• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Half Title
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Lessons 1-10
 Lessons 11-20
 Lessons 21-30
 Lessons 31-40
 Lessons 41-50
 Lessons 51-60
 Lessons 61-70
 Lessons 71-80
 Lessons 81-90
 Lessons 91-100
 Lists of words used in foregoing...














Title: Lessons in Chibemba, being one hundred easy graded lessons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072094/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lessons in Chibemba, being one hundred easy graded lessons
Physical Description: 160 p. : ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lammond, William
Publisher: Printed by Vromant
Place of Publication: Brussels
Publication Date: 1930
Edition: 2. ed., rev. throughout.
 Subjects
Subject: Bemba language -- English -- Textbooks for foreign speakers   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Wm. Lammond.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00072094
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00609651
lccn - 72212121

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Lessons 1-10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Lessons 11-20
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Lessons 21-30
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Lessons 31-40
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Lessons 41-50
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Lessons 51-60
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Lessons 61-70
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Lessons 71-80
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Lessons 81-90
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Lessons 91-100
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Lists of words used in foregoing lessons
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
Full Text











LESSONS IN CHIBEMBA




( EORGE FOWUE i COLLLEC IUI

S LESSONS

IN CHIBEMBA
BEING
ONE HUNDRED EASY GRADED LESSONS
BY WM LAMMOND
BASED ON THE GRAMMAR OF REV. FATH. SCHOEFFER

SECOND EDITION (Revised throughout)


PRINTED BY VROMANT & CO,
RUE DE LA CHAPELLE, 3, BRUSSELS


1930











INTRODUCTION
TO
FIRST EDITION


Little claim is made to originality in the following
lessons. In fact their chief recommendation is that they
do not depart very far at any point from the most
excellent little grammar on which they are based.
They were compiled originally for the use and help
of the newcomers in the Mission, the constant complaint
being made that the Bemba Grammar on which they
are based is too compact and condensed for one who
knows nothing of Bantu dialects.
Personally I am glad to express my own indebtedness
to the book and my admiration of the sound work, and
great mass of information contained in such small bulk.
My thanks are due to the Rev. H. C. Nutter of the
L. M. S. and to Mr. W. Freshwater of the same Society,
for many useful hints while these lessons were being
prepared, also for their kindly reading through the
rough MSS. They must not, however, be held respon-
sible for any errors that may have crept into the final
form.


K~aleba, 1916.


W. L.










PREFACE
TO
SECOND EDITION

That a second edition of Lessons in Bemba has been
called for indicates that it meets, however imperfectly,
a need. This present edition will be found, by those who
are in the position to judge it, considerably improved.
Each lesson has been revised in the light of a fuller
knowledge of Chibemba, many more examples have
been given. The tense system has been thoroughly
revised and more accurately placed. The vocabulary
employed has been carefully sifted and many localisms
eliminated.
A lesson has been added on tone, which, to the best
of my knowledge, brings this subject into prominence
for the first time. The Author had the privilege of
reading a paper on ( Tones in Chibemba before the
Union Bemba Language Committee and those present
were unanimous that :
Tones as such do exist in Chibemba;
They are absolutely necessary to the correct
speaking of the language;
That the native (gets them ) every time.
Any communications on this subject which might
lead to a fuller knowledge of them would be welcomed.






8 PREFACE

The original form of the lessons and as far as possible
the original numbering have been retained.
In a work of this kind where there are no ( standards ,,
imperfections are bound to manifest themselves, for
these due allowance will be made.

My thanks are due to the Rev. R. D. McMinn of the
Livingstonia Mission and to my colleague Mr. George
W. Sims for much helpful criticism and advice in this
revision.
Kaleba, 1921. W. L.














CONTENTS


LESSON


Number


The spoken language .
Alphabet .. .
Elisions and changes .
Class 1. UMU ABA .
Adjectives and concords .
Class 2. UMU IMI .
Additional adjectives .
Class 3. ULU . .
Numerals I to 5 . .
Class 4. Icni II .
Class 5. I, ILI, ULU, UKU,
UB AMA . .
Class 6. AKA UTU .
Class 7. UBU . .
Class 8. UKU . .
Class 9. PA Ku Mu..
Augmentatives .. .
Diminutives . .
Review of classes . .
Gender (sex) . .
Broad prefixes . .
Infinitive . .
For... purpose of, etc. .
Time and speed . ..
Imperative . .
List of verbs . .
Requestive form . .
Personal pronouns .
Separable pronouns .
Inseparable pronouns .
Changes with N .
Possessive pronouns .
Possessives, Impersonal .
Fellow . .
Home . . .
Numerals 6 to 1000 .
LE-tense of verb . .
Question, sign of . .
Objective pronouns .
Objectives, Impersonal .


LESSON Number
Simple Present tense 32
Modified stem . 33
A-tense of verb . .. 34
Past tense M. S ... .35
NA-tense of verb .... .36
A-tense M. S. . ... 37
To be L. . .. 38
To be UKBA . 39
The copula N . .. .40
The accent copula. .40
The copula E. . ... 41
Demonstratives. .... .42
Use of demonstratives 43
Prepositions . .. 44
Use of prepositions . 45
Subjunctive Mood. .46
UKUTI TEKUTI . 46
List of interrogatives 47
Applied form of verb 48
Use of Applied form of verb. 49
Indefinite adjectives .. 50
Comparison. . ... 51
Comparison. . ... 52
Passive Voice . .. .53
LE-tense, Future .... .54
ALA-tense of verb.. 55
KA-tense of verb .... .56
Salutations and responses 57
Relative pronoun. . 58
NTU Impersonal relative. 59
If . . .. 59
Relative pronoun. . 60
Interrogatives, etc.... 61
Au-tense of verb. . 62
ALI-tense M. S ....... 63
CHILI-tense of verb . 64
CHI-tense of verb. . 64
AcH-tense of verb . 65
TA-LA Not yet ... 66
LA Customary tense. .. 67







CONTENTS


LESSON Number
Interjections . .. 68
Intensive interjections ... 68
Ordinal numbers .. .. .69
Reflexive form . .. .70
Reciprocal form .. .70
AKULA-tense of verb 71
KALA-tense of verb 72
Causitive YA-FYA ... 73
Causitive SHYA . 74
Causitive ISHYA-ESHYA-IKA. 75
Adverbs, conjunctions, etc.. 76
UKUTI to say .. 77
Ti as auxiliary . .. 78
YA as auxiliary . .. 79
ISA as auxiliary. .... .79
Completive form .... .80
Intensive form . .. 80
Frequentive form .... 81
Intransitive, stative . 81
Reversive form . .. 82
Intransitive reversive 83


LESSON Number
Reduplicated stem . 84
Adverbial form of verb 84
Outline of changes in UKU-
KAKA . ... 85
Words expressing time. .. 86
To be UKUBA .. 87
Imperative forms .. 88
BALA-PANA, auxiliaries. 89
Compound tenses .. 90
Additional subjunctives 91
Some adverbs. . ... 92
Adverbs of place .... .93
Locative suffixes Po-Ko-Mo 94
Phrases . ... 95
Formation of nouns .96
Diagram of verb tenses. .. 97
Tone or Intonation . 98
Miscellany . .. 99
An Examination .. 100
Reviews of Lessons 1 to 99.






LESSONS IN CHIBEMBA




LESSON 1.
Bemba, or Chibemba as it is called by the natives who
speak it, differs from many other Bantu dialects in that many
of the words run into each other, and to a learner this is very
perplexing. It adds considerably to the difficulty of writing
the language. Most men who have worked hard at the lan-
guage have a theory of their own as to how each difficulty
in the writing of it should be overcome.
This is not the place to enter into a discussion on the
relative values of the various solutions, but the following
hints will help the Student till he is able to detect the diffe-
rences in the way the natives pronounce the various words.
1. All natives do not pronounce exactly alike.
2. Different districts have different ways of pronouncing.
3. Some natives make much more of the initial vowel of
a word than do others.
4. Much of the difficulty of writing is on account of the
slurring that is heard between two words in rapid speech.
5. Two vowels coming together have seldom the same
value in length and emphasis.
6. In common speech, in moving the tongue from the
position of a close vowel like i or u to an open vowel as a, o
or e, a sound is heard which may be written y or w as the
case may be. A little experimenting will demonstrate this to
one's own satisfaction. Unless the breath is stopped short
between the sounds, it is difficult to avoid the semi-vowel slur.
7. Again most nouns have a vowel as first letter, and the
meeting of the final vowel of the preceding word with this
vowel is another source of real difficulty to the beginner.
He hears :


Leto bwali Lete nsalu,


Leta menshi






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


the verb Leta becoming Leto, lete, and that only because
of the noun which follows.
8. Again the Past tense modified stem creates a difficulty
and one hears Leteleyo bwali for Letele ubwali, but perhaps
it is better to write the full form Ubwali and leave the reader
to pronounce as he hears the natives do, merely saying that
the u of Ubwali is not heard pronouncedly.

LESSON 2.

ALPHABET
AS USED IN THESE LESSONS.

A pronounced as A in far, but broader than is usual in
English.
B a bastard sound between B, V and W. Set
the lips as if to pronounce B, then with
the lips so set pronounce V without the
plosive sound of B, this is only approxi-
mate.
C pronounced always with H as church.
D always with N as in hand.
E as A in mate or E in pet. The latter when the
consonant following is : m, n, or hi.
F 7 as F in fun.
G C as in go. Always hard, and always with N.
H only heard with C and S.
I pronounced as EE in meet.
J as G in gender. Always soft, and always
with N.
K as C in cat.
L a liquid sound, often weak, sometimes like
an untrilled R.
M pronounced as in English. MB is as mb in thimble.
N as in English. For special changes see Les-
son 25.
N as NG in singing. Somewhat difficult sound.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


O pronounced
P
S
T
U A
W
Y


A plus
A
A D
A
A ,
E '
E n
E e
E


as in hope, also as in sort, no, not.
as in English. MP as in emperor.
as in English. SH as in sheep.
as in English.
as 00 in soot.
as in we.
as in young.

CHANGES and ELISIONS.
become long A written A.
S E E E.
>) ) E E.
) 0 ) O.
) "O 0 ) O.


remain unaltered.
become long E written E.
I may drop or both remain unaltered.
or U remain unaltered.
EXAMPLES.


Leta amenshi,
Leta insalu,
Leta ubwali;


Bring water,
Bring cloth,
Bring mush,


becomes Lets menshi
becomes Lete nsalu.
becomes Let6 bwali.


There are exceptions to above rules but these will be
learned later.
I before another vowel generally becomes Y.
Ex. : FI plus A = Fya.


I before I sometimes becomes I.
Ex. : Wi isa
U before A, E or I becomes W.
Ex. : Tu isa
Uku enda
Mu afwe


U plus 0 become 0.
Ex. : T
U plus U become U.
Ex. : T


Do not come Wisa.


We come
To go
Help him


Twisa.
Ukwenda.
Mwafwe.


u onaula We destroy Tbnaula.

u umfwe Let us hear Timfwe.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Diphtongs are rare AI in Mukwai
AY in Laya
AU in Onaula


The sound had bet
ter be learned from
a native.


Accent generally falls on the penultimate syllable, excep-
tions must be learned from native speakers.
Syllables always end with the vowel, never with a con-
sonant.
TONE.
In Chibemba many words have a distinct tone value (as
in Chinese) but this is a real difficulty and so far no European
has mastered them. Examples will be given towards the
end of the lessons. (Lesson 98.)

LESSON 3.
CLASS 1. J
Nouns whose singular prefix is UMU form the plural by
changing UMU to ABA.
EXAMPLES.


Umuntu
Umwaume
Noun.
Umuntu
Umulumendo
Umukashi
Umulume
Umwaume
Umushya
Umubiye
Umubumfi
Umwanakashi
Umukashyana
Umwana
Umukote
Umulanda
Umulwani


Abantu.
Abaume.


Meaning.
Person
Youth, young man
Wife
Husband
Man
Slave
His fellow
Potter
Woman
Girl
Child
Old person
Poor person
Enemy


Plural.
Abantu
Abalumendo
Abakashi
Abalume
Abaume
Abashya
Ababiye
Ababumfi
Abanakashi
Abakashyana
Abana
Abakote
Abalanda
Abalwani






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Noun.
Umunandi
Umushimbe
Umusungu
Umulwele
Umubiyo
Umukota


Many nouns with
prefix.
Bwana
Tata
Mama
Nyina
Foreign words as":
Spun
So
Bafwa


Meaning.
My fellow
Unmarried person
European
Invalid
Your fellow
Female animal


Plural.
Abanandi
Abashimbe
Abasungu
Abalwele
Ababiyo
Abakota


SUB-CLASS A.
no singular prefix take BA as plural


White man
My father
My grandmother
His mother

Spoon
Saw
Bath


Names of certain animals as :,


Mumbwe
Kolwe


Jackal
Monkey


Babwana
Batata
Bamama
Banyina

Baspun
Baso
Babafwa

Bamumbwe
Bakolwe


Words denoting
in plural.
Kafundishya
Kafula


SUB-CLASS B. ,
an Agent with sing. prefix KA take BA


Teacher
Blacksmith


Bakafundishya
Bakafula


SUB-CLASS C. *
Some words denoting gender take BA in plural.
Shimachila A hammock man Bashimachila
Shibwinga A bridegroom Bashibwinga
Nabwinga A bride Banabwinga
Nachimbusa A midwife Banachimbusa







16 CHIBEMBA ENGLISH

BA is often added to a proper noun as a plural or to show
respect. Kasembe Bakasembe
NOTE. None of the words in these sub-classes has the initial
vowel (or preprefix as it is often called).

LESSON 4.

That the learner may begin at once to use the concord
prefixes, or concords as they are often called, a few adjec-
tives are given and the manner in which they are linked to,
and follow, their respective nouns, is shown.


ADJECTIVES
Short. -kote
Nice, good -bi
Big, great -nono
All -ingi


Old
Bad, evil
Little, small
Many


The concord prefixes for nouns of class 1 are, singular U
or MU, plural BA. The U in singular is used with numeral
adjectives 1 to 5 (see Lesson 8) and with indefinite numerals,
all, any, many, other, etc.
EXAMPLES.


Umuntu musuma
Umulumendo mubi
Umwaume mukalamba
Umukashyana musuma
Umwana munono
Abantu basuma
Abalumendo bonse
Abaume basuma
Abakashyana banono
Abana bonse


A good person.
A bad youth.
A big man.
A good girl.
A little child.
Good people.
All youths.
Good men.
Little girls.
All children.


EXERCISE.
Translate the following. (Words in brackets are not
required in Bemba.)


(A) bad person.
(A) good wife.


(A) great enemy.
(A) little girl.


-ipi
-suma
-kalamba
-onse






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Good wives.
All (the) people.
(A) big woman.
(A) big white man.


All your fellows.
Big people.
: All (the) enemy.
All (the) invalids.


NOTE. The U of UMU before'the vowel A becomes W, e. g.
Umwana.
The A of BA before O drops, e. g. Abantu bonse, not baonse.
(See elisions, Lesson 2.)
LESSON 5.
CLASS 2.
Nouns whose singular prefix is UMU, other than those of
the UMU, ABA-class, form the plural by changing UMU to
IMI.
Noun. Meaning. Plural.
Umuti Tree Imiti
Umwando Cord, rope Imyando
Umwinshi Doorway Iminshi ;
Umunga Thorn Imyunga
Umumana River Imimana
Umwanda Hundred Imyanda
Umulandu Affair, matter Imilandu
Umutima., Heart Imitima
Umutwe Head Imitwe
Umuba Bellows Imyuba
Umufwi Arrow Imifwi
Umuchila Tail Imichila
Umukonso Lower leg Imikonso
Umukoshi Neck Imikoshi
Umuku Time, occasion Imiku
Umulando Log Imilando
Umulilo Fire Imililo
Umulomo Lip Imilomo
Umulumbe Tale Imilumbe
NOTE. The concord prefixes for linking up the adjective with
nouns of this class are: Singular, U (MU may be occasionally heard);
Plural, I (this is often heard as YI, in rapid speech).
Note how the I in the plural becomes Y before another vowel.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Umuti usuma
Imiti ikalamba
Umwando unono
Imyando ipi
Umulandu ukalamba
Imilandu ingi
Umukoshi wipi
Imikoshi yonse
Umukoshi onse
Umumana ukalamba
Imimana ikalamba
Umulumbe usuma
Imilumbe ibi
Imiku yonse
Imiku ingi


-tuntulu
-bishi
-kali
-kulu
-mbi


EXAMPLES.
A good tree.
Big trees.
A little cord.
Short cords, or ropes.
A big affair, important matter.
Many matters.
A short neck.
All the necks.
The whole neck (all the neck).
A large river.
Large rivers.
A good tale.
Evil tales.
All occasions (every occasion).
Many times, often.


LESSON 6.

