in :he heart
and life of the Baganda people.
M'wanga had received some Christian instruction,
and his accession was welcomed as of good omen for
missionary work. But he quickly revealec himself
as a dissolute profligate, and during the years 1885
and 1886 made a determined effort to swing the
country back to heathenism. Neither the king nor his
chiefs could brook the Christian requirement of
monogamy, though it was being applied witi charity
and tact. A deeper cause, however, was 1'wanga's
resolve to make his Court a centre of unbridled,
THE BIRTH OF A NEW UGANDA
He commenced by burning thirty-two of the
flower of the Christian community and as many more
were otherwise despatched; Bishop Hannington, on
his way to Uganda, was murdered at Busoga in October,
1885, and the missionaries were expelled from the
country. And for the two following years-until
1888-heathenism under M'wanga pitted itself against
the Readers," and threatened to engulf alike
Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Moslem
In August, 1888, these joined forces, to ensure
their existence, and M'wanga, who had fled from the
capital, took up a position of defence at Kyango in
Budo. His defeat was certain, however, as he was
opposed not only by his own revolted people, but
also by Major Ternan, of the British East Africa
Company, at the head of five hundred trained Sudanese
with four maxims.
Kiwewa, the eldest son of M'tesa, was now placed
upon the throne; the Mohammedan forces of the
allies bringing him in triumph to the capital. But
to their chagrin the dignity of military chief was
given to a Romanist, and that of chief adviser to a
Protestant. The result was that Kiwewa reigned only
two months, being deposed by the Mohammedans,
who supplanted him by Kalema.
Roman Catholics and Protestants alike now felt
the persecuting power of Islam ; many of them fled
to Ankole, and the English and French missionaries
who remained were imprisoned within the Royal
28 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
enclosure in a miserable hut full of rats and vermin,
where they were guarded by soldiers."
Before the year 1889 had closed, this situation was
dramatically ended by the Baganda people themselves,
stirred to action by their loyalty to the kingship:
"Not loyalty to M'wanga personally-whom they
hated-but loyalty to the king as an institution."
And so a chastened M'wanga was restored by the
combined Roman Catholic and Protestant parties,
to whom were given all the important chieftamnships.
The Moslem power began to wane, and in May, r891,
its last effort ended in defeat and it ceased 1o be a
controlling factor in the country.
The contest for supremacy now lay between the
Protestants and Roman Catholics, and events moved
rapidly, especially during the years 1890 and 1891.
In the midst of them Mackay passed away. More
than any other man in Uganda he had clearly
perceived for years that the one way of ending
barbarism and the cruel slave-trade was by means of a
railway from the coast, which would let in th, forces
of civilization. The British East Africa Company
pressed the Government to undertake the task ; and
in view of the fact that at the Brussels Corference
in 1890 Britain had agreed to suppress the slave-
trade, and to prohibit the sale of spirits and arms
to Africans, it was declared that a railway was the
only method of making good these promises. The
appeal was in vain, and the British East Africa
company announced its resolve to retire from the
THE BIRTH OF A NEW UGANDA
country, being unable to sustain unaided the immense
expenditure of occupying it.
Bishop Tucker, learning from Sir William Mac-
kinnon, the chairman of the Company, that a sum
of 15,ooo would enable them to delay a decision,
made a stirring appeal for the money at the Gleaners'
Union Anniversary, held in London on October 30th,
1891, and the contribution was made.
Apparently this event hastened the inevitable crash
in Uganda. Captain Lugard saw what was coming,
and strove his utmost to avoid the catastrophe. He
even went so far as to appeal to the French Bishop,
begging him to do his utmost to influence his followers
in the direction of peace. It is not too much to say
that the question of peace or war was actually in
the Bishop's hands-a word from him and war was
impossible." It was never spoken, and on January
24th, 1892, Roman Catholics and Protestants came
to blows. The Protestant power," says Bishop Tucker,
" was the only obstacle which stood between the
Frenchmen and the realization of their hopes. That
the removal of this obstacle was the cardinal point
in their policy was revealed by PNre Achte in a letter
written at this particular juncture, and published in
Europe." The fight with the Mohammedans was
hardly over," wrote Achte, before it became needful
to begin another, and far more arduous battle with
the Protestants. It seemed to us to be the most oppor-
tune time to make an energetic forward movement
toward the extension of Catholicism; and stirring
30 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
up the dogmatic zeal of the Catholic chiefs, I shall
inspire the Catholic army with courage." H( did so,
" the Bafransa played for a great stake-the whole
country-and lost. I emphatically state," says Captain
Lugard in his official reply to the charges of the French
Government, that it was the Catholic party who
entirely, and of purpose, provoked the war . it was
not a matter of Protestants and Catholics, bu:. simply
of those who would obey the Administration and
those who defied it."
Bishop Tucker, weighing matters from a Church-
man's point of view, wrote : The struggle which the
Fathers initiated was primarily with the object of
gaining the supreme power in the country in order
to advance the interests of their Church. This very
naturally was resisted by those who were in prior
occupation in the field, and who knew, fr:,m the
teaching of history, that Rome in power means death
to religious freedom."
This fratricidal civil war was happily cf short
duration; the storm which burst in January had sub-
sided by March, and by the expedient of allotting
separate spheres of influence to the two parties, order
was again restored.
The British East Africa Company held on during
the year 1891, with the aid it had received, but the
year following it felt compelled to give the British
Government notice of withdrawal. Lord R sebery,
then Foreign Secretary, pressed for the retention of
Uganda under the Crown, and the upshot of his
THE BIRTH OF A NEW UGANDA 31
advocacy was the despatch of Sir Gerald Portal, who,
at Kampala, on April Ist, 1893, unfurled the British
In his report he strongly urged the establishment
of a British Protectorate, and the construction of a
railway from the coast. The Protectorate was voted
in the Commons on June Ist, 1894, and the railway
a year later.
The first measure ended the schemes of Cardinal
Lavigerie, and the second made for ever impossible
M'wanga's idea of a return to heathenism or the
realization of the Arab plans for a Moslem empire in
A Growing African Church
UGANDA has had some very eminent missionaries,
and the response of the people to their message
and their example has been equally noteworthy.
There are other regions of Africa where devoted
missionary service has not been so rewarded.
The striking development of the Church among a
people which could die for their faith so bravely, and
withal cherish such a deep respect for constituted
authority, could have been safely predicted.
Namirembe Cathedral enshrines these sole un and
stirring records, and in its own history illustrates
them. On the slopes of the hill on which it is built
is the spot where, on July 26th, 1885, a com pany of
one hundred and seventy-five gathered for prayer,
and partook of Holy Communion, in the tragic hours
of M'wanga's persecution.
The house of prayer was later, in 1892, erected
on the summit, but was destroyed by a tropical tornado.
A second was then erected, but was pulled down sub-
sequently, not being found safe, and the brick building
which replaced this third cathedral in 1904 was six
years later destroyed by fire. The present fine building
was erected in 1919, Its mighty walls, its supporting
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH
buttresses, and its well-built keystones calculated to
endure for long years the assaults of time and storm."
This great Cathedral is the visible centre and symbol
of the Native Anglican Church. Twenty thousand
pounds have so far been contributed toward the cost
of its erection by the native Christians, to supplement
half that amount raised in England. The king and
chiefs have contributed forty per cent. of their rent
roll each year since the work was commenced. It is
situated on the most elevated of the hills that make
up the capital of Kampala, and for a radius of thirty
miles dominates the landscape. Bishop Willis, on
September 13th, 1919, consecrated it in the presence
of some twenty thousand people, five thousand of
whom were packed within its walls. Some notable
buildings surround it, including the Mengo Central
Boys' School and Day School, and the Central Girls'
School and Day School. On the southern slope rise
the noble group of hospital buildings, the most impor-
tant of their kind from the east coast to the west.
The Church in Uganda has from its beginning
been very largely self-governing, self-extending and
self-supporting, partly the result of its early misfortunes
and persecutions. The Presbyterian training of Mackay
is seen in his advice to the baptized Readers when
the Moslem peril threatened their destruction, to
choose them out twelve elders who would care for the
infant Church. We quote at length Canon Baskerville,
who remarks that: From that time on the Church
has been controlled by its own Councils of duly elected
34 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
members, in which the missionaries for many years
sat as advisers, until, under the Church Constitution
finally accepted by the Synod in April, 1909, the
missionaries took their place as members of the Native
Anglican Church of Uganda, with equal voting powers
in the Synod and subordinate Church Councils, with
their native brethren. Also from the first the work
has been self-supporting as far as African agents have
been concerned, for no foreign money has been used
to pay either the African Clergy, Catechists, Bible
Women or School Teachers, with one single exception,
that for the extension of the work to the hitherto
unevangelized portions of the Diocese of Uganda. At
the present time there are upwards of seventy clergy,
which number includes not Baganda only, but also
Basoga, Banyankole, and even two or three from
these more recently evangelized countries."
"There are over five thousand African workers,
including nearly three hundred women, many of whom
are honorary workers. There are two thousand Church
buildings, all of them erected by the native Church,
with occasional grants from the Diocesan Fund to
assist them when building superior structures."
In Buganda all the pastoral work is in the hands
of the Baganda clergy, and most of the administrators
for four out of six rural deaneries are Baganda. In
the surrounding countries the administration is still
in the hands of the missionaries, but all their district
clergy are natives of Africa; and recently two large
districts which had been administered by the Board
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH
of Missions, have been included in the self-supporting
rural deaneries of the Diocese."
The pioneer work in the Uganda Missions has
almost always been done by the natives themselves.
They have gone to one country after another, the
great impetus being given by the Pentecostal blessing
poured out on the Church in December, 1893. So
they went first to the unevangelized parts of
Buganda, and then to the countries beyond, and
gradually, as need arose, it became necessary for the
Church Missionary Society to send men to supervise
and direct these African pioneers. So the work grew
until to-day there is a mighty Church of more than
a hundred and sixty-five thousand baptized members,
of whom over forty thousand are communicants."
The thirst for education is insatiable, and the
Native Governments are realizing that they cannot
expect the Missions to bear the burden, even with the
aid received from the Administration. They are now
beginning to make grants-in-aid, that from Baganda
to the work of the Anglican Church amounting to
60o (1923). Fees are paid in all schools, with this
exception, that reading and writing up to the third
standard are taught free. These fees are small and
often collected with great difficulty, but ... at the
King's School, Budo, the fees not only pay for the
actual expenses of the boys, but provide a stipend for a
second European master."
