• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Glossary of botanical terms used...
 Key to genera
 Index to common names
 Alphabetical list of species with...
 Main literature on East African...
 Map - Regions of the grass flora...
 Figures 1-78














Group Title: A revised list of Kenya grasses : with keys for identification
Title: A revised list of Kenya grasses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072083/00001
 Material Information
Title: A revised list of Kenya grasses with keys for identification
Physical Description: 73 p. : ill., map ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bogdan, A. V
Publisher: Government Printer
Place of Publication: Nairobi
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Kenya   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Identification -- Kenya   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 73).
Statement of Responsibility: by A.V. Bogdan.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Re.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072083
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03704463

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
    Glossary of botanical terms used in the text
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Key to genera
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Index to common names
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Alphabetical list of species with index
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Main literature on East African grasses
        Page 73
    Map - Regions of the grass flora of Kenya
        Page 74
    Figures 1-78
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
Full Text













OLONY AND PROTECTORATE OF KENYA


A REVISED


LIST OF


KENYA


GRASSES


(With Keys for Identification)


A. V. BOGDAN, F.L.S.
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and
Water Resources, Grassland Research Station,
Kitale, Kenya


I /
:r-


1958
PRINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER, NAIROBI
Price: Sh. 5


~

.1
"Y






i




















A REVISED LIST OF KENYA

GRASSES

(With Keys for Identification)



By

A. V. BOGDAN, F.L.S.
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and
Water Resources, Grassland Research Station,
Kitale, Kenya












A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


INTRODUCTION
The List of Kenya Grasses was first published in 1951, to provide a complete
list of the known species of the indigenous grass flora of Kenya, and also a
means for their identification.
From 1955 onwards this pamphlet has been out of print, and as there has
been a considerable demand for it since then, it has now been revised and
brought up to date.
Since 1951 further species have been found and added to the list, and
identified either by Mr. C. E. Hubbard at the Kew Herbarium, or by the
author on a visit to Kew in 1954.
The revision of the list and its identification keys was completed in 1957,
the key to the genera having been largely rearranged, illustrated with additional
drawings, and, it is hoped, improved at the same time. More information has
become available in recent years about the ecology and grazing value of many
species, about which hitherto little was known, and much of this has now
been included in the notes under the species concerned.
The grass flora of Kenya is very rich and the list, which is far from being
complete, includes 463 species. A number of the specimens in the East African
herbaria could not be named at Kew before certain genera had been revised;
it was, therefore, decided to include in this list only those unnamed species
which are fairly common in Kenya, and the duplicate specimens of which are
deposited in the Kew Herbarium. With the exception of unnamed species and
of some rare species not so far recorded for Kenya, citation of specimens has
not been used in the list. Introduced species, unless they are escapes from
cultivation, and occur as weeds, are not included. In accordance with recent
practice all specific epithets are spelt without capitals. To economize space only
short descriptions of habit are given after specific names. The letters which
follow the descriptions denote the regions (shown in the accompanying map)
from which a given species has so far been recorded. Some of these regions
correspond (to a certain extent) to the areas occupied by the major plant
communities as shown on the map in Important Grassland Plants of Kenya
by D. C. Edwards and A. V. Bogdan.
The list is combined with keys for identification. The keys are artificial,
and designed to make identification possible to those with only an elementary
knowledge of botany and merely with the aid of a pocket lens. The necessary
explanations concerning morphology of the grasses are given in the glossary and
drawings.
The process of identification is simple and follows the usual pattern.
However, for those who have no experience with such keys or are out of
practice, the following hints may be useful. Botanists have given each plant
a name consisting of two parts, the first to designate the genus, and the
second the species, and these are followed by the name, usually abbreviated,
of the botanist who described and named the plant, e.g. Themeda triandra Forsk.
The first step in identification is to find the generic name using "Key to
Genera" (page 5). The key consists of a series of paragraphs containing
diametrically different sets of characters. The first of a pair is under an "a"
the second under a "b". The number on the right-hand side of the page opposite
the set of characters corresponding to those of the grass being examined indicates











the next paragraph to be consulted. Sometimes not only two but three or four
paragraphs (a, b, c, d) are to be compared. Identification starts from paragraph 1
and proceeds in the above described way until, instead of a number, a generic
name is found. Then the reader is referred to the page with a key to the species
in the genus. If there is only one species in the genus the work is completed.
If there are two or more species the identification proceeds in the same order
until the specific name is found. The following examples show the course of
identification of three well-known Kenya grasses (the numbers indicate para-
graphs of the keys):-
RED OAT GRASS. Key to genera: lb, 10d, 57a, 58a, 59a, 60a ...... Themeda
(page 62). Only Kenya species: Themeda triandra Forsk.
RHODES GRASS. Key to genera: Ib, 10b, 36b, 37b, 38b, 45a, 46b, 47b, 48b,
49b ...... Chloris (page 25). Key to species: lb, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5b ......
Chloris gayana Kunth.
MOLASSES GRASS. Key to genera: lb, 10d, 57b, 72b, 74c, 78b, 79b, 90a,
91a, 92a, 93b ...... Melinis (page 50). Key to species: la. Melinis
minutiflora Beauv.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author's grateful thanks are due to Mr. C. E. Hubbard of the Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew, for his most valuable advice and to the staff of the East
African Herbarium for their numerous helpful comments, criticism and for reading
the proof. The author is also indebted to Dr. H. W. Dougall for reading the
manuscript and for useful suggestions and to Dr. E. D. Bumpus, Miss B. R.
Trelawny and other members of the Grassland Research Station, Kitale, Kenya,
for invaluable help and encouragement.











GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS USED IN THE TEXT
Anther-terminal portion of the stamen containing the pollen (fig. 19).
Aristulate-terminating in a small bristle (fig. 25).
Awn-bristle-like appendage on parts of the spikelet (figs. 22-24).
Ciliate-fringed with stiff hairs.
Clavate hairs-club-shaped hairs thickening towards the apex.
Contracted-narrowed.
Convolute leaves-leaves with inrolled margins.
Crustaceous-of brittle texture.
Deflexed-bent outwards.
Digitate panicle (or inflorescence)-panicle with two to several branches arising
from one point on top of the stem (fig. 12).
Female floret-see fertile floret.
Female spikelet-see fertile spikelet.
Fertile floret-floret containing the pistil (and the grain at maturity).
Fertile spikelet-spikelet containing at least one fertile floret.
Floret-flower of a grass. The floret is enclosed in two scales lemmaa and palea)
and contains two to six (usually three) stamens and (or) a pistil with ovary
and two hairy stigmas (figs. 19 and 20).
Gibbous-slightly pouched.
Glumes-empty scales at the base of the spikelet (figs. 15-17).
Inflorescence-the arrangement of spikelets and florets in grasses (figs. 9-14).
Internode-portion of the stem between two nodes (fig. 1).
Involucre-a ring of scales or bristles supporting the spikelet (fig. 18).
Joint-internode of the raceme in Andropogoneae (fig. 21).
Keel-a ridge, like the keel of a boat.
Lanceolate-narrow, tapering to each end (fig. 6).
Leaf-blade-upper, usually flat part of the leaf borne on top of the leaf-sheath
(figs. 1, 5-8). In the keys the word "leaf" is used instead of "leaf-blade"
for reasons of space.
Leaf-sheath-lower part of the leaf clasping the stem and terminating in the
leaf-blade and the ligule (fig. 1).
Leimma (= valve)-the lower (outer) scale of the floret (fig. 19).
Ligule-small outgrowth from the top of the leaf-sheath (figs. 1-4).
Linear-narrow, with parallel margins (fig. 5).
Nerve-a vein or slender rib.
Node-a portion of the stem from which the base of the leaf-sheath arises. In
grasses it is usually hard and often somewhat thickened (fig. 1).
Ovate-egg-shaped in outline (fig. 7).
Palea (= valvule)-the upper (inner) scale of the floret (fig. 19).
Panicle-inflorescence branched at least to the second degree (figs. 11-14).
Pedicel-stalk supporting the spikelet (figs. 10, 16, 21).
Pedicelled-provided with a pedicel.
Plumose awn or bristle-awn or bristle densely covered with long hairs (fig. 24).












Raceme-simple (not branched) inflorescence, or part of the panicle, with
pedicelled spikelets (figs. 10, 12, 14, 21).
Rhachilla-axis of the spikelet (fig. 15).
Rhizomatous-provided with rhizomes.
Rhizome-creeping underground stem.
Scabrid-somewhat rough from the presence of minute points or very short
harsh hairs.
Scaberulois-somewhat rough; the roughness is finer than above.
Sessile-without stalks or pedicels.
Setaceous-bristle-like.
Sheath-see leaf-sheath.
Spathe-leaf-like bract which supports branches of the spatheate panicle (fig. 14).
Spatheole-leaf-like bract which supports the ultimate divisions (racemes) in
the spatheate panicle (fig. 14).
Spike-long inflorescence (or a part thereof) with undivided axis and sessile or
subsessile spikelets (fig. 9).
Spikelet-ultimate division of the inflorescence in grasses. It consists of two
empty scales-glumes (one or both glumes are sometimes suppressed) and
of one to several florets borne on a short or elongated axis (rhachilla)
(figs. 15-17).
Sterile floret-floret without pistil (no grain at maturity).
Sterile spikelet-spikelet without fertile florets (no grain at maturity).
Stigma-the upper, linear, usually densely hairy portion of the pistil (fig. 20).
Stolon-creeping, above-ground stem rooting from nodes.
Suibdigitate panicle-panicle with very short main axis; its branches are crowded
on top of the stem (fig. 12).
Subsessile-provided with a very short pedicel (almost sessile).
Truncate-as though cut off at the end (fig. 28).
Tuberculate-covered with small warts.
Verticillate panicle-panicle with a series of groups of the branches arising from
one point (fig. 13).
Villose-densely covered with hairs.
Viscous-glutinous.
Whorl-ring of branches of the panicle arising from the same point.












KEY TO GENERA
l a. Very tall grasses with thick woody stems (Bamboo).......... Arundinaria
(p. 14).
I b. Stems not woody. Usual grasses .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Spikelets or clusters of spikelets supported by one or many bristles or hard
scales (figs. 18, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35) .. .. .. 3
2b. Spikelets not supported by bristles or hard scales, but sometimes supported by
hairs (a hair is a cylindrical cell or a row of cells; it is always very fine and
transparent, and never beset with other hairs. Bristles are modified leaves or
branches; they are usually not transparent and may be beset with hairs) .. 10
3a. Clusters of spikelets supported by hard scales and sometimes also by short,
stout bristles (figs. 29, 30) .. .. ...... 4
3b. Spikelets supported by bristles only (figs. 18, 32, 33, 34, 35) .. .. 5
4a. Clusters of spikelets supported only by hard scales (hardened lower glumes);
these are broad in the middle and narrow at the base (fig. 29).......
Anthephora (p. 54).
4b. Spikelets or clusters of spikelets supported by hard scales and also by bristles
which form an outer row. Bristles are sometimes very short. The scales are
broad at the base, narrowing upwards (fig. 30)............ Cenchrus (p. 54).
5a. Spikelets lanceolate, 2-20 mm. long. Lemma of the upper (fertile) floret her-
baceous, not hard, with flat margins .. .. .. .. .. 6
5b. Spikelets ovate or broadly lanceolate, 1-5-4 mm. long. Lemma of the upper
(fertile) floret crustaceous, hard, with inrolled margins .. .. 8
6a. Spikelets up to 3 mm. long and supported by 1-2 bristles. Leaves with a petiole
between the sheath and the blade..................... Beckeropsis (p. 51).
6b. Spikelets 3-20 mm. long and supported by four to many bristles. Leaves without
a petiole .. .. 7
7a. All bristles straight or very slightly wavy, fine from the base ...... Pennisetum
(p. 51).
7b. Bristles markedly wavy. The inner ones flattened at the base.......... Cenchrus
(p. 54).
8a. Lemma of the lower floret with a deep median groove. Rare in Kenya........
Holcolenuna (p. 42).
8b. Lemma without a groove. Common grasses .. .. .. .. 9
9a. Leaf-blades sagittate and provided with a distinct petiole between the sheath
and the blade. ................. ................. Cymbosetaria (p. 42).
9b. Leaf-blades not sagittate. ............................... Setaria (p. 39).
10a. Inflorescence a single spike with unbranched axis beset with spikelets which are
sessile or provided with short pedicels (figs. 9, 10, 38, 39) .. .. 11
10b. Inflorescence digitate or sub-digitate, i.e. with two to several spikes or racemes
radiating from one point on top of the stem or from a short axis which is
shorter than the lowermost spike (fig. 12) .. .. .. .. 36
SOc. Inflorescence spike-like with very short primary branches which are flat and
bear two to a few spikelets (figs. 40, 41, 42) .. .. .. .. 55
10d. Inflorescence a panicle with long, branched axis (figs. 11, 13, 14). The panicle
may be dense and spike-like but the spikelets are borne on branches and
not on the main axis, at least in the lower portion of the panicle .. 57
II a. Spikelets provided with a few rows of short, hooked spines and resemble
carrot-seed (fig. 31) ................................... Tragus (p. 34).
1 b. No spines as above. Spikelets do not resemble carrot seed .. .. 12
12a. Spikelets solitary .. .. .. .. .. .. 13
12b. Spikelets in pairs: one sessile, the other on a pedicel (figs. 21, 52, 53, 60) 29
12c. Spikelets in clusters .. .. .. 32












13a. Spikelets sessile in deep hollows of the thickened axis of the spike which is as
broad as the spikelet .. .. .. 14
13b. Spikelets sessile or with short pedicels on the thin axis of the spike .. 18
14a. Spikelets with three to several florets....................... Lolium (p. 16).
14b Spikelets with 1-2 florets .. .. .. .. .. .... 15
15a. Lower glume with deep transverse grooves or wrinkles (fig. 37) ........
Rhytachne (p. 63).
15b. No grooves or wrinkles on lower glume .. .. .. .. .. 16
16a. Stoloniferous perennial of coastal sands (fig. 39)........... Lepturus (p. 16).
16b. Small tufted grasses which do not occur on coastal sand .. .. 17
17a. Spikes rigid, markedly two-sided, straight at maturity (fig. 38) ........ Oropetium
(p. 26).
17b. Spikes not rigid, not markedly two-sided, arching at maturity........ Chaeto-
stichium (p. 27).
18a. Spikes distinctly one-sided .. .. .. .. .. .. 19
18b. Spikes two-sided or the spikelets evenly distributed round the axis .. 23
19a. Spikelets awned ... .. .. .. .. .. 20
19b. Spikelets awnless .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22
20a. Spikes with protruding bare top. Awn from back of the upper glume........
Ctenium (p. 24).
20b. Spikes covered with spikelets to the very top. Awn from the lemma .. 21
21a. Spikelets lanceolate, narrowing slightly to the top.......... Enteropogon (p. 24).
21b. Spikelets broadly wedge-shaped, truncate on top (fig. 36).......... Tetrapogon
(p. 24).
22a. Spikes markedly arching, purplish when not mature.......... Microchloa
(p. 24).
22b. Spikes straight, golden-brown......................... Brachyachne (p. 26).
23a. Spikelets with one to several awns .. .... .. 24
23b. Spikelets awnless .. .. .. ... .. 26
24a. Spikelets with four to several florets .. .. .. .. .. 25
24b. Spikelets with one floret. .............................. .Perotis (p. 34).
25a. Stems unbranched, with 1-3 nodes which are near the base of the stem........
Tripogon (p. 21).
25b. Stems unbranched, or more often branched, with numerous nodes........
Brachypodium (p. 14).
26a. Spikelets spreading or pendant, wedge-shaped. Terminal florets markedly
spreading (fig. 68) ................................. Harpachne (p. 17).
26b. Spikelets not pendant. Florets not spreading .. .. .. .. 27
27a. Lemmas with tufts of long hairs on the back. Grass of the coastal sand dunes
Halopyrun (p. 21).
27b. Lemmas hairless ... .. .. .. .. 28
28a. Stoloniferous perennial of soda-lake shores. Spikelets with 3-9 florets........
Diplachne (p. 21).
28b. Tufted perennial. Spikelets with 9 to over 30 -florets.......... Eragrostis
(p. 17).
29a. Spikelets awned. Awns fine, kneed and spirally twisted below the knee (better
seen when the awns are dry) .. .. .. .. .. 30
29b. Spikelets awned. Awns flat, straight, 12-25 mm. long. Large grass of swamps
and river banks...................................... Vossia (p. 62).
29c. Spikelets awnless. Grass of dry ground................... Elyonurus (p. 62).











30a. Only one spikelet of the pair provided with an awn .. .. .. 31
30b. Both spikelets of the pair awned .......................... Sehima (p. 62).
31a. Both spikelets of the pair alike in size, shape, and texture (fig. 52).......
Trachypogon (p. 61).
31b. Spikelets of each pair dissimilar: the awnless spikelet flat or boat-shaped,
green or straw-coloured; the awned spikelet awl-shaped, dark, smaller than
the other (fig. 53) ............................. Heteropogon (p. 62).
32a. Axis of the spike flat, as broad as the clusters of spikelets. Stoloniferous
perennial of the coastal area (fig. 58)................ Stenotaphrum (p. 43).
32b. Axis of the spike thin, not flat .. .. .. .. .. .. 33
33a. Trailing forest grass with short, broad, lanceolate leaves.......... Oplismemus
(p. 42),
33b. Tufted grasses. Leaves narrow, linear .. .. .. .. .. 34
34a. Spikelets with over seven florets .......................... Eragrostis (p. 17).
34b. Spikelets with 2-4 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 35
35a. Small annual under 6 in. high. Glumes and lemmas terminate in short, soft
awns ... ..... ............................. Elytrophorus (p. 17).
35b. Perennial 9 in. to 21 ft. high. Spikelets awnless......... Sacciolepis (p. 39).
36a. Spikes with a conspicuously protruding bare top.......... Dactyloctenium
(p. 23).
36b. Spikes with spikelets up to the very top .. .. .. .. .. 37
37a. Spikelets with a flat straight awn 12-25 mm. long. Large grass of swamps and
river banks............................................ Vossia (p. 62).
37b. Spikelets with one to several fine awns .. .. .. .. .. 38
37c. Spikelets awnless .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 51
38a. Awn kneed in the middle, spirally twisted below the knee (better seen when
dry). Spikelets in pairs: one sessile, the other on a pedicel which is often
thick (figs. 21, 23, 60) .. .. .. .. .. .. 39
38b. Awns straight or wavy but not as above .. .. .. .. 45
39a. Both spikelets of the pair alike and both provided with an awn .. .. 40
39b. Only the sessile spikelet with a kneed and spirally twisted awn. The pedicelled
spikelet awnless or with a straight bristle .. .. .. .. 41
40a. Lower glume rounded on back, with obscure nerves.......... Eulalia (p. 56).
40b. Lower glume concave on back, with prominent nerves.......... Ischaemum
(p. 62).
41a. Leaves ovate, under 2 in. long. Awn arises from back of the lemma near its
base .................. .......................... Arthraxon (p. 62).
41b. Leaves linear or lanceolate, usually much longer than two inches .. 42
42a. Racemes (spikes) 2-3...............................Andropogon (p. 57).
42b. Racemes three to several .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 43
43a. Racemes richly tinged with purple. Awn from an equally narrow lemma 44
43b. Racemes golden-brown or whitish. Awn from a much wider, flat or boat-shaped
lemma .................. ....................... Andropogon (p. 57).
44a. Glumes with appressed hairs and often with one to three pits (glands) (fig. 54).
Panicles often aromatic .......................... Bothriochloa (p. 56).
44b. Glumes with long spreading hairs on margins and not pitted. Panicles without
scent........................................... Dichanthium (p. 57).
45a. Spikelets with 1-3 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 46
45b. Spikelets with four to several florets ......................... Lintonia (p. 31)











46a. Awns over 2 in. long, curved........................ Schoenefeldia (p. 26).
46b. Awns under 2 in. long .. .. .. .. .. 47
47a. Spikelets paired: one sessile the other on a short pedicel. Glumes flat.......
Alloteropsis (p. 47).
47b. Spikelets solitary, all sessile. Glumes boat-shaped .. .. .. 48
48a. Upper glume with a short awn. Spikelets dark-brown at maturity........
Eustachys (p. 25).
48b. Glumes awnless awnss arise from lemmas) .. .... .. 49
49a. Racemes (spikes) normally one or two .. .. .. .. .. 50
49b. Racemes three to several .................... .............. Ch!,, (p. 25).
50a. Spikelets broadly wedge-shaped, truncate (fig. 36).......... Tetrapogon (p. 24).
50b. Spikelets lanceolate, narrowing to the top.............. Enteropogon (p. 24).
51a. Spikelets compressed from back. Glumes flat. Lemma and palea firmly
attached to the grain .... .... .. 99
51b. Spikelets compressed from sides or not compressed. Glumes boat-shaped.
Grain separates easily from lemma and palea .. .. .. 52
52a. Spikes (racemes) normally two........................ Chrysochloa (p. 26).
52b. Spikes three or more .. .. .... .. .. 53
53a. Spikelets with one floret. ............................... Cynodon (p. 26).
53b. Spikelets with two to several florets .. .. .. .. .. 54
54a. Spikes very dense, suberect or spreading. Spikelets with three to several almost
equal florets which are narrowing to the top.............. Eleusine (p. 22).
54b. Spikes rather loose, spreading or pendent. Spikelets with 2-3 florets. Florets
truncate, the upper floret at least twice as small as the lower.......... Chloris
(amethystea) (p. 25).
55a. Spikelets with conspicuous knobs or pointed warts on the upper glume (fig. 40)
Latipes (p. 34).
55b. Spikelets without knobs or warts .. .. .. .. .. 56
56a. Spikelets compressed from sides, flat, with an almost orbicular lower part
(fig. 42). Coastal grasses. ................ ........... Dignathia (p. 34).
56b. Spikelets not compressed or only slightly compressed, not orbicular in the
lower part (fig. 41). Common annual grass of black cotton soil........
Dinebra (p. 22).
57a. Inflorescence a spatheate panicle, i.e. the panicle with primary branches and
smaller divisions supported by leaves or leaf-like spathes (fig. 14) .. 58
57b. Panicle not spatheate, i.e. without leaves or leaf-like spathes above the lowermost
branches .. .. .. .. .. 72
58a. Spikelets with conspicuous awns .. .. .. .. .. .. 59
58b. Spikelets awnless .. .. ... 67
59a. Awns kneed and spirally twisted below the knee (better seen when dry).. 60
59b. Awns straight and not spirally twisted .................. Snowdenia (p. 51).
60a. Raceme (a group of spikelets supported by a spatheole) with one awn (fig. 56)
Themeda (p. 62).
60b. Raceme (a group of spikelets supported by a spatheole) with two awns 61
60c. Raceme or a pair of racemes (supported by a spatheole) with three to
several awns .. .. .. . 62
61a. Racemes with very unequal hairless bases; the longer one 15-25 mm. long
(fig. 57)........................................... Exotheca (p. 61).
61 b. Raceme-bases subequal; the longer one under 10 mm. long........ Hyparrhenia
(p. 59).












62a. Racemes paired ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 63
62b. Racemes single .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65
63a. Raceme pairs on long peduncles. Leaves supporting the racemes have long
sheaths and short blades........................... Andropogon (p. 57).
63b. Raceme pairs on long or short peduncles. The spatheoles supporting the
racemes are not divided into sheath and blade .. .. .. 64
64a. Lower glume of the sessile spikelet flat or rounded on back, without keel or
with one slender keel. Awns hairy .................. Hyparrhenia (p. 59).
64b. Lower glume of the sessile spikelet with two keels, at least in the lower part,
and often with a groove between the keels. Awns hairless........ Cymbopogon
(p. 59).
65a. Awns under 1 in. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 66
65b. Awns over 1 in. long. ........................... Heteropogon (p. 62).
66a. Spikelets with a conspicuous orbicular pit (gland).......... Eremopogon
(p. 57).
66b. No pits on spikelets ................................ Schizachyrium (p. 57).
67a. Stems below the panicle under 1 in. long. Minute tufted grass under 4 in. in
height (fig. 38) ................... ............... Oropetium (p. 26).
67b. Stems much longer and the plants taller .. .... .... 68
68a. Spikelets paired. Sessile spikelet orbicular, tuberculate (fig. 43)..............
Hackelochloa (p. 63).
68b. Spikelets paired. Sessile spikelet not as above .. .. .. 69
69a. Racemes in dense clusters .. .. .. .. .. .. 70
69b. Racemes solitary, not in clusters .. ... .. 71
70a. Stems erect. Sessile spikelet under 4 mm. long, longer than the pedicelled
spikelet. ................... ............... Coelorhachis (p. 63).
70b. Stems with creeping or floating bases. Sessile spikelet over 4 mm. long, shorter
than the pedicelled spikelet. ......................... Hemarthria (p. 63).
71a. Racemes cylindrical, with a thick axis. Fertile spikelet embedded in the axis
Rottboellia (p. 63).
71b. Racemes with thin axis, much thinner than the spikelets.......... Elyonurus
(p. 62).
72a. Spikelets supported by very numerous soft hairs which are at least twice as long
as the spikelet .. .. .. 73
72b. Spikelets supported by shorter hairs or not supported by hairs .. .. 74
73a. Grass 2-4 feet in height. Panicle dense, spike-like, under 7 in. long........
Imperata (p. 54).
73b. Grass 6-15 ft. high. Panicle loose, large, over 9 in. long......... Saccharum
(p. 55).
74a. Spikelets dissimilar. One fertile, sessile spikelet is accompanied by one or two
spikelets on conspicuous, sometimes thick pedicels. The sessile spikelet with
an awn which is kneed and spirally twisted below the knee. Pedicelled
spikelet without an awn or with two plumose soft, straight awns .. 75
74b. Spikelets dissimilar: the female spikelet enclosed in a shining, white, globose,
bead-like sheath 8-10 mm. in diameter. Tall, maize-like grass with broad
leaves, cordate at the base...................... ......... Coix (p. 63).
74c. All spikelets similar, except sometimes in hairiness .. .. .. 78
75a. Pedicelled spikelet awnless .. ... .. 76
75b. Pedicelled spikelet with two plumose soft awns (fig. 55).......... Chrysopogon
(p. 56).
76a. Panicle with spike-like racemes. Spikelets almost sessile.......... Bothriochloa
(p. 56).
76b. Panicle loose, open .. .. .. .. 77











77a. Sessile spikelets under 1 mm. wide. Pedicelled spikelet reduced to a glume
Capillipedium (p. 56).
77b. Sessile spikelet 1-4 mm. wide. Pedicelled spikelet usually contains a male
floret ............................................... Sorghum (p. 55).
78a. Leaves 1-3 in. wide and 5-10 in. long, with a short petiole between the sheath
and the blade (fig. 8). Forest grass of the coastal area.......... Olyra (p. 35).
78b. Leaves not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79
79a. Spikelets with one floret .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 80
79b. Spikelets with two florets dissimilar in shape and sex. Upper floret fertile,
lower floret male or barren, often represented only by a lemma .. 90
79c. Spikelets with two to several florets. If the florets two they are either similar
and both fertile, or the lower floret fertile while the upper floret may be
sterile and sometimes reduced in size .. .. .. .. .. 114
80a. Floret supported by numerous hairs which are longer than the floret........
Calamagrostis (p. 32).
80b. Floret not supported by hairs or supported by shorter hairs .. .. 81
81a. Spikelet with three awns or with one awn deeply divided into three branches
(figs. 24, 49, 50) ...................................... Aristida (p. 33).
81b. Spikelets with two awns (one from each glume)........... Polypogon (p. 31).
81c. Spikelets with one, unbranched awn .. .. .. .. 82
81d. Spikelets awnless .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 86
82a. Awn from back of the lemma, between its base and the lower third. Spikelets
under 5 mm. long ............................... Agrostis (p. 31).
82b. Awn from top of the lemma or from back in its upper third. Spikelets over
5 mm. long. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83
83a. Glumes as long as the floret or longer .. .. .. .. 84
83b. Glumes shorter than the spikelet .. .. .. .. .. .. 85
84a. Slender annual. Panicle small, dense. Glumes much longer than the floret
Gastridium (p. 31).
84b. Tufted perennial. Panicle large, loose. Glumes as long as the floret........
Oryzopsis (p. 34).
85a. Spikelets markedly compressed from sides. Glumes under the length of
the spikelet............................................ Oryza (p. 35).
85b. Spikelets not compressed. Lower glume about half as long as the spikelet;
upper glume slightly longer than the lower one......... Pseudobromus
(p. 15).
86a. Glumes in the form of minute scales or absent (fig. 51). Rhizomatous perennial
growing in or near water...............................Leersia (p. 35).
86b. Glumes well developed .. .. .. .. .. .. 87
87a. Primary branches of the panicle unbranched, spike-like, with regularly arranged
sessile spikelets ................. : ................ Leptochloa (p. 21).
87b. Primary branches of the panicle not spike-like. Spikelets on pedicels .. 88
88a. Ligule membranaceous 3-10 mm. long (fig. 2). Glumes equal and exceed the
floret by about their length .. .. .. .. .. 89
88b. Ligule inconspicuous, short, often with a fringe of hairs (figs. 3, 4). Glumes
equal or unequal, as long as the spikelet or shorter.......... Sporobolus
(p. 27).
89a. Panicle dense. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long ................... Phalaris (p. 35).
89b. Panicle loose. Spikelets under 3 mm. long.................. Agrostis (p. 31).
90a. Spikelets with one to three awns .. .. .. .. 91
90b. Spikelets awnless .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 98