ADDITIONAL ADJECTIVES

Whole, perfect, complete.
Green, raw, unripe, uncooked, fresh.
Fierce, angry, wild.
Same as kalamba.
Other.


NOTE. An adjective cannot be used without the concord prefix
proper to the noun qualified. MBI alone conveys no meaning, whereas
UMBI, etc., means another person or thing.

EXAMPLES IN CLASSES 1 AND 2.


Umuntu mukali
Umuntu mubi
Imilandu imbi
Umukate ubishi
Imyunga ikulu
Imifwi isuma
Abantu bakalamba
Abalun endo bakali
Abalumendo bambi
Imilomo imbi
Imilomo ibi
Imyando ikulu
Umukashyana mukalamba


An angry person.
An evilly disposed person.
Different affairs, other matters.
Uncooked loaf.
Large thorns.
Good arrows.
Big people, or important people.
Fierce young men.
, Other youths.
Other lips.
Evil lips.
Large ropes.
A big girl.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Umulwani mukali
Abalwani bakali
Umukate ubi
Imikate inono
Umwana umbi
Abana bambi
Umubumfi umbi
Umwanakashi mukulu
Umwaume mukalamba
Umutima onse
Umuchila unono
Umulando ukulu
Imilando imbi
Umulilo ukulu


A fierce enemy.
Fierce enemies.
A bad loaf.
Small loaves, scones.
Another child.
Other children.
Another potter.
A big woman, or an important
woman.
A big, important, or elderly man.
Whole heart, all the heart.
A little tail.
A large log or beam.
Other logs.
A large fire.


The learner is advised to exercise himself with the different
adjectives, singular and plural.


LESSON 7.

CLASS 3.

Generally no prefix in singular; plural form always has
M, N, or I as initial consonant. Some nouns have the prefix
ULU in the singular form, but these can be learned as they
are encountered.


Noun.
Inkashi
Insalu
Imbwili
Impanga
Iflwena
Ulusengo
Ululimi
Ulusengu
Ulupili
Inondo
Inanda
Ifianga
Inanga


Meaning.
Sister
Calico
Leopard
Sheep
Crocodile
Horn
Tongue
Bamboo
Hill
Hammer
House
Witchdoctor
Anchor


Plural.
Inkashi
Insalu
Imbwili
Impanga
Inwena
Insengo
Indimi
Insengu
Impili
Inondo
"hIanda
Ifianga
Inanga






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Noun.
Inshita
Inkoko
Inchito
Impanga
Ifiombe
Impofu
Indimu
Indoti
Ingala
Inongo
Insaka
Insoka


Meaning.
Time (space of)
Fowl
Work
Country
Cow
Blind person
Lemon
4 yards
Feather
Clay pot
Rest house
Snake, .


Plural.
Inshita
Inkoko
Inchito
Impanga
Iliombe
Impofu
Indimu
Indoti
Ingala
Inongo
Insaka
Insoka


The concord prefixes for use with adjectives : Sing. I
(often heard as YI), LU for nouns beginning with that
prefix, plural for all: SHI. Before the vowels A, E, 0, and U,
SHI becomes SHY.

Insalu isuma Nice calico.
Insalu shisuma Fine calicos.
Tnwena ikali A fierce crocodile.
Ifhwena shikali Fierce crocodiles.
Ulupili lukalamba A big hill.
Impili shikalamba Big hills.
Inondo ikulu A large hammer.
Inondo shikulu Big hammers.
Inkalamo ikalamba A large lion.
Inkalamo shikalamba Big lions.
Ilanda isuma A fine house.
Ifianda shingi Many houses.
Inombe shyonse All the cattle.
Ulusengo lukulu A large horn.
Ulusengu lubishi A green bamboo.
Insengu shingi Many bamboos.
NOTE. Amafianda, also Amayanda are heard as plurals for
fanda.

An alternative concord for nouns with no singular prefix
is simply N.
Mfumu nkalamba A great chief.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 8.

NUMERALS

The roots of numerals one to five take concord prefixes
after the manner of other adjectives. They require to be
connected with their noun by the proper concord prefix
and cannot be used alone.

They are as follows :

-MO 1 -BILI 2 -TATU 3 -NE 4 -SANO 5
NOTE. Singulars for class I take U for concording prefix with
numerals, and not MU as with other adjectives.


Insalu shisano
Inkalamo imo
Umuntu umo
I nsoka shibili
Iliombe shisano
Umusungu umo
Umulilo umo
Inkoko imo
Inongo imo
Indoti shisano
Umuku umo
Imiku itatu
Imiku isano


5 cloths
1 lion
I person
2 snakes
5 cows
I European
1 fire
I fowl
1 clay pot
20 yards
Once
Thrice
5 times


Abantu batatu
Inkalamo shitatu
Insengu shine
Insoka imo
Ifiombe imo
Abasungu basano
Imililo ibili
Inkoko shitatu
Inongo shine
Indoti shibili
Imiku ibili
Imiku ine
Abalumendo babili


Combining numerals and other adjectives we get :


Abantu basano basuma
Umuntu umo mukalamba
Umusungu umo mwaume
Ifombe shisano shikota
Ihombe shisano shilume
Inkoko shibili shinono
Umulilo umo ukalamba
Inongo shibili shinono
Inongo imo ikulu


5 good people.
1 important person.
1 European, a man.
5 female cattle (cows).
5 male cattle (bulls).
2 little fowls.
1 large fire.
2 small clay pots.
1 large clay pot.


3 people
3 lions
4 bamboos
I snake
1 cow
5 Europeans
2 fires
3 fowls
4 clay pots
8 yards
Twice
4 times
2 young men






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 9.

CLASS 4.

Singular prefix : ICHI; Plural : IFI.
NOTE. Before the vowels A, E, O and U, the ICHI and IFI
become ICHY and IFY.


Noun.
Ichintu
Ichyela
Ichyuni
Ichyabu
Ichipe
Ichisansala
Ichipuna
Ichyeswa
Ichyumbu
Ichyuswe
Ichikanga
Ichyoso
Ichipumbu
Ichiwelewele
Ichisonshi
Ichipembele
Ichyani
Ichilonda
Ichipushi
Ichibolya


Meaning.
Thing
Iron
Bird
Ford, ferry landing
Basket, load
Nest (hen's)
Stool
Brush
Potato
Water buck
Mat (of papyrus)
Duck
Fool
Fool
Top knot of hut
Rhinoceros
Grass
Sore
Pumpkin
Deserted village


Concord prefixes : CHI, FI, or CHY, FY.


Ichipe chinono
Ichyabu chisuma
Ichisansala chikalamba
Ichyani chibishi
Ifipembele fibili fikali
Ichyumbu chikulu
Ifyumbu fikulu
Ifipushi fibili finono
Ifipe fikulu fisano


A little (light) load, or small basket.
A good ford or ferry landing.
A large nest (as made for lien).
Green grass.
Two fierce rhinoceroses.
A large potato.
Large potatoes.
Two small pumpkins.
Five large loads.


Plural.
Ifintu
Ifyela
Ifyuni
Ifyabu
Ifipe
Ifisansala
Ifipuna
Ifyeswa
Ifyumbu
Ifyuswe
Ifikanga
Ifyoso
Ifipumbu
Ifiwelewele
Ifisonshi
Ifipembele
Ifyani
Ifilonda
Ifipushi
Ifibolya






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 10.

CLASS 5.
Five singular prefixes I, ILI, ULU, UKU, UBU, all
having the same plural prefix AMA.

Noun. Meaning. Plural.
Ilinso Eye Amenso
Itete Reed Amatete
Isembe Axe Amasembe
Ulupi Palm of hand Amapi
Ulukasa Foot Amakasa
Ulukasu Hoe Amakasu
Ukulu Leg Amolu
Ukutwi Ear Amatwi
Ukuboko Arm Amaboko
Ubuta Bow, gun Amata
Ubunga Meal, flour Amonga
Ubutanda Mat (of reed) Amatanda
Ubulwele Sickness Amalwele
NOTE. If a noun of class 3 is heard used with plural prefix MA,
the MA seems to denote greater quantity.
Ulupili Hill Impili Hills Mapili Big hills.

Concording prefixes: Singular, LI, LU, KU, BU; Plural, YA.
Words like Ulubango, plural Imango, while they appear
to belong to this class really belong to class 3, as they use
SHI as plural prefix with adjectives. Imango shisuma -
good withies.
EXAMPLES.
Ilinso limo One eye Amenso yabili.
Ukuboko kumo One arm Amaboko yabili.
Itete lisuma A good reed Amatete yasuma.
Ulupili lunono A small hill Amapili yakalamba.
Amakasa yakalamba Big feet marks (lit.), great feet.
Amasembe yasano ya- Five good axes.
suma






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


NOTE. It will be learned that many nouns in this class seem to
have lost the preprefix I and as the L is weak it drops out, so that one
commonly hears Isembe, for axe; Ikumi, for ten, etc.
When the L is added to such nouns it seems almost to have the
force of ( It is. z Some hold that the preprefix is the article, or at least
what is left of it in Bantu.

LESSON 11.

CLASS 6.


Singular prefix : AKA;


Meaning.
Rabbit
Mouth
Infant
Child
Swallow
Scorpion
Sun, daylight, day
Heel
Tsetse fly
Tsetse fly
Grasshopper
Idol, fetich
A small bird
Black otter
Water spring

Mouse


Plural: UTU.


Plural.
Utululu
Utunwa
Utunya
Utwana
Utumimbi
Utumini
Utusuba
Ututende
Utusembe
Utusembele
Utupaso
Utulubi
Utuseba
Utuminda
Utumfukumfuku

Ututondi


Concord prefixes : Singular, KA; Plural, TU.
The A of KA and the U of TU coalesce with O.
The U of TU becomes W before the vowels A, E, and I.


Singular.
Akalulu kakali
Akanya kamo
Akapaso kanono


EXAMPLES.
Plural.
A fierce rabbit Utululu tukali.
One infant Utunya tubili.
A little grasshopper Utupaso tutatu.


Noun.
Akalulu
Akanwa
Akanya
Akana
Akamimbi
Akamini
Akasuba
Akatende
Akasembe
Akasembele
Akapaso
Akalubi
Akaseba
Akaminda
Akamfuku-
mfuku
Akatondi






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Singular.
Akasembe kanono
Akasuba kamo
Akana kasuma
Akamimbi kamo
Akaminda kakalamba
Akapaso kamo
Akalubi kanono
Akamfukumfuku ka-
suma
Akatondi kamo
Akatondi kakulu


A little tsetse
One day (day time)
A fine child
One swallow
A big black otter
One grasshopper
A little idol
A fine water spring

One mouse
A large mouse


Plural.
Utusembe tukalamba.
Utusuba tubili.
Utwana tusuma.
Utumimbi tune.
Utuminda tunono.
Utupaso tutatu.
Utulubi tubili.
Utumfukumfuku tuta-
tu.
Ututondi tune.
Ututondi tusano.


(See Lesson 8 for numerals 1-5.)
(See Lesson 16 for another use of AKA-, UTU prefixes.)


LESSON 12.

CLASS 7.

Prefix : UBU, no plural.

Mostly abstract nouns.


Noun.
Ubusali
Ubutani


Ubufi
Ubusumino
Ubupupu
Ubwipi
Ubulwani
Ubunafani

Ubunkole


Ubupyani
Ubukulu
Ubulamu


Meaning.


Noun.


Meaning.


Untidiness Ubwingi Abundance
Stinginess Ubusuma Beauty, good-
ness
Lies Ubutuntulu Wholeness
Faith, belief Ubuntungwa Freedom
Theft Ubukote Old age
Shortness Ubupe Gift, generosity
Enmity Ubulwele Sickness
Lethargy, idle- Ubuf-o Theft, stealing


ness
Captivity

Inheritance
Greatness
Laxiness


Ubwaichye Youth, child-
hood


Ubufuba
Ubunkalwe
Ubuloshi


Jealousy
Cruelty
Witchcraft






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Many verbs in their Infinitive form are used as abstracts.
(Lesson 13.)
EXAMPLES.


Ubutani bukalamba
Ubufi bukulu
Ubusumino busuma
Ubulwani bumbi
Ubulwele bubi
Ubulamu bukalamba
Ubupupu bubi
Ubunafiani bukalamba
Ubusuma bwine


Great stinginess.
A great lie, great lies.
A good faith, belief.
Other enmity (of a different sort).
A bad (kind of) sickness.
Great laziness.
A bad theft.
Great idleness.
Real goodness (ine = true, real).


Sometimes -INE is reduplicated for emphasis.


Ubusuma bwine bwine
Ubukulu bwine bwine


Real goodness indeed.
A proper kind of greatness (no
mere form).


To express surprise the abstract is sometimes joined to
a noun direct without the concord.


Abana ubusuma
Abantu ubwingi
Umuti ubukulu
Ubulwele ububi


What lovely children !
What a crowd of people !
What a great tree !
What an evil disease !


LESSON 13.

CLASS 8.
Prefix : UKU, no plural.
Consisting entirely of verbs in the Infinitive.
The second U of UKU coalesces with 0 and U to make a
long vowel; before other vowels it changes to W.


Noun.
Ukuleta
Ukwenda
Ukuteta
Ukfmfwa
Ukulemba
Ukwipika


Meaning.
To bring, bringing.
To go, going. (Enda.)
To cut, cutting.
To hear, hearing. (Umfwa.)
To write, writing.
To cook, cooking. (Ipika.)






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Noun.
Ukulima
Uk6nta
Ukubutuka
Ukufwa
Ukusosa
Ukutuma
Ukuleka
Ukwanka
Ukwikala
Ukubomba


Meaning.
To cultivate, cultivating.
To warm oneself. (Onta.)
To run, running.
To die, dying.
To speak, speaking.
To send, sending.
To leave off, leaving off.
To catch, catching. (Anka.)
To remain, sit. (Ikala.)
To work, working.


This class must not be confused with class 5, plural MA.
Here though used and treated as a noun, it is always a verb,
and has no plural form.
EXAMPLES.
Noun. Meaning.
Ukwenda kumbi A unique way of walking.
Ukuteta kumbi A different way of cutting.
Ukulemba kusuma Good writing, printing.
Ukulemba kubi Bad writing, printing.
Ukubutuka kumbi A different way of running, may mean :
A better way, a worse way, a unique
way, an absurd way.
A common combination of this form of the noun is met
with in conjunction with the personal possessive pronouns.
(Lesson 25.)

LESSON 14.
CLASS 9.
LOCATIVE PARTICLES.
PA KU MU
By prefixing PA, KU, or MU to a suitable noun, the noun
so prefixed is brought into this class irrespective of the class
proper to that noun.
PA At, On, By, etc.
Ku To, From, Toward, etc.
Mu In, Within, Inside, etc.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Concord prefixes : PA, KU, MU.
EXAMPLES.
Pamutwe On the top of the head.
Mumutima In the heart.
Pamulando On the log.
Palupili On top of the hill.
Kulupili By the hill, On the hill (but not yet at the top).
Kunsaka To the rest hut.
Pamwinshi At the doorway.
Mufanda In the house.
Mumayanda In the houses.
Mumulilo In the fire.
Pachyabu At the ferry, landing place.
Muchyani In the grass.
With nouns of the fifth class where the preprefix I has
been lost, the L drops and the A of PA coalesces with the
I to make E. In all other cases the A of PA is constant.
Peshiko At the fireside, not paishiko.
Pebumba At the crowd, not paibumba.
Pctanga At the cattle pen, not paitanga.
The U of KU and MU follows the usual rule and becomes
W before other vowels.
Mwibumba In the crowd, not muibumba.
Mwitanga In the cattle pen, not muitanga.
Kwishilya To the other side. not kuishilya.

LESSON 15.
AUGMENTATIVES
Most nouns can be made to express the idea of greatness,
either of bulk or importance by prefixing ICHI to the sin-
gular form and IFI to the plural form of the noun no matter
to which class the noun belongs. For the time being a noun
so changed is treated as belonging to the ICHI IFI class.
Ordinary form. Meaning. Augmentative form. Meaning.
Umulandu Affair Ichimulandu A big affair,
matter.
Imilandu Affairs Ifimilandu Great matters.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ordinary form. Meaning. Augmentative form. Meaning.


Rest hut
Rest huts
A bow
Bows
A log
Logs
An axe


Ichinsaka
Ifinsaka
Ichibuta
Ifimata
Ichimulando
Ifimilando
Ichilisembe


A big rest hut.
Big rest huts.
A big bow.
Big bows.
A big log.
Big logs.
A big axe.


One commonly hears :


:A big river,
A big mouth,
A big basket,
Big rivers,


for Ichimumana.
for Ichikanwa
for Ichikamponda.
for Ifimimana, etc.


When in doubt use the fuller form, it will be understood
though not perhaps accurate whereas the shortened form
may convey a somewhat different meaning.
With nouns already in the ICHI IFI class it is
customary to use an adjective denoting size, greatness, etc.