From the capital a fine motor road skirting the
shores of the Lake eastward, and embracing the area
36 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
to the north, brings the traveller to Mukono, beauti-
fully situated on the side of a hill. In 19 3 the
Training School for catechists and clergy was removed
from Namirembe, the centre of the Uganda Mission,
and commenced there. Simple and small in its
beginnings, the Theological College of Mukono,
developed from native thatched temporary premises
into its present beautiful and permanent structure,
now called the "Bishop Tucker College," as a memorial
to Bishop Tucker. Dormitories in the building keep
green the memory of Pilkington, Mackay and Arch-
deacon Walker. British and African Christians, and a
portion of a grant towards education made by the
Uganda Government, provided the money for this,
the most beautiful block of buildings in Uganda.
It is strategically placed, standing on the main road
from Kampala to the great missionary districts of
Busoga and Bukedi.
Of the sixty-nine clergy, and more than one
thousand catechists at work, many claim Mukono
as their Alma Mater. Mukono stands for the supreme
importance of Biblical instruction, and its application
to the lives of the Uganda people. The devotional
life of its students centres round the Thornycroft
Chapel," with its atmosphere of quiet and rever-
Travelling on to one of the northern arms of the
Lake-the Napoleon Gulf-the great commercial port
of Jinja is passed, situated on the farther bank of the
river which flows over the Ripon Falls. Amidst the
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH
blue hills of Busoga, thirty miles distant, lies the station
of Iganga, near which Hannington was cruelly mur-
dered. Here the Church owns an estate with a fine
group of buildings that include a Girls' Boarding
School and a Cottage Hospital. Forty miles to the
north-west, near the Nile, is situated the busy centre
of Kamuli with its Boarding School for boys and a
Central School. Again to the north-east across the
waters of Lake Choga, is N'gora, where work is being
carried on among the Teso people. Here there is a
Boys' Boarding School, in which special attention is
paid to agriculture, and also a Central School. Books,
mostly Scriptures, sold within twelve months realized
L3,324. In the entire province there were eight thousand
Bibles, three thousand New Testaments, and ten
thousand portions sold during 1925. Passing on to the
north-east, to the farthest point of the country through
the great land of Busoga, the whole district is found
to have been covered by Mission Schools.
The station of Nabumali is situated on the foot-
hills to the north of Mount Elgon, the summit of which
is 14,200 feet above sea level. Here there are a fine
Church and Schools, with a Boys' Boarding School,
where a hundred of the most promising lads of the
district are being trained, and from whose ranks will
be drawn the future teachers and evangelists. In the
district there are five Central Schools for boys, and the
Mount Elgon Girls' Training School where about
fifty girls are being trained as teachers. Stress is laid
upon industrial work at all these institutions, and at
38 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRIC
the last yearly handicrafts exhibition over five
thousand children were present.
This district comprises many tribes grouped around
Mount Elgon who have preserved many of the most
archaic forms of Bantu speech. The principal is the
Bagisu, which has three sub-tribes. Their language
has been reduced to writing, and in it the British and
Foreign Bible Society has published some Scriptures.
Twelve miles from Kampala, situated on a low hill,
is the Gayaza Girls' High School, where native girls
of high social standing are educated and find ii, happy
combination the best elements of school and home;
with an elementary education, is combined instruction
in useful handicrafts. There is also a Normal School
at Gayaza, from which is supplied a steady stream of
trained teachers for the girls' Schools among the
Baganda. A few miles further away lies Ndeje--one
of the earliest of the stations planted in this region.
The next main route from the capital lead; to the
kingdom of Bunyoro, in which a Baganda evangelist
first preached the Gospel. The main centres are at
Hoima and Masindi. With the exception of the Cathe-
dral, Hoima has the largest Church in the Diocese,
and a Boarding School for girls. At Masind. is the
most flourishing Technical School in the Diocese, where
carpentry, furniture making, building and leather work
are chiefly taught.
The great progress of the work in Bunyoro is
mainly due to its late King, Andereya Duhaga, who
gave liberally for the advancement of Christianity in
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH
his kingdom. He supported every good work, and
his faith was expressed in his favourite phrase, No
nation is strong that is not established on the Bible."
The possession of such splendid helpers as these,
and the excellent quality of the evangelists and teachers
of Uganda, have naturally led to pioneer efforts
beyond the borders of the Protectorate. Pastors and
teachers have been sent to strengthen the Sudan
stations of Malek, Rejaf, Mongalla and Gondokoro.
It is intended to use them at all the stations
now occupied by the Gordon Memorial Mission.
This advance was methodically secured by first occu-
pying the border districts, especially those of Gulu
and Chua. In 1921 there was a mass movement here,
when five thousand were baptized, necessitating an
increase of eighty-one in the number of native workers.
The next main road from the capital south-westward
leads to the station at Mityana, fifty miles out, well
situated overlooking Lake Wamala. Here, there is
a large Central School for boys, and Day Schools for
both boys and girls; also a branch of the Mengo
Maternity Hospital and a dispensary. Co-ordinating
the whole is a well-built and flourishing Church.
Kabarole (Toro), the station farthest west, facing the
Belgian Congo, is a journey of a hundred and seventy-
five miles away. Here are Boarding Schools for
both boys and girls, and a hospital, all clustered at the
foot of the towering Ruwenzori range of mountains.
Out-stations extend in every direction, even across
the frontier river the Semliki right into the
40 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
Belgian Congo. Two days' march over the boundary
lies the pioneer station of Mboga, which recalls the
story of Apolo of the Pigmy Forest," wherein is
recounted the brave pioneer effort of Apolc Kive-
bulaya some thirty years ago. Equally brave is the
effort now being made from Kabarole to re;ich the
Bamba tribe on the heights of Ruwenzori.
There is yet another south-westerly road from the
capital running for three hundred miles, which leads
through the Mission stations of Kasaka and Kako,
some eighty miles from its starting point, situated
on the uplands overlooking Lake Victoria. Another
hundred miles onward, and Mbarara, the capital of
the Ankole kingdom, is reached.
The work here has had a remarkable record since
its commencement in g19o. In the year following,
King Kahaya and his Prime Minister were baptized,
and heathenism was publicly renounced by the second
beating of the accession drum by the king himself, and
by the burning of all charms and fetishes before the
Royal residence. To-day the Church in the kingdom
of Ankole is a flourishing one. Here is the record:
five clergy, three hundred catechists and schoolmasters,
ten thousand Christians, four thousand communicants
and twelve thousand two hundred children in the
Schools. Remarkable people these Ankole! We read
of a blind man groping his way over precipitous country
for sixty miles to take part in a Christmas service, and
of a Mission lad and a girl building with their own
hands a small Church in which they tell what they
A GROWING AFRICAN CHURCH
have learned to a hundred heathen. Going onwards
a further hundred and twenty miles to the end of
the road, Kabale, the farthest outpost of the Protec-
torate bordering on the Belgian territory of Ruanda,
is reached. From Kabale the Ruanda Mission has
planted two hundred out-stations and Schools, and
most of the village centres have been occupied. A
fine hospital crowns the hill-top on which the Mission
station is situated ; and from hence the work has been
carried southward far into the Belgian Ruanda,
until the farthest outpost of the Uganda Mission is
found four hundred miles distant from the capital,
situated on the shores of Lake Mohasi.
Kabale has quite the strongest European staff
of all the stations in the Diocese, and the native workers
number over two hundred. The first baptisms were
in 1922, since when a thousand have become Chris-
tians, and five thousand adherents. Five Boarding
Schools have been opened. Intensive language study
of the dialects of the area has been undertaken, which
will bring within the influence of the Mission the two
million inhabitants of Ruanda and Urundi who are
Thus we have seen that practically the whole
country of Uganda is being evangelized by the Church
Missionary Society; an exception must be made, how-
ever, of the West Nile District, formerly a part of
the Old Lado Enclave, and since 1912 attached to
Uganda for administrative purposes. The Africa
Inland Mission-which is co-operating with the Church
LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
Missionary Society-became responsible for this
territory under the following circumstances. It had
been labouring in the Belgian Congo for some years
among the Lugbara, Alur, Madi, and Kakwa tribes,
when there occurred a partial emigration of these
people into the Lado Enclave. The Mission, therefore,
proposed to the Bishop of Uganda to put workers
among these who would conduct their work on Church
of England lines. As the Church Missionary Society
were unable at that time to occupy the West Nile
district the proposal was agreed to. Work was initiated
in 1918, and, three years later, workers trained for
co-operation with the larger Society were located
The number of rural Schools is steadily increasing.
There were fifteen out-stations with Schools in this
district four years ago; thirty-three last year, and
to-day there are sixty-eight Many of these Schools
are in the Mohammedan area. Work has been opened
at Terego, and School work has been begun in four
neighboring centres. The most promising pupils
are sent to Arua, where there are opportunities for
more advanced education, as well as for training in
On the edge of the Mohammedan area there has
been a widespread response to the Gospel. There
are already nine out-stations in this district, with
several young men helping in each.
Missionary Activities and Social Problems
U GANDA holds a first place in East Africa in
providing medical services and hospitals. There
are hospitals in Entebbe, Kampala, Jinja, Hoima,
Mulago, and, in addition, two non-European hospitals
at Kampala, one of which is for Indians. The Govern-
ment Medical Officer has prepared a scheme for extend-
ing hospital facilities throughout the Protectorate.
" Remote districts," says Major Ormsby Gore, are
apt to be neglected, and Government tends to wait
for Missions." Medical missionary work has been
rightly held to be a pioneer agency, and as such it has
been used in Uganda.
The Church Missionary Society* in 1896 resolved
to press more earnestly the project of a fully equipped
Medical Mission for Uganda. Twenty years had now
passed since its first medical missionary-Dr. John
Smith, the friend of Mackay-had died at the Great
Lake before reaching the country. In September of
that year Dr. Albert R. Cook, with Miss Timpson
*This deals with the work of the Church Missionary Society only.
Reference is made to the medical work of Roman Catholic Missions
in the chapter devoted to them. We are indebted to Dr. A. R. Cook
for the information given here.
44 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
(afterwards Mrs. A. R. Cook), a fully trained nurse,
started with orders to found a hospital at Mengo
(Kampala). Three years later he was joined by his
brother, Dr. J. H. Cook, and for twenty years the
partnership was unbroken, until in 1920 the latter,
impaired in health, was forced to retire from the field.
From an early stage large numbers of natives
were quick to appreciate the advantages obtained by
anaesthetics, antiseptics and modern surgical procedure,
and a striking evidence of their confidence in the
mission doctor was their readiness to undergo vacci-
nation, for as early as 1897, thousands of natives
availed themselves of the protection it offered against
the scourge of smallpox.
While the central work at Mengo was developing,
dispensaries and hospitals were opened in othEr parts
of the country: Toro hospital (Kabarole), under the
shadow of the Mountains of the Moon, in 1903;
Kabale hospital, in the highland Kigezi country, two
hundred and ninety miles south-west of Kampala, in
1920 ; and finally, N'gora hospital, a hundred and
fifty miles east of Kampala, was opened in 1)22.