91a. Awns straight or slightly curved .. .. .. .. .. .. 92
91b. Awns very fine, markedly twisted upwards (fig. 45), becoming entangled and
coiled with the awns of the other spikelets ............ Acritochaete (p. 47).
91c. Awns spirally twisted in the lower part, often with a knee above the twisted
portion .. .. .. .. .. 95
92a. Panicle loose or dense, with its branches repeatedly branched again. Spikelets
on fine, long pedicels. All parts of the panicle richly tinged with purple 93
92b. Primary branches of the panicle unbranched, dense, spike-like, densely covered
with sessile or shortly pedicelled spikelets .. .. .. 94
93a. Upper glume and lower lemma gibbous on the back (fig. 46).......... Rhynche-
lytrumn (p. 50).
93b. Upper glume and lower lemma straight on the back (fig. 48).......... Melinis
(p. 50).
94a. Lower glume in the form of a swelling below the spikelet (fig. 47)........
Eriochloa (p. 46).
94b. Lower glume well developed, awnless.................. Echinochloa (p. 42).
94c. Lower glume well developed and provided with a long awn which is longer
than the other awns of the spikelet ................... Oplismenus (p. 42).
95a. Spikelets supported by numerous soft purplish hairs which are as long as the
spikelet. Tall grass (6-15 ft. in height) of swampy ground.......... Mis-
canthidium (p. 54).
95b. Not as above .... .. .. .. .. .. 96
96a. Awns under 10 mm. long. Spikelets glossy brown, with attached empty pedicels
Sorghastrum (p. 55).
96b. Awns under 10 mm. long. Spikelets green or greenish-brown. No empty
pedicels attached .................................. Arundinella (p. 35).
96c. Awns over 10 mm. long. Spikelets light or dark brown. No empty pedicels
attached .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97
97a. Annual grass of the coastal area. Spikelets densely hairy. Lower glume as long
as the spikelet; it is hard and dark-brown .............. Cleistachne (p. 56).
97b. Tufted perennials. Spikelets with scattered long hairs from warts or hairless.
Lower glume much shorter than the spikelet............. Loudetia (p. 36).
98a. Primary branches of the panicle spike-like. Spikelets sessile or on short
pedicels .. .. .. .. .... .. 99
98b. Primary branches of the panicle not spike-like. Spikelets on long pedicels 112
99a. All exposed parts of the spikelet with scattered white hairs from warts. Spikelets
6-7 mm. long. Glumes and the lower lemma sharply pointed. Trailing
forest grass with lanceolate leaves. Rare.............. Chloachne (p. 47).
99b. Not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100
100a. Spikelets supported by numerous short brown hairs.......... Eriochrysis
(p. 54).
100b. Hairs below the spikelet white or purplish, if any .. .. .. 101
101a. Spikelets compressed from the sides .. .. .. .. 102
101b. Spikelets compressed from the back or not compressed .. .. 104
102a. Lower glume as long as the spikelet. At maturity the upper glume is often
covered with short bristles .......................Pseudechinolaena (p. 47).
102b. Lower glume much shorter than the spikelet. No bristles on the upper glume 105
103a. Spikelets under 2 mm. long, hairy ................... Cyrtococcum (p. 43).
103b. Spikelets 4-5 mm. long, hairless. Upper glume and lower lemma with laterally
compressed tips .................................... Acroceras (p. 43)
104a. Spikelets in several rows or in clusters of four to eight .. .. .. 105
104b. Spikelets in 1-2 rows, in pairs, or single .. .. .. .. .. 106











105a. Upper floret darkbrown ............................... Digitaria (p. 48).
105b. Upper floret whitish .................................. Echinochloa (p. 42).
106a. Lower glume in the form of a swelling at the base of the spikelet (fig. 47) ......
Eriochloa (p. 46).
106b. Lower glume reduced to a minute narrow scale or suppressed .. 107
106c. Lower glume in the form of a very short, broad scale clasping the base of the
spikelet. It is under the length of the spikelet .. .. .. 108
106d. Lower glume well developed, over the length of the spikelet. .. 109
107a. Spikelets orbicular (fig. 61) (broadly lanceolate-fig. 62-in P. vaginatum which
is a perennial with creeping, many-noded stems and. short leaves; occurs
in alkaline swamps) quite hairless. Fruiting lemma hard. Lower glume
suppressed ........................................ Paspalum (p. 44).
107b. Spikelets lanceolate. Lower glume suppressed. Fruiting valve hard. Rare
grass of the coastal area ............................. Axonopus (p. 46).
107c. Spikelets ovate or lanceolate, hairless or hairy. Fruiting lemma thin, not hard.
Lower glume suppressed or in the form of a minute scale.......... Digitaria
(p. 48).
108a. Pedicels under the spikelets with a few long hairs........ Eriochloa (ineyeriana)
(p. 47).
108b. Pedicels hairless....................................... Entolasia (p. 47).
109a. Lower lemma with a deep median groove on back.......... Panicunl (infestum)
(p. 38).
109b. No groove as above .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 110
I l0a. Flat side of the fertile floret and the lower glume turned to the axis of the
raceme (fig. 65) ...................... .............. Brachiaria (p. 44).
110b. Flat side of the fertile floret and the lower glume turned away from the axis
of the raceme (fig. 66) .. .. .. .. .. .. 111
111 a. Lower branches of the panicle shorter than the corresponding internode........
Paspalidium (p. 43).
11I b. Lower branches of the panicle longer than the corresponding internode........
Urochloa (p. 43).
112a. Lermna of the upper (fertile) floret hard, crustaceous .. .. .. 113
112b. Lemma of the upper floret soft. Upper floret easily disarticulating from the
rest of the spikelet .................. .............. Tricholaena (p. 50).
113a. Lower glume much longer than the florets, markedly gibbous at the base, with
strong white nerves (fig. 64). Upper floret half the length of the spikelet
Sacciolepis (p. 39).
113b. Not as above.........................................Panicum (p. 37).
114a. Spikelets awnless .. .... .. .. 115
114b. Spikelets provided with awns .. .. .. .. .. .. 129
115a. Spikelets sessile or on very short pedicels, evenly distributed on the spike-
like branches of the panicle .. .. .. .. .. .. 116
115b. Branches of the panicle not spike-like. Spikelets usually on well developed
pedicels . . . 121
116a. Racemes very dense and short, under 1 in. long. Glumes 4-6 mm. long........
Drake-Brockmania (p. 24).
116b. Racemes over 1 in. long. Glumes under 4 mm. long .. .. .. 117
117a. Lemmas with long hairs on margins .................... Trichoneura (p. 21).
117b. Lemmas with short hairs on margins or hairless .... .. 118
118a. Glumes equal, 3 mm. long. Racemes erect or suberect.......... Cypholepis
(p. 22).
118b. Glumes equal or unequal; the lower glume under 2 mm. long. Racemes
suberect or spreading .. .. .. .. .. 119












119a. Lemma truncate, with a short point (mucro) on top (fig. 63).......... Diplachne
(p. 21).
119b. Lemma tapering .. ... .. .. .. .. .. 120
120a. Ligule membranaceous, well developed. Lemmas with a blunt point. Racemes
usually over 2 in. long............................. .Leptochloa (p. 21).
120b. Ligule undeveloped. Lemmas sharply pointed. Racemes usually 1-2 in.
long ................... ........................ Pogonarthria (p. 21).
121a. Spikelets 8-12 mm. wide. ............................... Briza (p. 15).
121b. Spikelets under 8 mm. wide .. .. .. .. .. .. 122
122a. Spikelets with soft woolly hairs which hold the parts of the spikelet together at
maturity (the hairs are better seen against a black background). Spikelets
with 2-5 florets.....................................Poa (p. 15).
122b. No woolly hairs as above .. .... .. .. 123
123a. Spikelets with 2-3 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 124
123b. Spikelets with 4-50 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 127
124a. Panicle very dense and short, spike-like.................... Koeleria (p. 29).
124b. Panicle not as above. .... .. .. .. 125
125a. Spikelets with three florets. Panicle long, narrow. Leaves linear......
Ehrharta (p. 35).
125b. Spikelets with two florets. Leaves lanceolate .. .. .. .. 126
126a. Panicle large, loose. Florets almost orbicular................ Isachne (p. 36).
126b. Panicle small with short branches. Florets ovate.......... Coelachne (p. 31).
127a. Leaves large, 1-1 in. wide, with cordate base. Forest grass of the coastal
area ........................................... Megastachya (p. 14).
127b. Leaves under I in. wide .. .. .. .. .. .. 128
128a. Glumes over the length of the spikelet. Florets 3-7; they are 5-8 mm.
long ................................................ Festuca (p. 15).
128b. Glumes under 1 the length of the spikelet. Florets usually smaller and more
numerous ................................ .... Eragrostis (p. 17).
129a. Florets dissimilar: two lower florets large, empty and provided with awns from
the back (figs. 70 and 71). The upper floret fertile, smaller and awnless.
Panicle dense, spike-like. Aromatic grass of high mountains........
Anthoxanthuin (p. 35).
129b. Florets similar, except sometimes in size .. .. .. .. 130
130a. Awns 4 or 9 from each lemma (figs. 67 and 69) .. .. .. .. 131
130b. Awn (one from each lemma) with two short bristles at the base (fig. 73). Grass
of high altitudes (over 9,000 ft.) ................... Pentaschistis (p. 30).
130c. Awn one from each lemma or glume, unbranched .. .. .. 132
131a. Lemma with four awns (fig. 67) ......................... Schmidtia (p. 16).
131b. Lemma with about nine awns (equalling the number of nerves) (fig. 69)........
Enneapogon (p. 16).
132a. Awns straight or slightly bent, untwisted .. .. .. .. .. 133
132b. Awns kneed and spirally twisted below the knee .. .. .. .. 138
132c. Awns straight in the lower part, very fine and wavy in the upper part, becoming
entangled and closely coiled with the awns of other florets........
Streblochaete (p. 30).
133a. Very tall grass (reed) growing on river banks and in dry sandy beds of seasonal
streams. Florets supported by numerous long hairs which exceed the florets
Phragmites (p. 16).
133b. Medium or small grasses (not reed-like). Florets supported by short hairs or
not supported by hairs .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 134












134a. Panicle very dense, with numerous awns so that the axis of the panicle is
hidden .. 135
134b. Panicle loose or moderately dense. The axis is. not hidden by the awns.. 136
135a. Spikelet with three florets. Awns 8-12 mm. long............ Chloris (p. 25)-
135b. Spikelets with more numerous florets. Awns under 4 mm. long ......
Leptocarydion (p. 22).
136a. Spikelets 10-30 mm. long. Awn from between two teeth on top of the lemma.
Stigmas on a hairy appendage from the side of the ovary (grain) near the
top.................................. ............. Bromus (p. 14).
136b. Spikelets up to 12 mm. long. Awn from the top of undivided lemma. Stigmas
from the top of the ovary.. .. .. .. .. 137
137a. Annual. Glumes very unequal: lower glume I the length of the upper glume.
Vulpia (p. 15)
137b. Perennials. Glumes equal or sub-equal ................... Festuca (p. 15).
138a. Spikelets over 20 mm. long............................. Avena (p. 30)-
138b. Spikelets 8-17 mm. long, with 2-5 florets ............. Helictotrichon (p. 30).
138c. Spikelets under 8 mm. long, with two florets .. .. .. .. 139
139a. Tufted perennial. Spikelets 4-8 mm. long.............. Deschampsia (p. 31).
139b. Annuals. Spikelets under 4 mm. long ........................Aira (p. 31)

BAMBUSEAE
ARUNDINARIA Michx. BAMBOO
(1) A. alpina K. Schum. MOUNTAIN BAMBOO. Hollow-stemmed bamboo
up to 50 (sometimes more) ft. in height. HE, HW, Mt. Forms thickets
at altitudes between 7,500 ft. and 11,000 ft.

FESTUCEAE
MEGASTACHYA Beauv.
(2) M. mucronata (Poir.) Beauv. (Centotheca mucronata (Poir.) Kuntze).
Perennial 1-3 ft. high with broad leaves. CO. Forests, forest edges.

BRACHYPODIUM Beauv.
(3) B. flexum Nees. Tufted perennial 1l-3 ft. high. HW, HE. Forests and
forest edges. This grass has limited grazing value.

BROMUS Dill. BROME GRASSES
la. Awns 40-50 mm. long ...... (4) B. diandrus Roth. Annual up to 2 ft.
high. HW, HE. Forest edges, roadsides; occasional weed of cultivated
land.
lb. Awns under 15 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Awns up to 3 mm. long ...... (5) B. unioloides H.B. & K. (B. catharticus
Vahl). RESCUE GRASS. Tufted perennial 11-3 ft. high. HE. Road-
sides. A ley grass of Kenya, once known here under the name
B. marginatus.
2b. Awns 5-15 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Annual up to 3 ft. high ...... (6) B. adoensis Hochst. ex Steud. HW,
HE. Roadsides. Weed of arable land.
3b. Tufted perennial 3-6 ft. high ...... (7) B. runssoroensis K. Schum.
FOREST BROME GRASS. HW, HE, MN. Forests, forest edges.
Common.











PSEUDOBROMUS K. Schum. FALSE BROME GRASS
(8) P. silvaticus K. Schum. Tufted perennial 2-32 ft. high. HE, HW. (Bogdan,
2832, 3716). Forest. Rare.

BRIZA L. QUAKING GRASS
(9) B. maxima L. LARGE QUAKING GRASS. Tufted grass up to 21 ft.
high. HW, HE. Roadsides. Rare. Probably introduced from Europe.

FESTUCA L. FESCUE
la. Awns under 5 mm. long or the lemmas awnless .. .. .. 2
lb. Awns over 5 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 4
2a. Panicles very loose, open with the awnless spikelets in clusters at the
tips of long spreading flexuose branches ...... (10) F. costata Nees.
Densely tufted perennial coated at the base with the fibrous remains
of old leaf sheaths. Mt.
2b. Panicles contracted, sometimes rather dense and spike-like, with erect
or ascending branches. Spikelets awned or awnless .. .. 3
3a. Leaves soft, smooth, flat or folded ...... (11) F. abyssinica Hochst. ex
A. Rich. (s.l.) ABYSSINIAN FESCUE. Tufted perennial 6 in. to
1 ft. high. Mt, HW, HE. Grasslands, forest edges. Common. Stemmy
grass of low grazing value.
3b. Leaves hard, scabrid, convolute ...... (12) F. pilgeri St.-Yves. TUSSOCK
FESCUE. Densely tufted perennial. Mt. Grasslands, glades, rocky
ground. Common. Unpalatable because of its hard leaves.
4a. Basal leaves broad, flat. Grass of shady forests. ...... (13) F. sp. nr.
F. gigantea (L.) Vill. Tall perennial with broad leaves. HW, HE.
(Bogdan 3274). Forests. Rare.
4b. Basal leaves narrow, usually folded. Grasses of grasslands and forest
edges .. .. .. .. .. 5
5a. Upper glume 7-12 mm. long ...... (14) F. simensis Hochst. ex A. Rich.
(? F. abyssinica Hochst. var. keniana St.-Yves). Perennial forming
small tufts. Mt, HE. Grasslands, forest edges.
5b. Upper glume 4-6 mm. long ...... (15) F. camusiana St.-Yves ssp.
chodatiana St.-Yves. Perennial forming small tufts. HW, HE.
Grasslands.

VULPIA C.C. Gmel.
la. Spikelets with 3-5 florets ...... (16) V. myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel. Slender
annual 6-18 in. high. RV, HE. Roadsides, occasionally found in
grassland. A grass of no significance for grazing.
lb. Spikelets with 7-9 florets ...... (17) V. bromoides (L.) S.F. Grey. Slender
annual 6-18 in. high. HE. Roadsides, forest edges. A grass of no
significance for grazing.

POA L. MEADOW GRASS
la. Panicle narrow, dense, with appressed branches ...... (18) P. leptoclada
Hochst. ex A. Rich. Perennial or annual forming small tufts up to
2 ft. high. HW, HE. Forest, forest edges, roadside, grassland. Common.
Rather stemmy grass with soft stems. It is grazed by cattle, but forms
only an insignificant portion of the herbage.











lb. Panicle broad, loose, with the branches suberect, spreading or
pendent .. .... .. .. .. 2
2a. Panicle 1-3 in. long with suberect or spreading branches ...........
(19) P. annual L. ANNUAL MEADOW GRASS. HW, HE. Forest,
forest edges, roadsides. Of no significance for grazing.
2b. Panicle 4-10 in. long with spreading or pendent branches ............
(20) P. perlaxa Pilger. Perennial or annual under 18 in. in height form-
ing small tufts. HE. Forest edges, roadsides. Of no significance for
grazing.
HORDEAE
LOLIUM L.
(21) L. temulentum L. DARNEL. Annual up to 2 ft. high. HW, HE. Weed of
arable land. Seeds frequently poisonous, due to a fungus.

LEPTURUS R. Br.
la. Glumes (in the middle part of the spike) under 5 mm. long ...........
(22) L. radicans (Steud.) A. Camus. Low stoloniferous perennial. CO.
Sandy places.
lb. Glumes 8-15 mm. long ...... (23) L. repens (G. Forst.) R. Br. (fig. 39).
Stoloniferous perennial with hard leaves, probably unpalatable. CO.
Sandy places.
PAPPOPHOREAE
ENNEAPOGON Desv. GREY HEAD GRASS
la. Stems densely covered with short, fine hairs. Third floret suppressed or
in the form of a small brush about 1 mm. long .. 2
lb. Stems hairy only under the panicle. Third floret with well developed
bristles which are only slightly shorter than those of the lower
florets ...... (24) E. elegans (Nees) Stapf (fig. 69). Tufted perennial
up to 2 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV. Grassland, rocky ground.
Poor grazing value.
2a. Up to 2 ft. high. Third floret in the form of a brush about 1 mm.
long .......... (25) E. cenchroides (Licht. ex Roem. & Schult)
C. E. Hubbard (E. mollis Lehm.). Tufted perennial with numerous
ascending stems. ME, LN, LS, LT, LM. Grassland, rocky ground,
stream beds. Common. Stemmy grass of low grazing value.
2b. Up to 1 ft. high. Third floret suppressed ...... (26) E. brachystachyvus
(Jaub. & Spach) Stapf. Small tufted perennial. LN, LM. Grassland,
rocky ground. Poor grazing value.

SCHMIDTIA Steud.
(27) S. pappophoroides Steud. (fig. 67). Tufted perennial. LN, LS, LT. Open
grassland, rocky places.

ARUNDINEAE
PHRAGMITES Adans. REED
la. Glumes very unequal, the upper 5-10 mm. long. Hairs of the floret-bases
7-10 mm. long ...... (28) P. communis Trin. COMMON REED.
Tall, robust grass 5-15 ft. high. MW, LS, CO. Stream banks. This
grass is unpalatable when mature, but regrowth following cutting
is of fairly good nutritive value. In Kenya the Common Reed does
not occur in extensive colonies and it is not used for grazing.











Ib. Glumes equal or sub-equal, usually 3-5 mm. long. Hairs of the floret-bases
4-7 mm. long ...... (29) P. mauritianus Kunth. MAURITIUS
REED. Tall robust grass 5-15 ft. high. MW, LN, LS. Stream banks.
This species has harder leaves which are very sharp and spiny at the
end. Unpalatable.
ERAGROSTEAE
HARPACHNE Hochst.
la. Panicles under 3 in. long. Upper florets much longer than the lower ones
(fig. 68) ......(30) H. schimperi Hochst. ex A. Rich. SHAGGY
HARP GRASS. Tufted perennial 6-15 in. high. HW, HE, MW, MS,
RV. Grasslands, roadsides, rocky places. Common in overgrazed
or mismanaged pastures and on rocky ground. A stemmy grass of
low grazing value.
lb. Panicles over 4 in. long. Upper florets not longer than the lower
ones ...... (31) H. bogdanii Kennedy O'Byrne. Tufted perennial
1-21 ft. high. L.S. (Bogdan 3763, 3767). Wooded grassland, bush.
Rare, but occurs in extensive colonies. Stemmy grass of low grazing
value.
ELYTROPHORUS Beauv.
(32) E. spicatus (Willd.) A. Camus. Annual up to 6 in. in height. It has been
found in Kenya only once, at a dam near Ruiru. ME. (Birch 2889).
A very small grass of no significance for grazing.
ERAGROSTIS Beauv. LOVE GRASS
la. Paleas with long hairs at margin (spikelets hairy) .. .. .. 2
lb. Paleas hairless or almost so (spikelets hairless) .. .. .. S
2a. Annuals. Florets about 1 mm. long .. .. .. .. 3
2b. Perennials. Florets (at least the lowermost in the spikelet) over 1.5 mm.
long .. .. .. .. .. 5
3a. Panicle loose, 1-3 in. long ...... (33) E. tenella (L.) Beauv. ex. R. & S.
(E. plumosa Link). Annual up to 1 (rarely 2) ft. high. CO. Old
cultivations, roadsides. A grass of no significance for grazing.
3b. Panicle usually over 3 in. long, dense to very dense .. 4
4a. Stems and leaf-sheaths viscous. Leaves and leaf-sheaths with long spreading
hairs' from warts ...... (34) E. viscosa (Retz.) Trin. VISCOUS
LOVEGRASS. LS (Salengai), sandy plains (Napper 524).
4b. Stems and leaf-sheaths not viscous. No long spreading hairs as above
...... (35) E. ciliaris (L.) R. Br. SAND LOVEGRASS. Slender
annual 6 in. to 2 ft. high. MW, LT, LS, CO. Grassland, rocky
ground, roadsides, old cultivations, weed of arable land. Common.
This grass is occasionally abundant, when it provides valuable
seasonal grazing in arid areas.
5a. Leaves mostly basal, narrow, convolute when dry. Spikelets
olive-grey .. .. .. .. 6
5b. Basal leaves rudimental. The majority of the leaves evenly distributed on
stems, short, flat. Spikelets variously tinged with purple ...... (36)
E. caespitosa Chiov. CUSHION LOVEGRASS. Tufted perennial
6-18 in. high. ME, LS, CO. Common in dry grassland and in bush,
particularly on the Yatta plateau and between Embu and Kitui where,
at altitudes of 3,500-5,000 ft. it is often dominant. This grass ;s
well grazed.











6a. Panicle under 3 in. long. All primary branches terminate in bare pedicels
...... (37) E. hispida K. Schum. SILVER LOVEGRASS. Small
tufted perennial from a few inches to 1 ft. high. HE, MW, ME, RV.
Forms colonies on shallow, seasonally wet hardpan soil. A grass
of no significance for grazing.
6b. Panicles over 3 in. long. Primary branches terminate usually in
spikelets .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7
7a. Panicle dense, narrow ...... (38) E. lasiantha Stapf. BRISTLE LOVE-
GRASS. Densely tufted perennial 1-2 ft. high. HW, HE, ME.
Seasonally waterlogged grassland, stream banks. Common. A grass
of low grazing value with hard, wiry leaves.
7b. Panicles loose, wide ...... (39) E. blepharoglimis K. Schum. TUSSOCK
LOVEGRASS. Densely tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HE, HW, RV.
Grassland, rocky ground, seasonally waterlogged grassland. Tough
grass of low grazing value.
8a. Single or clustered spikelets sessile on the unbranched axis of the
panicle .. .. .. 9
8b. Axis of the panicle branched or the spikelets provided with conspicuous
pedicels . . . . 11
9a. Spikelets with 5-9 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 11
9b. Spikelets with over 11 florets .. .. .. .. .. .. 10
10a. Annual. Spikelets mostly in clusters. Glumes shorter than the lemmas
...... (40) E. patens Oliv. DESERT LOVEGRASS. Small suberect
or erect annual. ME, LT, LN, LS. Common in dry grassland and in
bush where it often provides useful seasonal grazing.
10b. Tufted perennial. Spikelets solitary in two-sided long spikes ...........
(41) E. bifaria (Vahl) Wight. Perennial forming small tufts. LS. Rare.
11a. Spikelets in dense clusters which are sessile on the main axis of the
panicle or on its primary branches. The axis is bare for a considerable
distance between the clusters ...... (42) E. congesta Oliv. Perennial
6 in. to 2 ft. high forming small tufts. MW (Nyanza). Grassland,
bush, usually on sandy soil. A grass of low grazing value.
llb. Spikelets not in dense clusters .. .. .. .. 12
12a. Spikelets not breaking, persistent on pedicels at maturity ...........
(43) E. tef (Zucc.) Trotter (E. abyssinica (Jacq.) Link). TEFF. Annual
grass cultivated experimentally in Kenya. Occurs on roadsides and
occasionally as a weed of arable land.
12b. Spikelets not breaking up at maturity, falling off as a whole. Spikelets
5-8 mm. wide, flat (fig. 78) ...... (44) E. superba Peyr. MASAI
LOVEGRASS. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. MW, ME, MS, RV,
LN, LT, LS, CO. Common in bush, in grassland and on rocky
ground. Although its stems are rather hard, this grass is well
liked by stock. It is of high grazing value in the dry areas. E. superba
has been used successfully for reseeding denuded land in the Kitui
District and in other parts of Kenya.
12c. Spikelets variously breaking as maturity approaches .. .. 13
13a. Spikelets breaking up from the apex downwards with the rhachilla readily
disarticulating between the florets (figs. 76 and 77) .. .. 14
13b. Spikelets breaking from the base upwards. Rhachilla persistent (figs. 74
and 75) .. .. .. 19











14a. Spikelets on long pedicels much exceeding the length of the spikelets
...... (45) E. aspera (Jacq.) Nees. BROOM LOVEGRASS. (figs. 76
and 77). Annual 1-21 ft. high with very large panicles. MW, LN,
LT, LS, LM. Dry grassland, bush, roadsides, old cultivations,
occasional weed of arable land. Common. Although stemmy, this
grass provides useful additional grazing in arid areas.
14b. Spikelets (except sometimes the terminal ones) on short pedicels which
usually do not exceed the length of the spikelets .. .. 15
15a. Spikelets 3-5 mm. wide ...... (46) E. capensis (Thunb.) Trin. CAPE
LOVEGRASS. Tufted perennial 2-3 ft. high. MW. Swamps.
15b. Spikelets under 2.5 mm. wide .. .. .. .. .. 16
16a. Leaf-sheaths with a longitudinal row of shallow, yellow pits (glands)
...... (47) E. horizontalis Peter. Annual or short-lived perennial
--2 ft. high. LS, CO.
16b. No glands as above .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17
17a. Annual with long, dense, narrow panicles. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long
...... (48) E. namaquensis Nees. ME, LM. Rocky ground, dry
stream-beds. Rare.
17b. Perennials. Spikelets over 3 mm. long .. .. .. .. 18
18a. Spikelets with 5-11 florets, green or greyish in colour ............
(49) E. cylindriflora Hochst. var. gymnorrhachis Schweinf. Tufted
perennial. LS (Bogdan 1342).
18b. Spikelets tinged with purple, with more than 11 florets ............
(50) E. mildbraedii Pilger. Perennial with many-noded stems and short
leaves. MW.
19a. Paleas persistent on the rhachilla .. .. .. 20
19b. Paleas falling off together with the lemmas .. .. .. .. 29
20a. Leaf-margins glandular ...... (51) E. cilianensis (All.) Lutati. GREY
LOVEGRASS. Annual 6 in. to 21 ft. high with pale-green spikelets.
HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, LT, LN, LS, LM. Common in grassland,
in bush, in old cultivations and as a weed of arable land, mostly
in arid and semi-arid areas where it provides useful grazing.
20b. No glands at leaf-margins .. .. .. .. .. 21
21a. Panicle narrow and dense, spike-like; its lowermost branches under one-
quarter the length of the panicle .. .. .. .. 22
21b. Panicle loose, or if narrow and dense, then its lowermost branches are
over one-third the length of the panicle .. .. .. .. 24
22a. Spikelets olive-grey or olive-green .. .. .. .. .. 23
22b. Spikelets tinged with purple ...... (52) E. chapelieri (Kunth) Nees.
Tufted perennial. MW, LS.
23a. Annual. Panicle interrupted, spikelets not numerous ..............
(53) E. kiwuensis Jedw. HW, HE. Grassland, old cultivations, weed of
arable land. A stemmy grass of low grazing value.
23b. Perennial. Panicle dense, with numerous spikelets ...... (54) E. braunii
Schweinf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV.
Forest edges, bush, grassland, rocky ground. This grass has wiry
stems and hard leaves and it is of low grazing value.
24a. Lower glume up to half the length of the upper glume .. .. 25
24b. Lower glume over two-thirds the length of the upper glume .. 26