Ichyela chikulu
Ichimuti chikulu
Ichintu chikulu
Ifyela fikulu
Ifimiti fikulu
Ifintu fikulu


A big iron.
A big stick.
A big thing.
Big irons.
Big sticks.
Big things.


LESSON 16.
DIMINUTIVES
These are obtained in a similar manner to the Augmen-
tatives.
The Diminutive prefixes are : Singular, AKA; Plural, UTU.
They express smallness, trivialness.


Ordinary form. Meaning. Diminutive form.
Umwinshi Doorway Akamwinshi
Iminshi Doorways Utuminshi


Meaning.
Little doorway.
Little doorways.


Insaka
Insaka
Ubuta
Amata
Umulando
Imilando
Isembe


Ichimana
Ichinwa
Ichimponda
Ifimana






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ordinary form. Meaning. Diminutive form.


Akamulandu
Akamulando
Utumilando
Akamwando
Utumyando
Akansaka
Utunsaka
Akamumana
Utumimana


Meaning.
A trivial matter.
A little log.
Little logs.
A little rope, string.
Little ropes.
A small rest hut.
Small rest huts.
Stream, streamlet.
Little streams.


One often hears :
Akando
Akachila
Utwenshi
Akato


instead of Akamwando.
a Akamuchila.
a Utumenshi.
a Akabwato.


Usage and euphony alone deciding which form shall be
used.
Again, when in doubt, use the fuller form.

With nouns already in the AKA UTU class, such as
Akanwa, etc., to express the diminutive idea the common
way is to use a suitable adjective.


Akanwa kanono
Akalulu kanono
Akumumana kanono nono


A little mouth.
A little rabbit.
A very small stream.


REVIEW.


SKETCH OF CLASSES AND CONCORDS
for use with Adjective and for reference.


Class. Prefix. Noun. Meaning. Concord.
1. S. UMU Umuntu Person U or Mu
P. ABA Abantu People BA


2. S. UMU Umumana River
P. IMI Imimana Rivers


Example.
Umuntu musuma.
Abantu basuma.


U Umumana usuma.
I Imimana isuma.


Umulandu
Umulando
Imilando
Umwando
Imyando
Insaka
Insaka
Umumana
Imimana


Affair
A log
Logs
A rope
Ropes
Rest hut
Rest huts
River
Rivers









Meaning.
Bamboo
Calico
Calicos


Concord.
Lu
I
SHI


Example.
Ulusengu lusuma.
Insalu isuma.
Insalu shisuma.


4. S. ICHI Ichintu Thing CHI Ichintu chisuma.
P. IFI Ifintu Things FI Ifintu fisuma.


Isembe lisuma.
Ilinso lisuma.
Ulukasa lusuma.
Ukuboko kusuma.
Ubuta busuma.
Amata yasuma.


6. S. AKA Akalulu Rabbit KA Akalulu kasuma.
P. UTU Utululu Rabbits Tu Utululu tusuma.


7. S. vuu Ubupyani Inheritance Bu

8. S. UKU Ukuleta Bringing Ku


9. S. PA
KU
MU


Pantu
Kuntu
Muntu


Place
Place
Place


Ubupyani busuma.

Ukuleta kusuma.

Pantu pasuma.
Kuntu kusuma.
Muntu musuma.


Only the adjective -SUMA, good, nice, pleasant, etc., is
shown in above review, but the learner is advised to practise
with all the other adjectives. Only by practice can one hope
to become familiar with the ever changing concording
particles.

LESSON 17.

GENDER
Gender denoting sex in Chibemba may be said to be :
(1) Masculine; (3) Common;
(2) Feminine; (4) Neuter.

Gender is marked in three different ways :
(1) By the use of a prefix;
(2) By the use of distinct word stems coupled with
necessary class prefix;
(3) By the use of distinct words for the names of male
and female.


CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Class. Prefix.
3. S. ULU

P.


Noun.
Ulusengu
Insalu
Insalu


5. S. I
ILI
ULU
UKU
UBU
P. AMA


Isembe
Ilinso
Ulukasa
Ukuboko
Ubuta
Amata


Axe
Eye
Foot
Arm
Bow
Bows







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


(1) The prefixes denoting gender are :
Masculine : SHI.
Shibwinga A bridegroom.
Shikulu My grandfather.
Shimachila A hammock man.
Shimelu A mail man.
Feminine : NA.
Nabwinga A bride.
Nakulu His grandmother.
Nankoko A hen.
Nadombe A cow.

(2) Word stems with prefix :
Masculine :-AUME.
Umuntu mwaume A person, a man.
Masculine : -LUME.
Umulume Husband, male.
Ifombe ilume A bull.
Inama ilume A male animal.
Feminine : -KASHI.
Umwanakashi A woman.
Umukashi Wife.
Ihombe yanakashi A cow.
Feminine: KOTA.
Inama ikota Female animal.
linombe ikota A cow.

(3) Distinct words for gender are :

Masculine : Feminine :
Sawe A he goat. Umusolo A pullet.
Pumbwe A he goat. Umutende A pullet.
Sukusuku A ram.
Mukolwe A cock.
Tata My father. Mayo My mother.
Mama My grandmother.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


The names of animals, relationships, etc., where the sex
is not indicated are of the common gender.
Things without sex are sometimes spoken of as male or
female according as they are hard or soft, as trees, wood.
Otherwise they are neuter.

LESSON 18.
SUp till the present we have been using, what may be
termed, the narrow prefix, as concording particle. There is
another prefix used with the noun to join up verbs, adverbs
and other nouns. It may be called the broad prefix.
It consists of the narrow prefix plus A.
U plus A = WA
I plus A = YA
Class. Prefix. Narrow. Broad prefix.
1 UMU U Or MU WA
ABA BA BA
2 UMU U WA
IMI I YA
3 ULU LU LWA
I YA
SHI SHYA
4 ICHI CHI CHYA
IFI FI FYA
5 I LI LYA
ILI LI LYA
ULU LU LWA
UKU KU KWA
UBU BU BWA
AMA YA YA
6 AKA KA KA
UTU TU TWA
7 UBU BU BWA
8 UKU KU KWA
9 PA PA PA
KU KU KWA
MU MU MWA






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Proper nouns, and nouns of class 1, sub-classes A, B, C,
require the particle KWAA after the broad prefix in the sin-
gular.
Umupando wa kwa Kasembe Kasembe's chair.
Imfuti ya kwa bwana Bwana's gun.
Libuku lya kwa kafundishya It is the teacher's book.
Ubwali bwa kwa shimelu The mail man's mush.
When the noun is in the plural the KWA is dropped.
Umupando wa babwana The bwanas' chair.
Umusangu wa Bakasembe The habit of the Kasambes.
The terms Broad and Narrow are not quite accurate as
BA, YA, KA, PA will be seen to be exceptions. They are
used merely as expressing more or less the marked difference
between the two sets of prefixes.
OF
Of, as between two nouns, is expressed by the use of the
broad prefix :
Umuntu wa maka A man of strength.
Abantu ba mfumu The people of the chief.
Inondo ya mulumendo The hammer of the youth.
Ukulya kwa mfumu The food of the chief.

LESSON 19.
THE INFINITIVE
The Infinitive form of the verb we are already familiar
with in the noun classes, class 8. The prefix UKU being the
sign of the Infinitive.
UKU -KAKA To tie.
While the initial U is weak and is often lost sight of, its
presence is manifested by the changes it calls for in the
finals of words which preceded it.
No kuchita = Na ukuchita, etc.
The second U of UKU undergoes the usual changes. It
becomes W before A, E and I. It coalesces with 0 to make






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH 35
a long 0, and with another U it makes long U. (See Lesson 13
for list.)
A common negative form of the Infinitive is the introduc-
tion of the negative particle SHI or TA between the prefix
and the verb stem.
EXAMPLES.
Ukushiwama Not being good or Ukutawama.
Ukushisosa Not speaking or Ukutasosa.
Ukushileta Not bringing or Ukutaleta.
By prefixing the negative particle TE to the Infinitive
form another negative Infinitive form is obtained.
Te kusosa Not to speak.
Te kuchita Not do to.
Note how the initial U drops in this form.
Still another very commonly heard form is the addition of
negation IYO = no, after the Infinitive of the verb. This
is generally proceeded by the conjunction NA = and.
No kuleta iyo And not bringing, and not to bring.
No kusosa iyo And not speaking, and not to speak.
FOR, as expressing purpose of, use of, etc., is expressed
by the broad prefix in conjunction with the Infinitive of the
verb.
Inkuni shya kenta Firewood to warm oneself.
Amenshi ya kusamba Water for washing.
Amenshi ya kunwa Water to drink.
Insalu shya kufwala Calico to wear.
Imbuto shya kubyala Seed for sowing.
Some verbs from their nature require the Relative form
of the verb for this. (Lesson 48.)


LESSON 20.
Time and speed are expressed by the following :
NOMBA Now, at once.
MAILO To-morrow, yesterday.
MASOSHI The day before yesterday, day after
to-morrow.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LELO, ILELO
KALE

ELYO
ELI
ULUBILO
BWANGU
PE
PE NA PE
BUCHYEBUCHYE
LUBOMBA LUBOMBA
INSHIKU SHYONSE
INSKIKU SHYONSE PE
NA PE


Today.
Already, long ago, in the past, in the
future.
Then, afterwards.
Then, afterwards.
Quickly, speedily, speed, quickness.
as Ulubilo, At once.
Always, continually.
For ever.
Carefully, slowly.
Little by little.
Always, continually, lit. all the days.
For ever and ever, continually.

IMPERATIVE


The Imperative form of the verb is the simple stem,
i. e. the Infinitive shorn of the UKU-prefix. It makes its
plural form by changing the final A to ENI.
Infinitive. Imperative. Imperative plural.
Ukukaka To tie. Kaka Tie. Kakeni Tie ye.
Leteni inombe shyonse nomba Bring ye all the cattle at once.
Tumo muntu ku Mbereshi bwangu Send a person to Mbereshi quickly.
Chite milimo yonse lelo Do all the work today.
Lete fipe fyonse lelo Bring all the loads today.
Kakeni amatete yonse Tie ye all the reeds.
The negative Imperative is I inserted between the pro-
noun and the verb stem :


Nileta I must not bring.
Wileta You must not bring.
Eleta He must not bring.


Twileta
Mwileta
Beleta


We must not bring.
You (ye) must not bring.
They must not bring.


EXAMPLES.
Mwileta hiombe lelo Dont bring the cattle today.
Wileta chipe chikalamba Dont bring a big load.
Beleta fipe fingi They must not bring many loads.
The final A of the verb stem in the Imperative negative
is constant. It never coalesces with any other vowel nor
suffers change.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


English.
To tie
To warm one-


LESSON 21.
Infinitive. Imperative. Imperative plural.


Ukukaka


self Ukonta
To cook Ukwipika
To wash Ukusamba
To drink Ukunwa
To hammer Ukupampami-
na
To eat Ukulya
To fasten Ukufunga
To cut, hack Ukuteta
To speak Ukusosa
To bring Ukuleta
To die Ukufwa
To walk Ukwenda
To send Ukutuma
To cease Ukuleka
To write Ukulemba
To sweep Ukupyanga
To do Ukuchita
To draw waterUkutapa
To place Ukubika


Kaka

Onta
Ipika
Samba
Nwa
Pampamina

Lya
Funga
Teta
Sosa
Leta
Fwa
Enda
Tuma
Leka
Lemba
Pyanga
Chita
Tapa
Bika


Kakeni

Onteni
Ipikeni
Sambeni
Nweni
Pampamineni

Lyeni
Fungeni
Teteni
Soseni
Leteni
Fweni
Endeni
Tumeni
Lekeni
Lembeni
Pyangeni
Chiteni
Tapeni
Bikeni


NOTE. It is as well to note that many of these words, and other
words that will be met with in the course of these Lessons, have more
meanings than the one given, and for that reason it is well not to get
too hard and fast an idea of the meaning of a word. The meaning
given will be a common one and generally the most important
meaning of that particular word.

A USEFUL REQUESTIVE FORM
The Subjunctive Mood (see Lesson 46) is milder than the
express command and comes very near to our (( please )
when used in second or third person plural in addressing
an individual.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Mulete
Basose
Bapyange
Mukake
Batape amenshi
Mulete umupando
Babike pano


Please bring.
Please speak, kindly speak, you may speak.
You might sweep, please sweep.
Kindly tie.
Please draw the water.
You might bring me a chair.
Place (it) here.


The plural so used is merely politeness.


LESSON 22.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns may be divided into two classes and
for convenience called separable and inseparable.
The separables can be used apart from the verb and as
their name suggests they can stand alone.
The inseparables can only be used in conjunction with a
verb, and no verb is complete without its proper pronoun,
save in the Infinitive or Imperative.
The separable pronoun cannot be used with the verb in
place of the nominative pronoun (inseparable) though
it is sometimes used as an objective in place of the insepar-
able.
SEPARABLE PRONOUNS.


I, me INE
Thou, thee IWE
He, him, she, her -


We, us
You
They, them


IFWE
IMWE


It will be seen that the third person singular and plural
are left blank. There does not appear to be a definite pro-
noun but the demonstrative pronouns take the place.
UYU or WENE ABA or BENE
The use of the separable pronoun :
For emphasis;
For asking and answering questions;
In calling people;
In pointing out people, etc.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Emphasis :
Ine nasosa I spoke.
Iwe waleta You brought.
Answering :
Who is there? Ine. It is I. or Nine.
Who told you? Uyu. He (told me). Ni uyu.
Who brought it? Aba. They (brought it). Ni aba.
Calling :
Iwe' or We' You (voice raised as in calling).
Imwe' or Mwc' You (plural).
Pointing :
Uyu or Ni uyu He, she.
Aba or Ni aba They, them.
NEGATION.
The negative particle TE used before the separable pro-
noun is equivalent to (( not ).
Te ine. Not I. Te iwe. Not you. Te uyu. Not he.
Te ine? Was it not I? Te uyu? Is it not he?
Perhaps the Student would be wise not to use the separ-
ables too much till once he has mastered the inseparables,
as these are really the more important in common use.

LESSON 23.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
INSEPARABLES.
The inseparable pronouns can only be used in conjunction
with a verb.
Affirmative. Negative.
- I NSHI Not I
- Thou TAU Not thou
A He, she TA Not he, she
To We TATU Not we
lMu You TAMU Not you
BA They TABA Not they
It will be seen that the negative particle TA placed before the
pronoun makes the negative; NSHI in first person singular.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Nsosa I speak. Nshisosa I do not speak.
Usosa Thou speakest. Tausosa Thou dost not speak.
Asosa He speaks. Tasosa He does not speak.
Tusosa We speak. Tatusosa We do not speak.
Musosa You speak. Tamusosa You do not speak.
Basosa They speak. Tabasosa They do not speak.
In actual speech this tense would be very often met with
in the Subjunctive Mood which will be learned later. (Lesson
46.) This tense in the Indicative Mood cannot stand alone,
it needs a completive word or words, generally an adverb.
It is used of customary action. (Lesson 32.)
As the pronoun N is a disturbing element and gives rise to
various changes when joined to the verb stem, the next
lesson will give these changes fully and the student is ad-
vised to master them once for all.

LESSON 24.
LIST OF CHANGES WITH N BEFORE VERB STEMS
As pronominal prefix the letter N first person singular,
involves the following changes :
N before A inserts J Njabuke not Nabuke cross.
N >B becomes M Mbuke n Nbuke divine.
N C no change Nchite do.
N E inserts J Njebe Nebe tell.
N F becomes M Mfike a Nfike arrive.
N I inserts J Njite a Nite call.
N K no change Nkake tie.
N L becomes D Ndete a Nlete g bring.
N M drops Mone a Nmome see.
N N drops Nonke Nnonke possess.
N N N drops Nwiiwinte NAwifiwinte U murmur.
N 0 Oinserts J Njobe Nobe paddle.
N P becomes M Mpite a Npite pass.
N S no change Nsose speak.
N T no change Ntote thank.
N U inserts J Njubule Nubule peel, pare.
N W inserts G Ngwile a Nwile fall.
N Y inserts J Nje Nye go.
N U or W becomes N if the U or W is followed by N or M.
Ex.: Bafumine They beat me Not Ba. n. umine.
Chyafwamina It is good (or suitable) Not Chya. n. wamina.
for me.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH 41

In some districts the J inserted has the sound approximat-
ing more to G.
The occurrence of a double consonant in the verb stem
such as MB, MF, NG, NK, etc., affects the N as follows :
When the first vowel is A, O or U, the N becomes N.
INonke That I may suck onka.
1umfwe That I may hear umfwe.

When the first vowel is E or I, N inserts Y.
Nyingile That I may enter ingila
Nyende That I may go enda.