After twenty years passed in extension and con-
solidation, it was felt that the time was ripe for a
great forward move-the establishment of Training
Schools for young men and women, in connection with
the Mengo hospital, and the development of the
Maternity Training School.
These measures were urged upon the Mission about
the year 1918 by serious public necessities The
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 45
Administrator, examining the vital statistics of the
people, saw that the excess of deaths over births had
been maintained for several years, and there were
well-grounded fears that the Baganda, a strong, virile
nation, was in danger of dying out. The contributing
causes were many. Sleeping sickness in the early years
of the century had swept off a quarter of a million in
their prime; thousands of carriers employed in the
Great War had perished from dysentery, smallpox,
cerebro-spinal fever, and tick fever; and a greater
number than from all of these causes were dying all
over the country from venereal disease. Add to this,
pre-natal disease, and the terrible infant mortality at
child-birth, due to ignorance, dirt and superstition,
and the gravity of the situation is apparent.
The Government was fully alive to the danger,
and, in conjunction and consultation with the mis-
sionary bodies, embarked on a three-fold policy:
(a) Intensive anti-venereal work.
(b) Maternity and child-welfare scheme.
(c) Education in hygiene, on the basis of character
In all of these the Mengo hospital took an important
part, and the second line of approach was for some
years solely committed to it.
Mrs. A. R. Cook was released from her hospital
work to launch this important venture, but the initial
difficulties were many, such as the lack of suitable
candidates for training, the problem of providing
46 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICa
buildings and equipment, the need of Government
legislation for the creation of a Central Midwives'
Board with an annual examination for its certificate,
and along with all these went the urgent necessity of
enlisting the help and sympathy of the people them-
selves in the work. Temporary quarters were found
in the hospital, and the first six students enrolled in
January, 1919, one of them being the daughter of
the native Prime Minister, Sir Apolo Kagwa.
An appeal for five thousand pounds to (rect a
permanent Training Institution was made, and Uganda
contributed practically the entire sum-less than
fifteen pounds came from England, and the Govern-
ment gave the last thousand pounds. Among tle first
contributors were the two Roman Catholic Bishops,
and many settlers and employers of labour. The
building was named the Lady Coryndon Maiernity
Training School, as a tribute to the wife of tile late
Sir Robert Coryndon, at that time Governor of Uganda,
who took a deep interest in the proceedings.
At the present time over fifty students have passed
their qualifying examination, and more than twenty
centres have been occupied.
The work of the Medical School attached io the
hospital has so far not had such a remarkable develop-
ment, but its prospects are bright. The School was
commenced largely through the efforts of Dr. Ernest
Cook, who started with seventeen students in 1917.
Only four, however, of these, after a three 'ears'
course, passed the qualifying examination. These
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 47
have done excellent work, three of them with the
Government, and one at the hospital at Kabale.
Difficulties owing to shortage of staff have hampered
the work, and in 1924 the Government started their
own scheme at Makerere. With their practically un-
limited resources they are attempting higher medical
education, but so far they have only seven or eight
students in residence.
Hence there is still need for the Mission Medical
School, and in January, 1926, it was re-opened under
the superintendence of Dr. R. Y. Stones, who has had
much experience in training boys, and in African
Nothing has been said so far of the spiritual work
of the hospital, but, convinced themselves by happy
personal experience of the untold joy that comes
from belief in, and union with Christ as Saviour and
Lord, the Medical Staff strive to hand on the blessings
they have received to others, and in innumerable
instances the seed sown has sprung up unto Eternal
Education in Uganda," writes Mr. H. O. Savile,*
" which has been such a conspicuous feature of the
work of the Missions from the earliest days, has been
wisely coupled with industrial training. . The
We are indebted to Mr. H. O. Savile, Superintendent of Technical
Studies in Uganda, for a useful statement on Government education
which is quoted here.
48 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
principle has always been recognized by the Missions,
that there could be no great advance in t ie social
life and standard of civilization of the peoples of
this Protectorate, without the provision of a large body
of indigenous skilled labourers, because the cost of
imported craftsmen is prohibitive to the native."
To Alexander Mackay the country owes the
inception of this principle, and to the Missions, both
Church Missionary Society and Roman Catholic, it
is indebted for the training of large numbers cf skilled
and semi-skilled labourers who have not only supplied
to a very large degree the needs of their own tribes,
but have been of immense value in the development
of the outlying districts, as the Administration pushed
out from Buganda proper to the confines of the
During the troubled years of the early history of
the Mission, little educational progress was possible.
When peace came in 1898, Miss Chadwick was able
to start a School for adults and children, and the
following year Mr. C. W. Battersley started a Boys'
In twenty-five years the work has grown to its
present dimensions, where in six hundred institutions
with 932 teachers, 1oo,ooo boys and 65,000 girls are
The demand for education has steadily grown during
these years. Buildings were easily built, of grass
mostly, and quickly filled. Naturally, the greatestt
need has been that of trained native teachers. Money
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 49
for equipment was also needed, and a qualified Euro-
pean staff. The problem was faced, and a Board of
Education was formed on which sat the Prime Minister
and many leading Chiefs." The financial problem was
serious, as the Church Missionary Society could not
provide money for education, and not till 1918 was a
long-requested thousand pounds provided. This, too,
was at a time when there were eighty-five thousand
scholars-only nine years ago.
In fact," says the Rev. W. B. Gill,* the Secretary
for Education of the Native Anglican Church of
Uganda, "up to three or four years ago practically
the whole burden of financing the Schools rested on
the Native Church, the European Staff being, however,
supported by the Church Missionary Society."
In the Report on Education in East Africa,
prepared by Dr. Jesse Jones, we read : An educational
system which branches out into the whole Protec-
torate has been brought into being in co-operation
with the Native Chiefs, but without any supervision
from the Colonial Government, and until recently
without any financial support. It is an educational
achievement of which Missions can legitimately be
The handicap on this work has been too great
for the results to be wholly good. There are obvious
bad results which even our critics could not have
prevented had they had the problem to deal with.
The facts used in this chapter and quotations made, are from a
manuscript contributed for this Survey by the Rev. W. B. Gill.
50 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
But the good results are obvious too, indeed they are
The great mass of the younger people in the
Protectorate can now read. Most of the Native leaders
in the country have been substantially helped by the
Schools, the younger Chiefs almost entirely so. Many
of our teachers have taken up important posts in
Government service, or in business firms, and some
three thousand are busy at work in the Schools of
the Native Anglican Church .... A visit to the Indus-
trial School in Bunyoro, the Agricultural School in
N'gora, the Annual Industrial Exhibition in Bukedi,
or the School Guild in Namirembe, will provide
abundant evidence of real education."
One has not mentioned the moral and spiritual
results, but it is well known that all our Schools are
Mission Schools, the Bible is a daily text-book, prayer
begins and ends every day, and we are always first
Government has only recently realized its obli-
gations for native education, but now it is taking an
increasing part. The Mission Schools have recently
got Government grants.
This indeed," says the Rev. W. B. Gill, in con-
cluding his statement on the educational situation,
" is very welcome help, but the claims upon us for
more buildings, more equipment, more staff and greater
efficiency, are still overwhelming, as will readily be
seen when it is realized that the greater number of our
Schools are built of temporary materials and the
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 51
number of our scholars exceed 150,ooo. The next ten
years should see these claims met."
In addition to providing grants in aid, Government
is desirous of more closely co-operating with Missions
in the work of education.
Since the war, as Mr. H. O. Savile points out:
" Government decided to take up seriously the training
of native skilled labourers, and as soon as the Develop-
ment Loan was issued a large sum was set aside for
In pursuance of this object a Technical School
was started at Makerere, near Kampala, in 1921.
In 1923 an Education Department was formed, with
a Director of Education. Developments are to be
expected. In 1927 a new Technical School is to be
built so as to allow of the separation of the trades
teaching from the vocational section, and to extend
the whole work."
The trades to be taught," continues Mr. Savile,
"include carpentry, bricklaying, fitting and turning,
motor mechanics, blacksmithing, tinsmithing and sheet
metal working, and later it is hoped to extend to
plastering and stone masonry and any other trades
required by the country."
It is hoped that once this School has proved itself,
a series of such Schools in the other provinces may
From this we see that training in the practical side
of handicraft will henceforth be mainly the work of
Government. Missions will be free to develop the
52 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
educational possibilities of handicraft without the
complications attendant on too close relationship
with the economic life of the Protectorate.
So far the financial share of Government in educa-
tion has been small, but it contemplates spending
up to Ioo,ooo during a five-year period from January,
1926, on Government educational buildings.
The educational work of Roman Catholic Missions
has been almost on the same scale and of the same
nature as that of the Native Anglican Church. A
comparison will be made of the relative extent of the
Anglican and Roman Catholic work later. It should
be noted, however, that practically all the educational
work in Uganda is under the two Churches referred
It is obvious, therefore, that with the rapidly
growing wealth of Uganda, Government will be able
to take up most of the responsibility for education,
as well as for medical work. Where, then, is the sphere
for Missions ? In medicine, pioneer work will be
called for, for a long time; the great need of Mission
work here is to be mobile. In education, religious
education will be always required, whatever the
condition of secular education may be, and rural
education will still be largely the work of Missions.
The challenge in both directions, which has aroused
Government to action came from Missions, and the
continued challenge will still come as Missions go to
the outlying rural and mountainous districts and
reveal their great needs also.
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 53
In addition to medical and educational problems,
there are other matters which profoundly affect the
development of Uganda.
The question of land-holding has to be settled. In
Buganda there are seven thousand holders of freehold
rights; these rights are hereditary. The paramount
chiefs or kings also hold hereditary rights in land.
There are problems in land-holding in the other pro-
vinces which will tax the wit of Government to settle.
It is interesting to note that the country owes its
greatest source of wealth to the work of a missionary.
This is described by Mr. Savile as follows : It is to
Mr. K. E. Borup, a Church Missionary Society mis-
sionary, who was then in charge of the Church Mis-
sionary Society Industrial Mission, that the country
owes the inception of the great cotton-growing industry
which has been the principal agent in the advancement
of this country, and the one means by which the
Government and the Natives have acquired the
wealth-without which advance would have been slow
indeed, compared with the wonderfully rapid progress
of the last decade."
The development of an economic crop like cotton
depends greatly on increased transport facilities.
Cotton to the value of L2,000,000 is sent annually to
Manchester. So far the roads and steamers have been
equal to the task. But when it is remembered that
only three million acres are cultivated, and thirty-seven
million acres are still uncultivated, future requirements
54 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
can be guessed at. The Ripon Falls suggest a possiblee
source of power; the splendid waterways are an
unrivalled means of cheap transport ; the road system
so far is the best in East Africa; a railway exists.