25a. Panicle over 5 in. long. Spikelets (except when young) with spreading
florets producing a saw-edge effect ...... (55) E. tenuifolia Hochst.
ex A. Rich. WIRY LOVEGRASS. Annual or short-lived perennial
1-21 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, LS. Grassland, old cultiva-
tion, weed of arable land. Common. This grass has hard, wiry leaves
and it is of low grazing value. It often invades pastures at medium
altitudes (5,000-7,000 ft.), where its presence indicates overgrazing
or mismanagement.
25b. Panicle up to 4 in. long. Florets not spreading ...... (56) E. barrelieri
Daveau. Small annual or short-lived perennial. RV, LS. Dry grass-
land, rocky ground.
26a. Spikelets with 5-11 florets . .. 27
26b. Spikelets with more numerous florets .. .. .. 28
27a. Panicle large, pedicels fine and long, longer than the spikelets ............
(57) E. macilenta (A. Rich.) Steud. Annual 6 in.-2l ft. high. HE, MW,
ME, RV. A common weed of arable land.
27b. Panicle rather small, with thick pedicels which are shorter than the
spikelets ...... (58) E. racemosa (Thunb.) Steud. (E. chalcantha
Trin.) DARK LOVEGRASS (figs. 74 and 75). Annual or tufted
perennial 4 in. to 2 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, MS, RV. Common
and numerous in grassland and as a weed of arable land. In grass-
land it forms small tufts between the taller grasses, and it is usually
well grazed. A very variable species which occurs in numerous forms
and varieties which may be considered as micro-species. E. holstii
Engl. ex Peter, which in the original list was considered as a distinct
species, is probably one of them.
28a. Lemmas about 2 mm. long, blunt ...... (59) E. trenmla Hochst. ex
Steud. Annual 6 in. to 4 ft. high. MW (Nyanza).
28b. Lemmas 3-4 mm. long, pointed ...... (60) E. perhella K. Schum.
Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. CO (Bogdan 3320, 3336).
29a. Florets up to 1 mm. long ...... (61) E. aethiopica Chiov. (E. gracillinma
Hack.). FINE LOVEGRASS. Slender annual 6-18 in. high. RV, ME,
LS, CO. Grassland, bush, occasional weed of arable land.
29b. Florets (at least the longest in the spikelet) over 1.5 mm. long .. 30
30a. Perennial with many-noded stems and short leaves ...... (62) E. volkensii
Pilger. 1-3 ft. high. MS, MW (Bally 8099). Rare;
30b. Perennials or annuals with few-noded stems and long leaves .. 31
31a. Spikelets, except when very young, with more than 11 florets. Glumes
subequal: the lower only slightly shorter than the upper .. 34
31b. Spikelets with 5-9 (occasionally up to 11) florets. Glumes very unequal:
the lower up to half the length of the upper .. .. 32
32a. Panicle with a few to many long white hairs at the base of the lowermost
branches. Annual of dry habitats or a weed of arable land ..........
(63) E. pilosa (L.) Beauv. 6-18 in. high. MW, ME, RV, CO. Weed of
arable land, roadsides, occasional in grassland.
32b. Bases of the lowermost branches without hairs or occasionally with
1-2 long hairs. Tufted perennials of moist or swampy grassland 33
33a. Spikelets appressed to the branches of the panicle. Lemmas smooth,
with obscure side-nerves ...... (64) E. sp. nr. E. lehmanniana Nees.
Perennial forming small tufts. HW, HE. (Hitchcock 25050,
Bogdan 478). Moist grassland.











33b. Spikelets not appressed to the branches. Lemmas scabrid, with prominent
side-nerves .......... (65) E. sp. nr. E. heteromera Stapf. Tufted
perennial 14-3 ft. high with large loose panicles. HW, ME.
(Bogdan 1095, 3740). Moist grassland. Stemmy grass of rather low
grazing value.
34a. Spikelets triangular or triangular-ovate, golden-green when young ......
(66) E. exasperala Peter. GOLDEN LOVEGRASS. Short-lived
perennial up to 2- ft. high. MW, ME, RV, CO. Moist grassland,
swamps, streambanks. A grass of rather low grazing value.
34b. Spikelets ovate or oblong, olive-grey in colour .. .. 35
35a. Spikelets 2 mm. wide. Florets under 2 mm. long ...... (67) E. atrovirens
(Desf.) Trin. Tufted perennial. ME, CO. Swampy grassland. Rare.
35b. Spikelets about 3 mm. wide. Florets (at least the longest in the spikelet)
over 2 mm. long ...... (68) E. paniciformis (A. Br.) Steud. SWAMP
LOVEGRASS. Tufted perennial up to 3- ft. high. HW, HE, MW,
ME, RV. Very common in swamps, moist grassland and on stream
banks. A grass of rather low grazing value.

HALOPYRUM Stapf
(69) H. mnucronatum (L.) Stapf. Perennial 2-4 ft. high. CO. Sand hills. Rare.
A useful grass for fixing sand dunes.

TRIPOGON Roth ex R. & Sch.
(70) T. snowdenii C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial up to 18 in. high. Mt.
(Bogdan 3932). Grassland, rocky ground.

POGONARTHRIA Stapf
(71) P. squarrosa (Licht.) Pilger. Tufted perennial with wiry stems 1-3 ft.
high. ME, MW. Dry grassland, eroded slopes. A grass of low grazing
value.
DIPLACHNE Beauv.
la. Leaves short, convolute. Panicles small, almost spike-like ......
(72) D. jaegeri Pilger.(*) Stoloniferous perennial about 1 ft. high. RV
(Elmenteita), LS (Amboseli). Pioneer of soda lake shores. Hard,
unpalatable grass.
lb. Leaves long, flat or folded. Panicles with long branches .. .. 2
2a. Leaf-sheaths scabrid ...... (73) D. fusca (L.) Beauv. Tufted perennial
3-5 ft. high. CO. Stream banks. Rare.
2b. Leaf-sheaths smooth ...... (74) D. caudata K. Schum. (D. dummeri
Stapf & C. E. Hubbard). Tufted or spreading perennial 1-3 ft. high.
HE, ME, MW. Stream banks, lake shores, swamps. Soft palatable
grass, but not of much value for grazing as its proportion in the
herbage is usually very small.

TRICHONEURA Anderss.
(75) T. schlechteri Ekm. Tufted perennial 4-2 ft. high. ME. (Bogdan 2743).
Rare.
LEPTOCHLOA Beauv.
la. Spikelets with one floret .. .. .. .. .. 2
lb. Spikelets with two to several florets .. .. .. 3
(*)The correct name for this is now Odyssea jaegeri (Pilger) C. E. Hubbard.











2a. Rhizomatous perennial. Glumes as long as the floret or the lower glume
slightly shorter ...... (76) L. rupestris C. E. Hubbard. Rhizomatous
perennial with numerous thin, wiry stems. Stems with many nodes
and short, lanceolate leaves. MW (West Suk). (Bogdan 289, 3429, 3844).
Rocky slopes. Rare.
2b. Annual. Glumes longer than the floret ...... (77) L. uniflora Hochst.
ex A. Rich. Annual 1-3 ft. high. Steins with numerous nodes and
rather large lanceolate leaves. CO. Forest, forest edges. Also in bush.
3a. Perennial. Spikelets normally with 4-7 florets ...... (78) L. obtusiflora
Hochst. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. Tufts are usually devoid of
basal leaves. MW (West Suk), LT, LN, LM, LS, CO. Very common
in woodland and in grassland with scattered bush in arid and semi-
arid areas. Although rather stemmy this grass is eaten by grazing
animals.
3b. Annuals. Spikelets with 2-3 florets .. .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Glumes shorter than the spikelet ...... (79) L. panicea (Retz.) Ohwi
(? L. sinensis Nees). Slender annual 6-24 in. in height. CO. Fairly
common on light sandy soil or coastal sands.
4b. Glumes longer than the upper floret ...... (80) L. sp. nr. L. panicea
(Retz.) Ohwi. Annual grass 6-24 in. in height. LS. (Bogdan 2272,
3918, 4028). Occurs occasionally on seasonally waterlogged black
heavy soil.

CYPHOLEPIS Chiov.
(81) C. yemenica (Schweinf.) Chiov. YEMEN GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-2 ft.
high. ME, LS, LM. Grassland, bush, mostly on rocky ground. A
leafy grass of a fairly good grazing value.

DINEBRA Jacq.
(82) D. retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer (D. arabica Jacq.) (fig. 41). Annual 6in. to
2N ft. high. MW, ME, LS. Common on black, heavy, seasonally
waterlogged soil in grassland, on roadsides, and as a weed of arable
land. It seems to be of low grazing value, even when young.

LEPTOCARYDION Hochst. ex Benth. & Hook.f.
(83) L. vulpiastrum (De Not.) Stapf. Annual 6 in. to 3 ft. high. Panicles dense
and reddish-brown when ripe. ME, LT, LS. Dry grassland, bush,
rocky ground. A grass that is well grazed by cattle.

ELEUSINE Gaertn.
la. Racemes of the panicle (spikes) under 3 cm. long ...... (84) E. multiflora
Hochst. ex A. Rich. CLUB GOOSEGRASS. Annual 6-18 in. high
with prostrate base. HE, HW, RV, MW, ME (Laikipia). Roadsides,
old cattle bomas, weed of arable land. This grass requires rich
soil where it can produce high quality palatable herbage. Its grazing
value is, however, limited as it seldom occurs in large quantities.
lb. Racemes (spikes) over 3.5 cm. long .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Leaves soft, under 4 in. long ...... (85) E. verticillata Roxb. Slender
annual under 2 ft. high with flat soft leaves. ME, LS. Occurs
occasionally in semi-arid areas on rocky ground. Readily eaten by
cattle.











2b. Leaves tough, over 4 in. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Cultivated grass. Spikes 8-12 mm wide .... (86) E. coracan (L.)
Asch. & Gr. WIMBI, FINGER MILLET. Annual, 6 in. to 3 ft. high.
Cultivated by the Africans for millet and is much valued for making
beer. Found occasionally at roadsides and as a weed in arable land.
3b. Wild grasses. Spikes under 8 mm. wide .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Leaves with dense tufts of soft white hairs on margins ......
(87) E. floccifolia (Forsk.) Spreng. Perennial forming broad tufts.
ME (Nairobi). Found occasionally at roadsides and is probably not
indigenous to Kenya.
4b. No tufts of hairs on leaf margins .. .. .. .. .. 5
5a. Leaves sharply scabrid on margins. Racemes suberect or horizontally
spreading ...... (88) E. jaegeri Pilger. MAFUTIANA, MANYATTA
GRASS. Perennial forming broad tufts 11--3- ft. in height. HW, HE,
RV. Common in the Highland grassland zone where it forms large
colonies, often in places formerly under cattle or sheep bonmas or
on wet ground. Unpalatable and troublesome in pastures.
5b. Leaves with smooth margins. Racemes suberect or erect .. .. 6
6a. Annual ...... (89) E. indica (L.) Gaertn. (*) GOOSEGRASS. Annual
6-24 in. high with tough leaves and strong roots so that, unlike other
annuals, it is difficult to uproot by hand. MW, ME, RV, LS, CO.
Weed of arable land, roadsides, waste places. Common. This plant
is reputed to be palatable, but in Kenya it is usually untouched by
cattle, probably because of its tough leaves.
6b. Strong tufted perennial ...... (90) E. sp. nr. E. indica (L.) Gaertn. Tufted
perennial 1-4 ft. high with tough leaves. LN (Marsabit). (L.H. Brown
3649). This grass may be of value in areas where the grazing is
scarce.
DACTYLOCTENIUM Willd. CROWFOOT GRASS
la. Spikelets normally 1-2 ...... (91) D. geminatum Hack. MARSH CROW-
FOOT. Stoloniferous perennial 1--4 ft. high. CO. Seasonal swamps,
moist grassland, weed of rice fields.
lb. Spikes normally 3-7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Spikes under 15 mm. long ...... (92) D. scindicum Boiss. DESERT
CROWFOOT. LN. Stream banks. Rare.
2b. Spikes 15-50 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Annual ...... (93) D. aegyptium (L.) Beauv. (s.1.). COMMON CROW-
FOOT. Annual 4-24 in. high. MW, ME, RV, LT, LN, LS, LM,
CO. Dry grasslands, rocky ground, roadsides, abandoned cultivations,
sea shores; a weed of arable land. Common. Here probably belongs
two or more species, one of which (with prostrate, rooting base,
short spikes and small grain) is confined to the Coast. D. aegyptium
is a palatable grass of high nutritive value and can provide good
seasonal grazing in arid and semi-arid areas.
3b. Strong stoloniferous perennial ...... (94) D. sp. near D. aegyptium (L.)
Beauv. CREEPING CROWFOOT. Stoloniferous perennial 6 in. to
2 ft. high. LM. Common on shores of Lake Magadi. Occurs also
in the same area on alluvial soil near streams. Perennial types of
Dactyloctenium occur also in dry places of other parts of Kenya.
They may belong to a different species.
(*) A further species, E. africana Kennedy-O'Byre is involved in this.











DRAKE-BROCKMANIA Stapf
(95) D-B. somalensis Stapf. Annual with prostrate stems rooting from nodes.
ME, LN. Pioneer on alluvial saline soil. Rare.

CHLORIDEAE
CTENIUM Panzer
(96) C. concinnum Nees. PIGTAIL GRASS. Tufted perennial with hard,
convolute leaves. LS, CO. Grasslands, also waterlogged places where
it sometimes forms almost pure colonies.

MICROCHLOA R. Br.
(97) M. kunthii Desv. (M. abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich.). SICKLE GRASS.
Small tufted perennial with one-sided, slender, arching spikes. HW,
HE, RV, MW, ME, LN, LS. Grasslands, rocky places, seasonally
wet places on hard-pan soils. Common. A grass of no importance
for grazing.

ENTEROPOGON Nees
la. Floret-base with a tuft of hairs 4-5 mm. long ...... (98) E. barbatus
C. E. Hubbard. LN.
lb. Floret-base with hairs under 2 mm. long .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Tufts not easily splitting. Stem-bases covered with short white scales
(reduced leaves). Grass of black heavy, waterlogged soil ......
(99) E. somalensis Chiov. Tuftdd perennial 1-3 ft. high. LS. (Bogdan
2247, 3613). In grassland on black, heavy, seasonally waterlogged soil.
Not frequent.
2b. Tufts easily splitting at the base. Stem-bases without white scales. Grass
of red soil ...... (100) E. macrostachyus (Hochst. & A. Rich.) Munro
ex Benth. BUSH RYE. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. MW, ME,
LN, LS, LM, CO. This grass is very common in arid areas where it
grows in bush, in forest edges and to a lesser extent in open grassland.
After clearing dense bush thicket it is often the only perennial
component of the grass cover for 1 or 2 years. Although stemmy
it provides useful grazing. In the coastal area it is replaced by an
allied species (Bogdan 3617) which differs in having smaller spikelets
and slightly different habit.

TETRAPOGON Desf. HERRINGBONE GRASS
la. Lemmas with long spreading hairs on margin .. .. .. 2
lb. Lemmas with appressed hairs along the nerves. No spreading hairs on
margins (fig. 36) ...... (101) T. tenellus (Roxb.) Chiov. SMOOTH
HERRINGBONE. Annual up to 1 ft. high. LT, LN, LM, LS, CO.
Dry grassland, rocky ground. Good grazing grass of dry areas.
2a. Annual. Spike one, usually enclosed in the uppermost leaf-sheath.
Glumes 7-9 mm. long ...... (102) T. spathaceus (Hochst. ex Steud.)
Hack. ex Dur. & Schinz. HAIRY HERRINGBONE. LT, LN, LS,
LM. Dry grassland, bush, rocky ground. A grass of high palatability
which appears soon after the beginning of the rains and provides
good grazing.
2b. Perennial. Spikes one or two, exserted. Glumes 3-4 mm. long ......
(103) T. bidentatus Pilger. PERENNIAL HERRINGBONE. Tufted
perennial --2 ft. high. LN, LS. Dry grassland. Rare.












EUSTACHYS Desv.
(104) E. paspaloides (Vahl) Lanza & Mattei. DARK FINGER GRASS.
Stoloniferous perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. in height forming slowly-spreading
colonies. MW, ME, RV, LM, LS, CO. Grassland, bush, rocky places.
This grass produces dense leafy herbage and it is valued for grazing
in dry areas.

CHLORIS Sw.
la, Racemes of the panicle numerous, on a long common axis ......
(105) C. myriostachya Hochst. HORSETAIL GRASS. Tufted
perennial 1-4 ft. high with dense, purplish panicles. ME, LT, LN,
LS, LM, CO. Common in dry grassland and in bush. A fairly good
grazing grass which has been used with success for reseeding denuded
land in the Kitui District.
lb. Racemes (spikes) 3-15 on a very short common axis or the latter
suppressed .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Awns up to 1 mm. long or the spikelets awnless ...... (106)
C. amethystea Hochst. Stoloniferous perennial 2-4 ft. high with short
stolons forming slowly spreading colonies. ME. Rare. Found in
Kenya only in the area of Athi River Station. This grass forms \
large number of thin stems and, therefore, is of low palatability at
later stages in its growth.
2b. Awns over 2 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Awns three per spikelet ...... (107) C. barbata Sw. Annual 6 in. to 2 ft.
high. CO. Roadsides, abandoned cultivations, etc. A soft palatable
grass which is of little importance for grazing as it occurs only
occasionally in coastal grasslands.
3b. Awns 1-2 per spikelet .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Leaves very gradually narrowing to a sharp point .. .. 5
4b. Leaves very abruptly narrowing near the end, blunt or with a sharp
point .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
5a. Annual. Hairs on top of the lower lemma 2-3 mm. long ...... (108)
C. virgata Sw. BLACK SEED. Annual 6 in. to 3 ft. high. MW, ME,
RV, LT, LN, LM, LS, CO. Common in dry grassland, in bush, on
rocky ground, at roadsides, in abandoned cultivations and as a weed
of arable land in dry areas. A soft palatable grass which provides
valuable seasonal grazing in dry areas.
5b. Perennial. 1-4 ft. high. Hairs on top of the lower lemma up to 1 mm.
long ...... (109) C. gayana Kunth. RHODES GRASS. Stoloniferous
perennial with long stolons forming rapidly spreading colonies. HW,
MW, ME, RV, LS. Grasslands, rocky places. Common. A valuable
grazing grass which occurs in many varieties. This grass is cultivated
and two varieties of it are used in leys: "Nzoia"-a leafy but less
stoloniferous' variety more suitable for moist areas, and "Rongai"-
a less leafy but more drought resistant type.
6a. Lower lemma hairy on top. The longest awn under 15 mm. long ......
(110) C. mossambicensis K. Schum. Annual or perennial stoloniferous
grass 6 in. to 2 ft. high forming slowly spreading colonies. ME, LS,
CO. (Bogdan 1590, 3616). This grass is rarely found at altitudes over
1,000 ft., but it is common at the Coast where it forms extensive
colonies.











6b. Lower lemma hairless on top. The longest awn over 15 mm. long ......
(111) C. pycnothrix Trin. FALSE STAR GRASS. Annual 4-18 in
high with prostrate stem-bases, rooting from nodes. HW, HE, RV,
MW, ME, LS, CO. Grasslands, rocky places, old cultivations, weed
of arable land. Common. It produces very short herbage and is,
therefore, of little value for grazing. C. pycnothrix often invades
overgrazed or mismanaged pastures at medium altitudes, and it is
considered a pasture weed.
SCHOENEFELDIA Kunth
(112) S. transiens (Pilger) Chiov. (Chloris transiens Pilger). Tufted perennial with
hard, narrow leaves. LT, LS, CO. Rocky slopes, seasonally moist
grassland.
CHRYSOCHLOA Swallen
(113) C. orientalis (C. E. Hubbard) Swallen (Bracteola orientalis C. E. Hubbard).
Stoloniferous perennial 4-12 in. high. MW, ME. This grass forms
dense low cover between taller species in seasonally waterlogged
plains on black heavy soil. It is abundant on the Kano plains near
Kisumu while in other areas of black earth it occurs only occasionally.
Usually this grass is too short to be important for grazing, but it is
readily eaten when it has made good growth.
BRACHYACHNE Stapf
(114) B. chrysolepis C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial 4-12 in. high. HW.
(Bogdan 4075). Small seasonal swamps on shallow, hardpan soils.
Rare. A grass of no significance for grazing.
CYNODON Pers. STAR GRASS
la. Upper glume over half the length of the spikelet ...... (115) C. dactylon
(L.) Pers. COMMON STAR GRASS. Stoloniferous perennial 6 in.
to 3 ft. in height. Widely distributed from sea level to 7,500 ft.
Occurs in natural grassland and in bush. It prefers naturally loose
soil, e.g. that of ancient lake beds, or soil that is loosened by
cultivation or by digging animals, etc. Under these conditions it often
forms pure stands. A very variable grass represented by a number
of distinct forms which differ in grazing value.*
lb. Upper glume under one-quarter the length of the spikelet ............
(116) C. plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilger. NAIVASHA STAR
GRASS. Stoloniferous perennial 1-3 ft. in height. ME, RV, LN, LS,
LM. Occurs in natural grassland and in bush but prefers places with
loose soil. A valuable grazing grass of high palatability, and where it
co-exists with C. dactylon it is usually preferred by livestock.
OROPETIUM Trin.
la. Upper glume 3-4 mm. long. Floret 2 mm. long ...... (117) 0. capense
Stapf. Tufted perennial or annual 3-5 in. high. LN, LS. (Bogdan 2310,
3146). Rocky places. A very small grass of no significance for grazing.
lb. Upper glume 1.5 mm. long. Floret 1 mm. long ...... (118) 0. thomaeum
(L.f.) Trin. (fig. 38). Tufted grass 2-3 in. high. LS. (Bogdan 2261,
2309). Dry grassland, rocky places. A very small grass of no signifi-
cance for grazing.
Small forms which have numerous small leaves are of low grazing value because of
their numerous wiry stems. Large forms are also of low palatability on account of their
thick stems and harsh leaves. The best forms of Cynodon dactylon are found amongst the
medium types which produce leafy herbage of high grazing value.











CHAETOSTICHIUM Hubbard
la. Spikelets (including the awns) under 1 cm. long ...... (119) C. minimum
(Hochst.) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial 2-4 in. high. LN, LS.
Grassland, rocky ground. A very small grass of no significance for
grazing.
lb. Spikelets (including the awns) over I cm. long ...... (120) C. majusculum
C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial 4-8 in. high. LN, LM. (Bogdan 2710).
Grassland, rocky ground. Small grass of little importance for grazing.

SPOROBOLEAE
SPOROBOLUS R. Br. DROPSEED GRASS
la. Lowermost branches of the panicle verticillate. Panicles always loose,
not spike-like .. .. . .. 2
lb. Lowermost branches of the panicle single or paired. Panicles loose or
dense, spike-like ... .. .. 10
2a. Annuals .. .. .. .. 3
2b. Perennials .. .. .. .. .. .. 5
3a. Small annual with short leaves which are under 1 in. long. Grain orbicular,
flat ...... (121) S. discosporus Nees. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV. Grass-
land, rocky ground. A very minute grass of no significance for
grazing.
3b. Medium-size annuals with the leaves usually over 1 in. long .. 4
4a. Lower branches of the panicle with a single spikelet each ..........
(122) S. panicoides A. Rich. Annual 6-24 in. high. RV (West Suk),
MW. (Bogdan 3884). Dry grassland, rocky ground.
4b. Lower branches of the panicle with a few spikelets each ...... (123) S.
sp. near S. panicoides A. Rich. Annual 6-24 in. high LM, LT. (Bogdan
3106, 4341). Pioneer grass on alluvial soil. In some parts of the Baringo
District this is the main grass on plains with Acacia misera.
5a. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
5b. Spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
6a. Grass of saline, sea-clay soils ...... (124) S. orientalis (Nees) Kunth.
MANGROVE DROPSEED. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high which
produces occasional stolons. Leaves hard. CO. (Bogdan 3306).
6b. Grasses of various habitats which do not occur on sea-shores .. 7
7a. Stoloniferous perennial. Lower glume about one-third the length of the
spikelet ...... (125) S. marginatus Hochst. ex A. Rich. SODA
DROPSEED. Stoloniferous perennial from a few inches to 2 ft.
high, forming dense, slowly spreading colonies. MW, ME, RV, LS.
Grassland, lake shores, usually on saline or alkaline soil. A palatable
grass of high grazing value.
7b. Tufted perennial. Lower glume about half the length of the spikelet.
...... (126) S. sp. nr. S. marginatus Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tufted
perennial 1-3 ft. high. ME, LS, LM. (Bogdan 1101, 3107). Dry grass-
land, rocky ground, often on saline or alkaline soil. Seems to be
less palatable than S. marginatus.
8a. Spikelets white or slightly purplish. Lower glume up to a quarter the
length of the spikelet .. .. .. .. 9











8b. Spikelets brownish. Lower glume about half the length of the spikelet
...... (127) S. oxylepis Mez. Tufted perennial with long, narrow
panicles. CO. (Allan 502).
9a. Panicle slightly purplish. Spikelets smooth. Leaves flat or convolute, soft
...... (128) S. homblei De Wild. Tufted or stoloniferous perennial
1-2 ft. high. RV (Elmenteita), LS (Amboseli). Occurs on soda lake
shores.
9b. Panicle white. Spikelets scaberulous. Leaves flat, hard, sharp and spiny
at the end ...... (129) S. sp. nr. S. homblei De Wild. Tufted
perennial 6 to 18 in. high. LM. (Bogdan 879, 3110). Dry grassland,
rocky ground.
10a. Rhizomatous perennial of sandy sea shores. Panicles dense, spike-like.
Leaves short ...... (130) S. virginicus (L.) Kunth. SAND DROP-
SEED. CO. Sandy seashores; common.
10b. Stoloniferous perennial with short, hard leaves. Panicle dense, spike-like,
3-4 mm. wide ...... (131) S. spicatus (Vahl) Kunth. SPIKE DROP-
SEED. Stoloniferous perennial 6-20 in. high with yellowish-green
leaves. MW, RV, LT, LN, LM, LS. Soda-lake shores, plains on
alkaline or saline soil. Forms extensive, often pure colonies. A grass
of low palatability.
10c. Not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. 11
1la. Glumes equal, as long as the spikelet or slightly shorter .. .. 12
Ilb. Glumes unequal; the lower glume much shorter than the spikelet 13
12a. Leaves long. Panicle over 9 in. long ...... (132) S. robustus Kunth.
REED DROPSEED. Tufted perennial 4-8 ft. high. RV, LT, LN, LM,
LS. Forms belts of tall herbage around soda lakes and also occurs
frequently in seasonally wet grassland on alkaline or saline soil.
The leaves of this robust grass are eaten by cattle. Sometimes the
whole plant is grazed to a height of 2-3 ft.
12b. Leaves short. Panicle under 6 in. long ...... (133) S. helvolus (Trin.)
Dur. & Sch. (S. glaucifolius Hochst.). MARSH DROPSEED. Perennial
forming small tufts and also sending out long, unbranched stolons.
ME (rare), LT, LN, LM, LS. Common in seasonally moist grassland
on black soil. A good grazing grass.
13a. Annuals .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
13b. Perennials .. .. .. .. .. 15
14a. Panicles large, loose. Spikelets 1 mm. long ...... (134) S. tenuissimus
(Schrank) Kuntze. Slender annual 4-2 ft. high. CO. Waste ground,
roadsides, mostly on sandy soil.
14b. Panicles dense, spike-like, small. Spikelets 1.5-2 mm. long ............
(135) S. piliferus (Trin.) Kunth. HW, MW, ME, RV. Rocky ground,
grassland. Small annual of no significance for grazing.
15a. Panicles dense to fairly dense; their branches (in the middle part of the
panicle) bearing spikelets from the bases or almost so .. 16
15b. Panicles loose; their branches (in the middle part of the panicle) bare
at least for 1 cm. from the base .. .. .. .. .. 18
16a. Upper glume pointed, about two-thirds the length of the spikelet 17











16b. Upper glume truncate or rounded up to half the length of the spikelet
...... (136) S. pyramidalis Beauv. PYRAMID DROPSEED. Tufted
perennial 2-4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, CO. Common in
grassland, in bush and at forest edges. A tough grass of low grazing
value.
17a. Panicle very dense, spike-like with appressed branches. Occurs at altitudes
over 6,000 ft. ...... (137) S. africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay.
(S. capensis (Willd.) Kunth). Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HW, HE.
MW. Common in grasslands. A grass of low or medium grazing value.
17b. Panicle moderately dense with suberect branches. Occurs at altitudes
under 5,500 ft. ...... (138) S. pellucidus Hochst. Tufted perennial
6 in. to 21 ft. high. ME, RV, LN, LS. Grassland, rocky places. This
grass is fairly well grazed but it is not of much importance since it
forms only a small portion of the herbage.
18a. Tuft bases coated with fibrous remnants of leaf-sheaths. Pedicels (and
often also glumes) somewhat tinged with purple .. .. 19
18b. Tuft bases without fibrous remnants of leaf-sheaths. Pedicels not tinged
with purple .. .. 20
19a. 4-12 in. high. Spikelets 1.5 mm. long ...... (139) S. festivus Hochst.
ex A. Rich. (*) FAIRY DROPSEED. Small tufted perennial. MW,
ME, RV, LS. Grassland, rocky places. Common. A small, rather
stemmy grass of no significance for grazing.
19b. Up to 21 ft. high. Spikelets about 2 mm. long ...... (140) S. angustifolius
A. Rich. Tufted perennial. HW, MW, ME, RV. Grasslands. A grass
of medium grazing value.
20a. Rhizomatous perennial ...... (141) S. phyllotrichus Hochst. HE, MW,
ME. (Bogdan 1819). COUCH DROPSEED. Grassland, bush, wood-
land. Common. A good grazing grass which often forms a dense
low sward.
20b. Tufted perennials .. .. .. .. .. 21
21a. Leaves shining, smooth, hairless or with scattered soft hairs ........
(142) S. filipes Stapf. FOREST DROPSEED. Tufted perennial 1--4 ft.
high, often with ascending stems. HE, ME, MW. Open forests, forest
edges, grassland. Locally common.
21b. Leaves hairy or scabrid, not shining .. .. .. .. 22
22a. Robust grass 4-6 ft. high. Leaves 6-10 mm. wide ...... (143) S. sp. nr.
S. filipes Stapf. Tufted perennial. HE, ME. (Bogdan 1334, 2691).
Open forest, forest edges, sometimes also in open grassland. A
robust grass of low grazing value.
22b. Less robust grass up to 41 ft. high. Leaves up to 5 mm. wide ..........
(144)S. ? fimbriatus Nees. Tufted perennial. ME, RV, LS, CO. This
grass is very common and it occurs in several distinct varieties, each
of which differs in its grazing value; some of the varieties are fairly
good, leafy grasses.