N before B.--When MB, or ND, occurs in second syl-
lable of verb stem, N becomes M as usual, but the initial B
consonant of verb drops.
Mombe That I may work bomba.
Minde That I may gird up my binda.
cloth

(There are some exceptions to this rule but it is very
general.)
N before L. When MB or ND occurs in second syllable
of verb stem the L simply drops. Also before NG.
Ninde That I may wait linda.


LESSON 25.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
The personal possessive pronouns are :
-ANDI My, mine. -ESU Our, ours.
-OBE Thy, thine. -ENU Your, ours.
-AKWE His, her, hers. -ABO Their, theirs.
NOTE. (1) These require the narrow prefix as used with the
adjectives.
(2) Class 1 uses the U prefix in the singular.
(4) There is no gender in the possessives.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


EXAMPLES.
Ifianda yandi My house. Ifianda shyesu Our houses.
Umushya obe Thy slave. Abashya benu Your slaves.
Umwana wakwe His child. Abana bakwe His children.
Inondo yakwe His hammer. Inondo shyakwe His hammers.
Insengu shyabo Theirbamboos. Insengu shyenu Your bamboos.
Ukubomba kwesu Our work. Ukubomba kwaboTheir work.
Ubufi bwakwe His lies. Inongo shyakwe Her pots.
Ubulungu bwakwe Her beads. Ubulungu bwabo Their beads.
Ubulwele bwesu Our sickness. Amalwele yenu Your sicknesses.
Abashya besu Our slaves. Imilimo yobe Thy work.
Ululimi lwenu Your language. Ndimi shyesu Our languages.
Ulukasu lobe Thy hoe. Amakasu yesu Our hoes.
Ulukasu Iwandi lunono My little hoe.
Imilimo yenu yikalamba Your great work.
Inondo yakwe yikulu His big hammer.
Insalu shyesu shisuma Our fine cloths.
Ubwato bwandi bukalamba My big boat.
Ifiombe shyesu shyonse All our cattle.
Ifiombe shyobe shyonse All thy cattle.
Ukusosa kwesu Our speech, speaking.
NOTE.-U before O drops.
U becomes W before A, E, I.
I before A, E, O, and U, becomes Y.


LESSON 26.

IMPERSONAL POSSESSIVES

ITS THEIR
The impersonal possessives present a little difficulty at
first sight, but if carefully examined and considered the
difficulty will soon disappear. It is expressed by the use of
the broad, and the narrow prefixes with KO as suffix.
The broad prefix of the thing possessed comes first, followed
by the narrow prefix of the possessor, with KO suffix, no
matter to which class the possessive belongs.
The dog and its pups, would be expressed : Imbwa na bana
baiko :
Imbwa dog
na and






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH

children
broad prefix from bana
narrow prefix from imbwa
suffix common to all possessives.

EXAMPLES.


Ifiombe ne nsengo shyashiko
Tiombe no mwine waiko
Imbokoshi no mwando waiko
Inkoko na bana baiko
Ubwato ne nkafi shyabuko
Ulukasu no mupini waluko
Inchinga ne mipeto yaiko
Umupika na mafwesa yauko
Inongo na mafwesa yaiko
Inongo na mafwesa yashiko
Akalulu na matwi yakako
Ukulu ne miswiswi yakuko
Umupando no musao wauko
Utuni ne finsa fyatuko


The cattle and their horns.
The cow and its owner.
The box and its rope.
The hen and its chicks,
The boat and its paddles.
The hoe and its handle.
The cycle and its tyres.
The iron pot and its hobs.
The clay pot and its hobs.
The clay pots and their hobs.
The rabbit and its ears.
The leg and its pains.
The chair and its cushion.
The little birds and their nests.


Wayiko is often heard for Waiko.
Note the changes in NA before the various nouns.


LESSON 27.
(1) The combination of the personal noun prefix UMU,
plural ABA, and the possessive pronoun and insertion of
the letter N gives the word meaning : friend, companion,
fellow, etc.


Formation.
Umu-n-andi
Umu-n-obe
Umu-n-a (n) kwe
Umu-n-e (n) su
Umu-n-enu
Umu-n-abo


Use.
Umunandi
Umunobe
Umunankwe
Umunensu
Umunenu
Umunabo


Meaning.
My fellow
Thy fellow
His fellow
Our fellow
Your fellow
Their fellow


Plural.
Abanandi
Abanobe
Abanankwe
Abanensu
Abanensu
Abanabo


In common speech one frequently hears Umubiyo for
Umunobe and Umubiye for Umunabo, plural Ababiyo-
Ababiye.


bana
ba
i


431






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


(2) The combination of MU and the possessive pronoun
gives the word meaning : place, home. This form in use
requires the preposition KU, to, etc., PA, at, etc., MU, in,
etc. This seems to be the only word for ( Home) in Chibemba.
Formation. Use. Meaning, Plural.
Mu-andi Mwandi My home Myandi
Mu-obe Mobe Thy home Myobe
Mu-akwe Mwakwe His home Myakwe
Mu-esu Mwesu Our home Myesu
Mu-enu Mwenu Your home Myenu
Mu-abo Mwabo Their home Myabo
The plural form seems to be used indiscriminately with
the singular and means exactly the same thing.
A chief might say: ku mwandi, a commoner would be more
likely to say: ku mwesu or ku myesu.
NOTE. -nankwe and -biye of Nr 1 may be used of things, animals,
etc., and in that case might be translated : fellow, mate, etc., they
would of course require the prefix proper to the noun in question.
Inkalamo ne inankwe The lion and its mate.
Ichintu ne chinankwe The thing and its fellow.
Lunankwe, lubiye, shinankwe, shibiye, etc., etc.


LESSON 28.

NUMERALS (continued).
The numerals six to nine inclusive, differ from one to
five in that they do not require a prefix, but can stand alone.
They are :
MUTANDA six CHINE LUBALI seven
CHINE KONSE eight or CHINE KONSE KONSE eight
FUNDI nine or PABULA nine
IKUMI ten, is a noun of the 5th class, plural Ama.
CHINE LUBALI means four on one side, i. e. three fingers
of one hand and four of the other in
counting.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


CHINE KONSE


FOUNDI


PABULA


or CHINE KONSE KONSE means four
everywhere, i. e. four fingers of each
hand.
comes from Ukufundike minwe, to shut
the fist. Both fists are shut and knuckles
brought together in counting 10.
means : there lacks i. e. there lacks one
to make ten.

EXAMPLES.


Abaume mutanda
Abana chine lubali
Abalumendo chine lubali
Inombe chine konse
Abanakashi pabula
Abanakashi ikumi
Ikumi lya banakashi


6 men.
7 children.
7 youths.
8 cows.
9 women.
10 women.
10 women.


The higher numbers are expressed :
11. ikumi na -mo
12. ikumi na -bili
13. ikumi na -tatu
14. ikumi na -ne
15. ikumi na -sano
16. ikumi na mutanda
17. ikumi na chine lubali
18. ikumi na chine konse
19. ikumi na pabula
20. amakumi yabili
21. amakumi yabili na -mo
22. amakumi yabili na -bili
23. amakumi yabili na -tatu
24. amakumi yabili na -ne
25. amakumi yabili na -sano
26. amakumi yabili na mutanda
27. amakumi yabili na chine lubali
28. amakumi yabili na chine konse
29. amakumi yabili na pabula
30. amakumi yatatu






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


40. amakumi yane
50. amakumi yasano
60. amakumi mutanda
70. amakumi chine lubali
80. amakumi chine konse konse
90. amakumi pabula
100. umwanda, plural Imyanda (class 2)
1000. ikana, plural Amakana (class 5)
Ikana is a somewhat uncertain figure, some even
use it of 100
224. imyanda ibili na makumi yabili na yane (with
noun class 5)
589. imyanda isano na makumi chine konse na
pabula
999. pa bula chimo ukufika kwikana limo
After all this the learner will not be surprised to hear that
all teaching of arithmetic in schools is done in English.
The process of counting in Chibemba save for simple things
being far too cumbersome.

LESSON 29.

THE VERB
LE- TENSE.
A simple Present tense in common use is that characterized
by the use of the tense particle -LE inserted immediately
after the pronominal prefix. It is the Present Imperfect
and can be translated by the verb to be and the Participle.
N. makes the usual changes.
Affirmative. Negative.
Ndekaka I am tying Nshilekaka I am not tying
Ulekaka Thou art tying Taulekaka Thou art not tying
Alekaka He is tying Talekaka He is not tying
Tulekaka We are tying Tatulekaka We are not tying.
Mulekaka You are tying Tamulekaka You are not tying
Balekaka They are tying Tabalekaka They are not tying






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


The Neuters take the prefixes : CHILE, FILE, LULE,
YALE, etc.
NOTE. It will be seen that the negative particle TA placed before
the personal pronoun puts the verb into the negative. In the first
person singular the particle SHI is inserted between the pronoun
N and the LE. Ta and shi are negative particles.
EXAMPLES.


Ndekakechipe chya munandi
Ulekake chipe chyandi
Alesosa mashiwi yengi
Tulepite fipe fya basungu

Tuleisa
Tuleya
Nsilefwaya
Tabaleendo lubilo
Tatuleye lelo
Taulefwaya?


I am tying my friend's load.
Thou art tying my load.
He is saying many things.
We are carrying the loads of the
white men.
We are coming.
We are going.
I do not wish (it).
They are not going quickly.
We are not going today.
Dont you wish (it)?


Questions are frequently prefaced by BUSHYE which one
may consider as equivalent to the mark of interrogation


Bushye baleye lelo?
Bushye muleya nomba?


Are they going today?
Are you going now?


Bushye seems to emphasise the fact that it is a question
that is being asked, but when such words as KWI? NSHI?
or other question words are employed the bushye is dropped.


Uleya kwi?
Ulechita nshi?


Where are you going?
What are you doing?


LESSON 30.

The objective pronouns (personal) are :
N Me Tu Us
Ku Thee Mu You
Mu Him, her BA Them

These cannot be used apart from the verb, and their posi-
tion is immediately before the verb stem.
The N makes the same changes in the Objective case as it
does in the Nominative. (See Lesson 24.)







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ndebasoshya
Baletusoshya
Bushye nshilebasoshya ?
Baletupata
Abantu bonse bampata
Bamulete pano
Bushye tabakupata?
Iyo, bonse bantemwa
Bushye tabamupata?
E, bantu bamo bamupate
Ni bani baleuma bantu?
Bushye tabamutemwa ?
Bampe utumenshi
Bushye takupata?
Balekupo muchyele
Baletutamfya ku milimo


EXAMPLES.
I am telling them (speaking to).
They are telling us (speaking to).
Shall I not be speaking to them ?
They are hating us.
All people hate me.
Bring him here.
Dont they dislike you?
No, all like me.
Dont they hate (dislike) him?
chibi Yes, some people dislike him much.
Who is it is beating the people?
Do they not like you?
Please give me a little water.
Does he not dislike you?
They will give you salt.
They are driving us away from the
work.


The neuter objective pronouns will be given separately.
The above will only be used in speaking of or to persons.

LESSON 31

OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS (2)
IMPERSONAL.
Class. Singular. Plural.
2 U I
3 Lu I SHI
4 CHI FI
5 I, LI, Lu, Ku, Bu YA
6 KA Tu
7 Bu
8 Ku
9 PA, Ku, Mu
I coming before another vowel becomes Y.
U coming before another vowel becomes W.


Bushye uleumono mumana?
E, ndeumona
Bushye balechileta?


EXAMPLES.
Do you see (it) the river?
Yes, I see it.
Are they bringing it?






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


lyo, tabalechileta
E, balechileta
Ialulu balekaleta mu chipe

Bushye ulechifwaya nani?
Abantu balechifwaya
Bushye nani uleifimba?
Ni Tata aleifimba
Bushye imbwa baleiposa
Iyo, baleiteka fye

Bushye fombe baleshishite
lelo?
E, baleshishita


No, they are not bringing it.
Yes, they are bringing it.
They are bringing a rabbit in a
basket.
Who is seeking for it?
People are seeking for it.
Who is thatching it (house)?
It is my father who is thatching it.
Are they selling the dog?
No, they mean to keep it (they are
only keeping it).
Are they buying the cattle today?

Yes, they are buying them.


Sometimes the demonstrative pronoun or the relative pro-
noun is used as an objective. They may say: Bring that, this,
that one there, etc. (For demonstratives see Lesson 42.)


LESSON 32.
VERB
(No tense prefix.)
Simple Present of customary action.
This tense cannot stand alone, it requires a completive,
i. e. some word or words added on to complete the idea.


Affirmative.
Mpyanga I sweep
Upyanga Thou sweepest
Apyanga He sweeps
Tupyanga We sweep
Mupyanga You sweep
Bapyanga They sweep


Negative.
Nshipyanga I sweep not
Taupyanga Thou sweepest not
Tapyanga He sweeps not
Tatupyanga We sweep not
Tamupyanga You sweep not
Tabapyanga They sweep not


EXAMPLES.
Ine nsambe nkombo pe.
I wash the cups always.
Nshisamba mipika ine.
I do not wash the pots.
Kantwa alete fyumbu ku nanda.
Kantwa brings the potatoes to the house.
Taleta fyumbu ku iianda.
He does not bring the potatoes to the house.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ifwe banakashi tutapa menshi.
We women draw the water.
Tatutapa bushiku.
We do not draw water at night.
Mulyo bwali pe.
You always eat mush.
Ifwe tulye fyumbu uluchyelo.
We eat potatoes in the morning.
Tamulya nama pe iyo.
You don't always eat meat.
Banwa menshi fye.
They only drink water.
Tabanwa bwalwa nomba.
They do not drink beer now.
NOTE. I sweep not means, I never sweep, etc., etc.

It will be seen from the above that the final A of the nega-
tive is constant. It does not change nor coalesce with the
initial vowel of the noun following. In fact the initial
vowel of the noun is dropped.
A man will say : Ine nshiuma mukashi, I do not beat my
wife. Not : Ine nshiumo mukashi.


LESSON 33.

VERB

MODIFIED STEM.

The modified stem (M. S.) is a change made in the stem of
verbs in certain past tenses and negatives. It is obtained
thus :
(1) Verbs whose final consonant is M, N, or 1N, change the
final vowel of stem to ENE or INE. Other verbs change
the final A to ELE or ILE.
Verbs whose penultimate vowel is A, I, or U, take the
INE or ILE-form.
Verbs whose penultimate vowel is E, or O, take the ELE
or ENE-form.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Verb. Meaning. M. S. form.
Fuma Go out Fumine
Tuna Blunt Tunine
1afia Gnash teeth %afiine
Fuka Stoop Fukile
Leta Bring Letele
Pita Pass Pitile
Uma Beat Umine
Funa Break Funine
Tana Withhold Tanine
Sosa Speak Sosele
Chyena Hurt, wound Chyenene
Tema Fell a tree Temene

(2) Some verbs merely change two vowels :
Tana Pretend to fight Tene
Kana Refuse Kene
Fumbata Shut the fist Fumbete
Ipaya Kill Ipeye
Fwala Dress Fwele
Longana Congregate Longene

(3) Some verbs merely change the final A to E :
Tanika Stretch Tanike
Sanika Light up Sanike
Funika Be broken Funike
Fundika Tie, fasten Fundike
Kupika Cover over Kupike
Manika Fix in, hold in, insert Manike
In numbers 2 and 3 the penultimate vowel is lengthened
somewhat.
(4) Some verbs ending in YA change the YA to ESHYE
or ISHYE :
Fumya Put out Fumishye
Lufya Lose Lufishye
Imya Raise Imishye






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Knock down
Make heavy
Joke, tease


(5) Some verbs ending in SHYA
SESHYE or SHISHYE.


Ask
Greet
Make to grow
Move, shift


Ponya
Finya
Konya


(6) When U proceeds the SHYA, USHYA becomes
WISHYE, in verbs of more than two syllables.


Ipushya
Shibushya


Inquire
Awaken


Ipwishye
Shibwishye


It will be seen that in all these changes the vowels follow
the unvariable rule A, I, U take I, while E and 0 take E.


LESSON 34.

VERB

A- TENSE.

Past tense of today.

An Immediate Past tense only used of today, may be
translated : have just. Such statements as : I am sick, The
sun is set (just set), The rain has stopped, etc., are made
in this tense.
In the negative the modified stem is used. (Lesson 33.)


Affirmative.
I have just done
Thou hast just done
He has just done
We have just done
You have just done
They have just done


Negative.
Nshichitile I did not do
Tauchitile Thou didst not do
Tachitile He did not do
Tatuchitile We did not do
Tamuchitile You did not do
Tabachitile They did not do


Poneshye
Finishye
Koneshye

change SHYA to

Bushishye
Poseshye
Kushishye
Teseshye


Bushya
Poshya
Kushya
Teshya


Nachita
Wachita
Achita
Twachita
Mwachita
Bachita







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


EXAMPLES.