The district between the Nile and Kenya frontierr
produces three-quarters of the present cotton supply,
and a new railway is being constructed from Turbo
in Kenya to Tororo (seventy-five miles), and thence
to Mbulamuti, via M'bale, to meet increasing demands.
Next to cotton comes coffee, especially in tl e Toro
and Bunyoro districts, where European planters have
developed it. Europeans also grow rubber in the
east of Buganda. Rice is grown in the great swamps,
but the main food crop in Buganda is the banana.
Another potential source of wealth is in the :orests,
which have not been developed, but are said to
contain a hundred million cubit feet of Muvle," a
good, hard, heavy wood.
The rapid development of cotton production in
fifteen years has brought about great social and eco-
nomic changes. Owing to the high price obtained for
it, scarcity of labour for all other purposes has re.;ulted.
This is the great problem. The natives are quite
content to devote all their time to their cotton crop,
so that even ginning is very difficult. The later is
mostly in the hands of Indians. To bring labour from
the western districts raises very difficult problems,
and meanwhile every public work seriously suffers.
The bulk of the cotton is grown by small growers,
who raise an acre of cotton and an acre of foodstuffs.
MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 55
They are not thrifty, but spend their money on im-
ported goods, and go on living in the old insanitary
The problem of drunkenness is also serious. Im-
ported spirits are forbidden, but native spirits are
manufactured. The sudden increase of wealth has its
dark side, and lays the natives open to new temptations
and creates new social problems.
Eleven-twelfths of the country lie undeveloped,
and the population is only very slowly increasing.
The principal cause of this slow increase, as has been
noted, is venereal disease. It is more deadly even than
The Missions which have been more active and
more widespread in Uganda than in any other part of
tropical Africa, have, in spite of great efforts, so far
failed adequately to impress the population with the
moral aspect of this question. The doctors . have
in many cases found their efforts negatived by the lack
of any sense of moral responsibility in this matter."*
A sidelight on the effect of the great uncultivated
areas upon the agriculturist is the devastation caused
by elephants. Not only does the tsetse-fly flourish in
uncultivated, tropical areas, but also these larger pests.
There are nearly ten thousand elephants in the western
territory, and they are specially numerous between
the Nile and Lake Albert. The elephant hunter,
therefore, is a real social benefactor in the life of
the Uganda villager.
Report of the East Africa Commission (1925), page 144.
Roman Catholic Missions
T HREE Roman Catholic Missions are at work in
Uganda-the White Fathers' Mission, the Mill
Hill Mission, and the Italian Catholic Mission.
The White Fathers' Mission, otherwise known as
the Society of the Missionaries of Africa, was founded
in 1868 by Archbishop C. M. Lavigerie, of Algiers.
It is an organization of secular priests who live in
common, and who are bound by a vow to consecrate
themselves to Mission work in Africa in accordance
with the Constitution of the Society. In addi-ion to
the Priests, there are Lay-Brothers, who give instruc-
tion in agricultural and technical work. Subjects of
all nationalities are accepted as members of the Mission.
Work was begun in Uganda in 1878, and has been
developing and extending ever since, with th( short
break already mentioned. An important feature of
their district work is the presence of dispensaries at all
the more important stations. All the Priests go through
a practical medical course during their novitiate.
Elementary School work is widely extended, and
the greater part of the one thousand, six hundred
Roman Catholic Elementary Schools belong t- this
Mission. There is a High School and College a: Villa
Maria, and High Schools at Kampala (Rubaga), Kitovu,
Bwanda and Toro. Normal Schools are found at Bikira,
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
and Bwanda, and a similar School for the training of
women teachers at Villa Maria.
At Kisubi and Bukalasa, in the Buganda Province,
there are Industrial Schools, where carpentry, building,
brick and tile-making, wheelwright and blacksmith work
and boat-making are taught. Carpentry and building
are taught at Fort Portal in the Western Province.
The Mission Educational Secretary explains their
policy thus : For those who are quick and intelligent
two roads are open-the College for training the Clergy,
and the High Schools. Bukalasa has a Seminary with
a six years' course and a hundred and twenty pupils,
and Katigondo, a ten years' course and forty-five
pupils. The sons of Chiefs and other well-gifted boys
are given an opportunity of higher education in the
High Schools. Three residential Schools at Nandiri,
Kitovu and Toro are supervised by European mis-
sionaries. The best boys from these are further trained
at St. Mary's College, Kisubi. Thus in these four
residential institutions two hundred and thirty-five
selected boys have been trained."
The White Sisters also form part of the Society,
and have under their supervision the Association of
the Native Sisters at Villa Maria, where girls undergo
a novitiate of two years. They also have charge of
Girls' Schools and Women's Dispensaries.
A Community of Sisters of the Society of Marie
Rdparatrice was established at Entebbe in 1913, which,
in addition to having Schools for Goanese and Africans,
has a dispensary for women's diseases.
58 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
The Gospels, the Acts and several other books of
the Bible have been translated and published in
There is a Printing Press at Bukalasa, where
various School books and a small monthly ver acular
paper are published.
The Mission has twenty-two central stations
throughout three of the four Provinces.
The Mill Hill Mission.-This Mission works in what
is called the Upper Nile Vicariate, which was esta-
blished in 1894. The Mission is composed of the Fathers
of St. Joseph's Missionary Society, a body of secular
Priests, founded in 1866 by the late Cardinal VaLghan.
The headquarters of the Mission are at St. Joseph's
College, Mill Hill, London. The first Vicar Apostolic,
the Right Rev. Bishop Henry Hanlon, arrived in
Uganda in 1895.
The Sisters are of the Franciscan Order from
St. Mary's Abbey, Mill Hill.
There are well-equipped hospitals attached :o the
Convents at Nsambya, Nagalama and Kamul, and
dispensaries are found at all the Mission station ns.
There is a good High School for Boys at Nsambya,
and an Intermediate Residential School at Namilyango.
Eight other Higher Day Schools are carried )n in
addition to a widespread system of Elementary Schools
with over 13,000 boys and 5,000 girls. A Boys' Normal
School at Nazigo prepares teachers; it has accommro-
dation for one hundred students.
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
This Mission has twenty-one chief stations in
Uganda and extends into Kenya Colony.
The Italian Catholic Mission works in the northern
part of the Protectorate. It has erected substantial
brick Churches at Gulu, its headquarters, at Kitgum
in Chua, and in the West Nile district. It has recently
opened a residential High School at Gulu, where there
is also an Industrial School, in which carpentry and
building, brick-making, blacksmithing and boot-
making are taught.
Elementary Schools are encouraged throughout
its field. Each of these Schools, with the exception of
Moya, has been placed under a Sister (trained teacher),
assisted by native teachers.
This Mission has central stations at Arua, Ngal,
Moya, Gulu and Kitgum.
These three Missions have seven Boarding Schools
and twenty-one Day Schools for higher education,
with 1,338 pupils, as compared with the Church
Missionary Society's fifteen Boarding Schools and
thirty-two Day Schools, with 5,713 scholars.
In Primary education, according to the Government
Report, the situation is as follows:
No. of i No. of
No. of No. of No. of European Native
Schools. s. Girls. Teachers. Teachers.
Anglican .. .. 1,607 63,854 41,536 7 1,882
Roman Catholic .. 1,587 40,700 25,871 9 2,162
Non-Mission .. .. 12 608 33 24
Grand Total .. 3,206 105,162 67,440 16 4,068
60 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
During 1925 the educational activities of the various
Missionary Societies in the country were brought t
under the supervision of the Education Department.
10o,8oo was allotted in grants to these Societies.
Apart from the money spent on Government edu-
cational buildings and the grants made to Missions
for the construction of educational buildings, 24,000
was spent by Government in native education during
In forming an estimate of the religious s tuation
due to the almost equal growth and present strength
of the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches in
Uganda, it will help us if we look at the table on page
o08, based on the Census Report of 1921.
In the Buganda Province the Christians form
slightly more than half the population ; while of this
Christian population the Roman Catholics are in the
majority (51 per cent.). The Baganda tribe (6r3,538),
form the largest element in the population here, and
of these 355,433 are Christians, the Roman Catho-
lics being in the majority (204,681). The Moslems
form about ten per cent. of the population of the
In the Eastern Province occupation is much weaker.
There are only 6.3 per cent. Christians (68,127) out
of the total population (1,013,710). The Pro estants
form seventy-two per cent. of the total Christians.
In the district of Lango only one per c(nt. are
Christians, the Protestants forming eighty-one per
cent. (1,887) of the Christian community (2,217).
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
In this Province the strongest tribe is the Bateso
(255,049), of which 14,676 are Christians, the Protes-
tants numbering II,ooo. The Basoga people (212,023)
have 12,374 Christians, three-quarters of whom are
Protestants. Progress has been slow among the Lango
people (207,120), there being only 2,114 Christians.
Among the Bagishu there are 16,775 out of a population
of 141,121. The Moslem population is small, being
only 1.3 per cent.
In the Western Province the percentage of Christians
is a little higher than in the Eastern Province, but
only by one per cent. (7.3 per cent.). Here, however,
the Roman Catholics are in the majority with fifty-
four per cent. (23,477) of the total Christians (42,297).
Of the three districts of Toro, Ankole and Kigezi, the
Roman Catholics are in the majority in the first two
(56 per cent.), but the Protestants are in the majority
in Kigezi District, where 1,584 out of the total 2,441
Christians are Protestants. The total number of
Christians in Kigezi is, however, about the lowest
in Uganda, being only 1.1 per cent. of the population.
The largest tribe in the Western Province is the
Banyankole (237,008), and of these there are 22,769
Christians (Roman Catholics, 12,759). There are only
2,000 Christians among the next largest tribe-the
Bakiga (117,944). The Batoro (95,864) has 13,457
Christians (Roman Catholics, 8,147). Amongst the
Baganda (15,558) there are 3,598 Christians, 1,900 of
whom are Protestants. The Moslem population of this
Province is only one per cent.
62 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
In the Northern Province we find the smallest pro-
portion of Christians in the Protectorate, 3.6 per cent.
only, of whom the Roman Catholics form fift,'-three
per cent. The Roman Catholics are in the majority
in all the districts except Bunyoro, where the
Protestants form fifty-two per cent. of the Clristian
population of 10,255. Most of the Christians are from
among the Banyoro people. There are only 351 Chris-
tians in Chua District (or .45 per cent.), which is the
lowest in Uganda. There are more Moslem;, than
Christians here (.6 per cent.). The West Nile Iistrict
also has a small number (1,959), or one per cent. Most
of the Christians are connected with Roman Catholic
work among the Aluru (54,786). Work is also being
done among the Lugwari, where there are 643 Chris-
tians, the majority of whom are Roman Catholics.