AVENEAE
KOELERIA Pers.
(145) K. cristata Pers. var. convoluta (Hochst. ex Steud.) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted
perennial 1-2 ft. high. Mt, HE. Grasslands.
(*) Another species is involved: S. stapfianus Gaud.










PENTASCHISTIS Stapf
la. Panicles dense, spike-like, under I in. wide. Leaves short, under 2- in.
long ...... (146) P. minor (Ballard & C. E. Hubbard) Ballard &
Hubbard. Tufted perennial 3-12 in. high. Mt (Kenya, Elgon). Common
grass at altitudes over 12,000 ft.
lb. Panicles loose, wide. Leaves up to 10 in. long .. .. .. 2
2a. Pedicels very uneven, 2-15 mm. long. Spikelets 5-7 mm. long ..........
(147) P. borussica (K. Schum.) Pilger. Tufted perennial 6-15 in. high.
Mt. Reported as a valuable grazing grass.
2b. Pedicels 0.5-10 mm. long. Spikelets 4-5 mm. long ...... (148) P. expansa
(Pilger) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial up to 2 ft. high. Mt. Closely
allied to P. borussica and of the same grazing value.

STREBLOCHAETE Hochst.
(149) S. longiarista (A. Rich.) Pilger. Tufted perennial up to 3 ft. high. HW, HE,
MW. Forest, forest edges. A grass of no importance for grazing.

HELICTOTRICHON Bess. ex Schult. OAT GRASS
la. Panicles loose, with the lower branches usually over 21 in. long 2
lb. Panicles dense, contracted with the lower branches under 2 in. long 4
2a. Florets 3-5, the lower floret 6-7 mm. long. Internodes of the spikelet-
axis with long hairs which are twice as long as the internode ......
(150) H. lachnanthum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted
perennial 2-4 ft. high. HW, HE. Forest edges.
2b. Florets 2-3, the lower floret 7-14 mm. long. Internodes of the spikelet-
axis with short hairs not longer than one internode .. .. 3
3a. Lemmas very tough and rigid, 9-12 mm. long, smooth or minutely
granular ...... (151) H. cartilagineum C. E. Hubbard. Tufted
perennial 2-5 ft. high. HW, HE, MW. Grassland, swamps. Common.
As this grass has usually only a few basal leaves, it is rather stemmy
and of relatively low grazing value.
3b. Lemmas thinner and softer, usually densly scaberulous, 7-10 mm. long
...... (152) H. elongatum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) C. E. Hubbard.
Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. HW. HE, MW. Grasslands, seasonal
swamps. It has the same habit of growth and the same grazing value
as H. cartilagineum.
4a. Stems with four or more nodes. Leaves 3-9 mm. wide .........
(153) H. milanjianum (Rendle) C. E. Hubbard. Perennial up to 31 ft.
high. Mt, HE.
4b. Stems with two nodes. Leaves under 3 mm. wide .. .. .. 5
5a. Spikelets with 2-3 florets ...... (154) H. friesiorum (Pilger)
C. E. Hubbard. Perennial up to 4 ft. high. HE.
5b. Spikelets with 3-5 florets ...... (155) H. angustum C. E. Hubbard.
Tufted perennial l1-3 ft. high. HE (Ngong Hills). In grassland.

AVENA L.
(156) A. fatua L. WILD OAT. Annual 2-4 ft. high. HW. Introduced weed of
arable land.










DESCHAMPSIA Beauv.
la. Leaves folded, convolute, or flat, up to 5 mm. wide. Panicle 4-12 mm.
long. Awns 3-5 mm. long ...... (157) D. caespitosa (L.) Beauv. var.
latifolia (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Hook. f. Tufted perennial. Mt. Tough
grass of low palatability.
lb. Leaves setaceous, up to 0.5 mm. wide. Panicle 2-5 in. long. Awns
5-10 mm. long ...... (158) D. flexuosa (L.) Trin. var. afromontana
C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial. Mt. Grasslands.

AIRA L.
(159) A. caryophyllea L. Annual 2-10 in. high. Mt. Common in short grass.
var. latigluma (Steud.) C. E. Hubbard. RV. Rocky places, rare.

COELACHNE R. Br.
la. Plant 1-2 in. high. Panicle with suberect branches. Spikelets 3 mm. long
...... (160) C. friesiorum C. E. Hubbard. Small grass with prostrate,
ascending stems. Mt. Swampy ground. A very small grass of no
grazing value.
lb. Plant 2-6 in. high. Branches of the panicle horizontally spreading. Spikelets
2-21 mm. long ...... (161) C. africana Pilger. Small grass with
prostrate, ascending stems. HW, ME. Swampy stream banks, wet
rocks under waterfalls. A grass of no importance for grazing.

LINTONIA Stapf
la. Inflorescence paniculate with well-developed axis ...... (162) L. brizoides
(Chiov.) C. E. Hubbard. LN. (Gillett 13354).
lb. Inflorescence digitate with suppressed axis ...... (163) L. nutans Stapf.
Stoloniferous perennial 1-3 ft. high. MW, ME, LT, LN, LS. Common
in seasonally moist grassland on black heavy soil. A grass of low
grazing value.

AGROSTEAE
POLYPOGON Desf.
(164) P. monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Annual 1-3 ft. high. HE, ME. Rocky stream
banks. Rare. Possibly introduced occasionally from the Mediterranean
area.
GASTRIDIUM Beauv.
(165) G. phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C. E. Hubbard. Slender annual up to 18 in.
high. RV. Rocky places. Rare. A grass of no significance for grazing.

AGROSTIS L. BENT GRASS
la. Leaves convolute or folded, under 1.5 mm. wide .. .. .. 2
lb. Leaves flat, 1.5-5 mm. wide .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
2a. Panicle narrow, 1 in. wide, with erect branches appressed to the primary
axis ...... (166) A. trachyphylla Pilger. Densely tufted perennial
up to 2 ft. high with scabrid leaves. Mt. Common.
2b. Panicle open with suberect branches .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Branches of the panicle slender. Pedicels filiform. Lemmas conspicuously
hairy ...... (167) A. volkensii Stapf. Tufted perennial. Mt.
3b. Branches of the panicle and pedicels stiff. Lemmas hairless or nearly
so .. .. .. 4











4a. Florets under 2 mm. long .. ... .. .. .. 5
4b. Florets 2.5-3 mm. long ...... (168) A. Icptophylla C. E. Hubbard. Small
tufted perennial. Mt (Elgon). (Bogdan 3039). Common in the upper
alpine zone.
5a. Stems with 2-5 nodes in the basal part ...... (169) A. gracilifolia
C. E. Hubbard. Small tufted perennial. Mt (Elgon). (Bogdan 3934).
5b. Stems with one node in the basal part ...... (170) A. dissitiflora
C. E. Hubbard. Densely tufted perennial up to 1 ft. high. Mt.
6a. Lemmas hairless and awnless ...... (171) A. schimperiana Hochst.
ex Steud. Creeping or tufted perennial up to 4 ft. high but usually
much lower. Mt, HE, HW, MW. Grasslands, stream banks, swamps.
In swamps or swampy grassland the grass often forms dense low
growth between the tufts of coarse grasses and it is well grazed.
6b. Lemmas hairy and with an awn . 7
7a. Panicle small, up to 4 in. long, with the lower branches under 14 in.
long. Awn inserted just above the middle of the lemma ..........
(172) A. pilgeriana C. E. Hubbard. HE.
7b. Panicle longer; its lower branches over 2 in. long. Awn inserted between
the middle and base of the lemma .. .. .. .. 8
8a. Panicle dense, narrow, under 1 in. wide ...... (173) A. mildbraedii
Pilger. Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. Mt.
8b. Panicle loose, wide or narrow, usually over 1 in. wide .. .. 9
9a. Panicle narrow. Awn inserted between the middle and the lower third
of the lemma ...... (174) A. keniensis Pilger. Tufted perennial. Mt,
HE.
9b. Panicle wide. Awn inserted at the base of the lemma .. .. 10
SOa. Stem bases counted with numerous fibrous remnants of the lower leaf-sheaths
...... (175) A. product Pilger. Perennial forming small tufts. HE.
HW. Grassland. The most common of our species of Agrostis; it
forms occasionally an appreciable proportion of the herbage. Its
grazing value may not be high as its leaves are tough.
10b. Stems not coated as above .. .. .. .. .. 11
lla. Many primary branches of the panicle bear spikelets almost from their
bases ...... (176) A. bogdanii C. E. Hubbard. HE. (Bogdan 3219,
4149). Grassland. Rare.
11b. All or nearly all primary branches of the panicle bare for about 2 in.
from the base .. .. ... 12
12a. Spikelets under 3 mm. long ...... (177) A. friesiorum C. E. Hubbard.
Tufted perennial. Mt, HE.
12b. Spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long ...... (178) A. kilimandscharica Mez. Tufted
perennial 1-3 ft. high. Mt, HE.
12c. Spikelets 3.5-5 mm. long ...... (179) A. sororia C. E. Hubbard. Perennial
up to 3 ft. high. Mt.

CALAMAGROSTIS Adans.
(180) C. epigejos (L.) Roth var. capensis Stapf. Rhizomatous perennial 2-4 ft.
in height. HE. Forest edges, in bush. Rare. A grass of low grazing
value due to its hard leaves.











STIPEAE
ARISTIDA L. NEEDLE GRASS
la. Central awn plumose (fig. 24) .. .. .. .. 2
lb. All three awns hairless or with quite short hairs .. .. .. 3
2a. Glumes hairy. Plumose awn 4-5 cm. long ...... (181) A. hirtigluna
Steud. ex Trin. & Rupr. FEATHERY NEEDLE GRASS. Tufted
perennial 1-21 ft. high. LN, LM. Dry grassland, bush.
2b. Glumes hairless. Plumose awn under 3 cm. long ...... (182) A. papposa
Trin. & Rupr. FEATHERY NEEDLE GRASS. Tufted perennial
1-2- ft. high. Dry grassland, bush.
3a. Awns arise from top of a twisted column (fig. 50) .. .. .. 4
3b. Awns arise from top of untwisted lemma (fig. 49) .. .. .. 7
4a. Central awn 2-3 times as long as the lateral awns ...... (183) A. kelleri
Hack. ex Schinz. KELLERS NEEDLE GRASS. Tufted perennial
1-3 ft. high. LN. Garissa (Allan 518).
4b. Awns equal or sub-equal ... .. . 5
5a. Panicle dense, spike-like ...... (184) A. elytrophoroides Chiov. Annual
or short-lived perennial up to 18 in. high. ME, RV. (Bogdan 788,
2850). Grasslands, rocky ground. A grass of low palatability except
when young.
5b. Panicle loose, not spike-like .. .. .. 6
6a. Short-lived perennial. Spikelets crowded at the end of branches ......
(185) A. lommelii Mez. Tufted grass up to 21 ft. high. ME, RV, LS.
Dry grassland, rocky ground. Fairly common.
6b. Annual. Spikelets evenly distributed ...... (186) A. mutabilis Trin. &
Rupr. FINE NEEDLE GRASS. Annual up to 18 in. high. ME, RV,
LS, LT. Dry grasslands, rocky ground, eroded land. Stemmy grass
of low grazing value.
7a. Panicles dense, spike-like .. .. .. .. 8
7b. Panicles loose, not spike-like .. .. .. .. .. 9
8a. Annual. Glumes hairy. Awns easily disarticulating from the floret ......
(187) A. hordeacea Kunth. BARLEY NEEDLE GRASS. Annual
6 in. to 2 ft. high. LT, RV. Grassland, bush, denuded land.
8b. Perennial. Glumes hairless. Awns persistent ...... (188) A. adoensis
Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Including hardly distinguishable A. furfurosa
Henrard). MOUNTAIN NEEDLE GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft.
high. HE, ME, MW, RV. Grasslands, roadsides. Common. A grass
of low grazing value which is often numerous in overgrazed or
mismanaged pastures at medium altitudes.
9a. Awns very unequal; the lateral awns 3-5 times shorter than the central
one ...... (189) A. sp. near A. adscensionis L. Annual 9 in. to
3 ft. high. LM. (Bogdan 892, 3156). Common in dry grassland and
on rocky ground.
9b. Awns equal or subequal .. .. .. .. .. .. 10
10a. Glumes equal or subequal. Upper glume about as long as the floret .....
(190) A. keniensis Henrard. KENYA NEEDLE GRASS. Annual
up to 22 ft. high. ME, RV. Grasslands, bush, roadsides, abandoned
cultivations. Common. The grass is palatable when young and is
usually more leafy than the more widely spread A. adscensionis. At











the late flowering and seeding stages A. keniensis is not grazed because
of its numerous sharp seeds and awns. A. keniensis (and also
A. adscensionis) often invades the pastures composed of more
valuable perennial grasses, such as Star grass pastures, when the
latter are weakened by drought or mismanagement (see Empire
Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. XXII, No. 87, July 1954).
10b. Glumes very unequal. Upper glume shorter than the floret ...... (191)
A. adscensionis L. COMMON NEEDLE GRASS. Annual up to
2- ft. high. HW, MW, ME, RV, LN, LS, CO. Common in dry
grassland, in bush, on rocky ground, etc. Common component of
pasture in arid and semi-arid areas. Eaten by animals when young
but almost unpalatable at the late-flowering and seeding stages.

ORYZOPSIS Michx.
(192) 0. keniensis Pilger. Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high, with large loose panicles.
HE, ME, MN. Forest, and forest edges where it is widespread and
common. The grazing value of this grass is unknown, but it is
probably low.

ZOIZIEAE
TRAGUS Hall. CARROT SEED GRASS
la. Spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long ...... (193) T. berteronianus Schult. (fig. 31).
Annual up to 9 in. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, LT, LN, LS, CO.
Common in grassland, on rocky ground, on roadsides, etc. A small
grass of no significance for grazing.
lb. Spikelets 3.5-4 mm. long ...... (194) T. biflorus Roxb. Annual up to
9 in. high. CO. (Bogdan 3619). Rare.

LATIPES Kunth
(195) L. senegalensis Kunth. HOOK GRASS (fig. 40). Tufted perennial 6-18 in.
high. ME, LT, LS, CO. Grassland, bush, eroded slopes, rocky places.
Common. This grass is well grazed by cattle and sheep throughout
the whole of the year. It has been successfully used for reseeding
denuded areas in the Mwea country, to the south of Embu. It seeds
abundantly and the seed is easy to collect.

DIGNATHIA Stapf
la. Glumes (including the awn) 7-8 mm. long, hairy throughout ..........
(196) D. hirtella Stapf. LN. (Gillett 13022, 13317).
lb. Glumes (including the awn) about 4 mm. long, hairless or minutely
scaberulous, except the awn which is hairy (fig. 42) ..........
(197) D. gracilis Stapf. Tufted perennial or annual 6-18 in. high. CO.

PEROTIS Ait.
la. Perennial. Glumes 2 mm. long ...... (198) P. patens Gandoger. BOTTLE-
BRUSH GRASS. Short-lived perennial 1-2 ft. high, forming small
tufts. MW, LT, LN, LS, CO. Grassland, rocky places. The tufts
consist only of a few shoots and the grass is of little importance to
grazing.
lb. Annual. Glumes 3 mm. long ...... (199) P. hildebrandtii Mez. Slender
annual 6-12 in. high. LS, CO. Grassland, bush. This grass is associated
with sandy soils. It is of little value for grazing.












ORYZEAE
ORYZA L. RICE
la. Ligule over 20 mm. long ...... (200) 0. barthii A. Chev. WILD RICE
(fig. 44). Tall, rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennial. CO, ME,
Swamps. Although the grass is rather tough, it has been reported in
South Africa that Wild Rice is "an excellent fodder grass which stock
prefers to all others".
lb. Ligule under 10 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Stems spongy. Upper glume triangular-lanceolate. Awns rather stout
...... (201) 0. punctata Kotschy ex Steud. CO.
2b. Stems not spongy. Upper glume narrow-lanceolate. Awns slender ......
(202) 0. eichingeri Peter. FOREST RICE. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft.
high. MW (Nyanza). Forests.

LEERSIA Sw.
(203) L. hexandra Sw. RICE GRASS (fig. 51). Rhizomatous perennial 6 in. to
21 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV. Common on swampy river
banks and in swamps where it forms extensive colonies, often in
shallow water. This grass varies in the texture of its leaves and the
forms with smooth leaves are palatable and of high grazing value.

PHAREAE
OLYRA L.
(204) 0. latifolia L. Perennial 4-7 ft. high with broad, ovate leaves (fig. 8). CO.
Forests, forest edges. A grass of no value for grazing.

PHALARIDEAE
PHALARIS L. CANARY GRASS
(205) P. arundinacea L. REED CANARY GRASS. Rhizomatous perennial
2-5 ft. high. HW, HE. Forms extensive colonies on swampy stream-
banks. A medium quality grass, palatable when young.

EHRHARTA Thunb.
(206) E. abyssinica Hochst. (E. erecta Lam. var. abyssinica Pilger). Suberect
or erect perennial up to 4 ft. high forming small tufts. HW, HE, ME.
Common in forests and at forest edges where, if numerous, it provides
some useful grazing.

ANTHOXANTHUM L. SWEET VERNAL
(207) A. nivale K. Schum. AFRICAN SWEET VERNAL (figs. 70 and 71).
Tufted perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. in height. Mt.

ARUNDINELLEAE
ARUNDINELLA Raddi
(208) A. nepalensis Trin. (A. ecklonii Nees). Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high.
ME, MW. Forms colonies in moist grasslands and swamps. A grass
of low palatability because of its tough leaves and hard stems.












LOUDETIA Hochst. RUSSET GRASS
la. Glumes with numerous white hairs from dark warts .. .. 2
lb. Glumes with a few hairs in the upper part, or hairless .. .. 3
2a. Leaves under 6 in. long and under 5 mm. wide ...... (209) L. kagerensis
(K. Schum.) C. E. Hubbard ex Hutch. SOUR RUSSET GRASS.
Tufted perennial 9 in. to 31 ft. high. HW, MW, ME. Grassland, mostly
on poor or rocky soil. Very common in the Trans Nzoia and Nyanza.
A grass of medium quality for grazing.
2b. Leaves usually 1-2 ft. long and 7-15 mm. wide ...... L. arundinacea
var. hensii (see No. 213).
3a. Spikelets 5-7 mm. long. Awns under 15 mm. long ..........
(210) L. phragmitoides (Peter) C. E. Hubbard. REED RUSSET
GRASS. Reed-like, robust, tufted perennial 4-15 ft. high. MW
(Nyanza). Swamps, lake shores.
3b. Spikelets 8-12 mm. long. Awns over 17 mm. long .. .. .. 4
4a. Leaf-sheaths at the stem bases covered with wool-like hairs. Panicle
3-10 in. long. Anthers 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5
4b. Leaf-sheaths at the stem bases without wool, but often split into fibres.
Panicle 3-25 in. long. Anthers 2 .. .. .. .. .. 6
5a. Axis of the panicle and its branches with long white hairs. Spikelets
reddish-brown to dark brown ...... (211) L. pennata (Chiov.)
C. E. Hubbard. FEATHERY RUSSET GRASS. Tufted perennial
1-3 ft. high. LT, RV. (Bogdan 3408, 3516). Grassland, rocky ground.
Frequent. A grass of medium grazing value.
5b. Axis of the panicle and its branches glabrous or with short hairs. Spikelets
brownish-yellow ...... (212) L. flavida (Stapf) C. E. Hubbard.
PALE RUSSET GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. LT, RV.
Grassland, rocky ground. Common and numerous. A grass of medium
grazing value. These two species (L. pennata and L. flavida) are not
well defined and may be only forms of one large and variable species.
6a. 3-10 ft. high. Leaves up to 15 mm. wide. Upper floret with truncate
base ...... (213) L. arundinacea (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Steud. BIG
RUSSET GRASS. Tufted perennial 3-10 ft. high. ME. Grasslands,
rocky places. Var. hensii (De Wild.) C. E. Hubbard differs in having
hairy leaves, panicle and spikelets. ME, LS, CO. Grasslands, bush,
rocky ground.
6b. 1-5 ft. high. Leaves under 5 mm. wide. Upper floret with a two-toothed
base ...... (214) L. simplex (Nees) C. E. Hubbard. COMMON
RUSSET GRASS. Tufted perennial. HW, MW. Grassland, rocky
ground. Particularly common between Eldoret and Turbo where it
is often dominant in open grassland. A stemmy grass of relatively
low grazing value.

PANICEAE
ISACHNE R. Br.
(215) I. aethiopica Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Trailing perennial up to 2 ft. in
height. HE, MW. Forests, forest edges. A forest grass of no signifi-
cance for grazing.











PANICUM L. GUINEA GRASS
la. Lower glume as long as the spikelet .. .. .. .. 2
Ib. Lower glume shorter than the spikelet .. .. .. 4
2a. Panicles small, with a few spikelets. Glumes equal, with strong white
nerves and white tips ...... (216) P. striatissimum C. E. Hubbard.
Tufted perennial with many-noded stems and short leaves. Mt.
2b. Panicles rather large. Glumes not as above .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Panicles dense, with horizontally spreading, viscous branches. Top spike-
let of the primary branches of the panicle with numerous spreading
long hairs; other spikelets with short hairs ...... (217) P. hetero-
stachyum Hack. Annual 6 in. to 2 ft. high with broadly lanceolate
leaves. RV (West Suk), LS, CO. Bush, forest edges; in light shade.
3b. Panicle loose with suberect non-viscous branches. All spikelets alike ......
(218) P. brevifolium L. Annual 1-6 ft. high with broad, lanceolate
leaves. MW, CO. Bush, forests, forest edges.
4a. Stems branched on top, with several globose panicles up to 1 in. in
diameter. Leaves numerous, short ...... (219) P. pinifolium Chiov.
Stoloniferous perennial. CO. (Graham 1618). Sandhills.
4b. Not as above .. ... .. .. 5
5a. Lowermost branches of the panicle verticillate .. 6
5b. Lowermost branches of the panicle single or paired .. .. 7
6a. Stems ascending, with numerous nodes. Lower lemma with a mucro
(short awn) ...... (220) P. chlorochloe K. Schum. Large trailing
perennial. CO. (Bogdan 3909). Forest edges.
6b. Stems erect or suberect with 3-4 nodes. Lower lemma without a mucro
...... (221) Panicunm maximum Jacq. TRUE GUINEA GRASS.
Tufted perennial 2-10 ft high. MW, ME, RV, MN, LN, LS, CO.
Bush, forest edges, glades, grassland, roadsides. Common. A good
palatable grass when young.
7a. Axis of the panicle with clavate, gland-tipped hairs .. .. 8
7b. Hairs of the panicle axis not clavate, if present .. .. 9
8a. Panicles large. Spikelets 4-5 mm. long ...... (222) P. deustum Thunb.
BUSH GUINEA GRASS. Tufted perennial up to 7 ft. high with
broad leaves. MW, ME, MN, LS, CO. Open forest, forest edges, bush.
Common. Vigorous grass palatable when young.
8b. Panicles small. Spikelets about 3 mm. long ...... (223) P. kisantuense
Vanderyst ex Robyns. Small trailing perennial. Stems with numerous
nodes; leaves small, lanceolate. HE, HW, ME. Swampy stream
banks, swamps. Small grass of little importance for grazing.
9a. Trailing grasses with ascending stems rooting from nodes. Stems with
numerous nodes. Leaves lanceolate. Mostly forest grasses .. 10
9b. Not as above .. .. .. .. 18
10a. Panicle contracted, very dense, olive-grey in colour ..........
(224) P. pleianthum Peter. Trailing grass with lanceolate leaves and
small panicles. CO (Allan 130, 509, Bogdan 3913). Forests, forest
edges.
10b. Panicles loose .. .. .. .. .. 11
lla. Upper leaves up to 1 in. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 12
1lb. Upper leaves over 1-- in. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 13











12a. Panicle divided to the third or fourth degree. Lower glume over three-
quarters the length of the spikelet ...... (225) P. pusillum Hook. f.
Annual up to 6 in. high. RV.
12b. Panicle divided to the second degree. Lower glume up to two-thirds the
length of the spikelet ...... (226) P. snowdenii C. E. Hubbard.
Trailing grass up to 1 ft. high. HE. (Bogdan 387).
13a. Spikelets hairy .. .... 14
13b. Spikelets hairless .. .. .. .. .. 15
14a. Spikelets about 1 mm. long ...... (227) P. trichoides Sw. Small trailing
grass. CO. Forest, forest edges.
14b. Spikelets about 2 mm. long ...... (228) P. microthyrsum Stapf. Perennial
trailing grass. CO. Forest, forest edges.
15a. Axis of the panicle with long spreading hairs ...... (229) P. trichocladum
Hack. ex K. Schum. MKOKO GUINEA GRASS. Trailing perennial
to over 3 ft. high. HE, HW, MW, ME, RV, LN, CO. Forest edges,
glades, bush, stream banks. Common. Valuable grazing and fodder
grass.
15b. Axis of the panicle without long spreading hairs .. .. .. 16
16a. Spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long. Lower glume about one-third the length of
the spikelet ...... (230) P. transvenulosum Stapf. Trailing perennial
up to 3 ft. high. HW, HE, ME. Forest, forest edges.
16b. Spikelets about 2 mm. long. Lower glume half the length of the spikelet
or longer .. .. .... .. .. 17
17a. Lower glume ovate, as broad as the spikelet ...... (231) P. hochstetteri
Steud. HW, RV. Forest edges, bush. Trailing perennial 1-3 ft. high.
17b. Lower glume lanceolate, much narrower than the spikelet ..........
(232) P, calvum Stapf. Trailing perennial up to 3 ft. high. HE, MW.
Forest, forest edges.
18a. Lower lemma with a deep median groove on back. Branches of the
panicle almost spike-like, decreasing only slightly in length towards
the top of the panicle ...... (233) P. infestum Anderss. ex Peters.
GROOVED GUINEA GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. MW,
ME, LN, LS, CO. Grassland, bush.
18b. Lower lemma without a deep median groove. Branches of the panicles
conspicuously decreasing in length towards the top .. .. 19
19a. Pedicels 10-30 mm. long ...... (234) P. hippothrix K. Schum. Annual
2-5 ft. high with large panicles. CO.
19b. Pedicels under 10 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
20a. Annuals. Fertile spikelets ("seed") dark coloured at maturity .. 21
20b. Perennials. Fertile spikelets ("seed") white or greyish-white at
maturity .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22
21a. Small annual with laceolate leaves and small or medium size panicles
...... (235) P. atrosanguineum Hochst. ex A. Rich. Annual 4-20 in.
high. MW, ME, RV, LS, LM, CO. Dry grassland, rocky ground,
bush, forest edges, weed of arable land. Common. A small grass
which may supply useful grazing in poor, dry pastures.
21b. Large annual with linear leaves and very large panicles ..........
(236) P. sp. nr. P. coloratum L. Annual 2-3 ft. high. ME, LS. (Bogdan
3137, 3559). Stream banks, roadsides in areas of black heavy soil.
A stemmy grass of low grazing value.