Akasuba kawa
Ifombe yafwa
Imfula yakalika
Twalete fipe fisano
Nachite milimo wampa
Bushye taumwene abantu lelo?
Bushye tamuletele fipe?
Iyo, abanesu bafileta
Bushye baimbe filindi?
E, baimba
Iyo, tablmbile
Bushye baya ku kutebe nkuni?
Bele uluchyelo


The sun is set.
The cow is dead.
The rain has stopped.
We have brought five loads.
I did the work you gave me.
Did you not see the people today?
Did you not bring the loads?
No, our friends brought them.
Did they dig the holes?
Yes, they dug (them).
No, they have not dug (them).
Have they gone to get firewood?
They went this morning.


While being used as a Past tense of today, this tense is
also used as a narrative past. The proper Past tense would
be used to begin the narrative and then this tense would
be employed.
Bantu bayile ku kutebe nkuni basange nkalamo, etc.
People went (some time ago) to get firewood, they found a lion, etc.

LESSON 35.

VERB
MODIFIED STEM.
A Past tense of today needs a completive word or words.


.-I,:: ... '.
Nkakile I tied
Ukakile Thou tiedest
Akakile He tied
Tukakile We tied
Mukakile You tied
Bakakile They tied


Negative.
Nshikakile I tied not
Taukakile Thou didst not die
Takakile He did not tic
Tatukakile We did not tic
Tamukakile You did not tie
Tabakakile They did not tie


EXAMPLES.
Bushye akakile chipe uluchyelo?
Did he tie the load this morning?
Akakile fipe fisano akasuba.
He tied five loads during the day.
Bushye nani achitile milimo?
Who did the work?







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ine nchitile milimo yonse.
I did all the work.
Bushye tabachitile milimo yabo?
Have they not done their work?
Iyo, tabachitile nangu pamo.
SNo, they have not done anything.
Bushye tamwipeye nama?
Have you not killed an animal?
Awe Mukwai, tatumwene nelyo kamo,
No sir, we did not see even one.
Bushye tabaletele fipe lelo?
Have they not brought the loads today?
Iyo, tabaletele fipe.
No, they have not brought loads.
Iyo, nshimwene kantu.
No I have seen nothing.
Bushye batemene umuti uluchyelo?
Did they fell the tree this morning?
E, bautemene uluchyelo.
Yes, they felled it this morning.
Tabatapile amenshi uluchyelo?
Did they not draw water this morning?
lyo, tabatapile.
No, they did not draw water.
Bushye abantu bele uluchyelo?
Did the people go this morning?
lyo, table nelyo umo.
No, not even one went.
Tusangile nama shisano pe lungu.
We found five animals on the plain.
Basangile nkalamo mu nshila.
They found a lion on the path.
Bayipeye nkalamo uluchyelo.
They killed a lion this morning.

LESSON 36.
VERB
NA- TENSE.
Present Perfect.
NA is prefixed to the ordinary pronominal prefix of the
verb. NI in the first person singular takes the place of NA.
NY takes the place of NA plus U in second person.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Affirmative.
Ninkaka I have tied
Nukaka Thou hast tied
Nakaka He has tied
Natukaka We have tied
Namukaka You have tied
Nabakaka They have tied


Negative.
Nshikakile I did not tie
Taukakile Thou didst not tie
Takakile He did not tie
Tatukakile We did not tie
Tamukakile You did not tie
Tabakakile They did not tie


And so through all the classes.
NOTE. The neg. is the same as that of -A- tense, Lesson 34.
EXAMPLES.
Nintapa menshi I have drawn water.
Bushye nutapa menshi? Have you drawn water?
Umulumendo nakaka chipe The young man has tied the load.
Natupwe milimo yonse We have finished all the work.
Bushye namupwe milimo? Have you finished the work?
Natupwa We have finished.
Nabakake fipe fyabo fyonse They have tied all their loads.
Ine nshikakile chipe chyandi I did not tie my load.
Bushye chilonda nachipola? Is the sore healed?
Iyo Mukwai, tachipolele No, sir, it is not healed.
Natusende fipe fyonse We have carried all .the loads.
Bushye numono mumana? Do you see the river?
E, nimona Mukwai Yes I see (it), sir.
Bushye nupyanga mu fianda? Have you swept (in) in the house ?
Nimpyanga I have swept.
Ndepyanga I shall sweep.
NOTE. -Being self contained i. e. it can stand alone, this tense is
very useful for asking and answering questions. It is commonly
used as Past tense of today.

LESSON 37.
VERB
A- with M. S.
Past Indefinite.
NOT used of today.
The M. S. follows the rules given in Lesson 33..
A affirmative. Negative.
Nakakile I tied Nshyakakile I did not tie
Wakakile Thou tiedest Tawakakile Thou didst not tie
Akakile He tied Takakile He did not tie
Twakakile We tied Tatwakakile We did not tie
Mwakakile You tied Tamwakakile You did not tie
Bakakile They tied Tabakakile They did not tie







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


In the affirmative this tense needs completive word or words.

EXAMPLES.

Nshyasolese nelyo kamulandu kamo.
I said nothing (not even a little word).
Tachitile, munankwe achitile.
He did not do (it), his fellow did.
Baletele milambo ku mfumu.
They brought tribute to the chief.
Fundi apangile imipando isano.
The tradesman made five chairs.
Namwene inkalamo shine.
I saw four lions.
Umunandi atapile amenshi.
My friend drew water.
Ine nakoseshye umulilo.
I made up the fire.
Naile kwa Kasembe.
I went to Kasembe's.
Tamwasosele ifya chine.
You did not speak the truth.
Twabasangile balekake fipe.
We found them tying their loads.
Batusangile ne milimo ingi.
They found us with much work.
Batumine ne fikote.
They beat us with whips.
Nshyakakile fipe fya banandi.
I did not tie my friend's loads.
Tabakakile fipe fyandi yo.
They did not tie my loads.
Twabasangile pa mumana.
We found them at the river.
Twasangile nsofu pelungu.
We found an elephant on the plain.
Inkalamo shyaipeye abantu babili.
The lions killed two people.
Muntu umo aipeye inkalamo shitatu.
One person killed three lions.
Ifnanda ikalamba yawile ku mwela.
A large house fell with the wind, i. e. the wind blew it down,
lianda yandi yapwile ulya mulungu.
My house was finished the other week.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 38.

TO BE
The verbs LI and BA, each meaning be, are deserving of
careful study.
LI means to be, to exist.
The stem LI never changes; this, and the fact that it ends
in I and not A as do all the other verbs (save TI), makes it
exceptional.
Present.


Affirmative.
Ndi I am Nshili
Uli Thou art Tauli
Ali He is Tali
Tuli We are Tatuli
Muli You are Tamuli
Bali They are Tabali
and so through all the classes.


Negative.
I am not
Thou art not
He is not
We are not
You are not
They are not


Past (not of today).


I was
Thou wert
He was
We were
You were
They.were


Nshyali
Tawali
Tali
Tatwali
Tamwali
Tabali


I was not
Thou wert not
He was not
We were not
You were not
SThey were not


Followed by NA (with) it means to have (lit. to be with).

EXAMPLES.


Ndi ne milimo ikalamba
Bansangile nali ne milimo ika-
lamba
Ali ne fyuma fingi
Imwe tamuli ne fipe?
Tuli ne fipe fingi
Twali no kulwala bonse
Tuli ne nsala
Tabali ne nsala
Ali no bukali
Bali na makasu yane
Tatuli na bantu besu muno
Tamuli ne milimo?
Tatuli ne milimo yo


I have much work (a great work).
They found me very busy.

He has much wealth (is wealthy).
Have you no loads?
We have many loads.
We were all ill.
We are hungry.
They are not hungry.
He is very angry.
They have four hoes.
We have no friends here.
Have you no work?
We have no work.


Nali
Wali
Ali
Twali
Mwali
Bali







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 39.

UKUBA, to be, to become.
Ukuba is not generally heard in the Present tense save in
the Subjunctive Mood, the sign of which is the softening of
the final A of the verb stem to E. This change in the Sub-
junctive applies to practically every verb in the language
except LI, to be, and UKUTI, to say.


Affirmative.
Let me be
That thou mayst be
That he may be
That we may be
That you may be
That they may be


Niba
Wiba
Eba
Twiba
Mwiba
Beba


Negative.
May I not be
Thou mayst not be
That he may not be
That we may not be
That you may not be
That they may not be


The A of BA in the negative form is constant. It never
coalesces with any other vowel or alters in any way.


I am always
Thou art always
He is always
We are always
You are always
They are always


Nshyaba
Tawaba
Taba
Tatwaba
Tamwaba
Tababa


I am not always
Thou -art not always
He is not always
We are not always
You are not always
They are not always


This form is used of customary condition, etc.

EXAMPLES.


Babe abantu bobe
Abe umushya obe
Ukuti tube abantu bobe
Ukuti abe umuntu musuma
Ukuti twiba bashya
Ukuti niba kapondo
Aba kwa Kasembe ku mushi
Twaba pa milimo ya kulima
Nshyaba ne milimo
Tatwaba na maka ya kuchita
Tamwaba no lusa Iwa kwingila
mu ianda.


That they may be your people.
That he may be your slave.
That we may be your people.
That he may become a good person.
That we be not slaves.
That I become not an outlaw.
He resides at Kasembe's village.
We are (all the time) cultivating.
I am without work.
We have not strength to do (it).
You have not the right to enter the
house.


Note the use of Ukuti, in order that.
Negative form : Tekuti or Teti.


Mbe
Ube
Abe
Tube
Mube
Babe


Naba
Waba
Aba
Twaba
Mwaba
Baba






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 40.
THE COPULA
In addition to the verbs LI and BA there are three other
ways of expressing : he is, she is, it is, they are, etc. :
1. The syllable NI; 2. Accent; 3. the letter E.
The copula NI may be either singular or plural, past or
present, personal or impersonal.
NI has no negative form and it is used with some nouns in
class 1 and most nouns of class 3.

In class 1 sub-classes, A, B, and C singular and plural (q.v.).
Ni tata He is my father.
Ni mayo She is my mother.
Ni kapoli It is a pig.
Ni kafundishya He is a teacher.
Ni nabwinga She is a bride.
Ni batata They are my fathers.
Ni bamayo They are my mothers.
Ni bakapoli They are pigs.
Ni bakafundishya They are teachers.
Ni banabwinga They are brides.

With proper names :
Ni Musonda It is Musonda.
Ni Kantwa It is So and so.
CLASS 3. The copula NI may be used with the whole of
this class singular and plural save only such nouns as have
the ULU prefix in the singular. It is used however with the
plural forms of such nouns.
Ni fiombe It is a cow. Ni flanda It is a house.
Ni nsengu They are bamboos. Ni nsengo They are horns.
NI is also used with the following parts of speech :
Prepositions : Ni mu fianda, It is within the house.
Pronouns : Ni ne, It is I. Ni fwe, It is we, etc.
Demonstratives : Ni chi, Ni uyu, It is this.
Adverbs : Ni kuno, It is here. Ni nomba, It is now.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


ACCENT. -Accent takes the place of the copula NI with
all nouns, singular and plural, other than those mentioned
above. It is not marked in written or printed matter, the
connection will generally make it clear.


Musonda m6ntu
Ichi chipe
Ulu lipili
Uyu muntu mdkali


Musonda is a person indeed (a good one).
That is a load.
That is a hill.
This man is a fierce man.


The accent falls on the vowel of the prefix, the preprefix
drops.

LESSON 41.

THE COPULA
The copula E may be used with every class of noun. It
has a demonstrative force.

E muntu That is the man. E chintu That is the thing.

The copula may be used with the Infinitive form of the
verb.
E kusosa That is speaking.

The copula may be used with every other part of speech
except the conjunction and the interjection.


E mu flanda That is (being) in the
house.


E uyu
E chilya
E chyakwe
E chikalamba
E uku kwine


That is he.
That is it.
That is his, hers.
That is the big one.
Just there that is the
place.


The negative form of this copula is TE, a contraction of
the neg. particle TA and E. This may be used with every
part of speech except the conjunction and the interjection.


Preposition :

Dem. Pron. :

Poss. Pron. :
Adjective :
Adverb :







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH

EXAMPLES.


Tata ni mfumu
Tata e mfumu
Yobe e lianda
E kubomba kwine kwine
E kulima
Bese bwangu, e bwana

E uyo aibe fintu fyandi
E bantu baishile mailo

E bo tulefwaya
E chyo ndefwaya
The chyakwe yo, chyandi
Te munono, mukalamba nde-
fwaya
Uyu te munono
Iyi te flanda


My father is a chief.
My father, he is the chief.
Yours, that is the house.
That is working indeed.
That is cultivating.
Let them come quickly, that is
bwana (his message).
That is the one who stole my things.
These are the people who came
yesterday.
These are they whom we seek.
That is what I wish.
It is not his, it is mine.
It is not the little one (it is) the big
one I wish.
That is not the little one.
That is not a house.


LESSON 42.

DEMONSTRATIVES

As in English, the demonstrative may be a demonstrative
adjective or a demonstrative pronoun. There are four
such demonstratives which may be translated : This, That,
These, Those, according as the person or thing spoken of
is near of farther off, or near to the speaker or to the person
addressed.


Class. Numb. Concord. Near.

1 S. u or MU UYU
P. BA ABA
2 S. U UYU
P. I IYI
3 S. i IYI
LIT ULU
P. SHI ISHI
4 S. CHI ICHI
P. FI IFI
5 S. LI ILI
LU ULU
KU UKU
BU UBTJ
P. YA AYA


Near
Farther. Near
speaker.
ULYA UNO
BALYA BANO
ULYA UNO
ILYA INO
ILYA INO
LULYA LUNO
SHILYA SHINO
CHILYA CHINO
FILYA FINO
LILYA LINO
LULYA LUNO
KULYA KUNO
BULYA BUNO
YALYA YANO


Near person
addressed.
UYO
ABO
UYO
IYO
IYO
ULO
ISHYO
ICHYO
IFYO
ILYO
ULO
UKO
UBO
AYO






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Class. Numb. Concord. Near. Farther Near Near person
speaker, addressed.
6 S. KA AKA KALYA KANO AKO
P. TU UTU TULYA TUNO UTO
7 S. BU UBU BULYA BUNO UBO
8 S. KU UKU KULYA KUNO UKO
9 S. KU UKU KULYA KUNO UKO
PA APA PALYA PANO APO
MU UMU MULYA MUNO UMO

To express great or greater distance the voice is raised,
and the index finger of the right hand points upward. This
may be done till the finger is pointing practically overhead.
A common, though more slovenly way, is to pout the lips
and tilt the head till the nose points in the direction the
finger ought to have shown. This is called Kusonta ku
kanwa, Pointing with the mouth.

In narration UYO is used when the listener is not
acquainted with the subject. If the listener knows the sub-
ject under discussion the ULYA is employed.
Uyo mumana twabwike That river we crossed.
Ulya mumana twabwike That river we crossed (which you
know).

LESSON 43.

THE USE OF THE DEMONSTRATIVES.
Uyu mumana unono, ulya ukalamba.
This river is small, that one is big.
Ifintu ifi fyonse fyandi, fyobe ni filya.
All these things are mine, yours are those there
(at a distance).
Abo bantu besu.
Those (near you) are our people.
Lete chyo.
Bring that (thing near to you).
Senda chino
Carry this (thing near me).





CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Bebe abantu bapite fi.
Tell the people to take these (near).
Bushye ni bani baposele bwe?
Who threw the stone?
Ni ulya aposele bwe.
It was he (a bit off) who threw the stone.
Nani abole mbwa?
Who hit the dog?
Ni uyu mwanakashi.
It was this (near) woman.
Abantu bandi bali kwi?
Where are my people?
Ni bano.
These (near speaker) are they.
Insengu ishi shyaoloke chibi.
These bamboos are very straight.
Shilya nsengu tashyaolokele iyo.
Those bamboos are not at all straight.
Inshila yesu yili kwi?
Where is our road?
Ni iyi Mukwai.
This is it (near one), Sir (or Madam).
Isembe ili.
This axe.
Isembe lilya.
That axe.
Ndefwaye sembe, lete lyo (leta ilyo).
I wish an axe, bring that one.
Ulukasu luno lukalamba.
This is a big hoe.
Inama ishi ishikali.
These animals are fierce.
Inama ishi tashyakalipe.
These animals are not fierce (angry).






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Abansungu bonse balafwale ngowani.
All Europeans wear hats (habitually).
Ifwe bantu twatemwo bwali bwa musango uyu.
We people like this kind of mush.
Aba banakashi batapile amenshi.
These women drew the water.
Ifwe bano, fwe baume, twakandile amaloba.
We (here), we men, we trod the mud.
Konka balya bantu abaya nomba.
Follow those people who went off just now.
Lete fi mu fianda, ndefwaya fyonse.
Bring these into the house, I wish (them) all.