In this Province most of the Protestants are found
among the Banyoro (97,931), numbering 5,308 out
of a total of 10,314 Christians. Among the Acholi,
the largest tribe (115,253), there are only 2,135
Christians (70 per cent. Roman Catholics). The work
in this Province is the smallest in Uganda.
Taking the Uganda Protectorate as a whole w e find
there are 18.3 per cent. Christians and 3.4 per cent.
Moslems, the remainder (2,227,199) being pagan.
The total Christian community in 1921 was 522,536.
It is estimated that the Christian population is now
about 700,000. This latter figure is in the proportion
of one to four of the population, which represenTs the
progress of the work when compared, say with Nigeria,
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
where we find about 700,000 Christians out of 18,631,442
or one in twenty-seven of the population.
The greatest number of Christians is amongst the
Baganda (639,417), where fifty-six per cent. (363,028)
of this tribe are Christians ; of these fifty-one per cent.
(184,203) are Roman Catholics. The next most Chris-
tian tribe is the Banyoro (208,337), where we find
34,337 Christians, of whom 19,ooo are Roman Catholics.
Among the Banyankole (237,894) there are 22,874
Christians, of which 12,803 are Roman Catholics.
Thus the Roman Catholics are in the majority in the
three most Christian tribes.
On the other hand, among the Bateso (255,051);
the Basoga (214,418), and the Bagishu (141,121);
the Protestants form sixty-nine per cent. of the
The Lango, Bakiga and Acholi, for tribes over
ioo,ooo, are poorly occupied; in each case there are
about 2,ooo Christians, the Protestant Christians
being somewhat in excess of the Roman Catholics.
The Roman Catholic and Protestant communities
are, therefore, practically equal, and found together
in almost all districts. The Protestants are in the
majority in eight districts, and the Roman Catholics
in seven. In spite of this, the Roman Catholics are in
the majority in three of the four Provinces. There
are twenty-eight per cent. Catholics in the fourth
The importance of this must be noted when schemes
of co-operation in education with Government come
64 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
to be considered. As stated above, nationally, there is
practical equality; provincially the Roman Catholics
have the majority in three Provinces ; and when it
comes to districts, the Protestants are strongest in
eight and the Roman Catholics in seven districts.
As Government is neutral and must hold the
balance even, and as most of the education is still in
the hands of the Missions, things may be e pected
to proceed smoothly in the beginning. Government
is well disposed, and there is good feeling between
the two Missions, but educational policies will sooner
or later clash. The fact remains that three policies
in education will have to be united into one and
definitely controlled by Government. Education must
eventually pass out of the hands of the Missions.
Missions meanwhile may influence the formation of
the Government policy while it is in the making.
The carrying out of that policy, however, is wholly a
Government matter, and, judging by the experience
of India, Missions will have little real say when the
Government becomes, as it must, the strongest factor
in the situation. This has to be borne in I ind in
planning for the future Christian education of Uganda's
In view of this religious and educational situation,
it is of great interest to note how it impre sses an
actual observer. The Rev. H. Gresford Jones says :*
" In every district you may meet the Roman mis-
sionaries-English, Irish, Canadian, French, Italian,
Uganda in Transformation (pp. 221-7).
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
Austrian, Dutch. Making every reduction you may
wish, every concession to jealousy, prejudice, or mis-
representation that may suit your mood, the fact still
confronts you that here is evidence of an immense
missionary crusade. Here, whatever you make of its
presentation, is Christianity in occupation and in
operation. The problem is not domestic or racial;
it is profoundly religious. What is to be our attitude
as members of the Anglican communion to these
representatives of the Church of Rome ? Our com-
parative indifference to the Romish question in England
must not deafen us to the insistence of the problem
overseas. Taking, for example, equatorial Africa alone,
the White Fathers' Mission . has already some six
hundred Priests at a hundred and twenty different
stations, grouped under eleven vicariates, and this
is only one of the Missions at work in Uganda. Two
Roman Cathedrals rise on opposite hills even in Kam-
pala .... In Uganda, according to the Census of 1921,
out of 1,269 Europeans, 286 are tabulated as mis-
sionaries, of whom close on 200 must be Roman
In earlier days an experiment was made in the
direction of what is termed missionary comity. Accord-
ing to this principle, widespread in its operation between
Evangelical bodies, each Missionary Society will confine
its ministrations to a definite geographical area.
The strong position of the Roman Catholics at Villa
Maria in Budo (the Namirembe of the White Fathers)
is a trace of this earlier experiment initiated by Govern-
66 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
ment after the troublous years 1885-94. It is an
obvious solution, yet one little calculated to succeed
in practical working, for the plain reason tha: to the
ultramontane theologian Protestantism is all one with
From the religious point of view the difficulty
is so great that it is always challenging an answer.
'Can it be right '-I quote the question in th. words
of a Belgian administrator, himself a devout Roman
Catholic-' can it be right to present to child races
a warring element among Europeans in the pres nation
of their religion ? '"
What is to be the attitude between those two
world-wide forces-Romanism and Anglicanis ? . .
This is one of the most pressing of missionary pro-
blems. If past history has of necessity embittered
rather than tempered the animosity between them,
has modern philosophy, has the transformation of
human society out of the Great War, nothing different
to offer ? What is impossible is to undo past history.
Uganda has its ineffaceable memories of past wrongs.
What is impossible is to minimise genuine differences.
Differences that have cleft asunder congregations,
families and nations, cannot be minimised. . What
is possible is at least to let in more light and more love.
Even to-day, in this age of toleration, each cf these
two vast ecclesiastical organizations stands veiled from
the other in an almost impenetrable cloud thai seems
only to lift at intervals sufficient to disclose each
other's demerits. Rome's attitude seems to be one
W au A j-.-
o Tonj nA n
Lau Post 4
B A3' E L -^G OHA ALy
,, *' 1 0 cjE S
A N G L 0 EG Y
^0 \ N 0 R? L
SZ A N P E
It \\ 6
ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS
almost entirely of arrogance, ours of independence.
What at least seems to possess the sanction of divine
approval is that Christians, owning the same divine
Head, should intelligently try to gauge each other's
best output for the world's good."
Miss Gollock, commenting on this statement, well
says :* We leave it at that. The question must some
day have an answer-it may come from the Mission
field, perhaps from Uganda.... Meanwhile, God holds
us all in His love and truth."
* International Review of Missions, p. 249 (April, 1927).
The Bible in Uganda
BY THE REV. R. KILGOUR, D.D.
T HE first sentences of Scripture ever written in
the language of Uganda were dictated not by a
missionary, but by a traveller, in order to give a
heathen king some idea of the Christian religion. What
a noble picture could be painted of this historic scene !
H. M. Stanley and King M'tesa would be the centre of
the group. In the Englishman's hand is Bishop Steere's
version of St. Matthew in Swahili, the principal speech
of the coast. The Bible Society had published this
translation in 1869. Ere Stanley left on his great
adventure, David Livingstone's sister handed him a
copy. He had to part with it shortly after he reached
Uganda, for King M'tesa sent special messengers two
hundred miles to bring it back as the traveller was
leaving the country. Each one of these lin s has its
fascinating interest ; but to return to ou picture.
By Stanley's side there would be painted one of his
boat's crew, Robert Feruzi, an African boy once in
school at Zanzibar with the Universities' Mission to
Central Africa. The traveller often used Robe rt to read
Swahili and help in explaining Christian ideas to the
inquisitive king. Together they made wh t Stanley
describes as an abridged Bible in Ki-Swalili." But
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA
they were also picking up the words of the new country
they had reached. And one day when Idi, the king's
scribe, was present (he, too, would have a prominent
place in the picture), Stanley and Robert try to put
into the mother tongue of the king the words of the
Ten Commandments. Idi takes out his writing material,
and puts down, for the first time in the native speech
of Uganda, passages from God's Holy Word. The
Bible and Missions have bulked so largely in the
development of the country that it is well to be re-
minded of this early historical fact and give credit to
the noble traveller, not only for arousing the world's
interest in Uganda, but for being himself the first to
translate any part of the Book into this African tongue.
A year later, in answer to Stanley's famous appeal,
came the Church Missionary Society. And by 1880
that brilliant young Scottish engineer, Alexander M.
Mackay, had reduced the language to writing, had
printed lesson sheets on his little printing press from
wooden types he had cut with his own hands, had
translated the same Ten Commandments (there is
no record of what happened to Stanley's version),
and some Psalms into Luganda (or Ruganda as
it was first called-" Lu" is a suffix meaning "speech"),
and had begun a version of St. Matthew which was
afterwards completed with the help of his colleague,
R. P. Ashe.
Then came the troubles of 1885 described in an
earlier part of this book. Hannington was murdered
in October; and yet, in the midst of dangers and
70 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
scares," three hundred and fifty copies of :he first
sheets of St. Matthew appeared in November. In
1887, the missionaries were again driven b.1ck, but
the written word remained, St. Matthew ii Ganda
(we drop the suffix), and the New Testament in Swahili.
Before he died in 1890, Mackay had trained two
Baganda boys, Henry Wright Duta and Sembera
Mackay, to share in translation work. Duta continued
this task till he passed away, an honoured cle-gyman,
At the end of 1890, G. L. Pilkington, a _upil of
Thring of Uppingham, Assistant Master of Harrow, a
brilliant linguist, joined the Mission. With Duta as
his colleague, he completed the New Testament except
I John, which, omitted by a misunderstanding, was
translated in England by E. C. Gordon an: Mika
Sematimba, slave boy, royal page, chief of th.? king's
guard, now an elder in the Christian Church. With
the help of W. A. Crabtree, the Old Testamn1: was
completed in 1896. The books had been printed -n small
portions as they appeared, and copies of such portions
were reserved to be bound up as a whole Bib-e when
all were ready. No thought had been bestowed upon
what such a volume would look like. And nmanv in
the home country were troubled by its curiously squat
appearance-almost as broad as it was deep. (Inci-
dentally many tempers and many needles were broken
in order to have it bound at all, for there were more
than 2,500 pages to be sewn together in order to make
the volume.) But this shape did not at all disturb the
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA
people of Uganda. Indeed they found it most useful,
for it just fitted into an empty biscuit tin, a recep-
tacle which was found most convenient for preserving
the paper and binding from insects and the damp.
So the legend grew that the Bible Society in its wisdom
had contrived to produce the Holy Book in just such
a form as would fit the empty box Soon after a new
edition appeared in a much more convenient size.
Since then the version has passed through several
revisions and been printed in many forms and sizes.
The Reference Bible now in circulation is a most attrac-
tive volume. Twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand
copies of Ganda Scriptures are required every year.
The Bible Society is quite accustomed to receive an
urgent cable for more, and the reports from the country
show that the demand to-day is greater than ever.