22a. Axis of the panicle and stems under the panicle with a few to many
long hairs ...... (237) P. poaeoides Stapf. Tufted perennial 6 in. to
21 ft. high. HE, ME, RV, LN. (Bogdan 2765). Seasonally wet grass-
land. A useful grazing grass.
22b. Axis of the panicle and stems under the panicles hairless .. .. 23
23a. Lower glume about half the length of the spikelet or slightly longer 24
23b. Lower glume about one-third the length of the spikelet or shorter 25
24a. Stems with 1-2 nodes ...... (238) P. dregeanum Nees. Tufted perennial
1-3 ft. high. ME. (Bogdan 3744). Swampy ground. Rare.
24b. Stems with 3-6 nodes ...... (239) P. genuflexum Stapf. Tufted perennial
with numerous thin stems. CO. Bush, grassland; mostly on sandy soil.
25a. Panicles 6 in. to 2 ft. long. Spikelets tinged with purple .. .. 26
25b. Panicles under 6 in. long. Spikelets yellow-green only very occasionally
tinged with purple .. .. .. .. .. 27
26a. Leaves and leaf-sheaths hairless. Spikelets green with purple tips. Lower
glume usually rounded ...... (240) P. glabrescens Steud.
(P. longijubatum Stapf, P. subalbidum Kunth). WATER GUINEA
GRASS. Tufted perennial 3-7 ft. high with spongy, ascending stems
often rooting from nodes. HE, ME, LS. Swampy stream banks, in
or near water.
26b. Leaves and leaf-sheaths more or less hairy. Spikelets much tinged with
purple. Lower glime usually pointed ...... (241) P. coloratum L.
BLUE GUINEA GRASS. Tufted perennial i-5 ft. high with erect or
suberect stems. HE, MW, ME, RV, LN. Grassland. Seasonal swamps,
stream banks. Common. A very valuable grazing grass. At maturity
it becomes more stemmy and less palatable.
27a. Leaf margins and leaf-sheaths with long hairs from warts. Grass of dry
situations ...... (242) P. ? massaiense Mez. Perennial 1-4 ft. high
MW, ME, RV, LT, LN, LS, LM. (Bogdan 911). Dry grassland,
bush, rocky ground. A useful grazing grass in arid and semi-arid
areas.
27b. No hairs from warts on leaves. Grass of moist places ...........
(243) P. repens L. COUCH GUINEA GRASS. Perennial 1-3 ft. high
with long rhizomes. MW, ME. Stream banks, lake shores. Not
common.
SACCIOLEPIS Nash
la. Stems with many nodes. Leaves lanceolate. Panicle loose ..........
(244) S. curvata (L.) Chase (fig. 64). Trailing perennial 1-4 ft. high.
CO. Bush, forest edges, glades, weed of arable land. Common. Little
is known about its grazing value.
lb. Stems with a few nodes. Leaves linear. Panicle dense, spike-like .....
(245) S. chevalieri Stapf. Perennial forming small tufts. MW. In
swamps.

SETARIA Beauv. SETARIA GRASS
la. Panicle (spike) cylindrical, very dense and continuous (sometimes lobed
in the lower part) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
lb. Panicle conspicuously branched, not cylindrical .. .. .. 14
2a. Annuals . 3
2b. Perennials .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7










3a. Bristles with barbs directed downwards. Spikes adhering to clothing, hairs,
etc. ....... (246) S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. BURR SETARIA. Annual
4-6 ft. high. HE, HW, ME, MW, RV, LS, LT, LM. Weed of arable
land, old cultivations, forest edges. Common.
3b. Bristles with barbs directed upwards. Spikes not adhering .. 4
4a. Bristles yellow, rusty or brown. Upper glumes up to half the length
of the spikelet ...... (247) S, pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard. PALE SETARIA. Annual 1-2 ft. high. HW, HE,
MW, ME, RV, LN, LS. Dry grassland, bush, rocky ground, weed
of arable land. Common. This grass is grazed to a limited extent.
Some African herdsmen regard it as harmful to cattle.
4b. Bristles pale-green or purplish. Upper glume two-thirds the length of
the spikelet or longer .. .. .. .. 5
5a. Spikes cylindrical without elongated branches. Upper glume as long as
the spikelet ...... (248) S. acromelana (Hochst.) Dur. & Schinz.
Annual 1-2 ft. high. MW, ME, LN, LS. Dry grassland, rocky ground.
5b. Spikes with elongated lower branches. Lower glume about two-thirds
the length of the spikelet .. .. .. .. .. 6
6a. Axis of the spike with long hairs ...... (249) S. interpilosa Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard. Annual up to 4 ft. high. LS.
6b. Axis of the spike hairless or with very short hairs ...... (250) S. intermedia
(Roth) R. & Sch. Annual -3 ft. high. ? LS.
7a. Bristles ciliate ...... (251) S. atrata Hack. ex Engl. Tufted perennial up
to 41 ft. high. HW, HE, MW. Moist grassland, swamps. Robust,
tough grass of low grazing value.
7b. Bristles not ciliate .. .. .. 3.
8a. Stems with hairy nodes. Upper glume entirely covering the upper
floret 9
8b. Stems with hairless nodes. Upper glume up to two-thirds the length of
the spikelet, leaving the upper part of the upper floret uncovered
(fig. 33) 13
9a. Spikes up to 22 in. long .. .. 10
9b. Spikes normally over 3 in. long .. .. .. .. 11
10a. Spikes pale-green or slightly tinged with purple. Bristles up to 4 mm. long
...... (252) S. phleoides Stapf. MARSH SETARIA. Tufted perennial
1-3 ft. high. ME, MW. Seasonally moist grassland on heavy black
soil. Common. A grass of low palatability.
10b. Spikes purplish. Bristles 5-7 mm. long ...... (253) S. setulosa Stapf.
Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HE, ME.
I1 a. Tall reed-like grass 6-8 ft. high ...... (254) S. phragmitoides Stapf.
REED SETARIA. ME. Grassland, bush. Rare.
11b. Grasses up to 5 ft. high .. .. .. .. .. 12
12a. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long ...... (255) S. polyphylla Stapf. Tufted
perennial up to 31 ft. high. CO.
12b. Spikelets 3-5.5 mm. long ...... (256) S. holstii Herrmann (S. mombassana
Herrmann). Tufted perennial up to 5 ft. high. MW, ME, LS, CO.
Grassland, bush, stream-banks. Common. A leafy grass of medium
to good grazing value.











13a. Tuft-bases not coated with split, fibrous lower leaf-sheaths. Shoot-bases
flat. Upper glume with five nerves ...... (257) S. sphacelata
(Schumach.) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard ex Moss. COMMON SETARIA.
Tufted or occasionally rhizomatous perennial 12-6 ft. high. HW, HE.
MW, ME, RV. Grassland, bush, rocky ground, stream-banks.
Common. The grass is very variable and it is represented in Kenya
by numerous varieties which differ in the shape, length and colour
of the spikes, size and colour of the leaves, etc., and also in such
characters of practical importance as leafiness, leaf quality and
palatability. A good grazing variety from the Nandi area ("Nandi
Setaria") is being introduced into cultivation as a ley grass.
13b. Tuft-bases coated with split, fibrous old lower leaf-sheaths. Shoot bases
cylindrical or only slightly compressed. Upper glume with three
nerves ...... (258) S. trinervia Stapf. GOLDEN SETARIA. Tufted
perennial 1-4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV. Grassland, bush,
rocky ground, stream-banks. Common. This grass is less variable and
usually of lower grazing value than S. sphacelata.
14a. Leaves folded fan-fashion near the base .. .. .. .. 15
14b. Leaves not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. 19
15a. Leaves up to 1 in. wide .. .. .. .. .. 16
15b. Leaves up to 4 in. wide .. .. .. .. .. 18
16a. Perennial. Leaves up to over 12 in. long ...... (259) S. plicatilis (Hochst.)
Hack. ex Engl. FOREST SETARIA. Tufted perennial up to 6 ft.
high. HE, HW, ME. Forest, forest edges, bush. Common.
16b. Annuals. Leaves under 8 in. long .. .. .. .. .. 17
17a. Underside of the leaves with scattered long hairs. Spikelets usually paired.
Upper floret smooth ...... (260) S. kagerensis Mez. Annual up to
3 ft. high. MW, RV. Forests, forest edges, bush.
17b. Underside of the leaves hairless or with a few long hairs at the base.
Spikelets solitary, on very short pedicels. Upper floret finely wrinkled
...... (261) S. aequalis Stapf. Annual up to 3 ft. high. RV. Forest,
forest edges, glades and bush.
18a. Upper glume from half to two-thirds the length of the spikelet. Lower
floret as long as the upper floret ...... (262) 9. chevalieri Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard. PALM SETARIA. Tufted perennial 3-10 ft. high
with broad leaves. MW, ME, LS. Forest, forest edges, glades.
18b. Upper glume from two-thirds to three-quarters the length of the spikelet.
Lower floret slightly longer than the upper floret ..............
(263) S. caudula Stapf. PALM SETARIA. Tufted perennial 3-10 ft.
high with broad leaves. MW, ME. Forest, forest edges, glades.
19a. Leaf blades sagittate at the base ...... (264) S. haareri Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard. Tufted perennial. LT.
19b. Leaf blades not sagittate . .. .. 20
20a. Annual. Branches of the panicle densely covered with long hairs ......
(265) S. orthosticha K. Schum. ex Herrmann. Annual 1-4 ft. high.
MW, RV (West Suk). Bush, forest edges. Rare.
20b. Perennial. Branches of the panicle without long hairs ..............
(266) S. longiseta Beauv. PURPLE SETARIA (fig. 35). Tufted
perennial 1-5 ft. high. MW. Grassland, bush, roadsides. Common.
An early grass of medium to good grazing quality.











CYMBOSETARIA L.
(267) C. sagittifolia (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Schweickerdt (Setaria sagittifolia
Walp.). Annual 1-3 ft. high. CO. Forest edges, glades and bush.

HOLCOLEMMA Stapf & C. E. Hubbard
la. Perennial. Clusters of spikelets without bristles or each cluster provided
with a single bristle ...... (268) H. canaliculatum (Nees ex Steud.)
Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Perennial 1-3 ft. high. CO. Rare.
lb. Annual. Lower clusters of spikelets with numerous bristles, or the spikelets
of the lower clusters entirely reduced to bristles ................
(269) H. transients (K. Schum.) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Annual up to
2-2 ft. high. HW. Rare.

ECHINOCHLOA Beauv.
la. Ligule absent .. .. .. .. .. ... 2
lb. Ligule a fringe of stiff hairs 4
2a. Annuals .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
2b. Tufted perennial ...... (270) E. haploclada (Stapf) Stapf. SMALL
ANTELOPE GRASS. Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. MW, ME, RV,
LS, LM, LN. Common in swamps, seasonally moist grassland and
on stream banks. A grass of low grazing value, grazed only when
young.
3a. Spikelets awned ...... (271) E. sp. near E. haploclada (Stapf) Stapf.
Annual 1-2 ft. high. CO. (Bogdan 2609). Weed in rice.
3b. Spikelets awnless ...... (272) E. colonum (L.) Link. Annual 2-2 ft.
high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, LS, CO. Wet grassland, stream banks,
weed of arable land. Common.
4a. Panicle 3-8 in. long. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long, usually awned ..........
(273) E, stagnina (Retz.) Beauv. Rhizomatous perennial up to 6 ft.
high. HW, HE, ME, CO. Swamps, stream banks.
4b. Panicle 6-18 in. long. Spikelets awnless, 3-4 mm. long ..........
(274) E. pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase. ANTELOPE GRASS.
Tufted perennial up to 15 ft. high. HW, MW, ME, LN. Swamps,
stream banks. Common. Reputed to be of high grazing value when
young.

OPLISMENUS Beauv.
la. Annual. Axes of racemes densely hairy ...... (275) 0. burmannii (Retz.)
Beauv. Trailing annual up to 1l ft. high with small lanceolate leaves.
CO. Forests. A grass of no significance for grazing.
lb. Perennials. Axes of racemes hairless or slightly hairy .. .. 2
2a. Spikelets in clusters or crowded on short racemes. The longest raceme
under one-third the length of the corresponding internode ..........
(276) 0. hirtellus (L.) Beauv. Trailing perennial with ascending stems
rooting from nodes. Leaves lanceolate. HE, MW, ME. In shady
forests. A grass of no significance for grazing.
2b. Spikelets in racemes, not closely crowded. The longest raceme usually
over half the length of the corresponding internode ..........
(277) 0. compositus (L.) Beauv. Trailing perennial with ascending
stems rooting from nodes. Leaves lanceolate. HE, ME. Shady forests.
A grass of no significance for grazing.











CYRTOCOCCUM Stapf
(278) C. trigonum (Retz.) A. Camus (Loxostachys lachnantha Peter). Trailing
perennial up to 9 in. high with small lanceolate leaves. CO. (Allan
511). Forests. A grass of no significance for grazing.
ACROCERAS Stapf
(279) A. macrum Stapf. NILE GRASS. Rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennial
up to 2 ft. in height. RV, MW, ME. Swamps, stream banks. This
grass sometimes forms a considerable proportion of the swamp
herbage and covers the ground between tufted grasses. It is of high
grazing value.
UROCHLOA Beauv.
la. Lower glume two-thirds the length of the spikelet or longer .. 2
lb. Lower glume up to half the length of the spikelet .. .. 3
2a. Annual grass of the coastal area ...... (280) U. trichopus (Hochst.)
Stapf. Annual up to 3 ft. high with semi-prostrate, ascending stems
and lanceolate leaves. CO. Roadsides, abandoned cultivations, weed of
arable land. Common.
2b. Perennial ...... (281) U. bolbodes (Steud.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft.
high. RV (West Suk). Grasslands, bush. Useful grazing grass.
3a. Spikelets about 2 mm. long ...... (282) U. ? reptans Stapf. Annual
6-18 in. high. CO. (Allan 200).
3b. Spikelets over 3 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Spikelets covered with scattered warts ...... (283) U. gorinii Chiov.
Annual up to 1l ft. high. CO. (Allan 151, 173).
4b. No warts on the spikelets .. .. .. .. .. 5
5a. Trailing perennial with ascending stems rooting from nodes. Leaves hair-
less at margin ...... (284) U. setigera (Retz.) Stapf (Brachiaria
setigera (Retz.) C. E. Hubbard). CO. (Allan 73, 529). Forests, forest
edges.
5b. Annual. Leaves ciliate at margins ...... (285) U. panicoides Beauv.
(U. helopus (Trin.) Stapf). Annual 6 in. to 2 ft. high, forming broad,
semi-prostrate tufts. MW, ME, RV, LN, LS. Common in old cultiva-
tions, on roadsides and as a weed of arable land. Palatable grass
which provides good seasonal grazing.
PASPALIDIUM Stapf
la. Spikelets about 2 mm. long. Grass of swampy ground ...........
(286) P. geminatum (Forsk.) Stapf. Stoloniferous and rhizomatous
perennial with prostrate stem-bases rooting freely from nodes. MW,
LS, CO. Stream banks, lake shores, swampy places on alkaline ground.
Forms pure colonies. Although this grass has tough leaves it is grazed
well when other grazing is scarce.
lb. Spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long. Grass of dry ground ...... (287) P. desertorum
(A. Rich.) Stapf. Perennial with ascending or trailing stems usually
not rooting from nodes. LN (Dandu, Gillett 13068). Rare.

STENOTAPHRUM Trin.
(288) S. dimidiatum (L.) Brongn. PEMBA GRASS (fig. 58). Stoloniferous
perennial from a few inches to 1 ft. high forming dense low growth.
CO. Common on sandy soil in coastal woodland or in glades. Said
to be readily grazed by cattle.











PASPALUM L.
la. Spikelets broadly lanceolate, pointed (fig. 62). Stems with many nodes
...... (289) P. vaginatum Sw. Perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. high with long
creeping stem-bases. LS, CO. Swampy stream banks, swamps, mostly
on saline or alkaline soil. A grass with very tough leaves and stems;
usually not grazed.
lb. Spikelets orbicular or elliptical, blunt (fig. 61) .. .. .. 2
2a. Leaves 8-18 mm. wide, rounded at the base ...... (290) P. auriculatum
Presl. Perennial up to 11 ft. high. MW (Nyanza).
2b. Leaves under 8 mm. wide, slightly constricted at the base .........
(291) P. commersonii Lam. (P. scrobiculatum L. var. commersonii
Stapf). SCROBIC, COMMER GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high.
HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, MN, CO. Grassland, often on moist ground,
swamps, stream banks. Common. A good grazing grass.

BRACHIARIA Griseb. SIGNAL GRASS
la. Lower glume three-quarters the length of the spikelet or longer 2
lb. Lower glume under half the length of the spikelet .. .. 6
2a. Spikelets hairless ..... i'242j B. platynota (K. Schum.) Robyns. Tufted
perennial 1-2 ft. high. MW. Grasslands. It seems to be palatable to
cattle but its proportion in the herbage is usually small.
2b. Spikelets hairy .. ... .. .. 3
3a. Stoloniferous perennial. Leaves short, lanceolate. (293) B. humidicola
(Rendle) Schweick. LAWN SIGNAL GRASS. Stoloniferous perennial
forming low carpet of leaves with numerous flowering stems up to
15 in. high. MW. Herbarium specimens of this species have not been
collected from its natural habitat. Roots brought from the Nandi
area are cultivated at Kitale.
3b. Tufted perennials .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Racemes of the panicle 3-10 cm. long. Spikelets 4.5-7 mm. long ......
(294) B. dictyoneura (Fig. & De Not.) Stapf (including B. keniensis
Henrard). Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HW, MW, ME, RV, LS, CO.
Grasslands, bush. Common. This grass is of medium to good grazing
value.
4b. Racemes up to 4 cm. long. Spikelets up to 4 mm. long .. .. 5
5a. Stems with 4-6 nodes ...... (295) B. soluta Stapf. GOLDEN SIGNAL
GRASS. Tufted perennial up to 2-1 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME.
Grasslands, bush, woodland, forest edges. Common. This grass some-
times forms a considerable proportion of the herbage and it produces
valuable grazing.
5b. Stems with 1-2 nodes ...... (296) B. virdiula Stapf. Tufted perennial
with long, narrow leaves. ME. Seasonally moist grassland on black
heavy soil. Not common.
6a. Spikelets over 4 mm. long, hairless or with a few long hairs at the
top .. .. .. .. .. .. 7
6b. Spikelets under 4 mm. long .. .... .. 8
7a. Erect or suberect tufted perennial. Spikelets in one row (occasionally in
two rows on a part of the raceme). Lower glume not distant from
the rest of the spikelet ...... (297) B. brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.)
Stapf. COMMON SIGNAL GRASS (fig. 65). Erect or suberect tufted











perennial 1-4 ft. (occasionally to 8 ft.) high. MW, ME, HE, RV, CO.
Common in grassland, bush, forest edges. A grass of good to medium
grazing value.
7b. Suberect or spreading perennial often with creeping stem bases. Spikelets
in two rows. Lower glume distant from the rest of the spikelet for
about 0.7 mm. ...... (298) B. ruziziensis Germain & Evrard.
PROSTRATE SIGNAL GRASS. Suberect or spreading perennial
1-3 ft. high with numerous short and broad leaves. MW. (Knight
4253, 4254). Grassland, bush. Fairly common. Until recently this
species was not distinguished from B. brizantha at the Kitale Grass-
land Research Station, where numerous forms of these two species are
under trial as potential ley grasses. B. ruziziensis includes more
valuable, leafy grazing forms suitable for leys.
8a. Spikelets under 2 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 9
8b. Spikelets over 2 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 11
9a. Spikelets semi-globose. Leaves ovate or broadly lanceolate, up to 1 in.
long ...... (299) B. semiindulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf.
Annual 2-8 in. high. HW, MW, ME, RV. Grassland, bush, rocky
ground, weed of arable land. Common. A small grass of no importance
for grazing.
9b. Spikelets ovate. Leaves lanceolate; at least some of them over 1 in.
long . 10
10a. Lower glume about one-third the length of the spikelet ..........
(300) B. scalaris (Mez) Pilger. Annual up to 18 in. high. ME, RV. Rare.
10b. Lower glume under one-fifth the length of the spikelet ...........
(301) B. eruciformis (Sw.) Griseb. (B. isachne Stapf). Annual 4-18 in.
high. MW, ME, RV, LS. Roadsides, seasonally moist grassland, usually
on black heavy soil, where it is very common. It often grows in
large colonies, when it provides fairly good seasonal grazing.
11a. Spikelets hairless .. .. .. 12
11lb. Spikelets hairy .. .. .... 16
12a. Leaves distinctly jagged at margins ...... (302) B. serrifolia (Hochst.)
Stapf. Annual 1-4 ft. high. LS, LM. Grassland, bush.
12b. Leaves not jagged at margin ... .. .. .. .. 13
13a. Annuals. Spikelets irregularly arranged: pedicels unequal, some of them
half the length of the spikelet or longer .. .. .. 14
13b. Perennials. Spikelets regularly arranged in two close rows. All spikelets
subsessile .. .. . 15
14a. Spikelets up to 3 mm. long, greenish ...... (303) B. leersioides (Hochst.)
Stapf. BLUE SIGNAL GRASS. Annual 6-24 in. high. MW, ME, LT,
LN, LM, LS, CO. Dry grassland, rocky ground, bush. Common.
Provides useful seasonal grazing in arid and semi-arid areas.
14b. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long, glossy white ...... (304) B. ovalis (R. Br.) Stapf.
Annual 6-18 in. high. LN.
15a. Axes of the racemes fringed with numerous long hairs ............
(305) B. rugulosa Stapf. Perennial 1--4 ft. high. ME. Stream banks,
moist grassland.
15b. Racemes without long hairs at margin ...... (306) B. mutica (Forsk.)
Stapf. PARA GRASS. Perennial up to 6 ft. high, spreading by stem
bases and rooting from the lower nodes. MW, ME. Stream banks,
moist grassland.











16a. Spikelets constricted at the base into a distinct black stipe ............
(307) B. nigropedata (Munro) Stapf. Tufted perennial with long,
densely hairy leaves. ME, LS. Grasslands.
16b. No black stipe at the base of the spikelets .. .. .. .. 17
17a. Spikelets overtopped by a tuft of purplish hairs ...... (308) B. serrata
(Spreng.) Stapf. Tufted perennial forming broad cushions. RV (West
Suk), LN, LS. Grasslands, mostly on rocky ground.
17b. Not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18
18a. Lower glume up to a quarter the length of the spikelet ............
(309) B. lachnantha (Hochst.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. ME,
CO. Grassland of plains on black heavy soil. At the coast it occurs
mostl', on steep slopes. A good grazing grass.
18b. Lower glume over one-third the length of the spikelet .. .. 19
19a. Tufted perennial with ascending stems forming cushions. Leaf-margins
with long spreading hairs from warts. Lemma of the lower floret
with numerous long hairs ...... (310) B. sp. nr. B. serrata (Spreng.)
S--':'. Perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. high. LN, LS, LM. (Edwards 1892/38,
Bogdan 1629). Dry grasslands, rocky ground.
19b. Not as above .. .. .. .. .. .. 20
20a. Perennial with creeping and ascending stems and lanceolate leaves.
Racemes dense with regularly arranged spikelets. Axes of racemes
ri:.:. about 1 mm. wide ...... (311) B. decumbens Stapf. CREEPING
SIGNAL GRASS. MW (Nyanza). Moist grassland. A useful grazing
grass.
20b. Annuals. R:c- rn,'L loose with irregularly arranged spikelets. Axes of
racemes under 0.5 mm. wide .. .. .. .. 21
21a. Upper glume and lower lemma aristulate, both with tufts of rather long
hairs in the upper part ...... (312) B. leucacrantha (K. Schum.)
Stapf. Annual from a few inches to 1 ft. high. MW, ME, LN, LS,
CO. Grassland, bush, denuded land. Common. A grass of medium
or low grazing value which may, however, be useful in dry areas
when other grazing is scarce.
21b. Upper glume and lower lemma rounded or only slightly pointed, with
evenly .ii..trbutcd hairs ... .. 22
22a. Spikelets (except the terminal ones) subsessile ...... (313) B. pubifolia
(Mez) Stapf. Annual up to 12 in. high. ME, LS. Not common.
22b. Many spikelets on pedicels which may be over 1 mm. long ..........
(314) B. deflexa (Schumach.) C. E. Hubbard. Annual 6 in. to 2 ft. high.
MW, ME, LS, LM, CO. Common in dry grassland, bush and on
rocky ground. Leafy grass of good grazing value providing useful
seasonal grazing in dry areas.

AXONOPUS Beauv.
(315) A. flexuosus (Peter) C. E. Hubbard ex Troupin (A. compresses auct. afr.
non Beauv.). CARPET GRASS. Stoloniferous perennial. CO. Rare in
Kenya, possibly introduced.

ERIOCHLOA H.B. & K.
la. Annuals .. .. .. .. 2


b....e.n.i. 3


Ib. Perennials










2a. Stems sparsely branched. Spikelets conspicuously hairy, with a terminal
bristle (fig. 47) ...... (316) E. nubica (Steud.) Hack. & Stapf ex
Thell. (E. acrotricha Hack.) Annual -21 ft. high. MW, ME,
RV, LT, LN, LS, LM, CO. Dry grassland, bush, roadsides, weed of
arable land. Readily grazed by cattle.
2b. Stems much branched in the lower part. Spikelets sparingly hairy or
hairless, without terminal bristle ...... (317) E. sp. nr. E. nubica
(Steud.) Hack. & Stapf ex Thell. Annual 6-18 in. high. ME. (Bogdan
1108, 3206). Saline alluvial soil in the Athi River Valley.
3a. Pedicels below the spikelets with one to a few long hairs. Spikelets
hairless ...... (318) E. meyeriana (Nees) Pilger (Panicunm meyerianum
Nees). Tufted perennial up to 5 ft. high, often with long creeping stems
rooting from nodes. MW, ME, LN, LS, LM, CO. Stream banks.
Common.
3b. Pedicels hairless or with very short hairs. Spikelets hairy .. 4
4a. Spikelets under 2.5 mm. long. A coastal grass ..............
(319) E. parvispiculata C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial up to 4 ft.
high. CO.
4b. Spikelets over 3 mm. long. Occurs at altitudes of 3,000-5,500 ft ......
(320) E. procera (Retz.) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial up to 4 ft.
high. MW, ME. Stream banks, lake shores, seasonally moist grasslands.

ENTOLASIA Stapf
(321) E. imbricata Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. MW. (Bogdan 4054). In
grass swamps. Not common.