LESSON 44.

PREPOSITIONS
The prepositions PA, KU, MU present some little difficulty
as they have several forms'in which they appear and these
forms are not interchangeable.
The forms are :
PA PALI PA
Ku KULI KWA
Mu MULI MWA
The following rules will serve as a guide as to general use,
but one must keep a look out for unexpected uses of the
various forms.
The prepositions may govern Time, Place or Circum-
stance. The meanings are given in Lesson 14.
PA KU MU
would be used before most common nouns and names of
places and titles.
Mu fanda In the house.
Pa mumana At the river.
Ku mfumu To the chief.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


PALI KULI MULI
would be used before proper names, demonstratives,
pronouns, some adverbs, most (not all) terms of relationship,
as father, mother, etc., before such nouns as have no singu-
lar prefix but take ABA as plural prefix (Class 1 sub-classes)
also before the names of certain places (these must be learned
as they are met).
Kuli kwana To bwana.
Pali uyu To this one.
Muli Tanganyika In Tanganyika.
PA KWA MWA
are used before proper nouns meaning : at the house of,
to the place of, in the house of, etc. Often used as a polite
way of saying to the person.
PALI KULI MULI
are also used before the days of the week, one to five;
before cardinal numbers, one to five;
before ordinal numbers six to nine;
before indefinite numeral adjectives, some, all.
Kuli bonse To all.
Muli chimo On Monday.
Muli chibili On Tuesday.
Muli chine On Thursday.
Muli chisano On Friday.
See next lesson for further examples of the preposition.

LESSON 45.
PREPOSITIONS (2)
It is said :
Senda ku mfumu Take it to the chief.
Senda kuli Kasembe Take it to Kasembe.
Senda kwa Kasembe Take it to Kasembe's.
Senda kwi sano kwa Kasembe Take it to Kasembe's quarters.
Senda ku fianda ya kwa bwa- Take it to bwana's house.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Senda mu fianda mwa bwana
Senda kuli bwana
Senda muli iyi fianda
Kuli wiso
Kilu bukwe
Kuli Bubenshi
Ku Luapula
Kuli Chipili
Ku Chipili

Ku mwine
Kuli ulya
Amuposa mu mulilo
Amuposa ku nkalamo
Achiposa kuli kolwe
Kuli lelo
Kuli nomba
Lungo muchyele muli tute
Lungo muchyele muli chi-
bwabwa
Lungo muchyele mu fyumbu
Bika muli fwaka
Mu mulamba wa nama
Muli mulamba wa meshi


Take it into bwana's house.
Take it to bwana.
Take it into this house.
To your father.
To brother (or sister) in law.
To the Bubenshi river.
To the Luapula river.
To the Chipili river.
To Chipili (the place of that
name).
To the owner, lord, master.
To that one.
He threw him in the fire.
He threw him to the lion.
He threw it to the monkey.
Till today.
Until this present time.
Season the manioc with salt.
Season the pumpkin leaves
with salt.
Season the potatoes with salt.
Put into the tobacco.
In the track of the animals.
In the water floods.


MU and PA follow the same rules as KU, each gives its
particular meaning to the sentence.

LESSON 46.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The simplest form of the Subjunctive Mood is obtained by
changing the final A of the verb stem to E. (See also Les-
son 39.)
Ndekaka I am tying. Nkake Let me tie.
The meaning thus obtained may be expressed in English :
If I tie, That I may tie.
In order that I may tie, Let me tie.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Other forms of the Subjunctive will be learned later.

EXAMPLES.


Soso mulandu fumfwe
Leta menshi nsambe
Soseshya bonse bomfwe
Leto bwali bonse tulye


Speak (of) the matter that I may hear.
Bring water that I may wash.
Speak up that all may hear.
Bring mush that we may all eat.


UKUTI, In order that, is frequently combined with
the Subjunctive.


Ukuti iumfwe
Leta menshi ukuti nsambe
Ukuti bonse bapoke kamo
kamo


In order that I may hear.
Bring water in order that I may wash.
That all may receive one (one, one)
that each may receive one.


TEKUTI or its shorter form TETI is generally used with
the Subjunctive.


Tekuti basose; teti basose
Tekuti (teti) bese pano nomba


They must not speak.
That they come not here now.


BA with Subjunctive as a mild Imperative, see Lesson 21.
KA with verb in Subjunctive makes an Imperative of motion.


Kalete
Katete
Kapoke
Kamone


Go and bring.
Go and cut.
Go and take.
Go and see.


Kalete fipe fili ku nanda yandi

Kaleteni fipe fyonse fili pa
lukungu


Kaleteni Go ye and bring.
Kateteni Go ye and cut.
Kapokeni Go ye and take.
Kamoneni Go ye and see.
Go bring the loads that are at my
house.
Go ye bring all the loads which are
on the verandah.


LESSON 47.

A useful list of Interrogatives with their meanings.

ANI? Who? Whom? Plural Bani?
Ni wani? Who are you?
Nani uyu uleisa? Who is this coming?
Bushye ni bani balelete mbokoshi?
Who are bringing the boxes?
Bushye nsalu shilya shya kwani?
To whom do those clothes belong?







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


PI? Where? At what place?
Ni pi? Where (is it) ?
Chili pi? Where is it?
Alipi? Where is he?

KWI? Where? At what place?


Ni kwi?
Chili kwi?
Bali kwi?
Bele kwi?
Bantu besu bali kwi?


NSHI? What?
Bushiku nshi?
Mwaka nshi?
Akesa bushiku nshi?
Kasiba nshi aishile? What time

SHYANI? What? How?
Ati shyani?
Wati shyani
Wati shyani?
Ni shyani?
Ni shyani balechita?

CHINSHI? What?
Mulefwaya nshi? What do you
Ichyo basendele chinshi?
Chinshi basendele?
Chinshi baposele?


Where (is it)?
Where is it?
Where are they?
Where did they go?
Where are our people?


What day? (when).
What year?
What day will he come?
did he come? = The sun what
(place)?


What did he say?
What do you say?
What do you think?
What about it?
What is it they are doing?


want? = Chinshi mulefwaya?
What did they carry?
What did they carry?
What did they sell?


CHINSHI with Applied form = Why?
Chinshi baishila? Why have they come?
Chinshi basosele fyo? Why do they speak so?
Chinshi bamufwayila? Why do they seek him?

MULANDU NSHI? Why? For what reason?
account of what? Wherefore?


Mulandu nshi watutwima?
Mulandu nshi mwaishila?

Mulandu nshi mwaishile?
Mulandu nshi mwaishila bengi?


Why do you tremble?
What have you come for?
Why have you come?
Why did you come ? (not today).
Why have you come so many?






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LILALI? When? What time?
Waishile lilali? When did you come?
Baishile lilali? When did they come?
Baleya lilali? When will they be going?
Bakaya lilali? When will they go? (not of Today).
Kantwa akesa lilali? When will So and So come?
-NGA? How many?
This is used as an adjective and requires the prefix proper
to the class of noun.
Baishile banga? How many came?
Abantu bali banga? How many people?
Ifipe finga? How many loads?


LESSON 48.

APPLIED FORM OF THE VERB
Also called the Relative form. While being entirely diffe-
rent in meaning, and somewhat different in form, the Rela-
tive form of the verb follows the general rules laid down
for the changes in the M. S. (Lesson 33.)
The Applied forms are :
ELA ILA ENA INA
The same rules apply as with the M. S. M, N, n1 use ena,
ina.
Other take the cla, ila forms.
Verbs ending in :
Ola change Ola to Wela
Ona change Ona to Wena
Ula change Ula to Wila
Una change Una to Wina.

The meaning thus given to the verb may be expressed in
English by the prepositions to, from, for, at, against, or by
such phrases as : on behalf of, on account of, etc.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Verb. Meaning. Rel. form.


Sosa
Leta
Tuma
Ita
Lwa
Iba
Senda
Kanda
Lemba
Sombola
Sumbula
Sumuna
Fuma
Kutula
Putula


speak
bring
send
call
fight
steal
carry
tread mud
write
advertise
lift up
wipe
go out
dust
cut


sosela
letela
tumina
itila
Iwila
ibila
sendela
kandila
lembela
sombwela
sumbwila
sumwina
fumina
kutwila
putwila


Somona unsheath somwena


Meaning.
speak on behalf of.
bring to, bring for.
send on behalf of.
call on behalf of.
fight for.
steal for, steal from.
carry for, carry to.
tread mud for (hut, etc.).
write instead of, for.
advertise for another.
lift for another.
wipe for, on behalf of.
go out through.
dust for another.
cut for.
unsheath for.


The Dative is obtained by the use of the Applied form.


Amupele chipuna
Achimpela


he gave her a chair.
he gave it to me (chi from chipuna).


A Dative of direction is also so obtained, contrast the
following.


A fumina ku munana
Afuma ku mumana
Fumya mu kasuba
Fumishya (1) mu kasuba
Aka bwela
Akabwelela kuno
Abutuko musungu
Abutukila ku musungu


he went out to the river.
he went away from the river.
take (it) out of the sun.
take (it) out into the sun.
he will return.
he will return here.
he ran away from the white man.
he ran to the white man.


The context will determine the sense of the Relative form
and its meaning.


(1) -ISHYA is the Applied form.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 49.
APPLIED FORM (2)
EXAMPLES.
Alelwilo mukashi na bana.
He is fighting for his wife and children.
Baletwalile mfumu.
They are carrying for the chief.
Umwaume uwaletele mfumu mbokoshi.
The man who brought the box for the chief,
Umukashi alesoselo mulume wakwe.
The wife is speaking for her husband.
Alimina Kalulu ibala likalamba.
He cultivated for Kalulu a large garden.
Alechitila bwana imilimo yakwe.
He is doing bwana's work for him.
Ichipe chya kupitilamo fyumbu.
A basket for carrying potatoes (in).
Alelwila mabala ya mfumu.
He is fighting for the chief's gardens.
Batukakile fipe fyesu.
They tied our loads for us.
Umuti waponena panshi.
The tree fell to the ground.
Umunensu aponena pe bwe.
Our fellow fell down upon a stone.
Leto mwando wakukakile chipe.
Bring a rope for tying the load, to tie the load with.
Umwele wakuputwilako;
A knife for cutting with.
Ntumino muntu ukundetele chipe.
Send a man for me, to bring the load to me.
Bana tulefwayile chintu balufishye.
We are seeking on behalf of the children a thing they lost.
Aya ku kunsosela kuli bwana.
He has gone to speak for me to bwana.
Aya nsosela kuli bwana.
He has gone to speak for me to bwana.
Twabakakile fipe.
We tied their loads for them.
Ankakile chipe chyandi.
He tied my load for me.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


NoTE.-When M. S. and Applied form are combined the penulti-
mate vowel is lengthened.
Afumine mu hianda he went out of the house.
Afumine panse he went out to outside.
Afumine mu kasuba he went out of the sun.
Afumine mu kasuba he went out into the sun.

LESSON 50.

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES


UMO
One
UMBI
Another
BAMO
Some
BAMBI
Others

BONSE
All
NANGU UMO
None
NELYO UMO
None
UYU ONSE
Anyone
UKUKONSE
Anywhere
KONSE KONSE
Everywhere
Mr So and So


Umo ati imilimo yabipa.
One says work is bad, an evil.
Umbi ati, iyo yawama.
Another says, No it is good.
Bamo bati, Tubombe.
Some say, Let us work.
Bambi bati, iyo twibomba, twikale fye.
Others say, No, don't let us work, let us
remain idle (remain only).
Bonse bati, Ifwe twaishiba.
All say, We know (understand).
Takuli umuntu nangu umo waishiba bwino.
There is none who understands really.
Takuli umuntu nelyo umo.
There is none (not even one).
Uyu onse atemwa ese.
Anyone who cares can come (let him come).
Ukukonse uleya pano esonde.
Anywhere you go here on earth.
Konse konse uleya pano esonde.
Everywhere you go here on earth.
Ntweno or Kantwa or Ntwanikane or
Kampanda.
This would be used instead of the name
of a person for the moment forgotten.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


THINGUMIBOB
THIN GUMMY


Ni Ntweno, it was So and So (what do
you call him?).
Ulya ntwani, That one, what's his name?

Chintwani Chikantwa.
This would be used instead of proper name
of thing for the moment forgotten.


NOTE, It will be seen that the indefinite adjectives One to
Anyone have been given in the personal form. They can of course be
used with any class of noun by using the classifier, Concord, proper
to that class of noun. Chimo, chimbi, fimo, kano, etc.
Fimo fyabipa fimo fya wama Some are good, others are bad.
(Things of the 4th class.)

LESSON 51.

COMPARISON
Comparison is effected in several ways, some of the more
common are here shown :


Similarity by the use of:
NGA, as.
UKUBA NGA, to be as.

UKULINGA, to measure.
UKULINGANA, to measure,
alike, be equal.


UKUPALA, to resemble.
UKUPALANA, to resemble each
other.
-Mo, one, same.
PAMO, same.

;AMPLES.


Imilimo yesu imo.
Our work is one (the same).
Imwe babili mwapalana.
You two are alike (you resemble each other).
Ichi chyapalana ne chinankwe.
This one resembles its fellow.
Lete chimuti ichilinge chi.
Bring a stick like this (one).
Lete chimuti ichilingene ne chi.
Bring a stick like this (one).







74 CHIBEMBA ENGLISH

Insalu yobe ili pamo nge nsalu yandi.
Your cloth is the same as mine (my cloth).
Leto mupika waba nga uno.
Bring a pot like this one (which is as).
Ifintu fyonse fyalingana.
The things are all alike (as to size, appearance).

In/eriority, by the use of contrasting words :
Lepa, long. Kulu, great. Chyepa, small.
Bipa, bad. Wama, good. Nono, little, etc.
Chino, chinono, ichinankwe chikulu.
This one is small, its fellow is big.
Ichimuti ichi chyachyepa, chilya chikulu.
This stick is small, that one is big.
Insalu yobe yawama, yandi yabipa.
Your cloth is good, mine is bad.

By inscribing the inferior quality to one thing.
Umumana uno unono This is a small river.
Umuntu ulya waipipa That man is short.
NOTE. Narrow concord with adjectives, broad one with verbs
even when used in an adjectival sense.

LESSON 52.

COMPARISON (2)
Inferiority.
Denying the superior quality to one thing.
Chino tachyalepa, ichinankwe chyalepa.
This thing is not long, its fellow is long.
(Its fellow is longer than it.)
Uyu takosa, umunankwe akose chibi.
This one is not strong, his fellow is very strong.

Superiority.
Use of UKUCHILA, to excell, exceed.
Chino chyachilo kulepa.
This one is long (excells in length).
Uyu wachilo kukosa.
This one excells in strength (is strong).






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Kalya kachila fyonse.
That little one excells them all.
Ascribing the superior quality or degree to one.
Umulando uno walepa.
This log is the longer (is long).
Chino chyalepa kuli fyonse.
This one is longest of all.
Possession of a quality to a high degree is expressed by :
UKUCHILA, exceed, excell. ICHIBI, adv. very much, much.
Wakose chibi He is very strong.
Chyalepe chibi It is very long.
Amaka yakwe yachile chibi His strength excells very much
(greatly exceeds the normal).
Use of an intensive verb stem :


Insalu yabutishya
Insalu yafitishya


The calico is very white.
The calico is very black.


Use of an abstract noun :
"Abantu bwingi What a number of people The people are very
many.
Amalubo busuma What lovely flowers I The flowers are very fine.
There are of course many other ways of describing the
differences of quality and quantity but these will enable the
Student to express comparison of most of the ordinary
things met with.

LESSON 53.
PASSIVE VOICE
The Passive Voice is not used so commonly in Chibemba
as in English. It is obtained by the insertion of W before
the final A of verb stem, or any inflection of same.
Some include another form K or IK but this is more
strictly a Middle Voice of the verb. Some verbs have all
three forms, Active, Passive, and Middle Voices.
The native would much rather say :
Baifuma they beat me, than Naumwa I was beaten.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Verb. Meaning. Passive. Meaning.
Suma bite sumwa be bitten
Leta bring letwa be brought
Toba break tobwa be broken
Tola pick up tolwa be picked up
Lemba write -lembwa be written

EXAMPLES.
Naumwa kuli tata.
I was beaten by my father.
Nasumwa ku mbwa yobe.
I was bitten by your dog.
Ifipe fyaletwa kuli abo.
The loads were brought by them.
Umutondo watobwa ku mwaiche.
The water pot was broken by the youngster.
Inkalata yalembwa kuli bwana.
The letter was written by bwana.

As showing the difference between the Passive and the
Intransitive :
Verb. Meaning. Passive form. Intransitive form.
(Middle Voice.)
Chita do chitwa chitika
Kaka tie kakwa kakika
Toba break tobwa tobeka
Sosa speak soswa soseka
Putula cut, break putulwa putuka

EXAMPLES.
Umwando waputuka.
The rope is broken.
Umwando waputulwa ku mwele.
The rope was cut with a knife.
Umulumendo aputulo mwando.
The young man cut the rope (or broke).







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 54.

VERB
-LE-

This is a near Future of today.
Affirmative. Negative.
Ndeisa I shall come Nshyaise I shall not come
Uleisa Thou wilt come Tawaise Thou wilt not come
Aleisa He will come Taise He will not come
Tuleisa We shall come Tatwaise We shall not come
Muleisa You will come Tamwaise You will not come
Baleisa They will come Tabaise They will not come

In some forms this has the idea of MUST.

EXAMPLES.
Nga chyapona, bushye chiletobeka?
If it falls will it break?
Nga nalye fyumbu ndelwala.
If I eat potatoes I shall be ill.
Nga nalye fyumbu nshyalwale?
If I eat potatoes shall I not be ill?
Iyo, tawalwale.
No, you will not be ill.
Nga aiso munobe mulechita.
When your fellow comes you will do (it).
Mfumu nga yaisa tulechinda.
When the chief comes we shall dance.
Nga alete buku ndelemba mashina.
When he brings the book I shall write the names.
Nga ampele mpiya ndebomba.
When he gives me money I shall work.
Abantu nga babwela balebomba bonse.
When the people come back they will all work.
Abantu balebombe chyungulu.
The people will work in the evening.
Bushye taise?
Will he not come (today)?
Iyo, taise.
No, he will not come (today).
Ngabaya bonse, tabanake bamo?
If they all go will not some of them be tired?







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


E, balenake chibi.
Yes, they will be very tired.
Iyo, tabanake.
No, they will not be tired.
Uleya.
You must go.
Tabaye, bakana.
They wont go, they refuse.
Baleya.
They must go. (Idea being: they wont be allowed to refuse.)
Taleisa.
He wont come.
Bushye nshileya?
Shall I not go? (Who will hinder me?)
lyo, uleya nga nani alekuleshya.
You shall go, who will hinder you (forbid you)?

LESSON 55.
VERB
-ALA-
An Immediate Future tense of today, more imminent than
the -LE- of previous lesson. It may be expressed in English
as ( just about to ) of an action not yet begun but which will
be begun shortly.


A affirmative.
Nalakaka I am about to tie
Walakaka Thou art about to tie
Alakaka He is about to tie
Twalakaka We are about to tie
Mwalakaka You are about to tie
Balakaka They are about to tie


Negative.
Nshyakake I tie not
Tawakake Thou tiest not
Takake He ties not
Tatwakake We tie not
Tamwakake You tie not
Tabakake They tie not


Note the change in the negative form. To say Tabalakaka
would mean that up till the moment of speaking they had
not tied. (Lesson 66.)
EXAMPLES.


Nalaisa mukwai
Bushye tabatendeke milimo?
Balatendeka nomba
Imilimo yobe shyani?
Nalatendeka mukwai


I am coming, sir.
Have they not begun the work?
They are just about to begin now.
What about your work?
I shall set about it shortly, sir (begin).






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Balalete fipe fyesu fyonse They are about to bring our loads.
Chyenjeleni, inama yalaisa Look out the animal is coming.
Yileke, yalafwa Leave it alone, it is about to die (of
wounded animal).
Abanakashi balaisa no bunga Women are about to come with meal.
Mfula yalaisa The rain is just coming.
Ubushiku bwalachya nomba It is just about to dawn. (The night
is about to pass.)
Akasuba kalawa The sun is just about to set.
Twende, twalafika Come along, we are just there (we are
just about to arrive).

LESSON 56.

VERB
-KA-
A Future Indefinite tense is made by inserting the particle
KA immediately after the pronominal prefix.
This tense is never used of today.
No indication of time is given in this tense save that the
action spoken of will take place some time in the future, but
not today.
Note the softening of the final vowel in the negative.
Affirmative. Negative.
Nkakaka I shall tie Nshyakakake I shall not tie
Ukakaka Thou wilt tie Tawakakake Thou wilt not tie
Akakaka He will tie Takakake He will not tie
Tukakaka We shall tie Tatwakakake We shall not tie
Mukakaka You will tie Tamwakakake You will not tie
Bakakaka They will tie Tabakakake They will not tie
EXAMPLES.
Nkatwalo mukashi ku mwabo.
I shall take my wife to her home.
Nkafwaya bantu bambi bamilimo.
I shall seek other workmen.
Ak6mfwo mulandu obe mailo.
He will hear your case to-morrow.
Bakasende fipe masoshi.
They will take the loads the day after to-morrow.
Nshyakaleke nangu umo ukuya.
I shall not permit even one to go.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Tabakasange milimo kuno.
They will not find work here.
Tawakasange nama pano mainsa.
You will find no animals here in the rains.
Tabakatemwe iyo
They will not like (that).
Imilimo batemwe tabakaleke kangu iyo.
Work they like they will not leave off quickly.
Ichyo afwaya takachisange iyo.
What he is seeking for he will not find (never find).
Bushye tamwakese kuno?
Will you not come here (never come)?

The Imperative for this form :
Ukese uluchyelo Come in the morning.
Mukese uluchyelo Come (ye) in the morning.


LESSON 57.

SALUTATIONS

The native is very punctilious in the matter of salutations.
He has salutations suitable for almost all the circumstances
of life, and a few for its chances.
The following are some of the more common. R = res-
ponse.
MWASHIBUKENI. Good morning (lit. you, plural, have awa-
kened).
R. Endi mukwai, or Endita mukwai.
MWAPOLENI? How are you? Are you well? = How do
you do?
R. As above.
MUTENDE. Peace.
R. Mutende.
KWATALALA? It is well? Is all quiet?
R. Kuntu kwatalala, or Tondolo.
KULI cI? What's the matter? or Ku be chi?
R. Kuntu kwatalala (all is quiet).






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


MWAISENI. Welcome (lit. you have come).
R. Endi, etc.
CHILUBUSHI. Welcome back, on return from a journey or
visit.
R. Endi, etc.
KAFIKENIPO. Arrive (safely), said to departing friend
Good bye.
KABIYENIPO. Go off (safely), said to departing friend
= Good bye.
R. for both. Shyalenipo = Good bye.
BAMBENI. Greeting to returning hunter.
CHIBAMFI. Greeting to returning hunter.
MABINGO. Greeting to returning hunter.
R. to above, if he has been successful : Endi mukwai, or
Yanyama or Akanama.
R. if unsuccessful : Ala tata, or Nakamo or Shyalumba
kapongolo.
MILIMO. You are at work.
R. Endi, etc.
MWASALIPENI. Greeting to mother at birth, warrior return-
ing, etc.
R. Endi, etc.
MWALIMENI. Greeting to field worker.
R. Endi, etc.

Of course Mukwai, Sir, Madam, Tata, my Father, Shikulu,
Grandfather, Mama, Grandmother, etc., may be tacked on
for politeness to any or all of these forms. It is well, too,
to use them in reply.














Singular present.
NEU I who
WEU Thou who
U He who


NE WA
WE WA
U WA


I who
Thou who
He who


CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 58

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

PERSONAL


Plural present.
FWE BA We who
MWE BA You who
ABA They who


Past.
FWE BA
MWE BA
ABA


We who
You who
They who


EXAMPLES.
Ne usosele kuli iwe.
I who speak to thee.
We wachitile chi, mulandu obe.
You who did this, it is your fault.
Fwe basumina tuleya ku kubomba.
We who agree we shall go to work.
Abasendele fipe bese ku kupoka malipilo.
They who carried loads let them come to take their pay.


Fwe basumina
Mwe basenda
Aba chita


Fwe basumine
Mwe basendele
Abachitile


Present.
We who agree
You who carry
They who do

Past.
We who agreed
You who carried
They who did


EXAMPLES.
Bushye abachite milimo iyi bani?
Who do this work?
Abalebomba bwino bantu bandi.
Those who work well they are my people.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ulefluma ne uchite milimo yobe.
You are beating me, I who do your work.
Mone fyo aletamfya abasendele fipe fyakwe.
See how he is driving away those who carried his loads.
Ni we wine unjebele.
It was you yourself who told me.


LESSON 59.

-NTU
The particle NTU with the proper prefix according to the
class of the noun for which it stands, is commonly used as
a relative pronoun.
EXAMPLES.
Leto lukasu luntu wikete mu minwe.
Bring the hoe which you have in your hand.
Ubutanda buntu wapashile mailo.
The mat which you sewed yesterday.
Ifyani fintu wasebele.
The grass which you cut.
Ifanda intu twakulile ulya mwaka.
The house which we built that year.
Inkoko intu tushitile uluchyelo.
The fowl which we bought this morning.
Tumone imilimo intu uchitile uluchyelo.
Let us see the work which you did this morning.
Baleta kalulu kantu bepeye akasuba.
They brought the rabbit which they killed today (in the day
time).

And so through all the classes singular and plural except
the plural form of the first class prefix BA.

IF
Two useful forms may be employed to express IF in addi-
tion to the usual Subjunctive form. (Lesson 46.)
If the condition can be or ought to be realized the usual
form is NGA :
Ngo leya nomba, bushye ulefika?
If you go now, will you arrive?






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Ngo lesendamishyo tulo milimo teti ipwe.
If you sleep too much the work will never be done.
Nga balebomba bwino alebalambula.
If they work well he will pay them.
Nga leisa ndemupe ndalama.
If he comes I shall give him the money.

If the condition cannot, or is unlikely to be realized, the
form is A used as a preprefix to the prefix proper to the noun
and BA-be, following the prefix :
Aluba lukasu lobe nga nashita.
Were it your hoe, I would buy it.
Atuba ne fyuma, kuti twakupela.
Had we the goods we should give to you.
Atwishiba nga twachitile.
Had we known we should have done (it).

The form is A.... BA.... NGA (or Kuti).
The A is omitted in 1st person singular.
Njishiba nga nachichita.
Had I known I should have done it.

LESSON 60.

RELATIVE PRONOUN
The demonstratives ending in LYA, ULYA, CHILYA,
etc., are also used as relatives.
The emphatic relative pronouns are

Class. Noun. Rel. Pron.
1 UMUNTU UYO or Uo
ABANTU ABO
2 UMUTI UYO
IMITI IYO
3 ULUSENGU ULO
INANDA IYO
INSENGU ISHYO
4 ICHINTU ICHYO
IFINTU IFYO






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Class. Noun. Rel. Pron.
5 ISEMBE ILYO
ILINSO ILYO
ULUKASA ULO
UKUBOKO UKO
UBULWELE UBO
AMABOKO Avo
6 AKALULU AKO
UTULULU UTO
7 UBUSUMA UBO
8 UKUSOSA UKO
9 PANTU APO
KUNTU UKO
MUNTU UMO
In ordinary conversation when there is no desire for
emphasis, the initial vowel (the preprefix) is employed as
relative pronoun.
Usumina He who agrees.
Ulukasu ulwafunika The hoe which is broken.
Abashyele panuma They who remained behind.
Umuntu ulesosa The person who is speaking.
Inama ishyaipaiwe The animals which were killed.
Abo abashyele panuma They who remained behind.
Ulukasu ulo ulwafunika The hoe that one which is broken.
Neg. with SHI, SHYA
Ushisumina He who does not agree.
Ushyasumina He who did not agree.
Ushitemwa He who does not love, like.
Ushyatemwa He who did not love, like.
Uwasumina He who agreed or Uasumina.
In some districts TA is heard instead of the SHI and
SHYA forms.
The use of the UYO, ABO forms conveys almost the idea
of a demonstrative of relation and is commonly used in
such sentences as :
Those whom you mentioned Abo walumbula.
Abo watumine mailo, e bakesa muli chitatu.
Those whom you sent yesterday, these are they who will come on
Wednesday.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 61.

INTERROGATIVES, AFFIRMATIVES, NEGATIVES
The difficulty of asking and answering questions is one
that perplexes a learner somewhat. The following list,
tabulated according to the classes, will be of some assistance
in mastering this subject.
Questions are frequently prefaced by BUSHYE, ATINI,
BATINI, or followed by ATI, ATINI, BATINI?
E expresses : That is, this is, these are.
TE is the negative of E, That is not, or is that not?


This is he, she,
it, they.
S. E oyu
P. E baba
S. E oyu
P. E yeyi
S. E lolu
E yeyi
P. E shyeshi
S. E chyechi
P. E fyefi
S. E leli
E lolu
E koku
E bobu
P. E yaya
S. E kaka
P. E totu
S. Ebobu
S. E koku
S. E papa
E koku
E momu


Is not this he,
she, they?
Te oyu?
Te baba?
Te oyu?
Te yeyi?
Te lolu?
Te yeyi?
Te shyeshi?
Te chyechi?
Te fyefi?
Te leli?
Te lolu?
Te koku?
Te bobu?
Te yaya?
Te kaka?
Te totu?
Te bobu?
Te koku?
Te papa?
Te koku?
Te momu?


It is not, This is not
He, she, it, These, they.
Te o or Te uyu iyo
Te bo or Te aba iyo
Te o or Te uyu iyo
Te yo or Te iyi lyo
Te lo or Te ulu iyo
Te yo or Te iyi iyo
Te shyo or Te shyeshi iyo
Te chyo or Te chyechi iyo
Te fyo or Te ifi iyo
Te lyo or Te ili iyo
Tc lo or Te ulu iyo
Te ko or Te uku iyo
Te bo or Te ubu iyo
Te yo or Te aya iyo
Te ko or Te aka iyo
Te to or Te utu iyo
Te bo or Te ubu iyo
Te ko or Te uku iyo
Te po or Te apa iyo
Te ko or Te uku iyo
Te mo or Te umu iyo






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Te oyu anjebele?
Bushye te baba baletele fipe ?

E baba waebele ati, bakesa?

E baba
Iyo tebo
Te bo
Teaba iyo
Ichintu nshi wa shitile mailo?

E chyechi
Te chyechi?


EXAMPLES.


Was it not he who told me?
Was it not these who brought the
loads?
Are these the people you said
would come?
These are they.
No, not these.
Not these.
Not these, no.
What thing did you buy yester-
day?
It was this (thing).
Was it not this?


LESSON 62.

VERB
-ALI-
Present Perfect tense.


Affirmative.
Nalichita I have done
Walichita Thou hast done
Alichita He has done
Twalichita We have done
Mwalichita You have done
Balichita They have done


Negative.
Nshyachita I have not done
Tawachita Thou hast not done
Tachita He has not done
Tatwachita We have not done
Tamwachita You have not done
Tabachita They have not done


Note how the LI drops in negative.
EXAMPLES.
Bushye fiombe yalifwa?
Was the cow dead?
Bushye iwe walichita?
Was it you who did (it). Did you do (it)?
E, nalichita.
Yes I did (it).
Bushye alyumfwe fyo twasosele?
Did he hear what we said?
E, alyumfwa.
Yes, he heard.
Iyo taumfwa.
No, he did not hear.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Bushye fipe fyonse balikaka?
Did they tie all the loads?
Iyo tabafikaka.
No, they did not tie them.
Bushye mwalishite mbushi?
Did you buy the goat?
Balionaule fintu fyonse my kuteshya teshya.
They destroyed everything through moving them about
(moving, moving).

This tense is frequently used with verbs of condition, qua-
lity, etc.
Aliwama He is good (a good sort).
Umunensu alikalipa Our fellow is angry (that is his nature).
Abantu batatu balilwala Three people are sick.
Ulupili lwalilepa The hill is a high one.
Umumana walikula The river is a big (broad) one.
Ubunga bwa male bwalibipa Male meal is bad for us (as far as we
kuli ifwe. are concerned).


LESSON 63.

VERB

-ALI- with M. S.
A Past Indefinite not used of today.
as tense given in Lesson 37 but differs
can stand alone.


Affirmative.
Nalipatile I hated
Walipatile You hated
Alipatile He hated
Twalipatile We hated
Mwalipatile You hated
Balipatile They hated


It has same value
from it in that it


Negative.
Nshyapatile I did not hate
Tawapatile You did not hate
Tapatile He did not hate
Tatwapatile We did not hate
Tamwapatile You did not hate
Tabapatile They did not hate


Another form with exactly the same value is :
-ALI-
Nalipata I hated Nshyapatile I did not hate
Walipata You hated Tawapatile You did not hate
Alipata He hated Tapatile He did not hate, etc.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


EXAMPLES.
Abanankwe balimupatile His fellows hated (disliked) him.
Ichipe nalikaka I tied the load.
Twalimusangile ali bwino bwino We found him very well.
Twalimusanga ali bwino bwino We found him very well.

Interrogatives like KWI, NSHI, PI, etc., are not used
with this form. They are more generally employed with
the -A- and M. S. of Lesson 37.
Above tenses are not used of Today.

-ALE-
A Past Imperfect signifying that the action was still
unfinished at the time under discussion. Might be expressed
a used to, a I was. )
A affirmative.
Nalepyanga I was sweeping
Walepyanga You were sweeping
Alepyanga He was sweeping
Twalepyanga We were sweeping
Mwalepyanga You were sweeping
Balepyanga They were sweeping

Negative.
Nshyalepyanga I was not sweeping
Tawalepyanga You were not sweeping
Talepyanga He was not sweeping
Tatwalepyanga We were not sweeping
Tamwalepyanga You were not sweeping
Tabalepyanga They were not sweeping
EXAMPLES.
Nalelame fianda ya kwa bwana ulya mwaka.
I was guarding the house of bwana that year.
Bansangile nshyalepyanga njikele fye ne chyeswa mu minwe.
They found me, I was not sweeping, I was only sitting with
the brush in my hand.
Bushye uwalepyanga pa lukungu kale nani?
Who was it used to sweep the verandah long ago?
Bushye uwaletebe nkuni pano nani (or ni nani)?
Who was it was chopping firewood here (getting firewood)?
Ni fwc twaleteba mukwai.
It was we who were getting firewood, sir.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Bushye tawalebombe milimo yandi kale iwe ?
Were you not doing my work some time ago?
Awe mukwai, ine nshyalebomba.
No sir, I was not working.
NOTE. You is used for 2nd person singular here and in following
lessons.
LESSON 64.

VERB
-CHILI
This tense is used in the affirmative only. When used alone
it may be translated : Still, am still, was still, were still, etc.
Used with other verbs it takes the tense of the accompanying
verb.
Nchili I am still
Uchili You are still
Achili He is still
Tuchili We are still
Muchili You are still
Bachili They are still.

In the negative probably the TALA (Lesson 66) would be
employed which expresses Not yet, I have not yet, etc.

EXAMPLES.
Nchili pa milimo yampele bwana.
I am still at the work bwana gave me.
Achili mu bwato, alelwala.
He is still in the boat, he is ill.
Nchili ndechite milimo.
I am still doing the work.
Bansangile nchili ndebomba.
They found me still working.
Bushye uchilipo na nomba?
Are you still there?
Tuchili tulekaka.
We are still tying.
Ilyo wapitile nchili mu mushi.
When you passed I was in the village (still).
CHI without the LI expresses Had just, barely, scarcely,
etc. The verb which follows completing the sentence is






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


always in the -A- tense. (Lesson 34.) FYE, only, merely,
is frequently added.
EXAMPLES.
Nchinuka fye ne mfula yaisa.
I had just stopped work when the rain came.
Achisa fye no bwali baleta.
He had scarcely arrived when they brought mush.
Tuchifika fye ne mfumu yafwa.
We had only arrived when the chief died.
Bachisosa fye nabantu baisa.
They had only just spoken when the people arrived.
Achisosa, no kufuma afuma.
He spoke and immediately went out.
Batile bachifika na bwana aisa.
They had just arrived (some time ago) when bwana came.


LESSON 65.

VERB
-ACHI-

A Past tense, used only of today.

A *'i, .. .' Negative.
Nachikaka I tied Nshyachikaka I did not tie
Wachikaka You tied Tawachikaka You did not tie
Achikaka He tied Tachikaka He did not tie
Twachikaka We tied Tatwachikaka We did not tie
Mwachikaka You tied Tamwachikaka You did not tic
Bachikaka They tied Tabachikaka They did not tie

EXAMPLES.
Bushye tabachilete fiombe uluchyelo?
Did they not bring the cattle in the morning?
Bahiso luchyelo.
They came this morning.
Idombe ya kwa bwana yachilaso mwaichye ulusengo uluchyelo.
Bwana's cow gored a youngster this morning.
Bachipaye nama shitatu.
They killed three animals.
Bachisenda kalata uluchyelo.
They carried the letter this morning.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Abanensu bachitangilo luchyelo, ifwe tulebakonke chyungulu.
Our friends went on ahead this morning, we shall follow them this
evening.
Ichyo wachisendo luchyelo wachibika kwi?
That (thing) you carried off this morning, where did you put it?
Inkalamo iyo twachimono luchyelo fundi ayipaya.
That lion we saw this morning, the hunter has killed it.
Abantu balya twachiba nabo uluchyelo bali kwi?
Those people we were with in the morning, where are they?
Uyu twali nankwe, bushye achisa kuno?
He whom we were with, did he come here?
Iyo tachisa kuno.
No he did not come here.
Bushye nabachitema ichimuti chikulu twachimono luchyelo?
Have they felled that very big tree we saw this morning?
Bachili balechitema.
They are just felling it.
Bachichitema.
They felled it.
Nabachitema.
They have felled it.
Bachitemene uluchyelo.
They felled it this morning.

LA added to the ACHI gives to the tense the idea of
continuance.
Achilakake chipe He was tying the load.
Bachilachita nshi ku mumana? What were they doing at the river?


LESSON 66.

VERB
TA -LA
Not yet.
LA inserted immediately after the pronominal prefix of
a verb in the negative is equivalent to Not yet.

Only used in one tense.
Nshilakaka I have not yet tied
Taulakaka You have not yet tied
Talakaka He has not yet tied






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Tatulakaka
Tamulakaka
Tabalakaka


We have not yet tied
You have not yet tied
They have not yet tied


With a slight inflection of the voice this is made inter-
rogative.
Bushye is also used to make the interrogation more
emphatic.
EXAMPLES.


Bushye taulalya?
Iyo, tatulalya mukwai
Nshilamona bantu besu.
Bushyetabalaumfwo mulandu ?
TabalaUmfwa


Another form is :
Nshilati nkake
Taulati ukake
Tabalati bakake


Have you not yet eaten?
No we have not eaten yet, sir.
I have not yet seen our people.
Have they not heard the case yet?
They have not yet heard it.


I have not yet tied
You have not yet tied
They have not yet tied


To express the Past tense, a verb would be used in a Past
tense to preceded the ( not yet ) tense and so throw the action
into the past.
Nali nshilakaka.
I was, I have not yet tied = I had not yet tied.
Nali nshilati nkake.
I had not yet tied.
Wali taulati ukake.
You had not yet tied.
Twali tatulati tufike twasanga banensu mu nshila.
We had not yet arrived (when) we met our friends on the road.

Still another form :


Nshyatala mbulya
Tatala alya
Tabatala bafikako


I have not yet eaten it (BU class).
He has not yet eaten (the thing).
They have not yet arrived there.


This last form ATALA has more the idea of Never yet.
Nshilamono musungu.
I have not seen a European (during all the time in question).
Nshyatala mono musungu.
I have never yet seen a European.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 67.

VERB
-LA-
PRESENT CUSTOMARY ACTION

This tense signifies that the action is customary, habitual,
continuous. This tense differs from tense of Lesson 32 in
that it can stand alone without any completive word or
words.
Affirmative. Negative.
Ndakaka I always tie. Nshikaka I do not tie
Ulakaka You always tie Taukaka You do not tie
Alakaka He always ties Takaka He does not tie
Tulakaka We always tie Tatukaka We do not tie
Mulakaka You always tie Tamukaka You do not tie
Balakaka They always tie Tabakaka They do not tie

Note the change in the negative to avoid clashing with
the < not yet tense (66).
Note the change of L to D in first person singular.

EXAMPLES.
Abanensu balalwale nshiku shyonse.-
Our fellows are always sick.
Bushye mulapepa fwaka?
Do you smoke tobacco?
E, tusapepa.
Yes, we smoke.
Bushye mwe banakashi mutapa menshi pe?
Do you women always draw water?
E, tulatapa.
Yes, we draw water (constantly).
Fwe baume tulalima.
We men always cultivate.
Fwe baume tukula mayanda.
We men build the houses.
Fwe baume tulakula.
We men do the building.
Abanakashi balatapa.
The women draw water.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Bushye mulabelenga?
Do you read?
Bushye mubelenga kalata?
Do you read the book?
Ndabelenga mukwai.
I read, sir.
Nshibelenga.
I do not read.
Awe mukwai, tatubelenga ifwe.
No sir, we do not read.
Ine nshibelenga kalata, umunandi alabelenga.
I do not read the book, my fellow reads (it).


LESSON 68.

INTERJECTIONS
KALOMBO response (by a man) is answer to a call by
name.
ABE response (by a woman) in answer to a call
by name.
MUKWAI Sir, Madam, also a response when called
(either sex).
YANGU expresses great surprise, grief, wonder.
LELO Look out, take care.
LELWENI plural form of LELO.
YABA expresses incredulity, Nonsense, it's a lie, etc.
YABAYABA Intensive form of YABA, greater incredulity.
YABWE same as YABA.
ALA expresses surprise, disagreement, No, not so,
never, etc.
ALALE a little more vigorous than ALA.
ALE Now then, come on, get on, etc.
ALENI plural form of ALE.

INTENSIVE INTERJECTIONS
There are many interjections used with verbs of colour,
quality, etc., to express a high degree of the same. A few
are given, others will be learned from the ordinary speech







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


of the native. Those given will enable the learner to appre-
ciate the meaning when he hears an intersection.
Umuti, uyu wakashika chye.
This tree is intensely red.
Ichyela chya kaba se.
The iron is very hot (at a white heat).
Insalu ya buta tu tu.
The calico is very white.
Insalu yobe yafita fititi.
Your cloth is very black.
Umuntu waikala shilili.
The person stood shock still.
Aikala shilili.
He sat very still, motionless.
Ichimuti chyakosa ndi.
The stick is exceedingly strong.
Umushili wauma ndi.
The earth is very dry.
The earth is as dry as a bone, bone dry.
UkUlma nga.
Very dry, very hard, as ndi.
Ukulapuka lapu.
To pop out, pop (as cork, bullet, etc.).
Ukuputula putu.
To break off snap.
Ukuteta shikishiki.
To cut through with a blunt knife, haggle.
Amapi ngwa, ngwa, ngwa.
Of the clapping of hands.
Ukukulukuta kulukutu, kulukutu. To gallop, the kulu-
kutu being in imitation of the sound made by the hoofs.

LESSON 69.

ORDINAL NUMBERS
First is expressed in various ways :
Pa kubala Chya pa kubala.
Ntanshi Chya ntanshi.
-tanshi Chitanshi.
Kubalila Chya kubalilapo.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Second -abubili Chya bubili
Third -abutatu Chya butatu
Fourth -abune Chya bune
Fifth -abusano Chya busano
Sixth mutanda Chya mutanda
Seventh chinelubali Chya chine lubali
Eighth chinekonse Chya chine konse
chinekonsekonse Chya chine konse konse
Ninth fundi Chya fundi
pabula Chya pabula
Tenth ikumi Chye kumi

In above examples the noun CHINTU, thing, is taken as
understood.
Chintu chya butatu, the third thing, etc.
Chintu chya chitatu is also heard, the chi taking the
place of the bu (numbers 1 to 5).

Firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc., are expressed :
Firstly Pa kubala
Secondly Pabili
Thirdly Patatu
Fourthly Pane
Fifthly Pasano
Sixthly Pali mutanda
Seventhly Pali chine lubali
Eightly Pali chine konse konse, or chine konse
Ninthly Pali fundi, or pali pabula
Tenthly Pe kumi

Note the change from PA to PALI.
Lastly may be expressed by one of the following four
forms :
Chya kulekelela
Chilekeleleko
Chya kupelela
Chipeleleko







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


The days of the week :
Muli (or Pali) chimo
Muli (or Pali) chibili
Muli (or Pali) chitatu
Muli (or Pali) chine
Muli (or Pall) chisano
Mu kutampa (or Mu chitamfi)
Mu chibelushi
Mu Mulungu


on Monday
on Tuesday
on Wednesday
on Thursday
on Friday
on Monday
on Saturday
on Sunday


Uwantanshi akaba wakulekelela He who is first shall be last.
Mukesa muli chitatu You will come on Wednesday.
Pa kubala upyange elyo upupute First sweep, then you will dust.


LESSON 70.

REFLEXIVE

The Reflexive forth of the verb is obtained by prefixing I to
the verb stem. This must not be confounded with the I of
the negative. (Lesson 20.) The context will usually make
it quite clear.
This form may be expressed in English : oneself, myself,
ourselves, theirselves, etc.
With the Applied form of the verb it may be translated :
to oneself, for oneself, on account of oneself, etc.
This form runs through practically all the active verbs in
the language.


Verb. Meaning. Reflexive.


Kana
Temwa
Pata
Leta
Chita
Fwaya


deny
love
hate
bring
do
seek


ikana
itemwa
ipata
ileta
ichitila
ifwayila


Meaning.
deny oneself
love oneself
hate oneself
bring oneself
do for oneself
seek on one's own account for
one's own benefit.







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


UMWINE, Owner, master, self, plural BENE, may be
added to the sentence for emphasis.

Baitemwa bene They love themselves.
Aipato mwine He hates himself.
Bailetelela bene They brought it upon themselves.
Aifwayilo mwine He is seeking on his own account.

RECIPROCAL

This form is obtained by suffixing NA to the verb stem
and it denotes mutual action, interaction, reaction. Some
verbs ending in YA take NYA as suffix.

Verb. Meaning. Reciprocal. Meaning.
Soshya speak to soshyanya speak to each other
Uma beat umana beat each other
Pata hate patana hate each other
Loleshya look loleshyanya look at each other
Fwaya seek fwayana seek for each other

In the Past tense modified stem the ANA becomes ENE
and the ANYA, ENYE.

Basoshyenye masoshi.
They spoke to each other two days ago
(the day before yesterday).
Abantu balya baumene mailo.
Those people beat each other yesterday.
Moneni ifyo bantu balya batemwana.
See how those people love each other.
Shibukishya ifyo baumene.
Remember how they beat each other.
Ifwe tulafwana pe.
We always help each other.
Imwe tamwafwana.
You do not help each other.
Ukwafwana kwawame chibi.
Mutually helping is very good
(to help each other is very commendable).







CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


LESSON 71.

VERB
-AKULA-
This tense indicates the beginning, now, today, of a regu-
lar course of action, such as going to school, beginning to
carry loads, etc., etc. The idea being that the course begun
today will be carried on regularly or continuously.


Nakulachita
Wakulachita
Akulachita
Twakulachita
Mwakulachita
Bakulachita


A affirmative.
I shall begin today and shall continue to do
You will begin today and will continue to do
He will begin today and will continue to do
We shall begin today and shall continue to do
You will begin today and will continue to do
They will begin today and will continue to do
Negative.


Nshyalechita
Tawalechita
Talechita
Tatwalechita
Tamwalechita
Tabalechita


I shall not be doing
You will not be doing
He will not be doing
We shall not be doing
You will not be doing
They will not be doing


EXAMPLES.
Twakulasende fipe fya kwa Mandala.
We shall begin and continue to carry loads for the A. L. C.
Bushye tabalesende fipe?
Will they not carry loads?
Tabalekana iyo.
They will not refuse.
Bushye mwakulaisa kwi sukulu?
Will you be coming to school (beginning today)?
Twakulaisa mukwai.
We shall be coming, sir.
Awe mukwai, twakulabombe milimo ya kwa bwana.
No sir, we shall be working for bwana.
Chisuma, nakulatontonkanya.
All right, I shall think it over.
Nelyo abanensu bakana, ifwe twakulalima tute.
Even though our friends refuse, we shall cultivate manioc.






CHIBEMBA ENGLISH


Twakulashite nkoko no kushisenda ku Lubumbashi.
We shall be buying fowls and carrying them to Elisabethville.
Twakulafwaye mpiya shya musonko.
We shall be seeking money for (our) taxes.
It will be understood in all above examples the main idea
is the continuance of the action or course of action begun
today.
LESSON 72.

VERB
-KALA-
A Future customary or continuous tense LA, as will be
seen by comparing Lesson 67 and Lesson 71, is the tense
particle denoting continuity. With the addition of the future
KA (Lesson 56) it makes an Indefinite Future of continuance.
It is not used of any course of actions beginning today.
It may be expressed, I shall begin, sometime in the future
but not today, and from then shall continue to do. With
this explanation it will suffice if we translate it a shall be
doing. a
Affirmative.
Nkalachita I shall be doing
Ukalachita You will be doing
Akalachita He will be doing
Tukalachita We shall be doing
Mukalachita You will be doing
Bakalachita They will be doing
Negative.
Nshyakalechita I shall not be doing
Tawakalechita You will not be doing
Takalechita He will not be doing
Tatwakalechita We shall not be doing
Tamwakalechita You will not be doing
Tabakalechita They will not be doing

EXAMPLES.
Bushye milimo nakupela taulatendeko kuchita?
The work I gave you, have you not begun to do it yet?
Awe mukwai, nali no bulendo, nkalachita.
No sir, I had to go a journey, I shall be doing it.




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