Bishop Willis writes of the Bible as "in the forefront
of all C.M.S. work in Uganda. Every adult convert
must learn to read before being baptized. Every
candidate for baptism must possess his own New
The Bible, or some portion of it, is almost always
the first book possessed. It is often the only book.
It is read, if not always intelligently, at least constantly.
It is read, as often as not, aloud; those who cannot
themselves read, hear it. If it is too often read
slavishly, as an oracle every word of which is as
applicable to-day as on the day when it was written,
it is always invested with an authority which is
unique and final."
72 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
It is read not only privately in the homes, but
publicly and daily in 2,000 churches. It is taught in
the schools and forms the basis of the education of
over Ioo,ooo children. . .
No one can estimate what the ultimate yield
may be. . An intelligent African people, whose
potential influence on other tribes is immea:;urable,
in its most malleable stage is being moulded on the
teaching of the Bible. Not only questions of faith,
but all questions, moral, social and political, are being
brought to that touchstone. . It is forming the
thought and moulding the life of a new generation.
It is supplying a new ideal for a whole nation, and
in very many individual cases that ideal is finding
a practical expression in consistent Christian char-
It is noteworthy that Ganda is one of the languages
in which the Roman missionaries have also p- blished
their own translation of Scripture. Beginnir;g with
St. Matthew and St. Mark in 1894, they completed a
version of the Gospels and Acts in 1905. There is no
note in the Bible House records of any other portions
prepared by them.
Ganda is not the only speech spoken in the Pro-
tectorate, though it is increasingly become ig the
main form of speech. As the Mission work extended
other tribal tongues began to be used. The earliest
of such languages to possess any portion of S( ripture
was Soga, spoken in the Eastern Province, on the
north shores of Lake Victoria and east of the Nile.
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA
In 1896, St. Mark's Gospel was translated by W. A.
Crabtree and F. Rowling, assisted by Baganda teachers.
St. Matthew followed in 1897 and St. John in 1899;
but since then there has been no further publications
in Soga, as Ganda has quite taken its place.
Beyond the western border, in the forests and
valleys towards Lake Albert and up to the snowy
summit of Ruwenzori, stretches the country of the
Nyoro and the Toro. They use what is practically a
common language, somewhat alien to Ganda. The
first Christian missionary to preach to the people
living in this great region was a Buganda teacher,
Apollos Kivebulaya. At Mboga," says W. Canton,
" on the edge of the great forest, his bitter opponent,
the Chief Tabalo, accused him of murder. His innocence
was proved, and the only compensation he would accept
was freedom to continue his teaching. Then Apollos
felt the need for the Word of God for the people.
Night after night, with some sheets of paper, a piece
of blue pencil and his Ganda Testament, Apollos lay
on the ground-for chairs and tables were unknown
in the land-and translated St. Matthew by the
smoky glimmer of a fire of sticks." The version pre-
pared in such romantic circumstances was never
printed. Later on H. E. Maddox was set apart for the
Nyoro field. His version of St. Matthew was published
in 1900, and twelve years later he completed the whole
Bible with References, the only complete Bible in the
Uganda Protectorate languages besides Ganda. Over
Ioo,ooo copies of Scriptures in Nyoro have been
74 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
circulated-about a quarter of the number :ised in
Ganda. But latterly, since the kingdoms of Nyoro
and Toro have become part of the Protectorate, the
predominant language, Ganda, is supplanting the
W. A. Crabtree, whose name has appeared both
in the Ganda and the Soga sections, was appointed
to the district in the north-east of Lake Victoria
around Mount Elgon, where the people speak a tongue
called Gisu, or alternatively Masaba, as this is the
local name of the mountain. He reduced the language
to writing, and by 1904 had translated the Gospels.
These were published on his return to England that
year. In 191o the version was revised and Act' added
by his successor, W. Holden. There has been little
demand for any of these translations recently. Here,
too, Ganda is taking the place of the local :astern
Further north, in the Nile Province of the Pro-
tectorate, live a warlike people quite distinct from the
Baganda. They are the southernmost of the pagan
tribes who inhabit the Nile Valley from Lake Albert
northward to Khartoum. Their language is called
Gang, or Acholi. In 1904, Church Missionary Society
workers settled among them at a station named
Patigo. A. L. Kitching (now Bishop of the Upper
Nile) reduced their language to writing. With the help
of a convert named Sira Dongo, belonging to a kindred
tribe called Madi, he translated St. Mark's Gospel
which was published in 1905. Since then the other
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA
Gospels have been added. Over 50,000 copies of these
books have been sold.
In 1907 the Bible Society issued St. Matthew's
Gospel in Nkole, or in its full form, Lunyankole, spoken
in the south-west corner of the field. This was trans-
lated by H. Clayton. His colleague, Miss M. T. Baker,
assisted him in making a version of St. John, and
afterwards added St. Mark and St. Luke; 23,000
copies have been sold, but there have been no fresh
issues since 1918.
Returning to the eastern side of the Lake, in the
north-east of the Northern Province, there is a Nilotic
language known as Teso, in which A. L. Kitching was
also the pioneer. His version of St. Mark was published
in 1910. Since then the other Gospels, Acts, I Corin-
thians and James have all been prepared by the same
translator and published by the Bible Society. Teso
ranks third in numerical importance in the issues of
Scriptures in Uganda languages. The total is almost
Konjo, in the west, between Lake Albert and Lake
Edward, is the next in chronological order. It is
spoken by a tribe whose main habitat is in the Belgian
Congo, but who have overflowed into the Toro country.
W. E. Owen, who had learned the neighboring lan-
guage of Nkole, and had assisted in that translation,
prepared St. Mark's Gospel in Konjo in 1914. Only
one edition of I,ooo copies has been published.
Two other languages mainly spoken in the Belgian
Congo have also impinged on Uganda at the north-
76 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
east frontier, and therefore must be mentioned in any
complete list of Bible translations used in Uganda.
They are Lur, a Nilotic tongue akin to Gang, and
spoken on the north-west shores of Lake Albert;
and Lugbara, a Sudanic language spoken in the extreme
edge of the Belgian Congo, the West Nile district and
around Arua in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. In the
former language, J. O. Averill, of the Africa Inland
Mission, has translated St. John. This was pub ished
by the Bible Society in 1922. In Lugbara, St. Mark,
St. Luke, St. John, I John and James, all translated
by missionaries of the same Mission, were published
from 1922 to 1926.
Similarly at the south-west corner of the Piotec-
torate, the version of the Gospels in Ruanda, a language
alien to Nyoro and Nkole, spoken between Lake
Victoria, Lake Kiou and Lake Tanganyika, has been
used in Uganda. The translation was prepared by
missionaries of the German Evangelical Mission when
the district formed part of what was then Gei man
East Africa. The first edition was published by the
Bible Society in 1914. A reprint was issued in 923.
The version is at present being revised.
In addition to these languages actually spoken
within the present boundary of Uganda Protectorate,
Scriptures in several tongues have been circulated
among the immigrants. There is record of English,
Swahili and Arabic; and the growing Indian trading
community have been provided with Gospels in
Baluchi, Gujarati, Marathi, Persian, Panjabi, Nepali.
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA
Before the Bible Society work in Uganda was on its
present basis, Scriptures in Haya, Kikuyu, Sukuma,
Giryama, were despatched through the Church
Missionary Society of Uganda. No doubt, copies of
Gospels in several tongues spoken at the north-east
corner of the Belgian Congo, where it touches the
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Uganda, for example,
Zande and Logo, have found their way across the
border into the Uganda Protectorate.
All the Bible translations we have named have
been published by the British and Foreign Bible
Society, with which Uganda has been in close touch
since Stanley's famous visit. At first the arrangements
for making translations and supplying copies were
made by correspondence with individual missionaries,
but in 1897 it was found necessary to secure more
direct contact with the whole field. Revision Com-
mittees, Bible Committees, and Book Depots have
been organized and cheerfully aided by the Home
Committee. Yet it was felt that the already heavily
burdened missionaries could not be expected to carry
on so much Bible work in addition to their own tasks.
Joseph Mackertich, an Armenian, was therefore sent
to Uganda as a sub-Agent of the Bible Society, working
under the Secretary at Alexandria. In 1899 T. F.
Shaw was appointed British and Foreign Bible Society
Secretary for Uganda. In 1904 C. G. Phillips undertook
the duties of Business Agent. For the first time Uganda
has a separate portion to itself in the Bible Society
Report of 1906. In 1916 W. J. W. Roome was appointed
LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
Secretary for East Central Africa with Uganda as one
of the principal parts of his field. W. E. Hoyle of the
Diocesan Bookshop, Kampala, kindly helps in the
distribution to the various local book depot and
other centres. The following figures of sales through
the Uganda Bible Committee show the marvellous
increase : 1908, 216 ; 1914, 604; 1922, 2,304;
The total circulation of Scriptures in Uganda
now amounts to over 735,000 copies, of which the
principal are : Ganda, 430,846 ; Nyoro, 114,641 ;
Teso, 91,764; Nkole, 23,448.
An Appendix to this chapter gives a chronological
survey of the growth of Bible translation in the
THE BIBLE IN UGANDA 79
BIBLE TRANSLATION IN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN
1886 .. Ganda .. Matthew I.-XIII.
1887 .. Ganda .. Matthew.
1891 .. Ganda .. John.
1892 .. Ganda .. New Testament (except 1 John).
1893 .. Ganda .. New Testament, Exodus, Joshua.
1894 .. Ganda Genesis, Psalms, Daniel.
1896 Ganda Bible.
Soga.. .. Mark.
1897 Soga .. Matthew.
1899 Soga .. John.
1900 .. Nyoro .. Matthew.
1901 Nyoro .. Gospels.
1902 .. Nyoro .. Psalms, Acts.
1904 Gisu .. Gospels.
1905 .. Nyoro .. New Testament.
S Gang .. Mark.
1906 Gang Matthew.
1907 .. Nkole .. Matthew.
-Gang .. Luke, John.
1910 .. Nkole .. John.
-Teso .. Mark.
1911 Teso.. .. Luke.
1912 .. Nyoro .. Bible.
1914 .. Konjo Mark.
Teso.. .. John.
-Ruanda .. Gospels.
1915 .. Nkole .. Mark, Luke.
1920 .. Teso.. .Acts.
1922 .. Lur .. .John.
S Lugbara .. Mark.
1926 Lugbara .. Luke, John, 1 John, James.
At the first mention of a language in this list, the name is printed
in Clarendon type.