CHLOACHNE Stapf
(322) C. oplismenoides (Hack.) Stapf ex Robyns. Trailing perennial with
prostrate and ascending stems rooting from nodes. HE. (Bogdan 1504).
Forests and forest edges. Rare. A grass of no significance for grazing.

PSEUDECHINOLAENA Stapf
(323) P. polystachya (H.B. & K.) Stapf. Trailing perennial up to 1I ft. high
with lanceolate leaves. MW, ME. Forest. A grass of no value for
grazing.

ACRITOCHAETE Pilger
(324) A. volkensii Pilger (fig. 45). Trailing perennial up to 2 ft. high with
lanceolate leaves. HE. Forest edges. A grass of no significance for
grazing.

ALLOTEROPSIS Presl.
la. Annual. Leaves short, mostly 10-20 mm. wide, cordate at the base ......
(325) A. cimicina (L.) Stapf. Annual up to 2 ft. high. RV (West Suk),
LS. In bush and on denuded land.
lb. Perennials. Leaves under 10 mm. wide, narrow at the base .. 2
2a. Axes of the racemes stout, conspicuously hairy ...... (326) A. semialata
(R. Br.) Hitchc. Tufted perennial 1-21 ft. high. MW. Common in
grassland. Very early grass producing fresh leaves and panicles
at the very beginning of the rains. A grass of medium grazing value.


2b. Axes of the racemes slender, not hairy ..


3











3a. Leaves 1-3 mm. wide. Racemes 2-4. Lower glume under half the
length of the spikelet ...... (327) A. angusta Stapf. Perennial 2-4 ft
high forming small tufts. MW. (Bogdan 3452, 4043). Swamps. This
grass forms only a small proportion of swamp herbage and it is of
little importance for grazing.
3b. Leaves 3-7 mm. wide. Racemes 3-10. Lower glume over a half the
length of the spikelet ...... (328) A. sp. nr. A. homblei Robyns.
Tufted perennial 1-24 ft. high. ME, CO. (Bogdan 756, Allan 79).
Seasonally moist grassland on black heavy soil; common and numerous
in Nairobi-Thika area. This grass is grazed only to a limited extent,
probably because of its "Sweet Vernal" type of scent, which becomes
more pronounced when the grass is dried.

DIGITARIA Heist. FINGER GRASS
la. Panicle digitate or subdigitate with suppressed or very short common axis
which is shorter than the racemes .. 2
Ib. Panicle with well-developed axis which is usually over 2 in. long and
often exceeds in length the lowermost racemes .. 10
2a. Racemes plumose, free of spikelets for 1-3 in. from their bases. Spikelets
not numerous ...... (329) D. pennata (Hochst.) Chiov. FEATHERY
FINGER GRASS. Perennial 6 in. to almost 3 ft. in height. LN
(Gillett 13067), LS (Tsavo-Mtito Andei, Lugard's Falls). (Verdcourt
2077), not uncommon in Tsavo National Park. In dry bush or grass-
land; forms large colonies.
2b. Racemes not plumose and covered with spikelets almost from their bases.
Spikelets numerous .. .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Perennials . .... .. 4
3b. Annuals . .. .. 5
4a. Spikelets 2 mm. long. Leaves densely hairy. Grass of the coastal area
...... (330) D. nmombasana C. E. Hubbard. MOMBASA FINGER
GRASS. Stoloniferous perennial 14-4 ft. high. CO. Common in
grassland and bush.
4b. Spikelets 22-3 mm. long. Leaves hairy to almost hairless. Occurs from
sea level to 6,000 ft. ....... (331) D. ? milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf.
WOOLLY FINGER GRASS. Tufted or stoloniferous perennial
4-3 ft. high. ME, MW, RV, LT, LN, LS, LM, CO. A very variable
species (or a group of species) represented by several ecotypes. Some
of the ecotypes are tufted perennials which occur usually in seasonally
moist grassland on black heavy soil, and some are stoloniferous
perennials which occur mostly on red soil. In my original list and
in Edwards and Bogdan's Important Grassland Plants of Kenya,
these ecotypes are considered as distinct species: D. ? ,ia!,ii.oia
Stapf, D. ? macroblephara Stapf, and D. ? nodosa Parl. However,
pending a thorough revision of this group, it is better to regard these
forms as varieties or ecotypes of D. ,ii,,r,,.. All forms of this
grass, and particularly those growing on black heavy soil or in arid
areas, are excellent grazing grasses.
5a. Spikelets over 3 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 6
5b. Spikelets under 3 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 7
6a. Axes of the racemes stiff, with sharp, triangular midrib. Spikelets slightly
hairy. Grass of coastal sands ...... (332) D. bicornis (Lam.) R. & Sch.
Annual 1-2 ft. high. CO. (Bogdan 2528).











6b. Axes of the racemes slender. Spikelets hairy, with long spreading hairs.
Grass of dry grasslands ...... (333) D. gayana (Kunth) Stapf ex
Chev. Annual 1-4 ft. high. LS, LT.
7a. Pedicel-tips with tufts of hairs .. .. .. .. .. 8
7b. Pedicel-tips hairless .. . 9
8a. Upper glume and lower lemma hairy ...... (334) D. ternata (Hochst.
ex Steud.) Stapf. Annual up to 2 ft. high. HW, MW, ME, RV. Weed
of arable land, roadsides, occasional in grassland; common.
8b. Upper glume and lower lemma hairless ...... (335) D. tricostilata
(Hack.) Henrard. Annual 1-1 ft. high. ME (Nairobi, Bogdan 1830).
Rare.
9a. Racemes 3-5 in. long. Spikelets densely covered with long hairs ......
(336) D. argyrotricha (Anderss.) Chiov. COASTAL FINGER GRASS.
Annual --2 ft. high. CO. Sandy soil, coastal sands. Common.
9b. Racemes under 3 in. long. Spikelets densely covered with very short
hairs ...... (337) D. longiflora (Retz.) Pers. Annual under 1 ft. high,
often with creeping stems. MW, ME, CO.
10a. Panicle verticillate ...... (338) D. perrottetii (Kunth) Stapf. Annual
1-3 ft. high. CO (Allan 538), ME (Kilima Kiu, Bogdan 3462).
Grassland, bush.
10b. Panicle not verticillate .. 11
la. Upper glume half as long as the spikelet or longer . 12
llb. Upper glume under one-quarter the length of the spikelet .. 14
12a. Annual ...... (339) D. velutina (Forsk.) Beauv. VELVET FINGER
GRASS. Annual 1-2 ft. high, often with creeping stem-bases, rooting
from nodes. HE, HW, ME, MW, RV, LN, LS, CO. Common weed of
arable land; also at forest edges, in bush and occasionally in
grassland.
12b. Perennials .. .. 13
13a. Grass with long, creeping underground stems (rhizomes). Panicle with
2-12 racemes. Spikelets hairless ...... (340) D. scalarun (Schweinf.)
Chiov. (D. abyssinica sensu Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr.) AFRICAN COUCH
GRASS, THANGARI. Rhizomatous perennial from a few inches
to 3 ft. high. HE, HW, MW, ME, RV, MS, CO. Common in grass-
land, woodland, bush, on stream-banks; also a common and trouble-
some weed of arable land. This grass is highly palatable but lacks
vigour.
13b. Tufted perennial, occasionally producing stolons. Panicle with numerous
racemes. Spikelets hairy ...... (341) D. gazensis Rendle. GAZA
FINGER GRASS. Perennial 11-4 ft. high. HE, MW, ME, RV, LS.
Grasslands, often in seasonally waterlogged places. A good grazing
grass.
14a. Spikelets supported by long white hairs. Upper glume and lower lemma
hairless ...... (342) D. diagonalis (Nees) Stapf (D. uniglumis
(A. Rich.) Stapf). Tufted perennial 1t-4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME,
RV, MS, CO. Common in grassland and in bush. A grass of medium
or low grazing value because of hard stems and tough leaves.
14b. Spikelets not supported by long hairs. Upper glume and lower lemma
with white, clavate hairs ...... (343) D. maitlandii Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. HW, MW. Grassland, bush.
A grass of medium grazing value.










RHYNCHELYTRUM Nees. RED TOP GRASS
la. Leaves crowded at the bases of the stems where they form a dense
tuft .. .. .. ... .. .. 2
lb. Leaves evenly distributed on stems. Basal leaves not numerous and they
do not form dense tufts .. .. .. .. 3
2a. Panicle under 6 in. long ...... (344) R. setifolium (Stapf) Chiov. Tufted
perennial about 1 ft. high. ME (Nairobi, Bogdan 3025). Rocky slopes.
Rare.
2b. Panicle over 6 in. long ...... (345) R. nerviglume (Franch.) Chiov.
Tufted perennial 1-2 ft. high. HW, MW. Rare.
3a. Spikelets densely covered with long hairs which hide the glumes and
lemmas .. .. .. .. .. 4
3b. Spikelets hairy to almost hairless. Glumes and lemmas not hidden by
the hairs (fig. 46) .. .. .. .. .. .. 5
4a. Spikelets 5-10 mm. long. Lower glume distant from the rest of the
spikelet to about 1 mm. Grass of arid areas ...... (346) R. villosum
(Parl.) Chiov. LS, LN, LT, RV (West Suk). Dry grassland, bush.
Fairly common.
4b. Spikelets 2-6 mm. long. Lower glume distant from the rest of the spikelet
to under mm. Grass of moist or moderately dry areas ..........
(347) R. repens (Willd.) C. E. Hubbard (R. roseum (Nees) Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard ex Bews). COMMON RED TOP, ROSY GRASS. Tufted
short-lived perennial 1-4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV, LT, LS,
CO. Weed of arable land, abandoned cultivations, grasslands, road-
sides. Very common. This grass often indicates that the land was
formerly under cultivation. A grass of medium grazing value.
5a. Leaves hairless ...... (348) R. subglabrum (Mez) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard
(fig. 46). Tufted perennial forming cushions. Stems with numerous
nodes. RV. (Bogdan 3430). Common in West Suk on rocky slopes.
5b. Leaves densely covered with short hairs ...... (349) R. scabridum
(K. Schum.) Chibv. Tufted perennial with creeping stem-bases which
form low tufts. ME, LS. (Bogdan 1197, 3922). Not common.

TRICHOLAENA Schrad.
la. Spikelets hairless or almost so ...... (350) T. monachne (Trin.) Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial or annual 1,-4 ft. high. CO.
lb. Spikelets densely hairy .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Old leaves long-persistent, curling. Spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long ..........
(351) T. eichingeri (Mez) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial up
to 2 ft. high. MW, ME, RV, LS. Grassland, rocky places. Common.
2b. Old leaves falling off. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long ..................
(352) T. ; ', rai, (L.f.) Parl. Tufted perennial up to 2 ft. high. LT,
LM. Rocky ground.

MELINIS Beanv.
la. Hairs on leaves and leaf-sheaths viscous, sticky. The plant with strong
scent of molasses, in dry, hot weather ...... (353) M. minutiflora
Beauv. MOLASSES GRASS (fig. 48). Tufted viscous perennial 11-5 ft.
high. MW, ME, MS. Forest edges, rocky places, grassland. It is
cultivated in Kenya as a ley grass mainly in the Trans Nzoia District;
the cultivated type is said to have been introduced originally from











South Africa. Kenya local Molasses grass is variable; there are forms
with hairless and hairy spikelets, with long and short awns or awnless.
There is also a wide range of variation between prostrate and erect
forms.
lb. Hairs on leaves not viscous. Plants without scent .. .. .. 2
2a. Pedicel tips with a few long white hairs. Spikelets hairless ..........
(354) M. tenuissima Stapf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high with short,
lanceolate leaves. MW, ME. Forest edges, woodland, occasional in
grassland.
2b. Pedicel tips hairless. Spikelets hairy .. 3
3a. Spikelets 2-,4 mm. long, with two awns each ...... (355) M. ambigua
Hack. Tufted perennial 2-6 ft. high. MS. (Bally 8089).
3b. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long, with one awn ...... (356) M. tenuinervis
Stapf. ME. (Bogdan 2203). Rocky places. Rare.

SNOWDENIA C. E. Hubbard
la. Leaf-sheaths scabrid. Spikes loose. The awned lemma gradually narrowing
on top ...... (357) S. scabra (Pilger) Pilger. Trailing forest grass with
short lanceolate leaves. HW, HE. (Bogdan 3272). Forests, forest edges.
A grass of no significance for grazing.
lb. Leaf-sheaths smooth. Spikes dense. The awned lemma truncate ....
(358) S. polystachya (Fresen.) Pilger (Beckera polystachya Fresen.).
ABYSSINIAN GRASS. Tufted annual or short-lived perennial grass.
HE. (Bogdan 3204). This grass has been introduced from Abyssinia
as a ley or fodder grass and is found occasionally at roadsides and
as a weed of cultivation. In the 01 Kalou area it becomes a serious
weed in cereals.

BECKEROPSIS Fig. & de Not.
la. Leaves 6-20 mm. wide. Spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long ...... (359) B. uniseta
(Nees) Stapf ex Robyns. BECK GRASS. Tufted perennial 4-12 ft.
high, with broad leaves. MW. Fairly common in wooded grassland.
This grass has been under trial at the Kitale Grassland Station where,
if properly managed, it provided a large bulk of leafy, readily
grazed herbage.
lb. Leaves 4-8 mm. wide. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long ...... (360) B. procera
Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high with narrow leaves. RV. One of
the main grasses of the Menengai and Longonot craters. It also
occurs occasionally on rocky slopes in other parts of the Rift Valley.
A tough grass of low grazing value.

PENNISETUM L. Rich.
la. Spikes well developed, borne on tall stems, with many spikelets which
are up to 12 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
lb. Spikes reduced to clusters of 2-4 spikelets enclosed in the uppermost
leaf-sheaths on branches of creeping stems. Spikelets about 20 mm.
long ...... (361) P. clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. KIKUYU
GRASS. Low, closely matted perennial with stolons and rhizomes,
HW, HE, MW, ME, MS, RV. Grassland, forest edges, roadsides.
Common at altitudes over 6,000 ft. A valuable grazing grass which
thrives on rich, newly-cleared forest soil or in well manured paddocks.
2a. All bristles surrounding the spikelets, or only inner ones, plumose, at
least in the lower part .. .... .. .. .. 3










2b. Bristles hairless, or with a few occasional hairs (fig. 18) .. .. 6
3a. Spikelets solitary, sessile .. .. .. .. .. 4
3b. Spikelets in clusters on well defined stalks .. .. .. .. 5
4a. Spikelets 7-9 mm. long ...... (362) P. setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. Densely
tufted perennial up to 3 ft. high. MS (Chyulu Hills), RV (West Suk).
(Bally 8117, Bogdan 3828). Rocky slopes. In rare colonies.
4b. Spikelets 4-5 mm. long ...... (363) P. polystachyon (L.) Schult. Tufted
perennial 1-7 ft. high. MW (Nyanza), LS, CO. Common in grassland
of Nyanza Province and of the coastal area, and in bush. A stemmy
grass of medium grazing value.
Sa. Cultivated annual with very dense cylindrical spikes which are over
I in. wide ...... (364) P. typhoides (Burm.) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard.
BULRUSH MILLET, MWELE. Widely cultivated by the Africans
for millet. Also occurs on roadsides and occasionally as a weed of
arable land. HE, ME, CO.
5b. Wild perennial. Spikes moderately dense, under in. wide ..........
(365) P. squamulatum Fresen. (fig. 34). Perennial 3-7 ft. high, forming
tufts and also spreading with rhizomes. RV (rocky slopes near Lakes
Nakuru, Naivasha and Elmenteita), LT (on alluvial soil in valleys).
(Bogdan 3287, 3833). Leaves tough, but readily eaten by cattle during
the dry season.
6a. Inflorescence of two or more spikes: the lateral spikes are borne on
leafless stalks .. .. .. .. .. 7
6b. Inflorescence of one terminal spike, or if terminal and lateral, then thr
latter are borne on leaf-bearing branches .. .. .. 8
7a. Spikes 5-7 mm. long ...... (366) P. trachyphyllum Pilger. Perennial
up to 6 ft. high with rhizomes and often with creeping stem bases.
HE, HW, ME, MW, RV. Forest edges, glades, stream banks. A
vigorous leafy grass well liked by cattle.
7b. Spikelets up to 4 mm. long .......(367) P. trisetum Leeke. Rhizomatous
perennial 3-7 ft. high. HW, RV. Forest edges, stream banks. An
unpalatable grass with hard leaves.
8a. Bristles surrounding the spikelets under 14 mm. long .. .. 9
8b. At least one bristle over 15 mm. long .. .. .. 16
9a. Spikelets under 6 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. .. 10
9b. Spikelets 6-12 mm. long. Swamp grasses with many-noded creeping stems,
rooting from nodes .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
10a. Leaves usually folded. Stems hairy below the panicle .. .. 11
10b. Leaves flat. Stems hairless below the spike .. .. .. .. 12
11a. Densely tufted grass. Stems with 2-3 nodes ...... (368) P. schimperi
A. Rich. WIRE GRASS. Densely tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. HW,
HE, RV. Common at altitudes over 6,500 ft. where it is frequently
dominant over large areas of grassland. A coarse unpalatable grass
which is grazed to a limited extent only when very young.
11b. Rhizomatous perennial also forming small tufts. Stems with 4-8 nodes
.... (369) P. glabrum Steud. HW, MW, HE. Grassland, mostly in
wet places. A coarse grass of low grazing value.










12a. Ligule membranaceous, up to 1.5 mm. long. Spikes loose, white. Many
bristles longer than the spikelet ...... (370) P. stramineum Peter.
MASAI GRASS. Rhizomatous perennial grass forming slowly spread-
ing colonies. ME, LN, LS. Common in grassland on plains of black
heavy soil, particularly abundant on Laikipia plateau. A grass of
low palatability when mature but well-grazed when young.
12b. Ligule a ciliate rim. Spikes dense, white or yellowish. Only a few bristles
longer than the spikelet .. .. .. .... 13
13a. Leaves with a few to many long hairs from warts. Spikes 1-4 in. long
...... (371) P. massaicum Stapf. Tufted perennial up to 21 ft. high.
ME, RV, LN, LS, LM. Dry grassland, bush. A reasonably good
grazing grass.
13b. Leaves hairless. Spikes mostly under 1 in. long ...... (372) P. mezianum
Leeke. BAMBOO GRASS. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high with hard,
wiry stems much branched in the upper part. MW, ME, RV, LN,
LS. Common in grassland on plains of black heavy soil, usually
seasonally waterlogged. This grass is almost unpalatable because of its
hard, wiry stems. There are, however, reports that its young growth
is grazed by cattle to a considerable extent.
14a. Spikelets 8-12 mm. long. Stigmas connate up to half their length 15
14b. Spikelets 6-8 mm. long. Stigmas connate almost to the end ..........
(373) P. dowsonii Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. DOWSONS GRASS.
Perennial with long creeping stems rooting from nodes. HW, HE.
Swamps. A palatable grass of good grazing value.
15a. Spikelets 8-10 mm. long. Upper glume 2-3 mm. long ............
(374) P. salifex Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Perennial with long creeping
stems rooting from nodes. HE. Swamps. Of the same value for grazing
as P. dowsonii.
15b. Spikelets 10-12 mm. long. Upper glume 1 mm. long ..........
(375) P. grandiflorum Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Perennial with long
creeping stems rooting from nodes. HE, LS. Swamps. Of the same
grazing value as P. dowsonii.
16a. Axis of the spike densely hairy ...... (376) P. purpureum Schumacher.
ELEPHANT GRASS, NAPIER GRASS. Tufted perennial 6-25 ft.
high. MW, ME, CO. Stream banks, forest edges. Indigenous varieties
of Elephant grass are probably of the same value for grazing and
fodder as the cultivated varieties.
16b. Axis of the spike hairless, usually scabrid .. .. .. .. 17
17a. Spikes under 4 in. long ...... (377) P. ramosum (Hochst.) Schweinf.
Annual or biennial up to 4 ft. high. MW (Nyanza).
17b. Spikes over 4 in. long .. .... .. .. .. 18
18a. Upper floret readily disarticulating from the rest of the spikelet ......
(378) P. atrichum Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. Perennial up to 6 ft. high.
CO. Rare.
18b. Upper floret continuous with the rest of the spikelet .. .. 19
19a. Tufted grass under 5 ft. high, forming dense tussocks ............
(379) P. catabasis Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. HW, HE, MW, ME, RV.
Grassland, swamps, stream banks. Common. Coarse, unpalatable
grass.
19b. Rhizomatous grass 4-15 ft. high. Stems with many nodes ............
(380) P. giganteum A. Rich. HE, HW, ME, MW. Stream banks.










CENCHRUS L. AFRICAN FOXTAIL
l a. Barbs of the bristles directed downwards. Spikelets prickly ............
(381) C. perinvolucratus Stapf & C. E. Hubbard. PRICKLY AFRICAN
FOXTAIL. Annual up to 2- ft. high. CO. Frequent on coastal sands.
lb. Barbs of the bristles directed upwards. Spikelets not prickly .. 2
2a. Inner bristles connate at the base only, fine, only slightly flattened at
the base ...... (382) C. ciliaris L. COMMON AFRICAN FOXTAIL.
Perennial 1-4 ft. high, forming tufts; some forms produce short,
stout rhizomes. MW, ME, RV, LT, LN, LS, LM, CO. Grasslands,
bush, rocky places. Common. The grass occurs in many distinct forms,
most of which are of high grazing value. These latter are being
introduced into cultivation in dry areas.
2b. Inner bristles connate for 1-3 mm. from the base; flat and rigid through-
out or in the lower part only (fig. 30) .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Inner bristles flat and rigid throughout .. .. .. .. 4
3b. Inner bristles flat and rigid in the lower part and fine in the upper part
...... (383) C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud. Tufted
perennial up to 21 ft. high. LT, LN. A valuable grazing grass.
4a. Perennial. Spikelets 3-4- mm. long. Outer bristles reduced to minute
points or absent ...... (384) C. setigerus Vahl. SMOOTH AFRICAN
FOXTAIL (fig. 30). Tufted perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. high. LT, LN,
LS, LM, CO. Dry grassland, bush. Valuable grazing grass, which
can be used for the same purpose as C. ciliaris. C. setigerus has the
advantage in that its seeds are not fluffy and are easy to plant
and to harvest.
4b. Annual. Spikelets 5-6 mm. long. Outer bristles fine, well developed ......
(385) C. mitis Anderss. Annual 1-4 ft. high. CO. Grasslands, sandy
places.

ANTHEPHORA Schreb.
(386) A. hochstetteri Nees (fig. 29). Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. LT, MW.
Occurs occasionally on rocky slopes, in bush, or in open grassland.

ANDROPOGONEAE
IMPERATA Cyr.
(387) 1. cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. africana (Anderss.) C. E. Hubbard. COTTON
GRASS (LALANG of Malaya). Perennial l-4 ft. high with strong
creeping rhizomes. MW, LS, CO. Swampy ground, roadsides, weed
of arable land. Its leaves are tough and the grass is grazed only to a
very limited extent.

MISCANTHIDIUM Stapf
(388) M. violaceum (K. Schum.) Robyns. Tufted perennial up to 10 ft. in
height, with large purple panicles. HE, MW, LS. Swamps. Robust
unpalatable grass.

ERIOCHRYSIS Beauv.
(389) E. brachypogon (Stapf) Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. MW. (Bogdan
4052). In swamps. Rare. Probably of low grazing value.











SACCHARUM L.
(390) S. spontaneum L. var. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack. WILD SUGAR CANE.
Reed-like rhizomatous perennial up to 12 ft. high. LT, LN, CO.
River banks.

SORGHASTRUM Nash
(391) S. rigidifolium (Stapf) L. Chippindall (Sorghum rigidifolium Stapf).
TUSSOCK SORGHUM. Tufted perennial up to 6 ft. in height
MW, ME. Swamps, seasonally moist grassland. Common. Robust
grass with hard leaves and stems of no grazing value.

SORGHUM Pers.
la. Nodes of the stems with long spreading hairs. Awns 30-50 mm.
long .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
lb. Nodes with short, appressed hairs or hairless. Awns under 30 mm.
long .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
2a. Sessile spikelets 5-7 mm. long ...... (392) S. versicolor Anderss. in
Peters. Annual 2-6 ft. high. LN, CO. Rare.
2b. Sessile spikelets 8-10 mm. long ...... (393) S. purpureo-sericeum
(Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Asch. & Schweinf. BLACK SUDAN GRASS.
Annual 1-4 ft. high. LN, LS. Grassland, old cultivations, roadsides,
mostly in seasonally waterlogged plains with heavy black soil. Stemmy
grass of little value for grazing.
3a. Sessile spikelets more or less persistent ...... (394) S. niloticum Snowden
var. kavirondense Snowden. PERENNIAL KAVIRONDO SORG-
HUM. Loosely tufted short-lived perennial 4-7 ft. high. This grass
was found near Maseno, Nyanza Province, by D. C. Edwards and
placed under trial as a fodder plant. It is cultivated to a limited
extent in Kenya, mostly on black soil.
3b. Sessile spikelets disarticulating very easily from the branches at
maturity .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Sessile spikelets 4-5.5 mm. long ...... (395) S. brevicarinatum Snowden.
Annual or short-lived perennial 4-10 ft. high. Var. brevicarinatum
Snowden, with the spikelets 4.5-5 mm. long has been found in
LN at Taneta. Var. swahilorum Snowden, with slightly larger spikelets,
has been recorded from Voi (LS) Malindi (CO) and Ngwena (LN).
It occurs in old cultivations, on roadsides, and occasionally in
grassland on alluvial soil or on black soil.
4b. Sessile spikelets 6-8 mm. long .. .. .. 5
5a. Panicles usually with suberect branches. Awns 20-30 mm. long ......
(396) S. aethiopicum Rupr. ex Stapf var. brevifolium Snowden.
Annual 2-6 ft. high. This grass has been recorded from Taneta (LN).
5b. Panicle with spreading or pendent lower branches (except when very
young). Awns 10-18 mm. long ...... (397) S. verticilliflorum (Steud.)
Stapf. WILD SUDAN GRASS. Annual or short-lived perennial
3-10 ft. high. MW, ME, LS, LN, LM. Old cultivations. Roadsides.
also occasional in grassland. Var. verticilliflorum Snowden, var.
ornatum Snowden and var. infrequens Snowden, which differ in minor
characters, have been recorded from Kenya. S. verticilliflorum and
related species (S. brevicarinatum, S. aethiopicum) have more or less
the same grazing or fodder value. They are all grazed by cattle to a
certain extent, though it is said that at early stages in their growth they












can be poisonous. All these species tend to become stemmy too early,
and they compare unfavourably with Sudan grass, to which they are
closely related.

CLEISTACHNE Benth.
(398) C. sorghoides Benth. Annual up to 7 ft. in height. CO. Waste land,
roadsides.
CHRYSOPOGON Trin.
(399) C. aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf var. quinqueplumis (A. Rich.) Stapf. AUCHERS
GRASS. Tufted perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. in height, forming broad
cushions. ME (rare), LT, LN, LS, CO. Dry grassland, bush, rocky
places. Common. In the vast dry areas of northern Kenya this grass
provides good grazing.

CAPILLIPEDIUM Stapf
(400) C. parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high with aromatic
panicles. ME. (Bogdan 114, 414). The grass has been recorded only
from Nairobi, rocky stream banks.

EULALIA Kunth
la. Stems with hairy nodes. Spikelets with white or purplish hairs ......
(401) E. polyneura (Pilger) Stapf. Perennial up to 3 ft. in height
forming strong dense tufts. HW, HE. Swamps, moist grassland.
Usually unpalatable because of its hard leaves.
lb. Stems with hairless nodes. Hairs of the spikelets rusty-brown ......
(402) E. geniculata Stapf. Perennial up to 21 ft. high with long,
prostrate stem-bases. ME. Stream banks. A highly palatable grazing
grass.

BOTHRIOCHLOA O. Kuntze
la. Axis of the panicle longer than the lowermost racemes .. .. 2
lb. Axis of the panicle shorter than the lowermost racemes .. .. 3
2a. Pedicelled spikelet with 1-3 pits on the back. Sessile spikelet with a pit
on the back ...... (403) B. sp. nr. B. insculpta (Hochst. ex A. Rich.)
A. Camus var. vegetior (Hack.) C. E. Hubbard. Strong tufted perennial
3-6 ft. high with large leaves which are slightly aromatic. LS (Kitui,
Bogdan 3921, 3025). Occurs in occasional colonies in grassland. Seems
to be unpalatable to cattle.
2b. Pedicelled spikelet without pits. Sessile spikelet with or without a pit on
the back ...... (404) B. glabra (Roxb.) A. Camus (Amphilophis
glabra Stapf). Tufted perennial 18in. to 3- ft. high. LS, CO. Fairly
common in the coastal area, but occurs only occasionally at altitudes
over 1,500 ft. Grassland, stream banks, bush.
3a. Sessile spikelet or both spikelets in the pair with 1-3 pits on back 4
3b. No pits on spikelets ...... (405) B. radicans (Lehm.) A. Camus
(Amphilophis radicans Stapf). Perennial 9 in. to 3 ft. high with
ascending stems forming cushions. ME, MW, LN, LS, LM. Fairly
common in grassland and on rocky slopes. A valuable grazing grass.
4a. Pedicelled spikelet with 1-3 pits (fig. 54) ...... (406) B. insculpta (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) A Camus (Amphilophis insculpta Stapf). SWEET
PITTED GRASS. Perennial 1-3- ft. high forming spreading tufts
and also producing stolons. The stolons develop freely when the grass











is grazed or cut low or when isolated tufts grow on bare ground. MW,
ME, RV, LN, LS, CO. Grasslands, seasonally waterlogged places,
bush, rocky places, stream banks. The grass is common in semi-arid
areas and particularly in plains with black heavy soil, where it
grows either in the better drained parts or in places where the soil
has been disturbed. In old cultivations on black heavy soil this grass
often forms pure stands. B. insculpta tends to be stemmy, but under
management it can form a low, leafy sward that is well grazed by
cattle. It may become a useful ley grass on plains with black heavy
soil. The seed is abundantly produced but is difficult to handle as
it is fluffy, due to numerous awns and hairs.
4b. Pedicelled spikelet without pits ...... (407) B. pertusa (L.) A. Camus
(Amphilophis pertusa Stapf). SWEET PITTED GRASS. Perennial
9 in. to 2- ft. high forming slightly spreading tufts and also producing
stolons. MW, ME, RV, LS, LN, CO. Common in grassland, often
in rocky places. Its grazing value is similar to that of B. insculpta.
The grass resembles B. insculpta but is usually smaller and has no
pits on the pedicelled spikelets. It has been observed that under
cultivation, when the grass produces more vigorous plants, B. pertusa
can sometimes develop pits on pedicelled spikelets. It is probable,
therefore, that B. pertusa and B. insculpta are not specifically distinct.
DICHANTHIUM Willemet
la. Lower glume of sessile spikelet with numerous hairs from warts; these
hairs also form a marked semi-lunar row close to the top of the
glume ...... (408) D. papillosum (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf.
Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. ME, LS. Fairly common in grassland
usually in waterlogged places with black heavy soil. A stemmy grass
of medium grazing value.
lb. Lower glume of sessile spikelet without numerous hairs from warts and
without semi-lunar row of hairs at the top of the glume ...... (409)
D. annulatum (Forsk.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-4 ft. high. ME, LS,
CO. (Bogdan 3145). Occurs occasionally in grassland, often in rocky
places.
EREMOPOGON Stapf
(410) E. foveolatus (Del.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 6 in. to 2 ft. high. CO.
(Allan 46). Rare.
SCHIZACHYRIUM Nees
la. Perennial. Leaves up to 12 in. long ...... (411) S. semiberbe Nees.
Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. LS, CO. Seasonally waterlogged grass-
land. Stemmy grass of low grazing value.
lb. Annuals. Leaves up to 6 in. long .. .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Sessile spikelet 3 mm. long ...... (412) S. brevifolium (Sw.) Nees ex
Buse. Slender annual up to 2 ft. high. LS, CO. Common. A leafy grass
which provides good grazing occasionally.
2b. Sessile spikelet 6-8 mm. long ...... (413) S. inclusum Stent. Slender
annual 1-4 ft. high. MW, CO. Rare.
ANDROPOGON L. BLUESTEM GRASS
la. Racemes plumose. Joints and pedicels filiform. Pedicelled spikelet reduced
to a glume about 2 mm. long ...... (414) A. cuconmus Nees.
COTTON BLUESTEM. Perennial 6 in. to 3 ft. high forming small
tufts. MW. (Bogdan 3734). Swamps. Rare.











lb. Racemes hairless or hairy but not plumose. Joints and pedicels stout.
Pedicelled spikelet over 4 mm. long .. .. .. .. 2
2a. Racemes of the panicle 3-8, densely hairy, with rusty-brown hairs ......
(415) A. chrysostachyus Steud. GOLDEN BLUESTEM. Tufted
perennial 6 in. to 3 ft. high. HW, HE. Grasslands. A leafy grass
of high grazing value, fairly common at altitudes upwards from
8,000 ft.
2b. Racemes 2-4, hairless or hairy; hairs white .. .. .. .. 3
3a. Sessile spikelet compressed from sides; its lower glume with a deep median
groove on back .. .. .. .. .. .. 4
3b. Sessile spikelet compressed from back or not compressed; its lower glume
flat or only slightly sunk in the middle .. .. .. .. 9
4a. Joints and pedicels markedly swollen (fig. 60). Awns 8-20 mm. long 5
4b. Joints and pedicels not swollen or only slightly swollen. Awns 18-50 mm.
long . .. 6
5a. Stems with 3-6 nodes. Leaves up to 12 in. long and 3 mm. wide ......
(416) A. canaliculatus Schumacher (fig. 60). Tufted perennial 6 in.
to 3 ft. high. MW, ME. Seasonal swamps, grasslands. A grass of
medium grazing value and of little importance for grazing.
5b. Stems with five to many nodes. Leaves up to 6 in. long and 6 mm. wide
...... (417) A. heterantherus Stapf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high.
CO. (Bogdan 3310). In bush. Rare.
6a. Stems branched in the upper half. Pedicelled spikelet with two long
bristles ...... (418) A. schinzii Hack. HAIRY BLUESTEM. Tufted
perennial 11-4 ft. high. ME, RV. Grasslands, mostly on rocky ground.
The basal leaves are few or absent and the grass is leafy mainly in
the upper half. This portion is eaten by grazing animals while the
lower half is left ungrazed. A fairly good grazing grass.
6b. Stems not branched in the middle part. Pedicelled spikelet with one bristle
or without bristles .. .. .. .. .. .. 7
7a. Racemes straw-coloured, occasionally slightly tinged with purple. Awns
40-45 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelet with a long bristle ..........
(419) A. amplectens Nees. MW, ME, LS, CO. (Bogdan 3318). Dry
grassland, bush.
7b. Racemes tinged with purple. Awns 20-35 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelet
with a very short bristle or without bristles .. .. .. 8
8a. Tuft bases coated with fibrous remnants of the lowermost leaf-sheaths.
Leaves 2-4 mm. wide. Racemes with short hairs (which seldom exceed
2 mm.), not villose ...... (420) A. dummeri Stapf. Tufted perennial
1--4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, MS, CO. Grassland, rocky ground.
Common. A grass of only medium grazing value.
8b. Stem bases not coated with fibre. Leaves 5-12 mm. wide. Racemes
markedly one-sided, villose, with long hairs ...... (421) A. schirensis
Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. HW. Typical
forms of this grass which answer the description in the Flora of
Tropical Africa seem to be very rare in Kenya.
9a. Sessile spikelets 8-12 mm. long ...... (422) A. distachyus L. Perennial
forming slightly spreading tufts. HE, RV, MS. Grasslands.


9b. Sessile spikelets under 8 mm. long..


10











10a. Leaves rigid, very narrow, usually over 12-18 in. long ...........
(423) A. amethystinus Steud. TUSSOCK BLUESTEM. Perennial 3-5 ft.
high forming large, dense tussocks. HE, Mt. Unpalatable to cattle.
10b. Leaves shorter, not rigid .. .. .. .. .. 11
11a. Racemes hairless or sparingly hairy ...... (424) A. pratensis Hochst. ex
Hack. Perennial 6 in. to 2 or 3 ft. high, stems with prostrate bases.
HW, HE. In grassland. It spreads between tufts of larger grasses and
provides useful grazing.
lib. Racemes densely hairy ...... (425) A. abyssinicus R. Br. ex Fresen.
Perennial 6 in. to 21 ft. high. HE, HW. Grassland.

CYMBOPOGON Spreng. CITRONELLA AND TURPENTINE GRASS
la. Lower glume of the sessile spikelet with a fine, acute median groove.
Plants with a scent of pepper .. .. .. .. .. 2
lb. Lower glume of the sessile spikelet flat or concave, without an acute
median groove. Leaves usually have a faint scent of lemon .. 3
2a. 11-4 ft. high. Leaves under 5 mm. wide ...... (426) C. excavatus
(Hochst.) Stapf ex Burtt Davy. COMMON TURPENTINE GRASS.
Tufted perennial 1-4 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME, MN, RV, CO.
Common in grasslands and in bush; also occurs in seasonal swamps.
A grass of low palatability because of its bitter leaves and "peppery"
scent.
2b. 4-6 ft. high. Leaves over 5 mm. wide ...... (427) C. giganteus (Hochst.)
Chiov. GIANT TURPENTINE GRASS, Tufted grass 4-6 ft. high.
MW, LS. Grassland, bush.
3a. 11-4 ft. high. Raceme 15-30 mm. long. Lower glume of the sessile spikelet
conspicuously concave, slightly hairy in the sunken part ..........
(428) C. pospischlii (K. Schum.) C. E. Hubbard. Tufted perennial
11-4 ft. high. MW, ME, RV, LS. Very common in grassland and in
bush, often a dominant grass over large areas. Of low palatability, but
eaten when no other grazing is available.
3b. 3-10 ft. high. Racemes under 18 mm. long. Lower glume of the sessile
spikelet concave to almost flat, hairless .. .. .. .. 4
4a. Leaves often bluish-green, up to 6 mm. wide. Lower glume of the
pedicelled spikelet with 3-5 nerves ...... (429) C. afronardus Stapf.
BLUE CITRONELLA. Tufted perennial 3-7 ft. high. HE, MW.
Grasslands, bush. Very common in Nyanza Province. A tough and
almost unpalatable grass.
4b. Leaves always green, up to 12 mm. wide. Lower glume of the pedicelled
spikelet with 7-9 nerves ...... (430) C. validus Stapf ex Burtt-Davy
GIANT CITRONELLA. Tufted perennial 4-10 ft. high. ME. Very
common between 4,000-6,000 ft. on the southern and eastern slopes
of Mount Kenya, at forest edges, in bush and in grassland. A robust
grass of no grazing value.

HYPARRHENIA Anderss. HOOD GRASS
There is great difficulty in naming the species of this confusing genus, which
requires a thorough revision. It has been possible, therefore, to produce only a
very preliminary list and key. A few unnamed species have been omitted.
la. Awns 5-8 cm. long, two per pair of racemes ...... (431) H. dissoluta
(Nees ex Steud.) C. E. Hubbard (H. ruprechtii Fourn.). YELLOW
HOOD GRASS. Tufted perennial 3-10 ft. high. HW, MW, ME, LS.












CO. Very common and often abundant in the Combretum woodland
zone. A grass of medium or low grazing value because of the hard,
thick stems.
lb. Awns under 5 cm. long, 2 to 20 per pair of racemes .. .. 2
2a. Racemes of the panicle with rusty-brown hairs .. 3
2b. Racemes with white hairs or hairless .. .. 4
3a. Racemes (except when young) deflexed downwards ...............
(432) H. nyassae (Rendle) Stapf. NYASSA HOOD GRASS. Tufted
perennial 2-5 ft. high. ME, MW. Waterlogged grassland, swamp edges.
3b. Racemes not deflexed ...... (433) H. rufa (Nees) Stapf. BROWN HOOD
GRASS, ZEBRA GRASS. Tufted perennial 3-7 ft. high. MW, ME,
CO. Grassland, grass-swamp, woodland, rocky places.
4a. Mature peduncles longer or slightly shorter than the spatheoles 5
4b. Mature peduncles much shorter than the spatheoles ... 10
5a. Racemes (except when very young) deflexed downwards (fig. 72) 6
5b. Racemes not deflexed .. .. .. .. 7
6a. Stems unbranched below the panicle, stout, 3-6 ft. high. Panicles large.
Raceme-bases unequal ...... (434) H. papillipes (Hochst. ex
A. Rich.) Anderss. ex Stapf. Tufted perennial. HW, HE, ME, RV.
Grasslands, rocky places. A tough grass of medium or low grazing
value.
6b Stems branched below the panicle, slender, under 31 ft. in height. Panicles
small, often only with a few pairs of racemes. Raceme-bases equal
or subequal ...... (435) H. lintonii Stapf. CUSHION HOOD GRASS
(fig. 72). Tufted perennial forming broad cushions. ME, RV. Common
in grassland and on rocky places; occurs often in seasonally moist
grassland on black heavy soil, usually in the better drained parts.
This grass produces dense, leafy herbage, and, before flowering, it
is much liked by cattle. Later, after having produced numerous fine
stems, the grass becomes less palatable. The grass can be easily grown
from seed, though the latter is fluffy and difficult to handle.
7a. Awns 2-7 per pair of racemes .. .. .. 8
7b. Awns 10-20 per pair of racemes ...... (436) H. sp. nr. H. hirta (L.)
Stapf. Tufted perennial 3-4 ft. high with purplish racemes. RV
(Bogdan 428, 933). Common in grassland, often in rocky places.
A stemmy grass of medium grazing value.
8a. Awns 2-4 per pair of racemes . .. 9
8b. Awns 5-7 per pair of racemes ...... (437) H. hirta (L.) Stapf.
HAIRY HOOD GRASS. Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. HW, HE, ME.
Common in grassland.
9a. Racemes hairless or sparingly hairy. Awns two per pair of racemes ......
(438) H. filipendula (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf. FINE HOOD GRASS.
Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. MW, ME, LT, CO. Common in
grassland. A grass of medium grazing value.
9b. Racemes conspicuously hairy, whitish. Awns 3-4 per pair of racemes
...... (438a) H. filipendula (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf var pilosi
(Hack.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high. HW, HE, MW, ME,
RV, LS. Common in grassland. A grass of medium grazing value.
10a. Raceme-bases bearded . .. .. .. .. 1II











10b. Raceme-bases hairless ...... (439) H. diplandra (Hack.) Stapf. SWORD
HOOD GRASS. Tufted perennial 4-12 ft. high with large, sword-
shaped leaves. MW, ME. Frequent in grassland in moist areas. This
grass is tough but it is well grazed when young.
Ila. Racemes hairless or sparingly hairy, green or purplish .. .. 12
lib. Racemes densely hairy, whitish ...... (440) H. collina (Pilger) Stapf.
GREY HOOD GRASS. Tufted perennial 18 in. to 4 ft. high. Common
in grasslands, usually in seasonally waterlogged places and in stream-
banks. A good grazing grass.
12a. Spatheoles under 25 mm. long .. .. .. .. 13
12b. Spatheoles 25-40 mm. long .. .. .. .. .. 15
13a. Leaves long, hard, rough, under 4 mm. wide. Panicle very dense, usually
short and almost globose in the upper part. Racemes deflexed down-
wards at maturity. Awns 2-4 per pair of racemes ...... (441)
H. bracteata (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Stapf. Tufted perennial
4-7 ft. high. MW. (Bogdan 3437, 4059). Occurs in occasional colonies
in swamps and swamp edges. Tough grass of low palatability.
13b. Leaves smooth, soft, 4-12 mm. wide. Panicle long, or if short, then
loose . .. 14
14a. Tall grass 4-20 ft. in height with thick or thin stems. Spatheole vividly
coloured ...... (442) H. cymbaria (L.) Stapf. COLOURED HOOD
GRASS. Tufted perennial. HE, HW, MW. ME, RV. Common in
bush, at forest edges and sometimes also in open grassland. In its
early stages of growth this grass is palatable, and if kept short
produces leafy herbage which is well grazed by cattle.
14b. Stems slender, under 5 ft. high. Spatheoles green or slightly tinged with
purple ...... (443) H. pilgeriana C. E. Hubbard. SWAMP HOOD
GRASS. HW, MW. (Bogdan 3453). Common in seasonal grass-
swamps in Western Kenya where it is often the main component of
the sward. It produces a large bulk of leafy herbage, and provides
good grazing if the old growth remaining over from previous seasons
is removed.
15a. Awns 6-12 mm. long ...... (444) H. formosa Stapf. Tufted perennial
5-10 ft. high. HW, MW. Grassland, bush.
15b. Awns 20-30 mm. long ...... (445) H. schimperi (Hochst. ex A. Rich.)
Anderss. ex Stapf. Tufted perennial 4-7 ft. high. HW, MW. Grassland,
bush.

EXOTHECA Anderss.
(446) E. abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Anderss. UNICORN GRASS (fig. 57).
Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. in height. HE, HW, ME, MW, MS. Common
in grassland and often occurs on soils with impeded drainage. It is
of low grazing value, and only eaten when young.

TRACHYPOGON Nees
(447) T. spicatus (L.f.) Kuntze. GREY BEARD GRASS (fig. 52). Tufted
perennial 1-21 ft. high. HW, HE, ME. Grassland, rocky places. A
grass of medium grazing value.











HETEROPOGON Pers.
Ia. Annual. Pedicelled spikelet 15-25 mm. long; lower glume with a row of
dark glands (fig. 59) ...... (448) H. melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth.
Annual 2-6 ft. in height. LS, CO. Grassland, fallow, roadsides. Not
common.
Ib. Pernnial. Pedicelled spikelets 8-10 mm. long without dark glands (fig. 53)
...... (449) H. contortus (L.) Beauv. ex R. & Sch. SPEAR GRASS.
Tufted perennial 6 in. to 3 ft. in height with one-sided spikes. The
awns of several ripe spikes are often twisted together. MW, ME,
LN, LS, LM, CO. Dry grassland, bush, eroded slopes, rocky places.
Common. A grass of good grazing value, but becoming unpalatable
at the seeding stage of growth because of its sharp seeds and awns.

THEMEDA Forsk.
(450) Themeda triandra Forsk. RED OAT GRASS. Tufted perennial 1--4- ft.
high. Widely spread in Kenya from sea level to about 10,000 ft. At
altitudes from 4,500 to 9,000 ft. this grass is often dominant over large
areas of grassland. A valuable grazing grass. Burning seems to
encourage the spread of T. triandra.

ARTHRAXON Beauv.
la. Leaves 10-20 mm. wide. Sessile spikelet 5-7 mm. long ............
(451) A. serrulatus Hochst. Tufted perennial with ovate leaves. Stems
with many nodes. MW, ME. Rocky places. Rare. A grass of low
palatability.
lb. Leaves under 10 mm. wide. Sessile spikelet 2-3 mm. long ..........
(452) A. quartinianus (A. Rich.) Nash. Slender annual 3-12 in. high
with small ovate leaves. MW, RV. Grasslands, glades, rocky places.
Rare.

ISCHAEMUM L.
(453) I. brachyatherum Fenzl. ex Hack. Perennial 2-5 ft. high forming large,
slightly spreading tufts. ME, LS. Common in seasonally moist grass-
land on black heavy soil. A grass of low grazing value.

SEHIMA Forsk.
(454) S. nervosum (Rottb. ex Willd.) Stapf. Tufted perennial 2-5 ft. high with
harsh, fragile leaves. ME, LN, LM. Common and often abundant
on lava rock and sometimes in grassland on red soil. Not a grass
of high palatability.

VOSSIA Wall. & Griff.
(455) V. cuspidata Griff. HIPPO GRASS. Tall rhizomatous perennial often with
floating stems. LN (Pratt 4359). So far this grass has only been found
on the swampy southern shores of Lake Baringo. In Uganda it is more
common and is reported to be a good green fodder.

ELYONURUS Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
la. Perennial. Teeth of the lower glume of the sessile spikelet 1-2 mm. long
...... (456) E. argenteus Nees. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high with
hard, convolute leaves. MW, ME, MS. Grassland. It is a very early
grass that provides useful grazing and may be in flower before the
rains begin. During the rains, when better grasses are available, its
tough leaves are usually left untouched by stock.











lb. Annual. Teeth of the lower glume of the sessile spikelet 3-6 mm. long
...... (457) E. royleanus Nees ex A. Rich. Annual up to 18 in.
high. LT, MW. (Bogdan 3419). Dry grassland. This grass forms very
occasional colonies and in such places provides some seasonal grazing
of high quality.

RHYTACHNE Desv.
(458) R. rottboellioides Desf. Tufted perennial 1-3 ft. high. MW, CO. In
swamps. The grass is almost unpalatable on account of its hard,
convolute leaves. Not common.

HACKELOCHLOA Kuntze
(459) H. granularis (L.) Kuntze (Manisuris granularis Sw.) (fig. 43). Annual
6 in. to 2 ft. high. MW (Nyanza), CO. Roadsides, old cultivations,
weed of arable land.

COELORHACHIS Brongn.
(460) C. afraurita (Stapf) Stapf. Erect tufted perennial 3-7 ft. high. MW.
(Bogdan 3640). In swamps. Rare.

HEMARTHRIA R. Br.
(461) H. natans Stapf. Perennial 1-3 ft. in height with prostrate and ascending
long stems rooting from nodes. MW, RV. Stream banks, lake shores.
Not common.

ROTTBOELLIA L.f.
(462) R. exaltata L.f. BUFFALO BEAN GRASS. Annual 3-12 ft. high. MW,
ME, RV, LN, LS, CO. Swampy grassland, old cultivations, roadside,
weed of arable land. Locally common. This grass is well grazed when
young and makes useful silage.

MAIDEAE
COIX L.
(463) C. lacryma-jobi L. JOB'S TEARS. Annual 3-6 ft. high with shining,
white "seeds" 8-10 mm. in diameter. Cultivated occasionally by
Africans for making beads. Also found on roadsides and as a
naturilized plant on stream banks.










64

INDEX TO COMMON NAMES


Abyssinian grass
African Couch grass ..
African Foxtail
common-
prickly-
smooth-
Antelope grass
small-
Auchers grass
Bamboo
mountain- .
Bamboo grass ..
Beck grass
Bent grass
Black seed
Bluestem grass ..
cotton-
golden-
hairy-
tussock-
Bottlebrush grass
Brome grass
false-
forest-
Buffalo Bean grass
Bulrush Millet
Bush Rye
Canary grass
reed--
Carpet grass
Carrot Seed grass
Citronella
blue-
giant-
Commer grass ..
Cotton grass
Couch grass, African
Crowfoot grass
common-
creeping-
desert--
marsh-
Darnel
Dowsons grass
Dropseed grass
couch-
fairy-
forest-
mangrove-
marsh-
pyramid-
reed-


PAGE

51
49
54
54
54
54
42
42
56
14
14
53
51
31
25
57
57
58
58
59
34
14
15
14
63
52
24
35
35
46
34
59
59
59
44
54
49
23
23
23
23
23
16
53
27
29
29
29
27
28
29
28


PAGE

Dropseed grass
sand- .. .. .. 28
soda- .. .. .. 27
spike- .. .. .. 28
Elephant grass .. 53
Fescue .. .. .. 15
abyssinian- .. ..15
tussock- .. 15


Finger grass
coastal-
dark-
feathery-
Gaza-
Mombasa- ..
velvet-
woolly-
Finger Millet
Goosegrass
club-
Grey Beard grass
Grey Head grass
Guinea grass
blue-
bush-
couch-
grooved-
mkoko-
true-
water-
Herringbone grass
hairy-
perennial-
smooth-
Hippo grass
Hood grass
brown-
coloured-
cushion-
fine--
grey-
hairy-
nyasa-
swamp-
sword-
yellow-
Hook grass
Horsetail grass.
Job's Tears
Kikuyu grass
Lalang
Lovegrass
bristle-


48
49
25
48
49
48
49
48
23
23
22
61
16
37
39
37
39
38
38
37
39
24
24
24
24
62
59
60
61
60
60
61
60
60
61
61
59
34
25
63
51
54
17
. 18












PAGE


Lovegrass
broom-
cape-
cushion-
dark-
desert-
fine-
golden-
grey-
Masai-
sand-
silver-
swamp-
tussock-
viscous--
wiry-
Mafutiana
Manyatta grass
Masai grass
Meadow grass
annual-
Molasses grass
Mwele
Napier grass
Needle grass
barley-
common--
feathery-
fine-
Kellers-
Kenya-
mountain-
Nile grass
Oat grass
Para grass
Pemba grass
Pigtail grass
Quaking grass
large-
Red Oat grass
Red Top grass
common-
Reed
common-
Mauritius-
Rescue grass
Rhodes grass
Rice
forest-
wild-
Rice grass
Rosy grass


19
19
17
20
18
20
21
19
18
17
18
21
18
17
20
23
23
53
15
16
50
52
S 53
S 33
S 33
34
S 33
S 33
S 33
33
33
43
30
45
43
24
15
15
62
50
50
16
16
17
14
25
35
S 35
S 35
35
50


PAGE

Russet grass .. .. 36
big- .. 36
common- .. 36
feathery- .. .. 36
pale- .. 36
reed- .. 36
sour- .. .. 36
Scrobic .. .. .. 44
Setaria grass .. 39
burr- .. .. 40
common- .. .. 41
forest- .. 41
golden- .. 41
marsh- 40
Nandi-- 41
pale- ..40
palm- .. 41
purple- 41
reed- 40
Shaggy Harp grass 17
Sickle grass .. 24
Signal grass .. 44
blue .. 45
common- .. .. 44
creeping- .. 46
golden- .. .. 44
lawn- .. 44
prostrate- .... 45
Sorghum, Perennial Kavirondo 55
tussock- .. 55
Spear grass .. 62
Star grass .. 26
common-.. 26
false- .... 26
Naivasha- .. .. 26
Sudan grass, black 55
wild- .. 55
Sugar Cane, wild- 55
Sweet Pitted grass .. 56, 57
Sweet vernal 35
African- 35
Teff .. 18
Thangari 49
Turpentine grass 59
common- .. .. 59
giant- .. 59
Unicorn grass .. 61
Wild Oat .. 30
Wimbi .. .. .. 23
Wire grass 52
Yemen grass .. .. 22
Zebra grass 60












ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SPECIES WITH INDEX
(Synonyms are shown in italics)


Acritochaete volkensii Pilger
Acroceras macrum Stapf
Agrostis bogdanii C. E. Hub-
bard
dissitiflora C. E. Hubbard
friesiorum C. E. Hubbard
gracilifolia C. E. Hubbard
keniensis Pilger .
kilimandscharica Mez ..
leptophylla C. E. Hubbard
mildbraedii Pilger
pilgeriana C. E. Hubbard
product Pilger ..
schimperiana Hochst. ex
Steud.
sororia C. E. Hubbard ..
trachyphylla Pilger
volkensii Stapf ..
Aira caryophyllea L...
var. latigluma (Steud.)
C. E. Hubbard ..
Alloteropsis angusta Stapf
cimicina (L.) Stapf
sp. nr. homblei Robyns
semialata (R.Br.) Hitchc.
Amphilophis glabra Stapf
insculpta Stapf
pertusa Stapf
radicans Stapf .
Andropogon abyssinicus R. Br.
ex Fresen
amethystinus Steud.
amplectens Nees ..
canaliculatus Schumacher
chrysostachyus Steud.
distachyus L. ..
dummeri Stapf
eucomus Nees
heterantherus Stapf
pratensis Hochst. ex
Hack.
schinzii Hack.
schirensis Hochst. ex A.
Rich.
Anthephora hochstetteri Nees
Anthoxanthum nivale K.
Schum.
Aristida adoensis Hochst.
adscensionis L .
sp. nr. adscensionis L...