Nursing a Nation
IT takes a long time to rebuild a country, and to
rejuvenate a morally broken people. To redeem
the dying is a far harder task than to nurture the
living. After the Mahdi had finished with the Sudan,
there was little left of the stuff of which nations are
built. There was no man-power worth the name;
half the population had perished by battle and disease,
nor were the two millions which remained of much
use to the country. Fifteen years"of devilry in the
name of God had unfitted them to'plough an acre,
or to organize a city. After Omdurman was won on
September 2nd, 1898, they wandered over a vast
territory of more than a hundred square miles-two
or three to the square mile-a morally bankrupt
humanity, moving in a welter of unmitigated chaotic
The care of this shattered people, and their slow
convalescence into renewed moral health, has taxed
the head and the heart of those whom the great Father
appointed to nurse them.
The Sudanese are now feeling lusty again; they
have been set in the way of reproductive work by the
administrator, tamed by the schoolmaster, and taught
to pray by the missionary. In short, they have regained
their sanity and their health. They are striving to
84 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
forget the things which are behind, and reaching
forward to the things which are before. Best of all,
they are willing to learn, and ready to work--manly
qualities in a backward people worthy of our respect.
During the first five months of this year the Sudanese
have surpassed themselves, importing goods to the
value of E.*46o,816, and exporting to the value of
E.I,246,83o more than for the corresponding period
of last year-a gain of eighteen per cent. and thirty-
five per cent. respectively.
These trade returns mean much to the men of the
governing race; they indicate the measure of success
achieved in educating their proteges in a new way of
life. They show that the various tribes of the territory
instead of continuing the old game of pillaging their
neighbours' belongings, lifting their cattle or carrying
off their women, are now learning the new western
game of trade rivalry. This involves keeping the trade
routes open and safe, the development of rail and
river transport, increasing the telegraph and telephone
services, and perfecting the arts of husbandly and
Without doubt the Sudanese can do far better
still, for they possess most valuable assets. They
control the world's chief supply of gum arab'c and
ivory. Of the first commodity they exported in 1923
E.I,oo6,623. Then in the matter of cotton the Gezira
irrigation scheme, by means of the Sennar dam (on the
Blue Nile at Makwar, about 170 miles south of Khar-
* The Egyptian pound is practically the same as the English pound.
NURSING A NATION
toum), will permit of Ioo,ooo acres being put under
cotton annually, with unlimited scope for extension.
In addition, considerable and increasing quantities of
high-grade long-staple American cotton are produced
in the northern provinces of Berbera and Dongola
under irrigation, and as a rain crop in the Blue Nile,
Kassala, Upper Nile and Kordofan Provinces. More-
over, the new Kassala railway, which connects with
the main Nile-Red Sea railway, is designed to
exploit the cotton lands of the Gash Delta, which,
when fully developed, are capable of producing, with
relatively little expense on irrigation works, at least
ioo,ooo bales of good Egyptian cotton per annum."
The cattle and sheep trade of the Sudan is likewise
capable of great development. Egypt for a long time
has looked to it for her main meat supply. Then the
forests which line the Blue Nile river banks are rich
in fibres and tanning materials.
On the White Nile grow valuable trees such as the
ebony tree, the gum acacia, the bamboo, and the rubber
creeper; whilst the Sudd area in the upper reaches
contains an inexhaustible quantity of papyrus.
Gold is being successfully worked at Gabait in the
Red Sea Province. Gold mines should be capable of
development, for the ancients found that Um-Nabardi
gold was good more than 2,000 years ago, and the
Arab invaders of the Middle Ages here enriched them-
selves also. Natural salt fields on the Red Sea Coast
near Port Sudan supply the whole needs of the country,
and considerable quantities are exported to Abyssinia.
86 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
More important still is the question of rubber culti-
vation in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region. It is all a question
of adequate native labour, otherwise there is no reason
why rubber should not rank with gum arabic as a
source of national wealth. The rubber plant -hrives
in the bush lands of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, all it requires
is a chance to grow by keeping the ground clean of
rank bush grass.
The transport and communications of the country
keep abreast of its material development. The line
from Wadi Halfa to Khartoum, with branch connec-
tions to Port Sudan, to Kareima in Dongola province,
and on to Sennar and El Obeid, has recently been added
to by the line from Kassala to Thamiam-217 n iles of
new track. The territory is linked by telegraph with
Egypt, Eritrea and Abyssinia; there are eleven wire-
less stations, 4,254 miles of telegraph line and seventy-
seven Post and Telegraph offices.
These are the things which are now interesting the
sons of the men who fought Kitchener and killed
Gordon. To-day, they sit with serious mien in well-
appointed railway carriages which run over the 1,8oo
miles of well-laid track, or travel luxuriously in the
saloons of the Government steamers, which navigate
the Nile and its tributaries between Assuan and Rejaf.
Gordon's statue, standing in the centre of Khartoum,
faces this new Sudan. The Christian idealist who loved
so truly the people of this land, surely has seen of the
travail of his soul and is satisfied.
The production, conservation and training of a
NURSING A NATION
population commensurate with the area and importance
of the country is the most vitally important matter
at the moment. Since the British occupation, it has
trebled and now numbers nearly six millions. Chris-
tian missions, by means of the Church, school, hospital
and dispensary, are helping to achieve this object,
by disciplining the strong, and fortifying the weak.
Epidemics are now rare, and infant mortality has
been enormously reduced. The fear of God, which is
the beginning of wisdom, is gradually putting a soul
into the nation. The human material is good and
interestingly diverse, falling into three main racial
In the northern deserts roam the nomadic Hamites
or Bejas and the Arabs. In the central region are found
the Arabs, Nubas and Negroids, while the south is
peopled by pure Negroes.
The Bejas-who are found in the Atbai desert and
about Kassala in the Eastern Sudan-are composed
of the Bisharin, Hadendowa, and Kawahla.
A formidable figure the Bisharin looks seated on
his camel, a sharp spear raised above his shield, and
a look of fearlessness gleaming from his dark, intelli-
gent eyes. The Hadendowa roam the region between
the Atbara river and the sea, south of the Berber-
Suakin road. The Kawahla of the Blue Nile are semi-
In the central region, across the wide plains of
Kordofan and the provinces of the Blue and White
Niles, roam the Baggara, the Kababish and the
68 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
Hamar. The first of these derive their name from the
Arabic word Bakara," meaning a cow, which indicates
wherein their tribal wealth consists. Doughty fighters
these Baggara! They were the military arm of the
Mahdi, and upon them his Khalifa Abdullah staked
the cause of Islam on the fatal field of Omdurnan.
The Negroes of the south are composed of a Iumber
of tribes ; the Shilluk ranks among the most important.
They are distinguished for their height, anc their
lissom, athletic figures, and are met along the lelt bank
of the White Nile, and along the Sobat river. Herds-
men and fishermen, they roam the wide pasture lands
of the Nile, and skim its placid waters in theii skiffs
constructed from the pith-like ambach tree. Redoubt-
able spearmen, they are feared throughout the Sudan ;
and their habit of plastering the head with reddish mud,
and the body with grey clay, relieved with fantastic
designs in wood ashes, gives them an awesome appear-
ance. To this they add an uncanny habit of standing
upon one leg when they wish to appear dignified, or
to increase their importance in debate with chiefs,
or when facing the European. This peculiarity is copied
by the men of the Dinka tribe.
These Dinkas roam the Bahr-el-Ghazal with their
numerous flocks and herds, occupying for preference
the grassy lands by the river. The incursions of the
slave-raiders from the north, however, forced them
into the interior, and only the summer drought induced
them to return to the river for four months of the
year, in order to save their cattle. The abolition of
NURSING A NATION
the slave trade by the Protecting Power will dispose
the Dinkas to favour the Government policy of inducing
the nomadic tribes to settle down to agricultural
occupations. With the success of this policy will come
increased facility for evangelization. Like the Shilluks,
the Dinkas are born fighters and still have a distinct
liking for the tribal raid. Passionately attached to
their cattle, they make ideal shepherds, being dis-
tinguished among the Sudanese for a tenderness and
care amounting almost to reverence. Then there is
the Nuer tribe, living in sugar-loaf huts, fond of agri-
culture, innocent of clothing, but gaudily decked in
multi-coloured muds and clays-reds, greys, blues and
whites. Similar to them is the Jur people, distinguished
for their ability in smelting iron ore, which they fashion
into spear-heads and reaping-hooks. Neighbour to
these are the Bari people, whose wealth in flocks and
herds led to their spoiling by the raiding Dervishes
and to their finding a compensation in agriculture.
The Baris are one with the Dinkas in considering it
becoming to extract their lower front teeth; they
also affect a preference for reds in their clay attire,
and can stand with a Dinka or Shilluk or other neigh-
bours very proudly on one leg, tucking the other
away where the stork has learned to put his. These
tribes enlist our liveliest sympathy, for they interpret
life and destiny in a manner neither futile nor without
spiritual significance. They await the revelation of
Christ to purify their tribal mysteries, and to illumine
the gloaming in which they are groping.
90 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
But before leaving them we cannot but notice
the Nyam-Nyam people. They figure in Arab folk-lore
more than any other people of the Sudan. Around the
camp fires of the Saharan caravans which arrive in
Northern Africa, the writer has often listened to blood-
curdling stories concerning them. Their name is
onomatopoeic, and was bestowed upon them by the
Arabs in imitation of the sound they made; when
devouring the bodies of their captives. They live in
the highlands of the Nile-Congo water parting, and
are skilled hunters and agriculturists. They are
distinguished by a countenance expressing great
resolution, to which trait very prominent cheek-
bones and wide nostrils materially contribute.
In common with other negro tribes, the Nyam-
Nyam suffered severely by the incursions of the Arab
slave-raiders from the north. But it frequently
happened that when not taken by surprise they
received the marauders with a stout defence, and
inflicted upon them serious casualties. The slave-
raiders, forced to retreat from the hill villages of the
Nyam-Nyam into the plains, later learned to their
horror, that the wounded and prisoners had been
carefully roasted, in order to provide a feast of
triumph to celebrate the discomfiture of their en-
The terror to a Moslem of a fate which was r ndered
doubly accursed by the inconceivable ceremonial
pollution of being devoured by an unclean pagan
infidel, accounts in part for the significant fact that
NURSING A NATION
the Nyam-Nyam have never been brought into
subjection to Arab rule.
A few brave men, looking out over these vast
territories with the Christian vision of compassion
for their teeming tribes, have been ministering to
their souls and bodies. The eternal debt of the Sudanese
to the seven doctors who staff the Church Missionary
Society's hospitals at Omdurman and Lui, the United
Presbyterian Mission hospitals at Khartoum, Doleib
Hill and Nasser, and that of the Sudan United Mission
at Melut, can never be adequately acknowledged.
Critics of the Sudan Government might also find it
possible to admit that the Christian spirit in their
policy is stronger than many imagine, and they have
dotted the country with some ten hospitals and numer-
ous dispensaries, served by twenty English and forty
Syrian doctors. And this does not tell by any means
the whole story.
The general missionary enterprise has moved
forward a long step since the Church Missionary Society,
in 1905, advanced from its base in Egypt and occupied
the chief centres in the Northern Sudan. As early as
1906, at the invitation of Lord Cromer, they advanced
into the Southern Sudan in order to reach the Dinka
and other tribes. But it is only now that the Southern
Sudan will get a real chance of the missionary uplift,
for it has been merged into a new diocese of which
Archdeacon A. L. Kitching has been consecrated
Bishop, and which will be known as the diocese of the
Upper Nile This diocese will, it is proposed, include
92 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
the whole of Uganda east of the Nile (with the exception
of Busoga), the two southernmost Sudan Piovinces,
Mongalla and Bahr-el-Ghazal, and. the Upper Nile
Province as far north as the Sobat River. The Sudanese
provinces of Mongalla and Bahr-el-Ghazal themselves
form 180,500 square miles of the new diocese--an area
larger than the whole of the Uganda Protectorate.
But the Bishop may be trusted to lengthen his
cords and strengthen his stakes, and tabernacle in
its utmost corners. He is a pioneer missionary by
instinct. He has been breaking new ground for the
past twenty years, has learned to preach in four native
languages, and has done translation work in his spare
time His administrative ability already has been
shown in caring for some three million native people
distributed over IIo,ooo square miles.
As the Bishop moves to the northward half of his
new diocese and turns his eyes eastward, he cannot
fail to be strongly drawn to that solitary lane ringed
by mountains-Abyssinia, the elder brother of the
group of East African nations. When the Egyptian
Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Somaliland, and Eritrea
were utterly savage, this sixth and greatest of the
company held aloft the Christian torch.
Building the Kingdom in the Sudan
T HE Anglo-Egyptian Sudan covers an area ten
times that of Great Britain, and has a population
of nearly six millions, of which about one-third is
Moslem, and two-thirds pagan. This population com-
prises not less than two hundred tribes, and occupies
the fertile territory south of Wadi Halfa and north
of the Uganda frontier. The modern history of these
peoples has been made during the last two decades,
as they have been gradually built into the British
Commonwealth of nations. Security, industry and pros-
perity characterize this growing African civilization.
Thirty years ago the natives of the Bahr-el-Gahzal
rarely travelled in parties of three because the third
man feared to be overpowered by the other two and
sold to the slave-dealer. To-day, freedom and safety of
movement is secure. The Sudan of the Mahdi is not
only dead, but forgotten. The slaves of yesterday ride
in railway carriages which rival the Pullman.
The protecting power has shown a lively faith in
the capacity of the Sudanese to achieve a national
advance. Something of the manly, independent quality
of the Sudanese draws out the best an Englishman
has to give. Together they built the great Makwar
94 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
Dam at Sennar, Britain contributing the brains, and
eight millions sterling worth of concrete and steel,
and the Sudanese their magnificent brawn. This
intelligent co-operation in developing the material
resources of the country has been made possible by
reason of the moral and spiritual uplift of the people
during the last twenty years.
The story of the early beginnings of the Church in
Nubia would, if fully known, be of absorbing interest.
Little of it has been preserved, but as early as the end
of the second century, when the heavy persecution
of Septimus Severus fell upon Egypt, the scattered
witnesses to the Faith found their way to the unevan-
gelized tribes. The later Diocletian persecution which
harried the Church, produced a second wave of mis-
sionary activity. Only a short distance from Khartoum
Christian ruins may still be seen-granite pillars with
crosses-mute witnesses to a Christian past. In June,
1698, the Jesuit missionary, Charles Xavier de Breve-
dent, entered the Sudan ; the first Roman Catholic
mission was not established, however, until 1846. Its
destruction by the Mahdi is graphically related by
Father Ohrwalder in his book, Ten years' captivity
in the Mahdi's camp." When peace was restored in
1898 this work was taken up again.
As early as 1878 General Gordon advocated that
the Sudan should be evangelized by the Procestant
Churches. He little thought, perhaps, that his own
death would be the means of giving force to his plea.
In January, 1885, Gordon perished at Khartoum,
BUILDING THE KINGDOM IN THE SUDAN 95
and a few weeks later, at one of the most memorable
meetings the Church Missionary Society ever held in
Exeter Hall, with Earl Cairns in the chair, Canon Stuart
advocated a Gordon Memorial Mission to the Sudan.
Almost at once 3,000 was subscribed, and the victory
of Omdurman, thirteen years later, opened the way
for the initial missionary advance. In 1905 the Church
Missionary Society sent out its first workers, and
they now occupy Khartoum, Omdurman, Wad Medani
and Atbara. A year later an advance was made toward
the south, when, on the invitation of Lord Cromer,
the station of Malek, a thousand miles higher up the
Nile than Khartoum, was occupied in order to reach
the Dinka tribe. Then Yei was opened, where a boarding
school for the sons of chiefs has thirty under training.
Another station is Juba, with a High School, quite
up to the standard of the advanced classes at Gordon
College, where the quality of the English spoken
would surprise the visitor. At Yambio are found the
Azandi, the most promising tribe in the Sudan,"
where a notable company of native Christian young men
are engaged in voluntary evangelism. And then Lui,
where there is a busy hospital and a flourishing Church
among the Horus, with an evangelistic venture among
the neighboring Opari. All this work in the Bahr-el-
Ghazal province among the pagan tribes has closer
affinities with Uganda than with the north. Bishop
Gwynne writes : It is a great satisfaction to report
that what has been talked about so long will, please
God, be accomplished this year (1926), that is the
96 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
separation of the southern provinces of the Sudan
to form a new diocese with part of Uganda." The
whole work is alive, warm with evangelistic fervour,
and set on solid foundations.
The American United Presbyterian Missicn is at
work in this region at the stations of Doleib Hill and
Nasser, the former opened in 1902 and the la ter ten
years later. A staff of twenty workers are serving the
pagan tribes of the Dinkas, Shilluks and Nuers. A
varied form of work is being done at Doleib Hill. An
evangelistic group preaches far and near to thousands
of hearers, an educational one runs boarding and
day schools (and the king of the Shilluks, after seeing
the schools in Khartoum, wishes this work to be
enlarged). Then there is an industrial effort, which is
producing expert gardeners and carpenters, and a
medical work to which come natives from Doleib
Hill right to the Abyssinian border. The work at
Nasser follows this same fourfold plan, and the general
statistics indicate encouraging results, especially
among the young. A church membership cf three
hundred and twenty-two tried and approved convert:
reported in 1924, is one of the most significant mission-
ary facts of this region.
The Sudan United Mission is here in some strength
occupying five stations with a staff of fourteen mis-
sionaries. At Melut, Rom, Meriok, Heiban and Abri,
they are evangelizing the Dinka, Shilluk, Nt,.er and
Nuba mountains people. The Sudan Governm- nt has
invited the Mission to extend its operations in the
BUILDING THE KINGDOM IN THE SUDAN 97
Nuba mountains province. The future of the work in
the southern Sudan undoubtedly depends upon fostering
a living indigenous Church full of evangelistic fervour.
The handful of European missionaries-forced by a
dangerous climate to frequent absence-cannot hope
to compass the task. Kordofan, Darfur, the northern
half of Bahr-el-Ghazal, the Blue Nile, Fung and the
White Nile district and the Red Sea Province are still
practically unoccupied. When we retrace our steps
northward we find no workers in the provinces of
Kassala and Dongola.
A good beginning, however, has been made, and
the rapidly growing network of roads and railways
will increasingly facilitate wide evangelism ; but any
rational hope of advance must depend upon the native
The magnet of the north, of course, is Khartoum,
the capital city of the whole Sudan, with a population
of 30,797, which by means of a steel bridge is linked
with North Khartoum, which has 14,319 inha-
bitants. A ferry service now binds Omdurman to
these, but a fine steel bridge will shortly span the
dividing White Nile, and this great straggling African
city of 78,624 Moslem people will be incorporated
into a magnificent capital whose population must
rapidly reach two hundred thousand.
Khartoum is a striking city, laid out on generous
lines, traversed by pleasant boulevards bowered in
leafy shade, and dotted with restful public gardens.
Here is epitomized the work being done in the whole
98 LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN EAST AFRICA
territory. The religious activity is symbolized by the
handsome cathedral, consecrated by the Bishop of
London in 1912, the educational activity by Gordon
College and the fine mission schools of the Church
Missionary Society and the American United Presby-
terian Mission, and the medical by Government and
The missionary outlook has radically changed dcur-
ing the last decade. Everywhere there is advance and
a wide door of opportunity. In the American Mission
School at Omdurman, for example, as many as a
hundred and twenty Moslem men meet every Sunday
to hear the preaching of a converted Moslem. A special
preacher like Dr. Zwemer attracted nightly four times
that number to evangelistic meetings at which ten
pounds' worth of religious books and Scriptures were
sold, and over a hundred of the leading Moslems
accepted a presentation copy of Matthew's Gospel.
Equally encouraging were the two mass meetings in
the Coptic Cathedral at Khartoum, at which fifteen
hundred were present on each occasion. The growing
demand for literature of the right kind is one of the
most cheering signs in the city, and the Church Mis-
sionary Society is planning to meet this by opening
a book shop.
Dr. Zwemer records that there is sympathy
and co-operation with the missions on the part
of many of the leading Government officials, and
an increasing conviction that Islam is not the best
religion for the Sudan." Certainly Islam is strongly
BUILDING THE KINGDOM IN THE SUDAN 99
entrenched, so much so that the primary text-book
in the Government schools is the Koran. It moulds
the mind of the young, and prepares them to take
their places with their elders in the six hundred mosques
of Khartoum and the provinces. The soul-hunger of
the people-as in Northern Africa-is shown by the
favour accorded to the Islamic Religious Brotherhoods.
The Qadariya (called here the Jilaniya), the Mirganiva,
Ahmadia (or Idrisiya), and the Rashidiya, all have
their Zawias or religious houses. These orders
profess to carry on the Moslem to a higher spiritual
experience than is enjoyed by the ordinary follower
of the Prophet, by the impartation of special
knowledge and the following of a special way.
They often present points of contact with Christian
thought as represented by Christian mystics. The
Gospel of St. John often makes a special appeal to
At the other end of the scale is a population sunk
in superstition and gross ignorance. Less than two
per cent. of the men can read, and the women are
universally illiterate. Only a third of the total
population of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is even
nominally Moslem, but Islam is gaining ground every-
where. Where it penetrates it compromises with
paganism, so that some of the old pagan customs such
as bodily mutilation, teeth filing, lip perforation and
tribal face markings are practised by Moslems.
The Church Missionary Society's work at Khartoum
is full of promise; out from it has developed the