PAGE
47
43

32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

32
32
31
31
31

31
48
47
48
47
56
56
57
56


Aristida elytrophoroides Chiov.
furfurosa Henrard
hirtigluma Steud. ex Trin.
& Rupr .
hordeacea Kunth
kelleri Hack. ex Schinz .
keniensis Henrard
lommelii Mez
mutabilis Trin. & Rupr...
papposa Trin. & Rupr...
Arthraxon quartinianus (A.
Rich.)Nash
serrulatus Hochst.
Arundinaria alpina K. Schum.
Arundinella ecklonii Nees
nepalensis Trin ..
Avena fatua L.
Axonopus compressus auct. afr.
non Beauv.
flexuosus (Peter) C. E.
Hubbard ex Troupin
Beckera polystachya Fresen..
Beckeropsis procera Stapf
uniseta (Nees) Stapf ex
Robyns
Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.)
A. Camus
insculpta (Hochst. ex A.
Rich.) A. Camus
sp. nr. insculpta (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) A. Camus
var. vegetior (Hack.) C. E.
Hubbard
pertusa (L.) A. Camus ..
radicans (Lehm.) A.
Camus


58 Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.
57 ex A. Rich.) Stapf
58 decumbens Stapf
deflexa (Schumach.)
59 C. E. Hubbard ..
58 dictyoneura (Fig. & De
Not.) Stapf
58 eruciformis (Sw.) Gris...
54 humidicola (Rendle)
Schweick.
35 isachne Stapf
33 keniensis Henrard
34 lachnantha (Hochst.)
33 Stapf


PAGE
33
33

33
33
33
33
33
33
33

62
62
14
35
35
30

46

46
51
51

51

56

56



56
57

56

44
46

46

44
45

44
45
44

46


rn













Brachiaria leersioides (Hochst.)
Stapf
leucacrantha (K. Schum.)
Stapf
mutica (Forsk.) Stapf ..
nigropedata (Munro)
Stapf
ovalis (R. Br.) Stapf
platynota (K. Schum.)
Robyns
pubifolia (Mez) Stapf ..
rugulosa Stapf
ruziziensis Germain &
Evrard
scalaris (Mez) Pilger
semiundulata (Hochst. ex
A. Rich.) Stapf ..
serrata (Spreng.) Stapf ..
sp. nr. serrata (Spreng.)
Stapf
serrifolia (Hochst.) Stapf
setigera (Retz.) C. E.
Hubbard
soluta Stapf
viridula Stapf
Brachyachne chrysolepis C. E.
Hubbard
Brachypodium flexum Nees ..
Bracteola orientalis C. E. Hub-
bard..
Briza maxima L.
Bromus adoensis Hochst.
catharticus Vahl
diandrus Roth
marginatus
runssoroensis K. Schum.
unioloides H.B. & K. .
Calamagrostis epigejos (L.)
Roth var. capensis Stapf
Capillipedium parviflorum
(R.Br.) Stapf
Cenchrus ciliaris L.
mitis Anderss.
pennisetiformis Hochst.
& Steud. ex Steud.
perinvolucratus Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
setigerus Vahl
Chaetostichium majusculum
C. E. Hubbard
minimum (Hochst.) C. E.
Hubbard
Centotheca mucronata (Poir.)
Kuntze


PAGE
Chloachne oplismenoides
45 (Hack.) Stapf ex Robyns
Chloris amethystea Hochst...
46 barbata Sw.
45 gayana Kunth
mossambicensis K. Schum.
46 myriostachya Hochst...
45 pycnothrix Trin.
transiens Pilger
44 virgata Sw.
46 Chrysochloa orientalis (C. E.
45 Hubbard) Swallen
Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.)
45 Stapf var. quinqueplumis (A.
45 Rich.) Stapf ..
Cleistachne sorghoides Benth.
45 Coelachne africana Pilger
46 friesiorum C. E. Hubbard
Coelorhachis afraurita
46 (Stapf) Stapf
45 Coix lacryma-jobi L ..
Ctenium concinnum Nees
43 Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf
44 excavatus (Hochst.) Stapf
44 ex Burtt Davy ..
giganteus (Hochst.) Chiov.
26 pospischilii (K. Schum.)
14 C. E. Hubbard ..
validus Stapf ex Burtt
26 Davy
15 Cymbosetaria sagittifolia
14 (Hochst. ex A. Rich.)
14 Schweick.
14 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. ..
14 plectostachyus (K. Schum.)
14 Pilger
14 Cypholepis yemenica
(Schweinf.) Chiov .
32 Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.)
A. Camus
56 Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.)
54 Beauv.
54 sp. nr. aegyptium (L.)
Beauv.
54 geminatum Hack.
scindicum Boiss...
54 Deschampsia caespitosa (L.)
54 Beauv. var latifolia (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) Hook.f.
27 flexuosa (L.) Trin. var.
afromontana C. E. Hub-
27 bard
Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk.)
14 Stapf ..


PAGE

47
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
25

26


56
56
31
31

63
63
24
59

59
59

59

59


42
26

26

22

43

23

23
23
23


31


31

57













Dichanthium papillosum
(Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf
Digitaria abyssinica sensu Stapf,
Fl. Trop. Afr.
argyrotricha (Anderss.)
Chiov.
bicornis (Lam.) R. & Sch.
diagonalis (Nees) Stapf ..
gazensis Rendle ..
gayana (Kunth) Stapf ex
A. Chev ..
longiflora (Retz.) Pers. .
macroblephara (Hack.)
Stapf
maitlandii Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard
milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf
mombasana C. E. Hub-
bard
nodosa Parl.
pennata (Hochst.) Chiov.
perrottetii (Kunth) Stapf
scalarum (Schweinf.)
Chiov.
ternata (Hochst. ex Steud.)
Stapf
tricostulata (Hack.)
Henrard
uniglumis (A. Rich.) Stapf
velutina (Forsk.) Beauv.
Dignathia gracilis Stapf
hirtella Stapf
Diplachne caudata K. Schum.
dummeri Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard.
fusca (L.) Beauv.
jaegeri Pilger
Dinebra arabica Jacq.
retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer
Drake-Brockmania somalensis
Stapf ..
Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link
haploclada (Stapf) Stapf
sp. nr. haploclada (Stapf)
Stapf
pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc.
& Chase
stagnina (Retz.) Beauv...
Ehrharta abyssinica Hochst...
erecla Lam. var. abys-
sinica Pilger
Eleusine africana Kennedy
O'Byrne
coracan (L.) Asch. & Gr.


PAGE
Eleusine floccifolia (Forsk.)
57 Spreng.
indica (L.) Gaertn.
49 sp. nr. indica (L.) Gaertn.
jaegeri Pilger
49 multiflora Hochst. ex A.
48 Rich.
49 verticillata Roxb.
49 Elyonurus argenteus Nees
royleanus Nees ex A.
49 Rich.
49 Elytrophorus spicatus (Willd.)
A. Camus
48 Enneapogon brachystachyus
(Jaub. & Spach) Stapf
49 -cenchroides (Licht. ex R.
48 & Sch.) C. E. Hubbard..
elegans (Nees) Stapf
48 mollis Lehm.
48 Enteropogon barbatus C. E.
48 Hubbard
4 macrostachyus (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) Munro ex
49
Benth.
49 somalensis Chiov.
Entolasia imbricata Stapf
49 Eragrostis abyssinica (Jacq.)
Link
49
49 aethiopica Chiov.
34 aspera (Jacq.) Nees
34 atrovirens (Desf.) Trin...
21 barrelieri Daveau
bifaria (Vahl) Wight
21 blepharoglumis K. Schum.
21 braunii Schweinf.
21 caespitosa Chiov.
22 capensis (Thunb.) Trin...
22 chalcantha Trin. ..
chapelieri (Kunth) Nees
24 cilianensis (All.) Lutati ..
42 ciliaris (L.) R. Br.
42 congesta Oliv.
cylindriflora Hochst. var.
42 gymnorrhachis Schweinf.
exasperata Peter ..
42 gracillima Hack...
42 sp. nr. heteromera Stapf
35 hispida K. Schum.
holstii (Engl.) ex Peter .
35 horizontalis Peter
kiwuensis Jedw .
23 lasiantha Stapf
23 sp. nr. lehmanniana Nees


PAGE













Eragrostis macilenta (A. Rich.)
Steud.
-mildbraedii Pilger
namaquensis Nees
paniciformis (A. Br.)
Steud.
patens Oliv.
perbella K. Schum.
pilosa (L.) Beauv.
plumosa Link
racemosa (Thunb.) Steud.
superba Peyr.
tenella (L.) Beauv. ex R.
& Sch.
tef (Zucc.) Trotter
tenuifolia Hochst. ex A.
Rich.
tremula Hochst. ex Steud.
viscosa (Retz.) Trin.
volkensii Pilger
Eremopogon foveolatus (Del.)
Stapf ..
Eriochloa acrotricha Hack..
meyeriana (Nees) Pilger
nubica (Steud.) Hack. &
Schweinf. ex Thell.
sp. nr. nubica (Steud).
Hack. & Schweinf. ex
Thell
parvispiculata C.E. Hub-
bard
procera (Retz.) C. E. Hub-
bard
Eriochrysis brachypogon
(Stapf) Stapf ..
Eulalia geniculata Stapf
polyneura (Pilger) Stapf
Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl)
Lanza & Mattei
Exotheca abyssinica (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) Anderss.
Festuca abyssinica Hochst. ex
A. Rich.
abyssinica Hochst. ex A.
Rich. var keniana St.-Yves
camusiana St.-Yves subsp.
chodatiana St.-Yves
costata Nees
sp. nr. gigantea (L.) Vill.
pilgeri St.-Yves ..
simensis Hochst. ex A.
Rich.
Gastridium phleoides (Nees &
Meyen) C. E. Hubbard


PAGE
Hackelochloa granularis (L.)
20 Kuntze
19 Halopyrum mucronatum (L.)
19 Stapf ..
Harpachne bogdanii Kennedy
21 O'Byrne
18 schimperi Hochst. ex A.
20 Rich.
20 Helictotrichon angustum C. E.
17 Hubbard
20 cartilagineum C. E. Hub-
18 bard
elongatum (Hochst. ex A.
17 Rich.) C. E. Hubbard ..
18 friesiorum (Pilger) C. E.
Hubbard
20
20 lachnanthum (Hochst. ex
17 A. Rich.) C. E. Hubbard
17
S milanjianum (Rendle)
C. E. Hubbard
Hemarthria natans Stapf
57
Heteropogon contortus (L.)
47
S Beauv. ex R. & Sch.
melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth.
Holocolemma canaliculatum
47
(Nees ex Steud.) Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
47 transiens (K. Schum.)
Stapf & C. E. Hubbard ..
47 Hyparrhenia bracteata (Humb.
& Bonpl. ex Willd.) Stapf ..
47 collina (Pilger) Stapf
cymbaria (L.) Stapf
54 diplandra (Hack.) Stapf
56 dissoluta (Nees ex Steud.)
56 C. E. Hubbard .
filipendula (Hochst. ex
25 Steud.) Stapf
filipendula (Hochst. ex
61 Steud.) Stapf var. pilosa
(Hack.) Stapf
15 formosa Stapf
hirta (L.) Stapf .
15 sp. nr. hirta (L.) Stapf .
lintonii Stapf
15 nyassae (Rendle) Stapf .
15 papillipes (Hochst. ex A.
15 Rich.) Anderss. ex Stapf
15 pilgeriana C.E. Hubbard
rufa (Nees) Stapf
15 ruprechtii Fourn.
schimperi (Hochst. ex A.
31 Rich.) Anderss. ex Stapf


PAGE













Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
var. africana (Anderss.) C. E.
Hubbard
Isachne aethiopica Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
Ischaemum brachyatherum
Fenzl ex Hack.
Koeleria cristata Pers. var. con-
voluta (Hochst. ex Steud.)
C. E. Hubbard
Latipes senegalensis Kunth ..
Leersia hexandra Sw...
Leptocarydion vulpiastrum (De
Not.) Stapf ..
Leptochloa obtusiflora Hochst.
panicea (Retz.) Ohwi ..
sp. nr. panicea (Retz.)
Ohwi
rupestris C. E. Hubbard
sinensis Nees
uniflora Hochst. ex A.
Rich.
Lepturus radicans (Steud.)
A. Camus
repens (G. Forst.) R. Br.
Lintonia brizoides (Chiov.) C. E.
Hubbard
nutans Stapf
Lolium temulentum L.
Loudetia arundinacea (Hochst.
ex A. Rich.) Steud. ..
arundinacea (Hochst. ex A.
Rich.) Steud. var. hensii
(De Wild.) C. E. Hubbard
flavida (Stapf) C. E. Hub-
bard
kagerensis (K. Schum.)
C.E. Hubbard ex Hutch.
pennata (Chiov.) C. E.
Hubbard
phragmitoides (Peter)
C. E. Hubbard
simplex (Nees) C. E. Hub-
bard
Loxostachys lachnantha Peter
Manisuris granularis Sw.
Megastachya mucronata (Poir.)
Beauv.
Melinis ambigua Hack.
minutiflora Beauv.
tenuinervis Stapf
tenuissima Stapf ..
Microchloa abyssinica Hochst.
ex A. Rich ..
kunthii Desv.


PAGE
Miscanthidium violaceum (K.
Schum.) Robyns
54 Odyssea jaegeri (Pilger) C. E.
Hubbard
36 Olyra latifolia L.
Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.)
62 Beauv.
compositus (L.) Beauv. .
hirtellus (L.) Beauv.
29 Oropetium capense Stapf
34 thomaeum (L.f.) Trin..
35 Oryza barthii A. Chev.
eichingeri Peter ..
22 punctata Kotschy ex Steud.
22 Oryzopsis keniensis Pilger
22 Panicum atrosanguineum
Hochst. ex A. Rich .
22 brevifolium L .
22 calvum Stapf
22 chlorochloe K. Schum...
coloratum L.
22 sp. nr. coloratum L.
deustum Thunb. ..
16 dregeanum Nees
16 genuflexum Stapf
glabrescens Steud.
31 heterostachyum Hack. .
31 hippothrix K. Schum.
16 hochstetteri Steud.
infestum Anderss. ex
36 Peters
kisantuense Vanderyst ex
Robyns
36 longijubatum Stapf
massaiense Mez ..
36 maximum Jacq...
meyerianum Nees
36 microthyrsum Stapf
pinifolium Chiov.
36 pleianthum Peter
poaeoides Stapf ..
36 pusillum Hook. f.
repens L...
36 snowdenii C. E. Hubbard
43 striatissimum C. E. Hub-
63 bard
subalbidum Kunth
14 transvenulosum Stapf
51 trichocladum Hack. ex K.
50 Schum.
51 trichoides Sw.
51 Paspalidium desertorum (A.
Rich.) Stapf ..
24 geminatum (Forsk.) Stapf
24 Paspalum auriculatum Presl. ..


PAGE













Paspalum commersonii Lam...
scrobiculatum L. var.
commersonii Stapf
vaginatum Sw.
Pennisetum atrichum Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
catabasis Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard ..
clandestinum Hochst. ex
Chiov.
dowsonii Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard
giganteum A. Rich.
glabrum Steud.
grandiflorum Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
massaicum Stapf ..
mezianum Leeke ..
polystachyon (L.) Schult.
purpureum Schumach...
ramosum (Hochst.)
Schweinf.
salifex Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard
schimperi A. Rich.
setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov.
squamulatum Fresen
stramineum Peter
trachyphyllum Pilger
trisetum Leeke
typhoides (Burm.) Stapf &
C. E. Hubbard
Pentaschistis borussica (K.
Schum.) Pilger
expansa (Pilger) C. E.
Hubbard
minor (Ballard & C. E.
Hubbard) Ballard & C. E.
Hubbard
Perotis hildebrandtii Mez
patens Gandoger
Phalaris arundinacea L.
Phragmites communis Trin. ..
mauritianus Kunth
Poa annua L...
leptoclada Hochst. ex A.
Rich.
perlaxa Pilger
Pogonarthria squarrosa (Licht.)
Pilger ...
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.)
Desf.
Pseudechinolaena polystachya
(H. B. & K.) Stapf .. ..


PAGE
44 Pseudobromus silvaticus K.
Schum.
44 Rhynchelytrum nerviglume
44 (Franch.) Chiov.
repens (Willd.) C. E. Hub-
53 bard
roseum (Nees) Stapf &
53 C. E. Hubbard ..
scabridum (K. Schum.)
51 Chiov.
setifolium (Stapf) Chiov.
53 subglabrum (Mez) Stapf
53 & C. E. Hubbard
52 villosum (Parl.) Chiov...
Rhytachne rottboellioides Desf.
53 Rottboellia exaltata L.f.
53 Saccharum spontaneum L. var.
53 aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.
52 Sacciolepis chevalieri Stapf .
53 curvata (L.) Chase
Schizachyrium brevifolium
53 (Sw.) Nees ex Buse ..
inclusum Stent
53 semiberbe Nees
52 Schmidtia pappophoroides
52 Steud...
52 Schoenefeldia transiens (Pilger)
53 Chiov.
52 Sehima nervosum (Rottb. ex
52 Willd.) Stapf ..
Setaria acromelana (Hochst.)
52 Dur. & Schinz
aequalis Stapf
30 atrata Hack. ex Engl...
caudula Stapf
30 chevalieri Stapf & C. E.
Hubbard
haareri Stapf & C. E.
30 Hubbard
34 holstii Herrmann
34 intermedia (Roth) R. & Sch.
35 interpilosa Stapf & C. E.
16 Hubbard .
17 kagerensis Mez .
16 longiseta Beauv...
mombassana Herrmann
15 orthosticha K. Schum. ex
16 Hermann .
pallide-fusca (Schumach.)
21 Stapf & C. E. Hubbard ..
phleoides Stapf ..
31 phragmitoides Stapf
plicatilis (Hochst.) Hack.
47 ex Engl..


PAGE













Setaria polyphylla Stapf
sagittifolia Walp.
setulosa Stapf
sphacelata (Schumach.)
Stapf & C. E. Hubbard
ex Moss
trinervia Stapf
verticillata (L.) Beauv...
Snowdenia polystachya (Fresen)
Pilger .. .
scabra (Pilger) Pilger
Sorghastrum rigidifolium
(Stapf) L. Chippindall
Sorghum aethiopicum Rupr. ex
Stapf var. brevifolium Snow-
den
brevicarinatum Snowden
brevicarinatum Snowden
var. brevicarinatum Snow-
den
brevicarinatum Snowden
var. swahilorum Snowden
niloticum Snowden var.
kavirondense Snowden
purpureo-sericeum
(Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Asch.
& Schweinf.
rigidifolium Stapf
versicolor Anderss.
in Peters .
verticilliflorum
(Steud.) Stapf
verticilliflorum (Steud.)
Stapf var. infrequens
Snowden
verticilliflorum (Steud.)
Stapf var. ornatum
Snowden
verticilliflorum (Steud.)
Stapf var. verticilliflorum
Snowden .
Sporobolus africanus (Poir.)
Robyns & Tournay .. .
angustifolius A. Rich.
capensis (Willd.) Kunth .
discosporus Nees
festivus Hochst.
ex A. Rich.
filipes Stapf
sp. nr. filipes Stapf
fimbriatus Nees ..
glaucifolius Hochst.
helvolus (Trin.) Dur.
& Schinz .


PAGE
40 Sporobolus homblei De Wild.
42 sp. nr. homblei De Wild.
40 marginatus Hochst. ex
A. Rich..
sp. nr. marginatus Hochst.
41 ex A. Rich.
41 orientalis (Nees) Kunth .
40 oxylepis Mez
panicoides A. Rich.
51 sp. nr. panicoides A. Rich.
51 pellucidus Hochst.
phyllothrichus Hochst...
55 piliferus (Trin.) Kunth .
pyramidalis Beauv.
robustus Kunth ..
55 spicatus (Vahl) Kunth
55 stapfianus Gaud.
tenuissimus (Schrank)
Kuntze
55 virginicus (L.) Kunth
Stenotaphrum dimidiatum
55 (L.) Brongn...
Streblochaete longiarista (A.
55 Rich.) Pilger ..
Tetrapogon bidentatus Pilger
spathaceus (Hochst.
55 ex Steud.) Hack. ex
55 Dur. & Schinz
tenellus (Roxb.) Chiov..
55 Themeda triandra Forsk.
Trachypogon spicatus (L.f.)
55 Kuntze .
Tragus berteronianus Schult ..
biflorus Roxb.
55 Tricholaena eichingeri (Mez)
Stapf & C. E. Hubbard
monachne (Trin.) Stapf
55 & C. E. Hubbard
teneriffae (L.f.) Parl.
Trichoneura schlechteri Ekm.
55 Tripogon snowdenii C. E. Hub-
bard
29 Urochloa bolbodes (Steud.)
29 Stapf ..
29 gorinii Chiov.
27 helopus (Trin.) Stapf
panicoides Beauv.
29 reptans Stapf
29 setigera (Retz.) Stapf ..
29 trichopus (Hochst.) Stapf
29 Vossia cuspidata Griff.
28 Vulpia bromoides (L.) S. F.
Grey ..
28 myuros (L.) C. C. Gmel.


PAGE
28
28

27

27
27
28
27
27
29
29
28
29
28
28
29

28
28

43

30
24


24
24
62

61
34
34

50

50
50
21

21

43
43
43
43
43
43
43
62

15
15











MAIN LITERATURE ON EAST AFRICAN GRASSES
iStapf, 0. and Hubbard, C. E., Gramineae in Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol. 9 and
V/ Vol. 10, Part 1, London, 1917-37. Main source of information on East African
Grasses. This work is incomplete and Chlorideae, Eragrosteae, Sporoboleae
and a number of smaller tribes have not so far been described in this
publication.
Hubbard, C. E., East African Pasture Plants, East African Grasses, I and IT,
London, 1926/27. Descriptions and drawings of about 50 East African grass
species.
Peter. Albert, Flora of Deutsch Ostafrika, Fedde Repertorium, Beihefte,
Band XL.1 (Gramineae). Dahlem bei Berlin, 1930/31.
'Eggeling, W. J. An Annotated List of the Grasses of the Uganda Protectorate.
Entebbe, 1944 and 1947.
\/Edwards, D. C. and Bogdan, A. V. Important Grassland Plants of Kenya. Pitman
and Sons Ltd. London-Nairobi, 1951.
Snowden, J. D. The Wild Fodder Sorghums of the Section Eu-Sorghum. Journal
of the Linnean Society of London, Vol. LV, No. 358, London, 1955.
Essential information on the East African grasses (description of new species,
etc.) can be found in numerous periodical publications such as Kew Bulletin,
Engler's Botanische Jahrbuecher, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens zu Berlin-
Dahlem, etc.
The following publications, although they deal with areas outside East
African territories, are also useful:--
Chippindall, L. K. A. A Guide to the Identification of Grasses in South
Africa. The Grasses and Pastures of South Africa. D. Meredith (Editor),
Central News Agency, South Africa, 1955.
Dalziel, J. M. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, London, 1948.
Hutchinson, J. and Dalziel, J. M. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. II.
Part 2, London, 1936.
Richard, A. Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae, Paris, 1847.
Robyns, Walter. Flora Agrostologique du Congo Beige et du Ruanda-Urundi.
I. Mayd6es et Andropogonees, Bruxelles, 1929. II. Panic6es, Bruxelles,
1934.
Stapf, O. Gramineae in Flora Capensis, Vol. VII, London, 1897-1900.
Stent, S. M. and Rattray, J. M. The Grasses of Southern Rhodesia. Proc.
Rhod. Sc. Assoc., Vol. XXXII (1933).
--Sturgeon, K. E. A Revised List of the Grasses of Southern Rhodesia. Rhod.
Agric. J., 1953-1955.
Taeckholm, Vivi and Gunnar and Drar. Mohammed. Flora of Egypt, Vol. I.
Cairo, 1941










A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


5UD4N


REGIONS OF THE GRASS FLORA OF KENYA
Regions Approximate
Mt-Mountains ...... .. .. Over 10,000
HW-Highland, Western .. 6,500-10,000
HE-Highland, Eastern
MW-Midland, Western .. .. .. .. 3,500 (4.000
ME-Midland, Eastern .. .. .. .. 3,500-6,500


Altitudes
ft.
I ft.

)-6,500 ft.
ft.


MN-Midland, Northern (Marsabit, etc.)
MS-Midland, Southern (Chyulu Hills, etc.)
RV-Rift Valley
LT-Lowland, Turkana ..
LN-Lowland, Northern (N.F.P.) ..
LS-Lowland, Southern
LM-Lowland, Magadi
CO-Coast .. ..


Under 3,500 (4,000) ft.


Under 1,000 ft.









A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


N 8






7
(L



6



5







S2 3 4




FIGS. 1-8.-STEM AND LEAF
1.-Stem and leaf. Stem: N = node, I = internode.
Leaf: S = sheath, L = ligule, B = blade.
2-4.-Ligule: 2.-membranaceous; 3.-unciliated rim; 4.-fringe of hairs
(ciliated rim).
5-7.-Leaf blade: 5.-linear; 6.-lanceolate; 7.-ovate.
8.-Petiolated leaf of Ol'ra latifolia.










A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


9


I I '3


FIGS. 9-14.-INFLORESCENCE (DIAGRAMMATIC)
9.-Spike.
10.-Raceme.
11.-Panicle.
12.-Digitate (subdigitate) panicle with spike-like racemes.
13.-Verticillate panicle.
14.-Spatheate panicle (SP = spathc, SPL = spatheole).









A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


II VI 1p ST
F LG UG 7

16 LG L


UG 17 20



18







25 A26
21



e 24


22 23




FIGS. 15-28
15.-Spikelet with several florets.
16.-Spikelet with one floret.
17.-Spikelet of Panicumn with two florets.
18.-Spikelet of Pennisetuin supported by bristles.
19.-Floret. 20.-Pistil (ST = stigmas).
21.-A portion of raceme of Andropogoneae (J = joint; Pc = pedicel).
22-24.-Awns: 22.-straight. 23.-kneed and spirally twisted below the knee.
24.-plumose awn of Aristida.
25-28.-Tips of lemma. 25.-aristulate. 26.-pointed. 27.-rounded.
28.-truncate.
F-floret, LG-lower glume, UG-upper glume, LF-lower floret, UF-upper
floret, L-lemma, P-palea.









A REVISED.LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


31
X8












A, 37


35 36 38






X8 X4 X2



FIGS. 29-39
29.-Anthephora hochstetteri-group of spikelets.
30.-Cenchrus setigerus-group of spikelets surrounded by scales.
31.-Tragus berteronianus-spikelets.
32.-Cenchrus ciliaris-spikelets supported by bristles.
33.-Setaria sphacelata-spikelet with bristles.
34.-Pennisetum squamulatum-group of spikelets supported by bristles.
35.-Setaria longiseta-spikelets with bristles.
36.-Tetrapogon tenellus-spikelet (without glumes).
37.-Rhytachne rottboelliotdes-spikelet.
38.-Oropetium thomaeum-spike.
39.-Lepturus repens-spike.


XI


39









A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


FIGS. 40-51
40.-Latipes senegalensis-raceme.
41.--Dinebra retroflexa-raceme.
42.-Dignathia gracilis-racemc.
43.-Hackelochloa granularis-raceme.
44.-Oryza bartlii-sp:kelet.
45.-Acritochaete volkensii-spikelet.
46.-Rhynchelytrum subglabrum-spikelet.
47.-Eriochloa nubica-spikceet.
48.-Melinis minutiflora-spikelet.
49.-Aristida adscensionis-floret.
50.-Aristida miutabilis-floret.
51.-Leersia hexandra-spikelet.


40 X4





41 X4






42 X8


8









48






x8


47 X4

||


51


X8









A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


52 56 58





53 54 57


\ X6 XI



\i









X2 X2 X2 J X3 X4
59 55 60

FIGS. 52-60
52.-Trachypogon spicatus-pair of spikclets.
53.-Heteropogon contortus-pair of spikelets.
54.-Bothriochloa insculpta-pair of spikelcts.
55.-ChrYsopogon aucheri var. quinqueplhmis-raceme (three spikelets).
56.-Themeda triandra-raceme with a spatheole.
57.-Exotheca abyssinica-pair of racemes.
58.-Stenotaphrum dimidiatum--spike.
59.-Heteropogoin melanocarpus-lower glume of the awnless spikelet.
60.-Alndropogon canaliculatils-pair of spikelets.









A REVISED LIST OF KENYA GRASSES


Q 62 X63
X4 X4

67

64 X8 X4, 68 69


65 66







70 71 73

X4 X8
72 XI








X4 X4

74 75 76 77 78

FIGS. 61-78
61.-Paspalum conmmersonii-spikelet. 62.-Paspalum vaginatum-spikelet. 63.-Diplachne
fusca-lemma. 64.-Sacciolepis curvata-spikelet. 65.-Brachiaria brizantha-spikelet.
66.-Urochloa panicoides-spikelet. 67.-Schmidtia pappophoroides-floret.
68.-Harpachne schimperi-spikelet. 69.-Enneapogon elegans-lower floret.
70 and 71.-Anthoxanthum nivale-florets and glumes. 72.-Hyparrhenia lintonii-
pair of racemes. 73.-Pentaschistis minor-floret. 74 and 75.-Eragrostis racemosa-
spikelets: young and old with the seed shed. 76 and 77.-Eragrostis aspera-spikelets:
young and old, broken, with the seed shed. 78.-Eragrostis superba-spikelet.


G.P.K. 1839-2,000-7/57.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs