ORIGIN OF MODERN CULTURE LANGUAGES
DERIVATION FROM THE HEBRAICA.
KARL RODOST, Ph. D.
JULIUS SILVERSMITH, M. A.
Author: "System and History of Nature," "Nature vs. The Bible,"
Editor: The Occident, Chic o, &c., &c.
THE OC(CIDENT PUBLISHING CO., 156 Lake Street.
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Linguce Integrum Historia quis Teritas.
TO THE HYPERCRITICAL.
taran erke ln' id) ben gele)rten enreit!
EBas itl) nic t taltet, fte t eud) meitfnfern;
S13aS ilir nid t fat, baS felt eud) canb unb Bar;
3a il)t tnic)t redinet, glaubt ibr, let ni )t iaStr;
Sa& ilju nidit tiidt, 1iat fiir end) trin enid)t.
a0a ilb nid t ifiunt, bat, meint it), gette nid)t
Herein your' learned men I recognize
What you t(uch not, miles distant from you lies;
What you g: asp not, is naught in sooth to you;
What you c(unt not, cannot you deem be true;
What you w'aigh not, that hath for you no weight;
What you c(in not, you're sure is counterfeit.
BY JULIUs SILVERSMITH.
THE EDITOR'S PREFACE.
IN the examination of the philology of the modern culture
languages as derived from the Semitic tongues and principally
from the Hebrew, we are confronted by the assertions and ac-
cepted notions of lexicographers, historians and archeologists
that the primitive people of Central Asia and nearly all Europe
were a distinct race known as the Aryansand thatevery definition
or origin of their words were a priori indigenous to each race
enumerated in the annals of vague history. In fact every Acad-
emician reverts to this singularly established pretext. The illus-
trious thinker KARL R6DOSI with great acumen and philosophical
thought, not only proves beyond doubt that the present Euro-
pean culture nations are not Aryans-but true descendants
of Semitics and Hebrews, and that the wonderful notion of the
Indo-Germanic theory is not at all tenable or worthy of credence.
No better evidence can be adduced for his discovery of these facts
than the linguistic monuments presented and elucidated in the
alphabetically arranged irregular verbs, transliterated defined and
euphonically traced to the Hebraica. The writer recognizes the
fact that this new theory in a philological sense, will make a
deep incision in the heretofore accepted teachings. But when
we take into consideration how our primitive ancestors warred
with each other-had become separated-reverted into semi-bar-
barism after their dispersion into adjoining countries after the
destruction of the first Jewish statehood in Palestine, nearly
600 years before the second conquest of Jerusalem and Palestine,
ic will appear sufficiently corroborative of the within thoughtful
The author being himself a Slavonic and an Hebraist could
best judge of the linguistic structure left us by the prehistoric
and nomadic races whose primitive words he so logically com-
pares and translates, leaving scarcely a doubt of the striking
similarity and positive definitions even down to the modern cul-
ture languages and in consonance with the well defined
grammatical laws of the Hebraica.
Not a few thinkers and even learned men will no doubt be
surprised with this singular yet logical deduction, unless indeed,
their preconceived notions preclude them from giving a fair
and an impartial opinion of the authors exposition. If it is
true, and our illustrious author gives us the most logical proofs
of the authenticity of the derivation of the Latin and mod-
ern culture languages from the Hebraica, the question of tle
existence and identity of the supposed lost ten tribes of Israel
is in reality solved! We are then the true Semites-the cul-
tured nations are indeed the descendants of the Hebrew race!!
This then would be the most potent retort to the Stockers's,
Marr's Treitschke's, Rohlings, Goldwin Smith's and kindred race
haters who spew their wicked poison against their very progen-
itors-who cannot utter a single syllable unless it is of their
paternal Semitic language!
Present lexicographers and philologians when writing of
etymology and orthography of terms refer for the origin to
the Latin and Greek languages, seldom to other tongues, but
the celebrated WELSFORD very truly says: "Etymology has
been so unsuccessful in establishing definite principles or so
unfortunate in their application, that many persons regard it
as bearing the same relation to grammar as astrology does
to astronomy, alchemy to chemistry, or perpetual motion to me-
Thus many modern words now in daily use and of pure
Hebrew origin are designated by the learned Joseph E. Wor-
cester, LL. D., that he cannot give the Etymology of them, and
so states the fact in his definitions.
The best lexicon and dictionary has not been written as yet.
The true world's language is the Hebraica for the root--. verita-
ble Volapiik-a survival of the .fittest of all ancient and mod-
ern languages-the basis of lingual intercourse of, over 100,000,
000 Slavonics-the best and truest type of Hebraists with the
nearly 300,000,000 descendants of Latins, Teutons, Franks,
Goths, Anglo Saxons, Britons etc.
One of the most singularly anomalous circumstances touching
the utter indifference by the learned philologians, whether of one
or the other confessions, have until now totally ignored the true
etymology and comparisons between the modern and this an-
cient language, which may be attributable to their narrow and
confined theological philosophy, coupled with the unintelligible
biblical dicta or prophetic allusions relating to "chosen tribes," or,
that the so called new dispensation was determined in severing
every tie from their brethren and of their primitive ancestors.
Be that as it may, the XIX century does not deal with abstract
fallacies-the true historian and scientist cannot nor should he
pervert the truth, his research must be founded upon facts and
data that are unerring.
Less blame may attach to the theological fraternity, who at
best are simply wedded to abstract biblical dogmas;but the
orientalists and academicians deserve greatest censure for this
all important negligence. The latter have with much labor a.d
hard study ransacked the veda of the authochtons along the
Himalayas, when they had the Hebrew roots under their very feet
-the most positive elements of the modern culture languages.
The illustrious author of this a priori system has alre dy
met with acknowledgement from erudite men in Europe, to-wit:
the Rt. Rev. Evang. Bishop, of Upper Hungary, Baltik, a well
known linguist and academician, officiating at Lipd6 St. Mikl6s,
Uhief Rabbi: Kqyserling, of Buda-Pest, Hungary, Rabbi: Dr.
Gtldeman, of Vienna, and others who enjoy a wide reputation
as Hebr ists and learned gentlemen in present literature, wl.o
although the first efforts were incomplete and simply paradigms
being presented to them, at once recognized the theory and philo-
sophy as based upon logic and archaeological acumen.
PROF. ELIAS COLBERT ON KARL RODOSI'S DERIVATIONS.
I have read with much interest the proof sheets of the work by
Mr. RoDosI, in which he traces out numerous identifications of
Hebrew roots with those of several European languages. I cheer-
fully testify my belief that he has done a valuable work in the
department of etymological research, though well aware that
writing thus is to invite the sneer that one approves the threshing
over of old straw and endorses a theory long since exploded.
During many ages it was generally believed that Hebrew, the
language in which the Old Testament was written, is the most
ancient of tongues and the parent of all the rest. ST. JEROME ex-
pressed this opinion more than in one place in his writings, and
ORIGEN stated his belief that the Hebrew was originally given to
the world through Adam. It is not on record that this theory was
seriously questioned by any, whether Jew, Christian or Moham-
medan, till a little more than two centuries ago, though there is
nothing in the Bible to support it, and it is open to inference that
the original language, if any, was lost in the confusion of tongues.
In the latter part of the seventeenth- century the illustrious
LEIBNITZ raised an objection. Though believing in one primitive
language he wrote (to Tenzel) that to call Hebrew that primitive
tongue is like calling branches of a tree primitive branches, or
imagining that in some country hewn trunks could grow instead
Barely a century ago HERVAS proved by a comparative list of
declensions and conjugations the previously taught affinity of the
various branches of the Semitic family of languages, and laid it
down as a rule that the true affinities of different tongues must be
determined by similarities of grammatical construction instead of
words. This rule has been adopted by succeeding philologists,
and they have arrived at the conclusion that the Indo-European
languages belong to a family that is not Semitic. This is so distinct-
ly at variance with the theory of Mr. RODOSI that it may be thought
he is simply preaching over again crude ideas of the dark ages,
which are no more worthy of being entertained in these enlighten-
ed days than are the vagaries of the astrologers and the alchemists
of a few hundred years ago.
Yet it cannot be denied that the affinities of languages are
in large part determined by a comparison of their roots, and that
the further back we go along the stream of time the more deeply
is the philologist indebted to that feature, while at this end of the
line it is also more important in another direction since the strictly
commercial era set in than before. In fact we know that the
building up of grammatical inflections must have been a later
process than the adoption of mere radicals by any number of persons
who coming together for the first time had to fuse their individual
utterances so that the resulting vocables would be understood by
all. Now if we carry out this thought to its legitimate conclusion
it will not be difficult to suppose that the law laid down by
HERVAs may be likened to that Against polygamy -holding good
over large areas and through many centuries, yet not universal
either in place or time. And perhaps a much better illustration-than
the tree and its branches may be found in the plant that sends
PREFATOR Y REMARKS.
up several stems from a single root, each of those steins sending
off shoots that dip down and take root in the earth, becoming in
turn the parents of other branches. If now we suppose these
branches and their foliage to have m;xed and interleaved luxur-
iantly, and the more recent ones to retain their vitality while the
older stems have not only decayed but the resulting dust mingled
with the soil, we shall have some such parallel as I conceive to
exist I between the modern and most ancient languages. It is evident
the farther that process is carried the more difficult will it be to
distinguish between the separate origins for the components of an
particular section of this mass of vegetation. More than this.
The direction in which the twigs, runners or filaments lie with regard
to each other becomes the fact of greatest prominence in the effort
to trace the now living ones back to their dead primitives.
This leads up to a third principle of lingual expression, not less
important than the other two, though it seems to have received
little attention. It is the order in which words are placed for the
expression of a given fact or thought. In comparing Chinese with
English we find a totally different sequence besides the want of
similarity between the words themselves. Comparing English with
Latin or Greek we discover different methods of attacking the
subject, but less widely contrastive than in the first case. If we
then compare the Hebrew with the Anglo-Saxon forms of English
speech we. see a much closer resemblance. We find verse afier
verse almost identical in the order in which the different verbal
components of the sentences are presented. Does not this latter
fact indicate an affiliation which even the admirers of HERVAS and
MAX MU1LLER cannot conscientiously ignore when once their
attention is called to it?
We may admit that the great majority of the modern European
languages are descendants of the one which was mother to the
Sanscrit, Latin and Greek. But it cannot be denied that the
English, with some others, have been formed by interlacings from
two great branches of that family stem, one of which was probably
much older than the other. One of these branches grew much
the nearer to the Semitic stem, and for some distance appears to
have run almost parallel with it, the result being an intertwining
of the shoots thrown out by each and the many close approaches
to identity which have been discovered by Mr. RODOSI. 1 do not
wish to be understood as thinking he is right in all his com-
parisons. But these things do not largely
detract from the value of his labor in pointing out a'wondrous stock
of similarities between the roots of the languages spoken by those
peoples and the ancient Hebrew, which it may be remembered
assumed its classical shape at least as early as the founding of Rome,
and perhaps not long after the march of the Aryans into India.
He has collected a rich store of material for use in the building of
a college in the grand university of the knowable; and if a con-
siderable portion of that material be culled out by those who come
after him, enough will remain to compose a large part of a nev
structure on the ruins of one long since buried under the accumul.
ated debris of the ages.
BY REV. J. 0. M. HEWITT, OF SHEFFIELD, ILL.
The Origin of Modern Culture Languages and their
Derivation from the Hebraica, by Prof. KARL RODOSI, Ph. D.,
which I had the pleasure to peruse, is a work in the right direction;
for as we have long known that The Sanscrit is not a primitive,
but on the other and, is as truly a derived speech as any of the
so called Mlodern Culture Languages, should lead philologists to
look further before they adopt the theory that these languages of
the culture nations are Aryan.
The old theory of Hebrew derivation is not disproved by any
show of Hindoo derivation, so long as the Indo-Speech is confessed
to be itself derived; consequently we are not obliged to accept as
authority the deductions of Prof. MAX MULLER, WHITNEY, or
any other of that school of criticism; and when we reflect that
RENAN, whois perhaps one of the best Hebraists of our time, gives his
unquallified expression of belief that the Hebrew rather than the
Phoenician is the creator of the first phonetic alphabet; should we
not also believe that the alphabet originates from the people
of longest standing speech; for age is necessary to culture and cul-
ture to science in any branch of art; consequently, we would invite
careful study of the claims, so well put forth by Dr. RODosI.
No less important is the statement put forth by the late
eminent Abb6 LATOUCHE, who taught Hebrew for about sixty
years of the present century, at a University of France, which
should corroborate the system of Dr. RODosI, who said: L'hebreu
est la mere de toutes les langues modernes.
J. 0. M. HEWITT, Pastor Unit. Cong.
BY J. M. HIRSu. Ph. Dr.
The true Volapak is found. The language, which tied togeth-
er one human brotherhood at the tower of Babel, is not a dead
language, but the living tongue of the civilized nations of to day,
modified no more than provincialisms change the same language
in our own day.
This age of scientific surprises, so dear to the student, has re-
surrected the unity of language and unity of brotherhood through
the able researches of Dr. KARL RODOSI, to whom the great credit
belongs of having dived into the depths of the unknown past
through the true history of nations-their languages. Prof.
Schlien;an in spite of the Homeric laughter of self-styled scientists,
proved at a great sacrifice; that Homers history of Troy was not
a fable, yet the untold treasures, yielded by the ancient side of
Troy to his investigations sinks into insignificance alongside of the
researches of Dr. Rodosi, who proves that the language, which the
Patriarchs learned in their cradle, has survived time not as a dead,
but as the living tongue of civilization.
To the layman the research is simply wonderful, especially,
that the English language, mostly used on this globe being almost
purely Hebrew, and that it is derived from the no less Hebrew-
the Anglo-Saxon. Thousands of examples are so striking, that they
* cannot be overlooked. When the Frenchman uses the identical
PREFATORY REMARKS. XIII
Hebrew word ami for friend, and the Englisman the identical
Hebrew word en-ami not my friend, for enemy, changing only
the orthography, as the evolution of language changes it even in
our own day. When we find, that the word: Law l, is literally
in spelling and pronunciation the first Hebrew word of the deca-
logue: thou shalt not; when we see, that the great Jove of the
Grecian Olympus is very much like f111" J(eh)ova, and Zevs
like m11 y Zevaus; when we see, that the Slavonic hora: moun-
tain is identical with the Hebrew n11 hora, ad infinitum, we can
but bow our heads to the infatigable research, to which in this
practical age, few will devote their lives. If the recognition of
this unity of languages will hasten the millenial unity of
nations, wiping out the differences which have led barbaric ignor-
.ance to endless bloodshed, it will be worth all the inventions
of our prolific age.
JOSEPH M. HInSH.
THE author of the subjoined treatise has devoted much time
and with much predilection in philology, especially relating to the
study of the reigning languages of Europe and notably of the
recently creAted nationalities. He has observed during the past
year with much surprise, that a greater similarity exists in the
root-euphony of the English and Slavonic tongues, than for
instance between the English and German, notwithstanding that
the Anglo-Saxon formed the greatest contingent of the Germanic
people; and this was all the more singular since for more than
1400 years no intercourse of any note either geographically,
politically or commercially is recorded; no less singular is the
fact that between the Slavs and Britons the powerful German
tribe reared itself; thus placing natural interpositions for every
That there is however a close kinship between these three lan-
guages, led me to cogitating; that these two leading nations to-
wit: The German and Slavs must have sprang erstwhile from
one parent people, but, through exterior influence assumed
separate characteristics. To arrive at more positive data, involv-
ing the ethnography and prehistoric status of these parents was
no easy task-it was a vast field of utter darkness-but with
persistence and a truthful aim the matter became more lucid
to me at every step, until the whole of the Semitio vocabu-
lary range became a burning flame to me when compared with
our modern culture tongues and languages. The more I penetra-
ted into this vast terrain of research wherewith I might harmo-
nize and compare the origin, the more the evidences presented
themselves as corroborative. My attention was first directed to
the three languages noted herein, as expressing similarity in
euphony and definition of many words when compared with the
apriori Hebraic roots. 1 did not r st satisfied with this first
attempt but continued searching on until I became thoroughly
convinced that the prehistoric Hfebraica, (until now considered
as unfathomable or inexplicable) was the source of all our mod-
ern culture languages. Not alone that I discovered in the
three important World's languages the roots derived from the
Hebraica, but in my subsequent study of the history I became
even more positive on this all important phenomenon; A logical
reasoning forced me to the unerring judgment that the syiloni-
mous sounding roots in these languages and their pronuncia-
tion must have emanated from one parent or tribal source, as may
be readily observed from the next related tribal vocabularies.
My conviction became more fixed when viewing the most promi-
nent, namely: the German dialect in its varied conjugations and
declensions of its substantives as well as its verbs which must form
the basis for tracing all its roots from the Heoraica. The possi-
tive evidence I propose to present herein all irregular
English verbs in subsequent portions of this disquisition; none
the less does this rule apply to all irregular verbs even in the
German language. That which relates now to the ethnology of
this tribal people, notably the Hebrews, the readers attention is
directed to the earlier history of the Jews, in which is univer-
sally the fact related that ten tribes emigrated from Pales-
tine in the lunar year 2450 or about 560 years before the C. E.,
and that since their exodus not a vestige of their identity is recor-
ded as to their existence elsewhere.
The descendents of the present Jewish people are of only
one branch, the tribe of Judah; counting about from 7 to 10 mil.
lion souls. For two thousand years persecution with fire and sword
has decimated this people, so that but a remnant appear
statistically. Had these people not been consigned to destruction
their normal status would count at least from 30 to 40 million
souls. It will be seen at sight, th t if we multiply the gross
population of the entire ten tribes by 10, we would certainly have
the 300 to 400 million souls now constituting the leading cul-
tured Christian nations.
It will be observed that this brief disquisition gives us a ver-
itable mirror to these all important facts. I desire however to
add the no less important nomenclature of the German, Slavic and
Anglo.Saxon races and their terrains which they peopled, and that
even these are distinctly Hebrew. In fine might I entertain the
hope, after having religiously and faithfully given 'he details of
my cogitation, that these several nations whose origin and denti-
ty are unquestionably fromone primal race Semites to
thus recognize themselves as descendants from that once noble
"irn, wJ =n nv ='.v) nom aio nn nin
How lovely and sublime it were if brethern dwelt in
peace and union together.
SOME GRAMMATICAL RULES TOUCHING THE
IT will be essentially necessary to understand the genius of
the Hebraica, in that certain letters of the alphabet have sev-
eral uses and are differently pronounced, so as to give to the
words formed their meaning and signification.
A. Thus for instance the letter---(ayin)-y is used as a to
and also as the French nasal sound ng, and oft as a simple g.
At the beginning and at the end of a word it is
most generally sounded like w, rarely ng. In the middle of
words it is also pronounced as i, u, or e, also as a short e as in
web, men, and also a short i as in dip, rip. It will be observ-
ed that this singular letter is a veritable ignis fatuus in its appli-
cation, not alone that it has many sounds, but may assume any
position in any root word i. e. at the beginning, in the middle or
at the end. The reader will however understand that no orthoe-
pist can definitely imitate by signs or characters the euphony
or the pronunciation of vocabularies of a dead language, the He-
brew language required a Massorah which was invented as late
as the seventh century C. E. Our modern culture languages
however, give us the true genius of the origin of each particular
character and root.
The Hebrew character .y-sh, and sch, (sheen or seen)is rarely
GRAMMAfTICAL R UL ES. XIx
pronounced as w,-oft like ye but principally as sch, or s, as
in the Hebrew. The Latins however, transposed it for an x.
The letter L* Tzade,-z--The Anglo Saxon uses it like t, z
and "ce," while theTeutons pronounce it like tz, z, and like ce,
both nations rarely like ye.
The Hebrew letter '3 Beth-b is generally pronounced
like the latin v, oft like b, and like w.
D-Phe or yFe-is sounded like f, or p.
p-Tav or Thav-t, or s.
That which relates to the orthography of the languages the
author refers to a future treatise, but will clearly show, that
although the culture languages take their roots from the He-
brew, each particular tribal people formed their own rules for spel-
ling and pronunciation, e. g.
n-Is equivalent to A, ch, g'h, and wh, and rarely like a sim-
ple w, etc.
The Hebrew letter Kaph is always represented as a k,
while the letter ) Koph is invariably pronounced like c, and often
B. In all the modern culture languages, as a rule, there
are but two radical sounds to a primal rcot, in a few cases three;
all others are simply auxiliaries.
C. A special attribute is manifest in the primitive Hebrew
language which dramatically permits the mobility and transpo-
eition of the radical sounds in any word,but this does not change
the meaning. This occurs often in our modern languages,but the
origin and root are unquestionably of the Hebraica.
The same rule permitted some transpositions of relative
organic radical sounds as shown already by proceeding maxims,
xx GAMMAfATICAL ULES.
these are well known to every student of the Hebrew language.
To better comprehend the historical development of the
primitive tribal languages, it is necessary to know that the Cla-
vonics, Germans (Teutons) are true Hebraic types, they have
retained the root words in nearly all their pristine euphony, while
the Romanic, inclusive of the Latins, Franks, Spanish, Portuguese
and Italians, assumed different dialects from the Hebraica.
It will be understood that the annexed vocabulary is deriv-
ed from the pure Hebrew, as well as their synonims, and will
be recognized by every Hebraist as the richest conception-fund
found in any of the known languages.
The author herewith submits this brief conception and hopes
to obtain therewith its rightful recognition from all literary
and truly philosophic students, believing that the labor bestow-
ed upon this new and all important archeological system may
lead to the correction of the many errors and misconceptions here-
tofore entertained, and may help mankind to a truer and better
knowledge than the past has vouchsafed us.
For the purpose of giving the reader the nomenclature of
the primitives or tribes with their Hebrew synonims, I enu-
merate the following:
The German=-QJ or n' ). In biblical language this
reads Il ). Judah =, l,. SaxonE t. Danes=
1. Goths=D Franks= I~ These four are original
tribes. Porussia or Prussians= Of1 rME) Poras Joseph,
(a fruitful plant.) Britons=nln descendants of the holy
covenant. Spaniards or Spain=y.:jf1 I-jZ. Iberi Iispan.
(Pre-eminent Domain of Hebrews.) Teutonla=l" I1. -D'u
GRAMMATICAL BULES. xxi
Don, in God-believing. Slavonic or Slavs=1M tf.Slava, debas-
ed, like the Anglo-Saxon a slave-Apostates. Sarmatians-
D L 10. (Sar mata) deeply sunk &c.
ABBRE I1ATIONS AND REFERENCES.
Arab. stands for Arabic.
Gael .......... Gaelic.
der. stands for derived
e. g...........for example
gram ........ .grammatical.
syn. stands for synonymes.
Am. stands for Amos.
Jes........... Isaia or Jesaia.
Lam. (Thr.) ... .Lamen'n (Threni
Ps..:...... .. Psalms.
Reg........... Regum (Kings).
Sam ......... Samuel.
Zach ......... Zacharia.
LIST OF ALL IRREGULAR VERBS.
The reason for the irregular conjugation of verbs of both the
English as well as the German languages rests solely in the form
of the signification of the Hebrew root. There are two principal va-
riations of conjugations in the English language; the first of which,
is known in the German grammar as the (Schwache) or mild con-
jugation i. e., when the participle ends with an n instead of d or ed,
and is verified as follows:
1. As may appear in the ultimate root letter of the Hebraioa
and if it sounds like t a, I A, sometimes 1 gh.
2. Or when the Hebrew root ends or begins with the letter
.=n or ends with 3-m.
8. When the Hebrew root contains the transmutable and
changeable character y y.
The second form of the irregularity of the conjugation of the
Hebrew root is distinctly manifest in the various forms and con-
ceptions of the verbs,of which there are seven in the Hebrew gram-
mar, well known to Hebraists to-witt lKal, Niphal, Piel, Pual,
Htphil, Hophal and Hithpael.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
Finally when the Hebrew root ends with a "I d, L t, or n t.
The cause for the irregularity of each particular verb will be
explained and exemplified in the progress of this dissertation.
All the following irregular verbs will be denoted by the
Anglo-Saxon pronunciation, because that language is the true
medium between the primitive Hebraica and our modern idioms,
bbreviatcd with A. S., denoting Anglo-Saxon.
ABIDE--Abode-Abode. A. S., abidan or bidan. .3
S1213. = abitah, habitat, from the root 1.3 =
nabot. This H, word is mainly used in a transitive
form of conjugation '9l and its interpretation in
English is as follows:
1. Look around, 3p^'.3 Z D,. N (Num.
2. Contemplate, considerate, 'M'tD.'
Tfiyl (Psalm 119. 6.)
3. Rega d,respect, "'1 E2" (Psalm 74.20.
4. Hope, expect, ..l~3 ,3 fl. (Jes. 20. 6.)
The German language does not use this word, but
has a synonyme in WVeilen from.the H., root, ) a-l va-
jichel, the same as in English, while;the M is represented
as wh. In Sl., the same word Chwila,=while, Weile.
This verb is irregul r because it is not used in the
neuter form .3Q nabot, but its application is in the
transitive, which is distinctly visible in the Eng., con-
AM.-be-was-been. Am., A-S. eom, Goth im, from H. root
U, im. Its signification, being-be, was, been-A-S
beon, from the root nft or N. bouh or boe. In the
H. conjugation 'I3--I -- n. or g) boih
was, boim or boir. Its translation, 1st., be, was, been.
2d. Come, came, come.
The S1. word for be is bud also derived from the
root il 3 n j The latin esse, and the German sein,
are derived from the root )y, Q'SY or l'i." Ess
-Ytim, signifies this time. This word is irregular in
the English conjugation, because there are two differ-
ent roots, as explained above.
ARISE.-Arose,-Arisen. A-S., arisan, from H. root 11
reason, high, eminent. This H. word occurs simply as
a substantive in the Bible. The German word Riese is
derived from the same root, "but not the word reisen.
The latter is derived from i|y-- 1 ruz, riza, of
which the translation is: hasten, swiftly, quickly, e. g.
"In 11D0 D -(Ps. 2. 2.) =211n 21N,-I
(Jud. 5. 3.) The word arise is irregular because the
root 1"I1 reason, ends with an n, and is denoted in the
AWAKE.-Awoke,-Awaked. A-S. awacian, from H. root
n.j wachan. Its translation: 1st. Try. 2d. Ex:m-
ine. 3d. Watch. e. g: myj E9 (Isaiah 32. 14.
P1M]'3 113'1f (Isaiah 23.14.)-in both examples
the signification of l3 wachan, watch. The Ger.
Wachen, Wache, Wacht is derived from the same
root, also the S1. wachtar, watchman.
The Eng. verb awake, is irregular because the
IRREGU LAR VERBS.
H. root contains a p ch, as shown and visibly indicated
in the above.
BAKE.-Baked, or Baken. A-S. bacan. This verb is deriv-
ed from two different H. roots. 1st. n0" apah or
apak. (For, an h at the end of a H. root is often pro-
nounced like k., and therefore the letter A in English is
called aich.) bake. 2d. Yi) bacan, cleave, split
j"3 back, avoid, destroy. "The earth is baked with
frost."-e. g. nI G r I (Gen. 19. 8.) =1 y
(Y1n i (Psalm 78. 13.) vI n pi pl'n
(Isaiah 24. 3.)
The Ger. verb baken and the S1. pekat bake are
derived from the same H. root. The Eng. verb bake
also the Ger. baken are irregular because the H. root
nigg ends with 1 h, resp. ==-y, and regular when it
has the signification of jj3 destroy.
BA8TE-basted, basten or basted; Bretagne baz; Fr. bdton; Sp.
baston; Sl. baznut; Hung. bot (stick or club.) This word
is derived, 1.) from the H. root y:g baze. If 1 is pro-
nounsed like stand Y like n, as is often done in all Sem-
itic languages, we obtain the word baton This H. word
signifies: to attack, assail; to hurt, wound, damage, etc.
Amos 9: 1.) tN Dya 3
Job 0: 9.) in
This Eng. verb is irregular because its H. root
;yU baze ends with an V.
2.) Baste, a fowl, is derived from the Hebrew word
LO pashat, and signifies: to extent in health and
wealth, to fatten like the Ger. feist etc. This v. is regular
because the H. root ends with the consonant t. e. g.
Nahum 3: 16.) 1-l Lt'D f1
BEAR.-bore-bare-bornt. A-S. beran. From the H. root
NtC bara. Its transl ition: create, form, produce. e. g.
D'n ,N- 3 'rrtWm (Gen. 1. I.)
N JN 1'M C1 1(Num. 16. 30.)
BEAR.-bore or bare-borne. The signif. of wear, carry
is derived from the H. root -"13 eber, J3YJ1 hebar,
remove, take away, transfer. e. g. '"TV n4 "'):)
1p (Gen. 82. 24.) The Ger. does not use this word in
this form but as a substantive. Biarde identical with the
Eng. burden from H. l=1 ** m'i"', eburah-
eburat--load, charge. e. g. I;V W0 3 3 ) JNy J'N
The S1. brat-bear is also derived from the H. root
'Y, ebar. The Eng. verb bear is irregular because
the H. root contains an y-y and is in the participle
case pronounced like an n.
See how the y is transposed into the middle of
the word and observe its reading bear.
** Transpose the V to the end and you have
BEAT.-Beat or Bet,-Beaten. A-S. beaten. L. batuo. It.
batere. Fr. battre. S1. bit. From H. root CY
beat. Its translation: trample upon, kick at, and
despise, reject. e. g. tYgV1 IYH1 \ iV (Deut.
32. 15.) The Ger. does not use this word. The En.
verb beat, is irregular because the H. root contains an
y and is denoted in the participle. as n.
BECOME.-became--become.. A-S., weman. Ger. bekoirn-
men or bequemen. From H. root 1) corm or cwem;
or from the synon. root nlp comah, P 1jp become
or bequem (the wt, pronounced as a consonant). n be,
has the signif. of in. The translation of the H. word
j) is multifarious, but mainly as: 1. Come into
appearance. 2. Set up, restore, support etc. e. g.
Dn "ip D' (Gen. 19. 1.)
DPiPn 1n nlit (Jer. 44. 26.)
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs-become, bekommen
are irregular because the H. root ends with ; A, or
BEGET.-begot-begotten. A-S. begetan. Ger. begatten.
From the H. root l*j agad. Its translation is tie,
bound in a mass. This work does not occur as a verb
in the Bible, but as a subst. 1j'N agudah. 1. Bunch,
bundle. 2. Band of men--l 1fl beagudah, beget,
in an alliance. e. g. ni m'm nnp 59 1 (Exod.
12. 22). nr' 1,1Y i (Sam. ii. 2. 25.)
The Eng. verb beget is irregular because the A-S.
made it derive from ~n^ with an A h. as a vowel at
the end; the Ger. begatten, begatted is regular because'
the old German derived it from the H. verb 'J'N
agad, with a consonant at the end.
BEGIN.-began or ;begun,-begun. A-S. beginnan. Ger.
beginnen. From the H. root yj nagdn; (Y9 ); yVl
higin; qp1O behigin, begin. The signif. of the H.
word is various, but mainly as: to touch, reach, come
near etc. p'I'a begin equivalent with touching,
coming near. e. g. "1(l 11 (Esth. 9. 1.)
iDY 'n n.'l31'(Esth. 2. 15.)
Both the Eng. verbs begin, and Ger. be;,innen,
begonnen are irregular because the H. root ends with
an 7 and is denoted visibly as n in the participle.
BEGIRD.-begirt, or begirded.-begirt or begirded. A-S. be-
girdan. Ger. begiirten, begiirtet. From the H. root
"-n chagar, to gird; 1n or nij hagurah or
hagurat (n h,) girdle, belt. The signif. of the H.
word is: 1. To gird, attire. 2. Withold, restrain. e. g.
,p1 -ni nvn (Ps. 45.4.) pir nlir 'n
(Joel 1. 8.)
The Eng. verb gird is therefore irreg. because
the H. word n-jM hagurat ends with a t. The Ger.
makes no use of this Eng. grammatical rule and is
always regular: begiirten, begiirtet, because the H. root
ends with a consonant.
BEHOLD.-beheld or beholden. A-S. behealdan. From H.
root 55 hell or 3 he'ilel, like the Ger. hell, and
its signif. is here: to shine, to light. The H. root 7j
halal, has also many other interpretations, mainly:
to pra se, glorify, hallow etc. The latin lumen is also
from the H. root in he'ilel, in its transformation
*-,,jahil or ihil; D ,)1 jahalum or ihalum. L.
illuminare. Its signif. in H. language: brightly shining
light, and is therefore used as the denomination of the
diamond. e. g. ) ~') f -1 lJ D (Job 29. 2.
1Z -)IN (Job 31. 26.) 'nr i -i fI -I7
(Job 25. 5.)
The d in the Eng. word behold is only an affix,
and is therefore irregular because the H. word jnri
tehiluh, from the same root and the same signif. as
above mentioned ends with an I h. The Ger. erhel-
len-erhellt from the same root is always regular, be-
cause the H. root )} helal or hell ends with a con-
sonant. The Eng. word hold in the sense of firmness,
is derived from -another H. root, and will be explained
under its proper head.
BENJD.-bent-bent. A-S. bendan. Fr. bander. From H.
root o)33 bant or bent. Its signif. is: to crook or curve.
This H. root does not occur as a verb in the Bible but
as a subst. MM N abnet, girdle, and is found in the
Eng. Ger. Sl., and all latin languages as band, banda,
bandage etc. e. g. 3." j)' I %M11 (Lev. 8. 4.)
It may also be derived from the H. root 'MU
bend (the V n transposed in the middle of the word.) Its
translation being: to serve as a slave in humbleness,
inflection, e. g. JI n4 mr"- l (Deut. 28. 48.)
PM wi rr D 1n "D"? (Gen. 9. 25.)
The Ger. beten, Old-Ger benten or benshen is also
derived from the root "13 bend. The Eng. verb
bend is irregular because the H. roots t33 and "'I
bend and bent have ad or t, at the end. The Ger.
verb beten, gebetet is regular because the Ger. does not
employ the Eng. rule of Grammar since the end letter
is a consonant, as heretofore indicated. It will be
found so in all similar cases.
BiEREA VE.-bereaved or bereft.-bereaved or bereft. A-S.
bereave and bereaflan. Ger. berauben. From two
diverse H. roots. 1. 3M: or )1 rov, and 1 or
.'i ruf. The signif. of 1. Defeat, destroy. 2. Cause
to tremble, sink down, weaken. e. g.
Dn 0 l n1 (Gen. 21. 21.) 1.11 linn
(Gen. 49. 23.) nn rinei nI (Jud. 8. 3.)
1 )DE f11=I. 1lJl (Job 26. 11.)
The Eng. verb bereave is therefore irregular be-
oause there are two different H. roots i. e. first as Z1
rov, with a v, and secondly f ruf, with an f a dis-
tinct characteristic of this language. The Ger. berau-
ben, beraubt is regular, because the Ger. made it be
derived alone from the root 3-1 row.
BESEECH.-besought or beseeched,-beso.,ght or beseeched,
A-S. besecan. Ger. ersuchen, ersucht. From the H'
root nrfl sicha. Its signif. to speak impressively, ur-
gently-to request, complain etc. e. g.
'wy r) 5V (Ps. 104. 34.) rr -1 W
(Ps. 142. 4.)
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs seek, suchen are de-
rived from an entirely different root, which will be
explained under the proper he d. The Eng. verb
beseech is only seemingly irregular, for it is one and
the same when the H. root letter n is expressed in Eng.
IBRE ULAR VERBS.
with ch or gh, as is clearly denoted in the introduction
of this disquisition. The Ger. verb ersuchen is regular
because he pronounces the A letter j in its original
Sound and meaning as'well in the presence as in the
BESTEAD.-bestead or bested-bestead or bested. A-S. stede,
styde, to help, support, assist. Ger. bestatten. From the
H. root ],D sead. Its transl: make prosperous, sup-
port, assist, refresh etc. The t in the Eng. and Ger.
verb stead, statten is merely a prefix equally used in
the H. ""] "1D) sead, tsead, or its simpler pronun-
ciation stead; for in the Eng. as well as the Ger. word
satiate, satt and Latin satis (from the same derivation)
is the H. root "lD sead clearly sounded. e. g.
.'1W 1 1r s (Ps. 2 20.2.) o= n '11 (Gen. 18. 5.)
The Eng. verb bestead is irregular because the H.
root "ID sead ends with a d; the Ger. conjugation is
regular as shown in the rule heretofore stated.
BETIDE.-betid-betid. A-S. tidan. Ger. deuten, bedeuten.
Frcm the H. root Y'1J idan (V n). In its various trans-
formations: y death. Ger. deuten Yin teden. A S.
tidan. Its signif. is manifold: to perceive, feel, recog-
nize, declare, confess, meditate etc. e. g.
y~n~lnn J ) n (Jeb. 4. 24.)
-~9 "D -1 V"?1' (Prov. 27. 22.)
The latin word idea is also derived from Y-] or "1
ideah in its translation of: meditate, reflect. Even the
latin word Deus from j'1)]-- V'"] Deuh, Deus, as
IRREG ULAR .VERBS.
representing the comprehension of the highest omnis-
cence. e. g.
1. IN 14 1-i n iMr (Job 32. 18.)
p 1im '9 gyN (Job 36. 2.)
2. l1T 1 tyV l (Pr. 73. 11).
1n 1 m I 1: (Sam. I. 2.3.)
The Eng. verb betide is irregular because the H*
root nj" death or dia' ends with a t. The Ger. verb
deuten, bedeuten is regular as already explained.
The Editor was most agreebly surprised in find-
ing the several conceptions of the diety contained in
this sentence. Will not the Hebraist observe the Mos-
lemrn Allah; My1 Deus of the Latins and the He-
braic n1jp Jehovah?
BID.-bid or bade-bid or bidden. A-S. biddan. Goth. bid-
dan. Ger. 1. bieten, geboten; 2. bitten, geboten; 3.
gebieten, geboten. This Eng. word has three different
definitions. The German has likewise three distinct
conceptions, and in fact the Hebrew has also three dif-
ferent roots as follows: 1. In the sense of offer Ger.
bieten from n3rt bitach or bitah (r ch,='f h) to prom-
ise, assure. e. g.
1-i 3rtIn n m n1 (Jer. 28. 15.)
Ip5Y c 3n nf't (Jer. 29. 31)
2. In the sense of request, invite Ger. bitten,
from 1) bie; r' or 1IV bei aid 1n, bead or bi(d.
All the three H. roots have the signif. of: request,
beg. e. g.
19~j 9' (Gen. 43. 20.)
9n 1'3 DN (Jes. 21. 12.)
W VIM "t13 (Modern Hebrew.)
In' fl 3 11':) (Lev. 16. 11.)
8. In the sense of: command, order. Ger. gebieten
as subst. gebot, from: ny biet, rnm3 biotah, to ex-
cite, command, terrify. e. g.
IT I w v Jl (Job 6. 4.)
? =nm ny n inmiN N, (Job 13. 11.)
The Eng. verb bid is irregular because all the H.
roots from which this Eng. word is derived have either
a vowal at the end, or contain an y y, or has a t, at the
end. The Ger. verbs also in all three cases are irregu-
lar for the same reasons.
BIND.-bound-bound or bounden. A-S. bindan. Ger. bin-
den. S1. wjazat. From H. root n)y bind (the y n,
transposed in the middle of the word.) Its signific: to
bind, restrain, I'flj bont, cord, rope. e. g.
ni.sn' (Micha. 7. 3.)
Y '1y ijm (Ez. 3. 25.)
The Eng. fetter. Ger. fessel, also the Eng. vassal,
Ger. vasall, are derived from the same root.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs bind, binden, are
irregular because the H. root contains an ; y, and has
a t, at the end of the word.
BITE.-bit-bit or bitten. A-S. bitan. Ger. beissen. From
the H. root j 1 bitah, and "'j) biter. Its defini-
tion: to cut, dissect-cleft, fissure, excission. e. g.
in If'n~t I (Jes. 5. 6.)
@n)( ?fn (Jes. 7. 19.)
n3 8 "1DE n 1( (Gen. 15. 10.)
1n1 py ji (Gen. 15. 10.)
The Ger. word wuth, woithend, and the S1. besni,
rage, raging; also the Eng. waste, and Latin vastatio,
devasto, are derived from the same H. root "n" wutha
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs bite, beisen are ir-
regular because the H. root jpp bitah has a h, at
BLEED.-bled-bled. A-S. bledan. Ger. bluten. From the
H. root ) 3 belet, with the parag. 1 i, lj'" bilti.
The translation of this H. word is varied, as fol-
lows: without, except, only, merely, and "total con-
sumption, until it is not."
The Eng. and Ger. bleed, blood; blut, bluten have
the signif. of the last definition of the H. root. e. g.
N3l1 ~K rn 73 (Gen. 47. 18)
1' "b'Wkt I = y L (Num. 21. 35)
The Eng. verb bleed, is irregular because the H.
root n~3 ends with a t; the Ger. verb bluten is reg-
ular as shown in the rule heretofore stated.
BLO W.-blow-blown. A-S. blawan. Goth. blesan. Ger.
blasen, geblasen. This word has two synonymous H.
roots. 1. V 3 blow, (y w.) 2. n ] balah,
Both the Hebrew words have the signif. of: make
to disapprove, destroy,-terror, calamity.
e. g. n min y b (Jes. 25. 8.)
.-N n] (Thr. 2. 2.)
-3'N1 -p N n- (Ezech. 26. 21.)
p13'. rnM mnri (Do. 27. 36.)
Both the En. and Ger. verbs are irregular be-
cause the H. roots V53 blow, and fl; ] balah
ending with an Y y, respect. a j- h. In both cases the
conjugation corresponding with the rule stated in the
BREAK.-broke,-broken. A-S. bracan or brecan. Ger.
brechen, gebrochen. This word has four different H.
roots: 1. fn' branch; 2. n prach; 3. 'E) prag
(9 g); 4. p'D prak.
All these four H. roots have besides other transl.
also the signif. of break in its various meanings, s fol-
lows: 1. n'3 branch, has the signif. of break (away);
2. "I prach, has the signif. of breakforth, break (of
day); 3. Y'Eprag, (j g,) broken (with grieve); 4.
p5 prak or shatter, destroy. From the last H. root
p)E prak, derive also fracture, fragment, fragile etc.
e. g. I b"VD in M t j (Gen. 31, 21)
'r2 Mimi rr (Lev. 14. 43)
br fl nipai yi=a (Jud. 5, 2)
"K'm hy y npiaim (Gen. 27, 40)
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs break, brechen are
irregular because the H. roots have in three cases a
(n h) or an y y at the end.
BREED.-bred, bred. A-S. bredan. Ger. briiten, gebritet.
This word is derived from three H, roots. 1. 5I"'I"
briah or r-n1" briat, and has the signif. of: food,
nourishment. 3. N'1~ or 'In bri: fat, healthy,
strong, e. g.
Xi' *1114Wi WK1 (Num. 17, 80)
WRI' Irlin I"13 (Ps. 70, 22)
n'101I nwIfKI (Gen. 41, 5)
The Eng. and Ger. words bread, brod, are also
derived from the root n1j' brot, food, nourishment.
The Eng. verbs breed is irregular because the
H. roots have a t, at the end; the Ger. briiten,gebriitet,
is regular as shown in the rule heretofore stated.
BRING.-brought-brought. A-S. bringan. Goth. briggan.
Ger. bringen, gebracht. Derived from the H. word
-:yj hebir. By the transposing of the y g, to the
end of the word (see the phonetic rule of this singular
character in the introduction) you have the word bring.
The H. word 'jIyn hebir, is transl. from the
root "juy ebour and its transl., to carry, bear, bring,
etc. From one place to an other. e. g.
arM -IU 7. in=zy (Exod. 13, 12)
I',: ry 4'MI 7 T-1=r (Exod. 33, 19)
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs bring, bringen are
irregular because the H. word ')y.j hebir, contains
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
an y g, and a h and this is indicated in the conjuga-
as gh, respective ch, brought, gebracht.
BUILD.-built-built or builded. A-S. byldan. Ger. bilden,
gebildet. From the H. roots ^1I bul or .IMI ibul;
12) ibulah, r fS1~ ibulat, like Eng. build.
The definition of 3 bul, to produce, increase;
that of 5, ibul, as verb bare, and carry mainly lead;
finally that of 7131 ibul, orjebul, as subst., provision,
wealth. From this last root are also derived the Eng.
bill and the latin bule, even as the Eng. weal, wealth.
1 a'132in ((Jer. 81, 9)
1 IK Dn b.In t '1 3 (Job, 40, 20)
'bt6=' r NK '-winn (Lev. 26, 4)
The Eng. verb build is irregular because the H.
Si=31 ibulat, has a t, at the end; the Ger. verb bilden
gebildet is regular, as shown in the rule heretofore in-
B URN.-burnt-burnt or burned. A-S. byrnan. Ger. bren-
nen, gebrannt. From the H. root "13 buer or bier.
Change the Y into n, and transpose it to the end, the
original H. Word is transformed into the Eng. burn.
Also from n-yU brant, the Eng. and Ger. words:
brand, brandy. Even from this H. root are derived
the Eng. beer and Ger. bier, Fr. hiere, for the transla-
tion of r 3 bier, is burned, (beverage), produced by
fire. We learn through analogy of this popular ex-
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
pression, how old the invention of this beverage may be
and who were the inventors of it. e. g.
%Vx 17= 11=11 (Exod. 3, 2)
i= mny- .1naiT (Esth. 1, 12)
The Eng. verb Burn is irregular because the H.
root ~~) buer or hier contain an V n and this is indica-
ted; also r' P'j brant has a t at the end. The Ger.
verb brennen, gebrannt is regular, for the H. root ends
with with a consonant, and does not use the Eng. gram-
BURAST.-burst-burst or bursten. A-S. berstan. Ger. bersten.
gebersten. This word is derived from the H. root
Y I puraz, or as a subst. i-y: pruzah and its sig-
nif. burstforth, overflow, afflict, break in pieces, and
breach, sudden calamity. e. g.
mnrio wh9y b6 (Ezech. 13, 5)
p'1 B rK -a (Amos, 9, 11)
The Eng. verb burst, and the Ger. verb bersten,
gehersten, are therefore irregular because each of both
nations let it derive from the H. root 1l1'l pruzah
and this H. word ends with a h.
BUY.-hought, bought. Goth. buyian. A-S. began. This
word is derived from the H. root J3'~Y bugah, or 1'y
begic the (y g) and its signif. to request, search, desire
and also pray obtrusively, to beg, etc. The Eng. word
beg, beggar is also derived from I)| begak in ,his
ease the meaning of: to pray importunately, obtrusive-
IrtItb y3=3 (Obad. 1, 6)
I' l w'1 P= b7 1 (Job 30, 24)
The Ger. does not use this H. word. The Eng.
verb buy is irregular because the H. root l[y bugah
ends with y g and an h and this is indicated in the
Eng. conjunction with g h, bought, bought.
CAN.-could. A-S. cannan. Ger. kann, konnte, k6unen.
This word is derived in Eng. from two different H.
roots: 1. np canah, or 1* ) kinjan, t make, acquire
and be appropriated to do an action. This H. root is
only used in the present tense in the Eng. language; the
imperfect being formed from the H. root. 2. v
ikoul, "-j*1 ikoult, like the Eng. could, and its trans-
lation is: to be able, capable of. e. g.
mI-7 np' 71= 'I (Prov. 18, 15)
n,'z mp 1) 1 (Prov. 4, 7)
m '1y anbs nal (Jud. 8, 8)
', N .'3 (II Reg. 18, 29)
Occasionally the very important Eng. grammati-
cal rule of using alternately the letter c or k, may
be elucidated as representing these consonants.This un-
til now unknown relation has a simple and facile solu-
tion in considering the following principal rule of the
Eng. orthography founded on the original sound re-
spectively the character of the H. root, from which the
Eng. word is derived, to-wit: In cases where the H.
root has the literal pronunciation as a ) k, the Eng.
word derived from it, is always written with a k; in the
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
other case, when the H. root has the literal prcnuncia-
tion as a c, then the related Eng. word is always
written with a c. An exception in such cases is only
permitted when this consonant has its position before a
vowel, and is written therefore with a k, instead of c,
preventing a false pronunciation like ce. There may
also be this exception when the Eng. word is taken
distinctively from the Latin, for that language does
never use nor apply the letter k. Also exceptionally
the letters r ch, g, are written and pronounced like
c. The latter case is more attributable to the corrup-
tion of the root sounds., as well as the pronunciation-
of the f ch like h.
In the following examples the attention of the
reader will be specially directed to this remarkable
Eng. Grammatical rule. In the work can here discuss-
ed, the noted rule is at once illustrated.
The Eng. verb can, could-is seemingly irregular
for there are two different H. roots. The Ger. kann,
konnte, kannen is irregular because the H. root l0
kenin ends with an n.
CAS T.-cast, cast. Fr. casser. Latin cassus and castratus. S1.
kosit. Ger. kassiren, kassirt. From the H. roots
C)0 passes, and j c' kast: to cast off, throw away.
The H. root y'P cazaz. has the same signification
DDip' rin~ n. (Ezech. 17, 9)
r v0= n ~ivn pi (Deut. 25, 12)
n inz .l11l (Lev. 22. 24.)
IRREG UIAR VERBS.
The Eng. work cast, is written with a c, because
the H. root DpD or ^p begins with a ) c. The
Eng. verb cast is irregular because the end letter t is
only a suffix to the H. root D) kasas, and is not nec-
essary to be repeated. The primitive lexicographers
recognized one suffix sufficient and were not inclined
to double it.
The Ger. verb kassiren, kassirt is irregular be-
cause the H. root ends with a consonant.
CATCH.-caught, caught. Sp. coger. The other culture
languages have no analogous word for this significa-
It is derived from the H. root Mpy or ni) lacach
or each, the definition of it is: take, receive and take
away, seize etc. e. g.
0* ':rMp' ''3 (Ps. 49, 16)
= to y KZ p' (Gen. 18, 4)
The Eng. word catch is written with a c because
the H. root Mi each begins with a p c. The Eng. verb
catch is seemingly irregular because it is one and the
same, ch or gh, representing the H. letter n.
CHIDE.-chid, or chidden. A-S. cidan. This word is not
analogically employed by any of the culture languages.
It is derived from the H. root rj1n chitat as sub-
stan .ve nn chitah. Its definition is: become broken
with shame, and affrighted etc. e. g.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
w2'1 1i (II Reg. 19, 26)
N MlnnN K~i ~ ~b imnn (Jer. 17. 8)
The Eng. verb chide is irregular because 1.
The H. root n-- chitat ends with a t, therefore:
chid, chid, and 2. chidden, because the H. subst.
nnn chitah, has an 1 h at the end,
See rule in the introduction.
CHOOSE.-chose, chosen. A S. ceosan. Fr. choisir. German
kiesen, or erkiesen.
This word is derived from the H. root fnl chusah
and its definition: see, look at, look for, search out,
choose. e. g.
Yi = mr mn mriU (Exod. 18, 21)
7t WW nrIM (Job 22. 29)
The Eng. and Ger. verbs choose, kiesen, are irreg-
ular because the H. root 'JlI chusah, ends with a
CLEA VE.-cleft or clove, cleft or cloven. A-S. clefian or
cleafan. Ger. kleben, klajfen.
This word is derived from two different H. roots
1. "5 chelaf or chalaf as subst. IE)n chelifah.
Its definition is various as follows: to change,
append, adhere to another thing, and to pierce, perfor-
ate etc. e. g.
li' 'n D r 'By rm~ (Job, 14 15)
'rip-i -7'nl mri (Jud. 5, 26)
2. y cleve (y v) has the similar definition as:
to carve, cut into and append, hang on. e. g.
yLpta 1 pby py5b (I. Reg, 6, 82)
crig OV9p (Exod. 27. 9.)
i.n pv 3 (I. Reg. 6. 84.)
The Eng. cleave is irregular because it may eith-
er be derived from ppn chalaf when the participle
case is then formed as cleft; or from p )cleve, with an
y at the end, and then the conjugation according to
the rule must be clove, cloven. The Ger. kleben, klaffen
is irregular, because the German derives them from the
root cel chelaf with a consonant at the end.
The Eng. word glue and the S1. glja of the same
definition as glue, are derived from the same root
9y cleve, signifying, cleave to.
The Eng. word cleave is written with a c, because
the H. root ; ) cleve begins with a ) c, and the oth-
er H. root chn chalaf with a n ch.
CLI.MB.-clomb, or climbed. A-S. climban or climnn. Ger.
klimmen, geklommen This word is derived from the
H. root 5 gal, plural O1? galim; 5 5 galgal
highest pinac'e. Its definition is as a subst. a high
heap of stones; a billow, wave; whirl pool, as a verb
5 galal: to welter, roll up etc. The end letter b, in
the Eng. verb climb is only a suffix. e. g.
"pT 'I J1 ^ (Ps. 37. 5.)
: -- I -L--)a I-p3D (Ps. 42. 8.)
%7-3 in ")p1' Ps. 77. 19.
The Latin climax is also derived from this H.
root, Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs climb and klim-
men are irregular because the H. root Q1 ends with
an C m. The Eng. word climb is written with a c,
because the H. root begins with a g, often changed
CLING.-clung-clung. A-S. clengan. The Ger. does not
use this word for a similar definition, but the Ger. verb
klingen has another entirely different sense and deri-
The Eng. verb cling has two different signifi-
cations. 1. to shrink up, wither, waste away. 2. to ad-
here, hold fast upon. There are in fact two H. roots
of the varied definitions, to-wit: 1. j1) calah, "1P
niclah, j1- clun, like Eng. clung and its translation
is: worthlessness, contempt, shame. 2. y i cing
(y ng) related with ~ cleve (Q v). See the verb
cleave already translated. e g.
S -prW nip7 (Deut. 25. 9.)
(Hos. 4. 7.)
The Eng. verb cling is irregular because the H
root 7l) dclun ends with an n, and is in this case pro-
nounced as well as in the present tense as in all moods
The Eng. word cling, is written wit a c, because
IRREG ULA? VERBS.
the H. root clun, begins with a p c.
CLOTHE.-clad or clothed-clad or clothed. A-S. clath,
clawthz or cloth. Ger. kleiden, gekleidet.
This word is derived from the H. root n-- n
chelozot or (1@^ n machlozot signifying as subst.
neat clothes. The H. verb V"n cheloz, signifies: to
gird, arm, set free and to fit out, equip etc. Change
the 1 ch into c and you have the A-S. cloth. e. g.
-")ri ni nprj (Jud. 15. 19.)
=m3N D nr l-y)jn (Num. 31. 3.)
The Eng. verb clothe, is irregular because the H.
root njijn chelozot ends with a t. The Ger. verb
kleiden, gekleidet is regular, because the H. root ends
with a consonant.
The Eng, word clothe is written with a c, because
the H. root yM cheloz begins with a M here like c.
COME.-come, came. See the verb become.
CREEP.-crept, crept. A S. creopan. This word is derived
from the H. root pn cheraf, r5'n cherpat, its
signification being as a subst: reproach, contempt, and
as a verb, contempt, stript of honor; deprived of all
right. The synon. Ger. kriechen, gekrochen is derived
from another analog. H. root n3 kerach, lpM3
kerchi, its signification being: to be bald, bare, humb-
led, abased etc. e. g.
IRREG ULAR ?VERBS.
-inn r M'l N7 (Job. 27. 6.)
"n n'M iY i (Ps. 55. 13.)
ip' ItIMI (Micha. 1. 16.)
=n1-1 M1) N171 (Jer. 16. 6.)
The Eng. verb creep is irregular because the H.
root Ip' cherpat ends with a t. The Ger. verb
kriechen is irregular because the H. root n')) kerach,
ends with a p ch. The Eng. word creep is written
with a c because the H. root Jp cheref begins with
j here like c.
CIROW.-crew or crowed-crown or crowed. A-S. crawan. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root NZiI cora
or the I w transposed to the end crow, its definition
being as subst. crow, Ger. krahe. S1. kura, Eng. cock and
as a verb: to cry, crow. Ger. krdhen. Fr. crier. S1.
krik. e. g.
1 N1 1 N~ 1P (Jer. 17. 11.)
'l m NPn !)11' (I. Sam. 26. 20.)
S 1p (Jes. 40. 3.)
The Eng. verb crow is irregular, because the A-S.
made it derive either from t' l* cora, ending with an
K a, hence the parti -iple case according to the rule
must be crown; or from N'1 crow, (the p w transposed
to the end), in so pronouncing the H. root ends with
a (1 w) consonant, and the partic. case may be crowed.
The Ger. let it derive only from 11P crow, and
therefore the verb krihen is always regular.
The Eng. word crow is written with a c because
the H. root Z'1-5 crow begins a p c.
CUT.-cut-cut. Goth. cota. Fr. couteau. The Ger. has no
analogous term for this word, wliich is derived from the
H. root "3g1 guded. Its translation is as follows: to
cut, make incisions, attack, cut down and also assem-
ble. From this last conception of this word is also de-
reved the Eng. word gather, gathering. e. g.
i-nnn N (Deut. 14. 1.)
MDM 111-ii ~) (I. Reg. 18. 28.)
The Eng. verb cut is irregular because the H.
root "]~[ gudd ends with a double d, and this being
indicated in all moods of the conjugation with a hrd t.
The Eng. word cut is written with a c, because the
H. root )l gudd begins with a ) g here like c.
DARE.-durst or dared-dared. A-S. dear. Goth. daurstan.
The Ger. has no analogous term for the Eng. word
dare, which is derived from the H. root "T' adar or
-"1" adarat, its signification being strong, mighty,
powerful, glorious etc. e.. g.
rn= i_% "I (Exod. 15. 6.)
"-lir *m n r i (Jes. 42. 21.)
=nnmI Mn-MV^ 1 (Zach. 11. 3.)
The Eng. verb dare is therefore irregular because
the H. root t" adar is often used as 'n adarat
and this modification is indicated in the imperfect
DEAL.--dealt or dealed-dealt or dealed. A-S. duelan. Goth.
dailyan. S1. djelit. Ger. theilen, getheilt.
This word is derived from the H. root 1"t. til or
L 0 ti tiltil, its translation being: to cast out, forth,
into-to be unsteady, movable etc. e. g.
^W (Ps. 37. 25.)
3 5D 7 5 '-7 (Jes. 22. 17.)
The Eng. verb deal is therefore irregular because
the H. root LO til, is often used as 73 tiltel, ex
pressing an enforcement of action, and this is indicated
with the hard t in the conjugation: dealt, deutlt.
DIE.-died, died. A-S. deadian. Fr. tuer. Ger. todten, ge-
tadtet. This word is derived from the H. root r,1*
diah or dajah, its definition being as subst. a bird of
prey. (This H. root is not used as a verb in the Bible).
The chald. word 'l- dio has the same translation
and the chald. word p'] deha signifies: black, dark,
.obscure. The analogical Eng. word die, ink, color is
derived from another H. root 'I, dio, of which the
translation is ink. e. g.
i-D-- im-- n 1 (Deut. 14. 13.)
P.1n11 p t:P V (Jes. 34. 14.)
I'-in nIS 5y Jnm (Jes. 36. 18.
The Eng. verb die is seemingly irregular. The
Ger. verb t6dten is regular; the d in the Eng. dead,
tod is only a suffix to the H. root.
DIG.-dug or digged-dug or digged. A-S. dician. The Ger.
has no analogous term for the Eng. word dig, which is
derived from the H. root ))1 dichech, or 4'm dechi,
or p ui du(Ch, its signification: to impell, overturn, push
away etc. The n ch of tile H root is in this case pro-
nounced like g. e. g.
I1M1 7PI n (Jer. 23..12.)
%** .. n4 (Ps. 116. 8.)
The Eng. word ditch is derived from the H. root;
and Eng. tlyke. Ger. deich from the H. root py dik or
dijek, its definition is: entrenchment, foss, dyke. The
Eng. verb dig is irregular because the H. root is often
used in its participle case in the form of I' duch.
DO.-did-done. A-S. don. Ger. thun, gethan. This word
has various significations and is in fact derived from
three different H1. roots. 1. (~ duduh, its defini-
tion is: to proceed gently, submissively, joyfully etc. 2.
pn atuh, come, bring, enter, etc. 8. ri~ aduh
r1*N- adot, its translation as subst is: a project, mean,
cause etc. e. g.
(nD13ti F1*1^ (Jes. 38 15.)
=. ^IVN NSm (Deut. 33. 21.)
TrW14 L., n"inr L%) (Jer. 14. 6.)
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
The Eng. and Ger. verbs do, thun, gethan are ir-
regular because all three H. roots mentioned herewith
end with a h.
DRA W.-drew-drawn. A-S. draqan. This word has various
difinitions and is derived from two H. roots: 1. y'-
draw (y w) or V'j-t adraw its signif is. as subst: arm,
power, force. (This word is peculiarly chald.) 2.
t2'l darvan, as subst. goad, yoke, (neither of the two
H. roots are found as verbs in the Bible). From this
last H. root is derived the Ger. verb treiben, getrieben
and the SI. trapit, both of which have the signification
of: to torment, rack, drive.
These two H. roots respond completely to the di-
verse definition of the Eng. word draw. e. g.
rp J1 inf f m(Dan. 2. 27.)
inl y1"1 (Exra. 4. 23.)
p "nn ri' i i( (I. Sam. 13. 21)
m".'j* IDj1 131a (Eccles. 12. 11.
The Eng. and Ger. verbs draw, treiben, getrieben
are irregular because the H. roots YV' draw, Iv3 n
darban, or darwan end with an y y respectively
DREAM.-dreamt-dreamt. Latin dormire. Fr. dormir. S1.
dremat. Ger. traumen, getrdumt.
This word is derived from the H. root =1'1 re-
dam, or as subst. nl3~ tardemah. Transpose the
letter d before the r and you have the Eng. word
dream. The definition of this H. root is as follows: to
be insensible, as in deep sleep; be in a trance, stupor
etc. e. g.
Y '1 113 811 (Jud. 4. 21.)
i-iT' g \ (Jona. 1. 5.)
1r"Dn m-i-') ")' )I (Gen. 2. 21.)
The Eng. verb dream is irregular because the H.
root "T1 redam is applied as subst. in the form of
i' 1n tardemah with a n t and this peculiarity is
indicated in the conjugation with a hard t. The Ger.
trdumen, getrdumt is regular because the H. root Q'1
redam ends with a consonant.
DRINKi.-drank-drunk or drunken. A-S. drincan. Goth.
drigken. Ger. trenken, getrunken.
This word is derived from the H. root ;i't triah.
Pronunce the p h at the end like g or k, which was
often allowed in the Hebraica (for example, the latins
pronounced the H. word ] 8 elohim like elokim.
Compare also that rule under the verb bake), and you
have the Goth word trigk. The letter n in the A-S. and
Ger. words drink, trinken is superfluous.
This H. root is not used as a verb in the Bible, on-
ly as a subst. and adjective, and its definition is: fresh,
moist-and matter suppurationn). e. g.
-" -I n s (Jud. 15. 15.)
S11) 1 (Jes. 1. 6.)
The Eng. word matter and Ger. materie and either
suppurationn) are also derived from this H. root ,i^
teriah with an m as a prefix: n ton material.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs drink, trinken,
trank, getrunken are irregular because the H. root
ends with a h; indicated in two different
forms of the participle, in A-S. owing to the reason
DRIVE.-drove-driven. -A-S. drifan. Goth. dre.ban. Sp.
drifva. Ger. treiben, getrieben.
This word is derived from the H. root IM'
darban or darvan and signifies as subst.: a goad, yoke.
See the verb draw where a complete explanation
of this H. word is given. Both The Eng. and* Ger.
verbs drive, treiben, getrieben are irregular because the
H. root J"I] darban ends with an I n.
D WELL.-dwelt or dwelled-dwelt or dwelled. Goth. dwala.
Dan. dwaele. The Ger. has no analogous term for this
Eng. word, which may be derived from two different
H. roots. 1. from ;7l dawa, and -)L el. 1?l daw',
has the definition of: to be desirous, longing.-L-) el
is a H. preposition for the Eng. to; L74 17- dawael
or dwael, to be desirous, longing for (one's home).e. g.
i1 t (Thr. 1. 13.)
S133 11 -m, 1 (Thr. 5. 17.)
2. From the H. root -~ dewel or n" JI
dwelat which is only used as a subst. in the Bible, and
signifies: to be joined, pressed, held together e. g.
-*n n nrO (I. Sam. 30. 12).
CP i 7r l (Jes. 20. 7.)
The Eng. verb dwell is regular; when it has the
signification of the first; and irregular when it has the
signification of the second; of the two different H. roots
as shown above. According to the rules heretofore
EAT.-eat or ate-eaten. A-S. etan. Latin edo. SI. jest. Ger
This word has a derivation from two H. roots. 1.
Irn chiah, or n4l chiat, has the definition of: giving,
preserving, restoring life-to nourish, maintain, sup-
port. The M ch is in this case "aspirated," as is fre-
quently resorted to in modern languages. e. g.
rst 7-" rIpn (Jes. 57. 10).
N90n C1~ S n Mn (Job 39. 39.)
2. From the H. root 11y zedak or 'i zaid, its
signification is: nourishment, food, provisions. The Y z
is here "aspirated" as in the above case. e. g.
-p3) n1n Mr0-It (Ps. 132. 15.)
tih rten nd) nnr b '(Gen. 42. 25).
Both the Eng. and Gor. verbs eat, essen, gegessen
are irregular because either of the H. roots JM
ehiah and fl~ zedah ends with an 11 h.
FALL.-fell-fallen. A-S. feallan. Ger. fallen, field, gefal-
len. *This word is derived from the H. root; L.)
nafal; its conjunction L an hafil, 4'^ afil; having
the definition of: to fall down, upon, on, into-to sink,
perish, etc. e. g.
in3.' 1 1-rl1 (Num. 17. 10.
ID n L53 t. 6 (Jer. 2. 12.)
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs fall, fallen, gefal-
len, are irregular because the H root L..3) nafal,
begins with an n and this sound n left out in the
"present and imperfect," is indicated in the participle
case of conjugation: fallen, gefullen.
FEED.-fed-fed. A-S. fadan. Ger. fittern, gefittert.
This word is derived from the H. root1E f fat, '-n
fiti as a subst. and n g fitet as a verb, and itS transla-
tion is: food, feed, meat, livelihood etc. e. g.
) Nrn InD (I. Sam: 12. 3.)
In(pln n : 7ns (Prov. 23. 8.)
The Eng. verb feed is irregular because the H.
root nmfitet ends with a t and this is indicated in all
conjugations of the verb.
The Ger. fiitern, gefiittert is regular because the
H. root ends with a consonant, and the Ger. does not
use this Eng. grammatical rule.
FEEL.-felt-felt. A-S. felan. Dut. voelen. Ger. fithlen,
gefiihlt. This word has various definitions and is de
rived from the H. root U fiel as a verb, p
feulah or n~;y feulat as subst. -This H. word has
in fact multifarious translations responding to the men-
tal and physical meanings of this expression, as follows:
to work, form, perform, practice-to perceive, medi-
tate, reflect-to effect, cause exciting irritation as well
in mental as in a physical sense-to requite, rewarding
or punishing etc. e. g.
11 n Si rtO 'Dy (Jes. 26. 12.
lr'. nn s Inm i (Jes. 61. 10.)
tx nx In"=1 eJes. 49. 4.)
The Eng. verb feel is irregular because the H.
root n.Ly feulat ends with a t. The Ger. verb
fiihlen, gefihlt is regular because the H. root y field
ends with a consonant.
FIG fT.--fought-fought. A-S. feoght, fechtan. Ger. fechten,
This word is derived from the H. root In~fuch-
ad or ;nI fachdah, and its translation is: to fear, be
agitated-to dread, cause to shake, to tremble etc. e. g.
1M Ino 1 E V (Ps. 14. 5.)
-mn njnD 3111 (Job. 4. 14.)
". ] n in N 1 (Jer. 2. 19.)
The Eng. verbfight is irregular because the H.
root 1"; fuchad ends with ad and this is indicated
in all conjunctions of this verb.
The Ger. fechten, gefochten is regular because the
H. root jfln0 fachdah from which the Ger. derives it,
ends with an 1 h.
FIND.-found-found. A-S. findan. Sw. finna. Ger. finden,
This word has various definitions and is derived
from the H. root -IE funah orfinah, in its transfigur-
ative r finot.
This word has in fact manifold significations in
conformity with the Eng. and Ger. various transla-
tions of this expression, to-wit: 1. to look out, for,
about. 2. to direct, to ply one's self. 3. to turn to
with affection, predilection. 4. to consider, reflect
upon. 5. to hope, expect. 6. to have a view, pros-
pect, aspect. 7. to be prominent, excellent-and many
other analogical conceptions.
l ro D(1 ((Exod. 2. 12.)
ili~i 1Y) 1' 1 (Deut. 1. 24.)
wn3 L- mls (Mal. 2. 4.)
i3n n3 ln)l (Eccles. 2. 11.)
13D 1 in (Job. 6. 28.)
Sy .j D i~,f^ (Ezech. 9. 2.)
9n ~'D 13- l r J1n (Jud. 20. 2.)
The Eng. verbfind is irregular because the H.
root ~3S finot from which the A-S. derived it, ends
with a t, and this is indicated in all conjugations of this
verb. The Ger. finden, gefunden is irregular because
the Ger. derives it from the H. root (. n finah and
this form ends with a A h.
ANOTATION:-It will be observed in the above paradigm that this verb has
many significations in the Hebrew and the eminent lexicographers
Walker, Webster and Worcester present the synonyms quite compre-
hensively, but in no case do they go to the Hebrew root which so clear-
ly and positively shows the phonetic characters and its definition of
this verb. It will also be found in subsequent verbs in this treatise,
that our learned dictionary makers define verbs by as many as twen-
ty or more different meanings and applications, when in reality the
Hebrew root is simply a compound verb or composed of two distinct
The Editor explains this status of multifarious defining of verbs
to the fact, that nearly all Hebrew roots have three or more meanings.
Aside from these however, each root is conjugated into seven distinct
forms to-wit: into Kal, Niphal, Plel, Pual, Hiph i, Hophal and Hith-
pael, which simply show the change in the alteration of the vowels,
while the latter four forms receive both altered vowels and prefixes.
Thus it will seen why so many definitions and applications appear in
our modern Lexicons.
FLEE.-fled-fled. A-S. fleon. Dut. vlieden. Ger. fliehen,
This word is derived from the H. ; ia vlah, or
*5 vli, "l viot, and has the significations of:
grow old, disappear, vanish pass away, perish, destroy,
annihilate etc. e. g.
n3 1 '"w il m n (GenJ 21. 18. 1)
n ^t' n c(Thr. 3. 4.)
cn=110 :31O 1v (Job 21. 13.)
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
The Eng. verb flee is irregular because the H.
root rnj 3 vlot, from which the A-S. derived it, ends
with a t, and this is indicated in the inperfect and partic.
cases of the conjugation.
The Ger. fliehen, geflohen is irregular because the
H. root v a vlah ends with a I h.
FLING.--flng-ung- ng. A-S. fleon. The Ger. does not use
this word as a verb, but it appears in his language as
an adjective:flink, meaning, agile, brisk, quick. It is
derived from the H. root 5) feleg or fileg; ~b ni-
flag. Transpose the n after the I and you have the
Eng. wordfling. The definition of the H. root 'n)
is a follows: to set apart, separate, divide,--disperse,
scatter etc. e. g.
Y-); n r 3 r3 (Gen. 10. 25.)
a.3 gf..) _) J (Ps. 55. 10.)
.The Eng. verbfling is irregular because the prop-
er H. root being E)'fliieg or flag, the sound ; n is
simply an auxiliary form in the H. grammar, denoting
the passive conjugation of the verb. The Eng. gram-
marian was quite judicious in not committing the error
of doubling his prefixes, hence: fling, flung,flung.
FL Y.-flew-flown. A-S.fleogan orflig. Dut. vliegen Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root )= veleg
in its transformation --n, hivlig, i7~ V, vligah
and its translation is as follows: to rise up, to be ele-
vated, heightened-made glad, exhilerated. e. g.
n-' $8 D-D r g (Job. 10. 20.)
'=-3M vV In (Ps. 39. 14.)
The Eng. belly. Latin bulga. A-S. belg. Ger.
balg, are also derived from the H. root 5Ie beleg,
meaning: to be swelled.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbsfly and fiegen, ge-
flogen are irregular because the H. word i" b vli-
gah from which they are derived end with an h.
FOLD.-folded-folden or folded: A-S. fald. Ger. falten.
The word is derived from the H. root t Q falat;
as a substant. In )j fletah. Its definition is various
as follows: to escape, deliver, guard safely-to conceal,
to plait etc.
The following two examples correspond to the last
meaning of the H. root.
):tt'n N j^ Cm O bn (Job 21. 10.)
n Di-1 OPn -I~V (Micha. 6. 14)
The Eng. verb fold is irregular because the H.
root "fJtfletah ends with an 'I h. The Ger. falten,
gefaltet is regular, because the Ger. derives it alone
from the H. root toL folt, and this ends with a con-
FORGE T.-forgot-forgotten orforgot. See the verb get.
FORGIVE.-forgave-forgiven. See the verb give.
FORSAKE.-forsook--forsakef. A-S. forsacan. The Ger.
has no analogous term for this Eng. word, which may
be derived from two different H. roots: 1. n sach-
ach meaning: to remove, reject. 2. n:) sakach
meaning: to forget, disregard, neglect, e. g.
Ilnn nr t- (Exod. 28. 28.
VIP n "IM nN = tM=7 (Jes. 65. 12.
The Eng. word forsake is'a compound from the H.
roots "T' forar, and MIl sachach. "TI for-mean-
ing: to annul, shatter, frustrate etc. This prefix is ap-
plied as well in the Eng. as the Ger. language to more
forcibly express the definition of the action, and there-
fore frequently implying the antithesis of the original
verb forget-contrary to get. The Eng. word sake as
as a subst. meaning: cause, reason, is derived from an-
other H. root j]) sakah, and signifies: to have a legal
claim, e. g.
S"t 11%" ~' r (o(Job 15. 14.
The Ger. identical word sache derives from the
same H. root.
The Eng. verb forsake is irregular because the H.
roots nni sachach and M'it sakach end with a p ch.
FREEZJE.-froze-frozen. A-S. frysan. Ger. frieren, ge-
This word is derived from the H. root Y'V foraz
;~1'TJ frizah meaning: to break down, burst, afflict
-be violent, calamitous etc. e. g.
= 2Wi M v r nM (Jer. 7. 11.
m;Y "): nriM ynv10 (Jes. 35. 9.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs freeze and frieren,
ge froren are irregular because the H. root ;iy
frizah ends with a 'I h.
See the verb burst.
FREIGHT.-fraught.-fraught. Dut. vragten. Ger. frachten,
This word is derived from the H. root 'Qy
hebar, v ]y evurah or MJ.J1 evuhrat. Trans-
pose the y g after the r and you have vragat like the
Eng. freight. The definition of this H. word
is: to carry, remove, take or put away etc. e. g.
S'.1--? .1. 9DM N" (Gen. 27. 21.
The Eng. verb freight is irregular because the H.
root n'll)y evurat ends with a n t. The Ger. verb
frachten, gefrachtet is regular because the H. root
ends with a consonant.
See the verbs bear and bring.
GELD.-get-gelt-e Sw. gaela. Ger. gelten (rarely used).
This word is derived from the H. root y)q gael,
meaning: to reject, cast away,-be loathed, abhorred.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
In : 'l 7yn Lt1 (Lev. 26. 12.
p1f3l1 1T i 3 1177a ; m (Ezech. 16. 45.
The Eng. word gall, and the Ger. galle are deriv-
ed from the same H. root `y~) gael.
The Eng. verb geld is irregular because the proper
root is Y) gel and the din the word geld being an
affix, the Eng. grammarian will not needlessly re-
peat this affix, therefore: geld, gelt, gelt.
GET.-got-gotten. A S. getan. Ger. matter,,. Eng. gather
are derived from the H. roots g -"a g tdh and "1
gadad meaning: assemble.
See the verb beget.
GILD.-gilt-gilt. A-S. gildan. Ger. vergolden. This word
is derived from the H. root gL gal and signifies
mainly to redeem by paying value for, retribute-set
at liberty etc. e. g.
7"1 3 Yin D nN 'n1r)1 (Exod. 6. 6.
} nl n -^D-3 (Lev. 25. 29.
The Eng. and Ger. word gold is derived from the
same H. root.
The Eng. verb gild is irregular because the proper
H. root is L.4 gol and the d in the word g Id being
an affix, the Eng. grammarian held it necessary to dou-
ble this affix, therefore the conjugation: gild, gilt, gzlt.
The Ger. verb vergolden, vergoldet is regular be-
cause the H. root ends with a consonant.
GIRD.-girt-girt. See the verb begird.
GIVE.-gave-given. A-S. gif'n. Ger. geben, gegeben.
This word may be derived from two H. roots. 1.
7Jr chafan or chifan. In this case the ( is pro-
nounced like g and you have the A-S gifan. This H.
word is only used as a substant. in the Bible, IQnl
gifni, ]n gifnim and has the definition of: the
hands full, as to contain something. e. g.
mn p I DN 1 (Lev. 16. 12.)
1930 mirl D N 1D (Prov. 30. 4.)
In post biblical writings this H. root is also used
as a verb.
2. 3=j jihv in its transformation IM" habeh or
have; ="t habi or havi, meaning: to give, allow-to
procure, provide etc.. The ;, A (as often used), pro-
nounced like i g you have the word gabe like the Ger.
gabe and Eng. give. e. g.
1 n (Gen. 30. 1.
nn 'l ln (Ruth 3. 15
-13 (Jud. 1. 15.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs give, and geben,
gegeben are irr gularbecause the H. root nCM gifan
ends with an n, and the second H. root fln habeh or
have from which it is derived ends with an j h. In
both cases the participle must be shown with an n at
the end according to the rule.
G0.-went--gone. A-S. ga or gan. Dan. gaa. Ger. gehen,
This word is derived from the H. root O1^ gaah
or geah, and has the definition of: to grow high, be-
coming upright, lofty, elevated-to be proud, powerful
etc. e. g.
11 n (Jes. 2. 12.
N17 r, l I (Exod. 15. 1.
The Eng. imperfect went (the same as the Ger.
wenden, wandte) is derived from another H. root
E:. fenah, fenat meaning: turn himself to go
away. e. g.
S i n rwi3) f (Jer. 6. 5.
-j1 1"3) niJ (Rant. Cant. 6. 1
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs go and gehen, ge-
gangen, are irregular because the H. root j'* gaah,
ends with an I h.
G~RA VE.-graved-graven. A-S. grafan. Dan. grave. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root y gray
(Q v) and its translation is: to take away, draw off, di-
minish etc. e. g.
1 0 y' DD in 71 (Deut. 13. 1.
n 1 j)D mr j )D *" (I. Reg 6. 6.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs grave, and graben,
gegraben. are irregular because the H. root yi gray
ends with a V y.
This word is in the sense of the German gravieren:
GRIND.-ground-ground. A-S. grindan. Frs. grunen. Ger.
grimmen or ergrimmen, ergrimmt (to be furious.)
This word is derived from the H. root )*J gerem
10'1 gremi, like the Ger grimm (change the r m in
I n and you have the Eng. grin. The d in the Eng
word grind is merely an affix.)
The definition of the H. word Q)3 gerem is as
follows: to cut, spoil, destroy, bruise, crush etc. e. g.
"nWn nIWvin nNW (Ezcch. 23 84.
-' 13 = tmninL1 (Num. 24. 8.
The Eng. verb grind, is irregular because the
proper H. root is C)- gerem, and the d in the Eng.
word grind being an affix. The Eng. grammarian held
it unnecessary to double this affix; therefore: grind,
ground, ground. The Ger. grimmen or ergrimmen,
ergrimmt is regular, because the H. root ends with a
GROW.-grew-grown. A-S. grown. Dan. groe. Sw. gro.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this Eng.
verb, which is derived from the H. root 01" qroah
meaning: to produce, excite, stimulate etc. e. g.
11D mi~ tn tN (Prov. 15. 18.
"r I m~ ann nnD (In. Reg. 14. 10.
The Eng. verb grow is irregular because the H.
root '~ a.goah ends with an h.
HANG.--hung-hung. A-S. hangian. Ger. hangen, gehan-
This word is derived from the H. root YVI ikan
fy n) in its transformation: VI'T hokan. Transpose
the y n from the end to the middle, and you have the
The definition of this H. word is: to become dis-
located, to fall away, to suspend, hang, etc. e. g.
Cm Ipm11 (Num. 25. 4.
IP.I nli n1 (II. Sam. 21. 13.
The Eng. verb hang is irregular indicating in this
manner the transformation of the original verb yP ikan
in YPin hokan ard the transposition of the y n from
the end in the midst of the word.
The Ger. verb hangen, gehangen is irregular be-
cause the H. root ends with an y y.
HA VE.--had-had. A-S. haban. Latin haber. Fr. avoir.
Ger. haben gehabt.
The Eng. word have is derived from the H. root
ipit havah, meaning: to be, and sometimes to have;
in its conjugation ~ i hait meaning: was, and some-
The I.atin and Ger. derived this word from the
H. root iJfT ihab, meaning: to have property, effects,
(like the Ger. word as subst. die habe). See the verb
give. e. g.
UIn VWN -in~ip (Jer. 3. 1.
J"l -lRI" -I~ rr (Gen. 33. 9.
:j '1I i ~,n (Ps. 55. 23.
The Eng. verb have is irregular because the H.
conjugation of the verb fl11l havah being n-~1 hait,
this is distinctly shown in the imperfect and participle
The Ger. verb haben, gehabt is regular, because
the H. root 3n" ihab from which the Ger. derives it,
ends with a consonant.
HEAR.-heard-heard. A-S. hiran or herah. Ger. hdren
This word is derived from the H. root ) J ur, in
its conjugation fln heir, and its definition is: to
arouse, awake, excite, stir up etc. e. g.
IJnt nJ 'l yji3 r (Ps. 57. 9.
% 4 (Jes. 50. 4.
The Eng. word ear, Ger. ohr, Fr. oreille, Latin
auris, are derived from the same H. root "ly ur,
(chald) "lI ir, or Jy er, its meaning as subst: a
watcher. e. g.
nW p P1 ipl 1 (Dan. 4. 10
Th e 1 iE g ver ha (Cant. 5. 2.
The Eng. verb hear is irregular, because the
proper H. root being 19 ur the h in s~y heir is
simply a prefix, and the Eng. grammarian indicated
this connection in an irregular conjugation of the verb.
The Ger. verb hAren, gehdrt, is regular because
the H. root ends with a consonant.
HEAVE.-hove or heaved-hoven or heaved. A-S. hebban.
Goth. hafjan. Frs. hefa. Ger. heben, gehoben.
This word is derived from the H. root uY .f, in
its conjugation FTyV heif. The definition of this H
word is: to rise upward, to raise, lift, elevate, to fly,
etc. e. g.
S '7 ae 3 (Job 5. 7,
Miinn np3p Msn (Job 11. 17.
17 '"IV= (Jes. 31. 5.
This Eng. word up and the Ger. oben, are derived
from the same H. root.
The Eng. and the Ger. verbs heave, and heben,
gehoben, are irregular because the H. root l1 uf
jtlgn heif, contains an y y, and this is indicated in
the participle case wit an n.
HELP.-helped or holp-helped or holpen. A-S. helpan.
Dan. hielpe. Sw. hjelpa. Ger. helfen, geholfen.
This word is derived from the H. root e lap
p1.y) help or help. The -] h is simply a prefix in
the H. conjugation. The definition of this H. root is
as follows: to be protected, covered, overlaid, wrapped
up and-to be fainted etc. e. g.
C-1',mD M']e( (Cant. 5.15.
mn i 1 b' ~ Dn n i (Gen. 38.14
13i 1l-" (Jes. 51. 20
Both the Eng. and Ger. verbs help and helfen,
geholfe, are irregular because the H. root ey elp,
contains an y y, and this is indicated in the partici-
ple case with an n.
HE W.--hewed-hewn. A-S. heawan. Ger. hai.en, gehauen.
This word is derived from the H. root 1I hou or
)11 hoi. In the H. language this word was used only
as an interjection of: exhortation, threatening, grief or
as an exclamation of: woe, pain, ache. The modern
culture languages have formed a verb from of this
word f'"--"1" hou, awou has the same
meaning as the Eng. 0! woe, and the Ger. Au weh!
CD 9 VD, 1 n (Jes. 17. 12.
Ni3n ^1~ l (Jes. 1. 4.
i-- 'in nr mn 33 (Amos 5. 16.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verb hew and hauen, ge-
hauen re irregular because the H. roots 1 ', )111 hou,
hoi end with a vowal and are so pronounced. This is in-
dicated in the participle case with an n.
HIDE.--hid-hid or hidden. A-S. hyde. Ger. halten, gehiltes
This word is derived from the H. root *"' chud
as a'verb, l'"n ohidah as subst. The ch, in this
ease pronounced as an 1 h and you have the Eng. hide
as well as the Ger. hlt, hilten.
The definition of the H. verb '"lp hud is: to with-
draw from sight or knowledge, conceal secretly-figura-
tivtly: to cover, shelter, screen "etc. The H. subst.
r '1' hidah meaning: a riddle, problem, e. g.
r-rin 0 83 m nT'l (Jud. 14. 12.
M lin ~N p (Ezech. 17. 2.
The Eng. verb hide is irregular because the H.
root *"n hidah, from which the A-S. derived it,
ends with a h. '1 he Cer. verb hiiten, gehiltet is reg-
ular because the Ger. derived it from the H. verb "iM
hud with a consonant at tha end.
HTT.-it--hit. Dan. hitte. Sw. hitta. S1. chitit.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this Eng. verb
which has various definitions and is in fact derived
from two differe nt H oots having different significa-
1. nrr chitet, subst. npnl chitah. The M ch
pronounced as h, and you have the Eng. word hit,
and the Sw. hitta. Its translation is: to shiver, affright
ruin, spoil, strike, injure etc. e. g.
n1n'?ni nn.m (Job 7. 14
=,nn Dnni ntm (I. sam. 2. 4.
2. -1-I chided, n ch pronounced as 1 A and you
have the word hidd, its meaning is: to be keen, pointed
sharp. e. g.
S-ir n 3) L) (Prov. 27. 17.
1 1 ~1 171i (Hab. 1.8.
The Eng. verb hit is irregular because the H. root
"nn hitet and lin hided end with a double \ t
respectively, a double d. This is indicated through
all conjugations with a hard t.
HOLD.-held-held or holden. A-S. healdan. Sw. hall.
Ger. halten, gehalten.
This word has various definitions and is in fact de-
rived from three different H. roots, the signification of
which imply all interpretations of this verb.
1. 1 rn heled or enl cheldi (the r ch pro-
nounced as 1 h, rendering it: held.) This H. root is
used only as a subst. in the Bible and its definition is:
time, duration etc. e. g.
-p 1 p 1 nl m (Ps. 39. 6.
bnPI p0' D 7- (Job 11. 17.
2. n chelet, (M ch pronounced as i A resulting
helt). Its definition is: to ascertain, affirm, ratify etc.
13DDtn (I. Reg. 20. 83.
Nt3n It (Cliald: bill of ratification.)
3. -fl'n hail '1L7p, heli, -1L-)) heilah nST
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
heilat (the M ch pronounced as ,I A). Its signifi-
cation is as follows: be strong, durable-to hold
out, last, persevere and many other definitions.
~~t' w -1v L)M1 (Gen. 9. 10.
(em l31l n (Ps. 18. 33.
The Eng. hold is irregular because the H. roots
y n held and oL" helt end with a d, respectively:
t, and the root n I n hailah ends with a j- A-con-
formably to these differentH. roots; in the participle
case of the vnrb hold is: held or holden.-The Ger.
verb halten, gehalten, is irregular because the IT. root
j-I- 'in hailah, from which the Ger. derived it, ends
with an 1 h.
HlURT.-hurt-hurt. It. urtare. Fr. heurter. The Ger. has
no analogous term foi this Eng. verb, which is derived
from the H. roots t)pn and In hurat, meaning: to
out, engrave etc. e. g:
n SIM n- m 9- n1ri (Exod. 32. 16
'3N t3'n (Jes. 8. 1.
The Eng. verb hurt is irregular because the H.
root I, pn hurat end with a t and this is in-
dicated through all conjugations with a hard t.
KEEP.-kept-kept. Goth. kippa. A-S. cepan. Sw. kapa.
Ger. kapern, gekapert. This word has various defini-
tion and is derived from two different H. roots; the sig-
unification of which imply all interpretations of this verb
(See annotation under the verbfind, and its definition.
1. )a kapap as a verb, meaning: to bend, bow
down; 1- kap as a subst. meaning: the hand, palm
of the hand.
From this last H. word the modern languages de-
rive their conceptions of: take, seize, acquire, gripe etc.
C 1S 7]p '" (Ps. 146. 8.
lp3 101~ K31 (II. Reg. 18. 21.
2. nn kapap, (the p ch pronounced as k) its
definition is: to cover, protect, guard, to take care of
=i jbl 1'9 lMln (Deut. 33. 12.
*' 11 NL 1 "pm In (Job 33. 10.
The Eng. verb keep, is irregular because the two
H. root, JO and Pn kapap, end with a double,
and this is indicated in the imperfect and participle
cases with a short and hard t. The Ger. verb kapern,
gekapert, is regular; because the H. root : kap, ends
with a consonant.
KNEEL.-knelt-knelt. A-S. kneowian. Dan. knoele. Fr.
agenouiller. Latin genu (knee). Ger. knien, gekniea.
Sanscrit janu *).
This word is derived from the H. root y1j kne ox
knaw; Vl3N aknie or akniaw (y w. Its signification
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
is: to humble, debase, bring down. L el is an af-
fix signifying: to. We have therefore the Eng.
verb kneel being a compound word to-wit: ---U3
kne-el. o. g.
0 111-) Vn )t 1N (Lev. 26. 41.
71=3 M =01311i (Ps. 81. 15.
The Eng. verb kneel, is irregular because being a
compound word. this is indicated in the imperfect and
participle cases with a hard t. The Ger. verb knien,
gekniet is regular. in order to note the distinction be-
tween the infinitive and participle, but chiefly to avoid
the contact of two sorts of n.
The Eng. word kneel is written with a k because
the H. root yV kne begins with a ) k. See the rule
under the verb can.
*) For the benefit of the Indo-Germano philologists
their attention is directed to this Sanscrit word. Does
not the H. word y kne and -3 kne-el show
the true derivation? Every linguistic synonism is
given, but no where do we find the H. original word
in any modern lexicons.
KNIT.--knit-knit. A-S. cnytan. Dan. knytta. Ger. knoten,
This word is derived from the H. and Chald: root
"jS kenot or knot, which is only used as i substant:
in the Bible, and its meaning is: to be associated, uni-
ted, a companion etc. The Eng. word knot and the
Ger. knoten as suibstant: are derived from the H. root
r1m133 81 HNlCO (Ezra. 4. 7.
ni' ii n 311=-n 1 (Ezra. 5. 6.
The Eng. verb knit is irregular because the H.
root 'r3) knot ends with a t and this is indicated
through all conjugation of this verb with a hard t.
The Ger. verb knoten is regular because the H.
root ends with a consonant. The Eng. word knit is
written with a k, because the H. root m 3 kenot ends
with a ) k.
KNO W.-knew-known. A-S. cunnan. Latin gnosco. Fr. con-
naitre. Ger. kennen, gekannt.
This word is derived from the H. root 1I) kun, its
transformation 1JD kunen 1J3 nakon. The defini-
tion of this H. word is: to fashion, set in order, to
fix, establish, confirm, to be sure, true, certain etc. e. g.
"MN D 1 1331~~ (Job. 31. 15.
Iv 1)pn '1r (Ps. 81. 22.
D ful :. (Hosea6. 3.
p i 11 p N SL-1 (Jud. 12. 6.
The Eng. verb k ,ow is irregular because the H.
root 1J kun ends with an n. The Ger. verb kennen,
gekannt is regular, in order to note the distinction be-
tween the infinit: and participle and particularly to
avoid the repetition of two n's.
The Eng. word know is written with a k because
the H. root j') kun begins with a k.
LADE.-laded-laded or laden. A-S. laden. Ger. laden,
This word has various definitions in the Eng. lan-
guage, and is in fact derived from three different H.
roots of diverse meanings.
1. t)'-) or 11:? lut or latah, or ON- loat.
The definition of these similar H.words are: to conceal,
hide, to cover, charge etc. e. g.
i7 DtSy Mi1 W (L. Sam. 21. 10
0 8N- 93^ 0 '1 (I. Reg. 19. 18
V1)D n" c (11. Sam. 19. 2.
2. LI jelad, II, ladah, 'frj ladat, their
meaning is: to bring forth, produce,-to draw out, to
D I'?L.1 MD (Prov. 27. 1.
i1'1 T D ) V 3. (Job 38. 29.
3. Vi taen, with the H. preposition i I to t]
lataen, meaning: to load, to pierce through. e. g.
D;-19 n" 1~_~ (Gen. 45. 17.
Wn ~3Y73D (Jes. 14. 19.
The Eng. verb lade is regular or irregular in refer-
ence to the H. root from which it is derived; either
with a vowel at the end or with a consonant. The Ger.
laden, geladen, is always irregular because he derives
it alone from the H. roots jto latah with an ", h
at the end, or \Jy lataen ending with an n. e. g.
LAY.-laid.-laid. A-S. leagan. Goth. lagyan. S1. liha.
This verb differs from the verb lie only through
grammatical usage: lie, laid, lain. Ger. liegen, gelegen,
It is derived from the H. root .itl liah meaning:
to be weary, faint, make very tired, etc. e. g.
jnn ,I nj- ^D Ii (Gen. 19. 11.
Ml t' n '- (Jes. 1. 14
Both Eng. and Ger. verbs lie and liegen, gelegen
are irregular because the H. root riNL liah ends
with an 1 h.
The active verb lay, Ger. legen, gelegt is here ap-
parently regular in order to show a difference in the
neuter and active form of the verb.
LEAD.-l-lel--ed. A-S. laedan. Dut. leiden. Ger. leiten, ge-
This is a compound word derived from the H. root
'jY ied with the H. preposition 5 1, meaning to (*YVs
leied. The y y transposed after the "1 d, and you have
leide.) Its definition is: to guide, conduct-to appoint,
determine,-to assemble, bring together, to fix, agree,
etc. e. g.
r m'iY 133S ID (Exod. 21. 9.
;P1 i] 1DD 'D V(Jer. 49. 19.
The Eng. word meet, meeting; Ger. gemeinde de-
rive from the same root, for the H. verb -~f led in its
conjugation 'IJ'I meid, J'iJV n meida, (or the y y
pronounced like n, meinde), 9 a moed, 1flnJD
meuda, means: a coming together, an assembly, con-
gregation, a season, solemn feast, etc.
The Eng. verb lead is irregular because the H.
root 1Y' ied ends with a d and this is indicated
through all conjugation with a d at the end.
The Ger. leiten, geleitet is regular, because the H.
root ends with a consonant.
L.ZAN.-leant-leant. A-S. hlinian. Dut. leunen. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root 15 lun or
15 lin; as a subst. ,yi linah, nl linat. Its de-
finition is: to lodge, remain-to pass the night, to be
lying, to abide, dwell upon, etc. e. g.
14"- n 3l) inn y (Ps. 25. 13.
1-' =p1 =0 (Ger. 24. 25.
S1 I p-i. (Jes. 1. 21.
The Eng. and Ger. word land derives from the
same root. The Eng. verb lean is irregular because
the H. root .> linat, from which the A-S. derived
it, ends with a j t, and this is indicated in the imper.
foot and participle cases with a hard t at the end.
The Ger. verb lehnen, gelehnt is regular because
the H. root 1~ un lin, or I lun ends with a conso-
nant, but particularly to avoid the repetition of the
LEAP.-leaped or lept-leape or lept. A-S. hleapan. Swv
loepa. Ger. laufen, gelaufen.
This is a compound word derived from the H. root
.U 'ufor y ofef with the H. preposition 1,
meaning to: 1 ) leup, or leuf. Its signification is:
to fly away, upon-to run-to disappear etc. e. g.
nip ni V- 1t = 1^ (Job 5., 7.
nM=sNI 11M.M (P:-. 55. 7.
r' = n: (Job 20. 8.
The Eng. word up, and the Ger. auf and oben de-
rive from the H. root 11 up. The Eng. verb leap is
irregular because the H. root nEy ofef, from which
it is desived ends wit i double p, and this is indicated
in the imperfect and participle cases with a hard and
soft t. The Ger. verb laufen, gelaufen, is irregular
because the H. root .) euf contains an p y and this is
indicated in the participle case with an n ;t the end.
LEARN.-learnt-learnt. A-S. laeran or lear. Sw. laera.
Ger. lernen, gelernt.
This is a compound word derived from the H. root
Sor wish the preposition L 1 meaning: to, 'IJ)
IRREG ULARN VERBS.
leor. Its definition is; to light, .shine-to be bright,
enlightened, illustrious-to be instructed, illumined
in mind and with knowledge. e. g.
DnV 1D 1 (Ps. 119. 130
Ci"in "11) 1N (Job 33. 30
Vr'V lt' n1 (Ezra. 9. 8.
The Eng. verb learn is irregular because being a
compound word, this is indicated in the imperfect and
participle cases with a hard t. The Ger. verb lernen,
gelernt is regular, because the H. root "11 or, ends
with a consonant. The Ger. verb lehren (teach) Lat-
injura, is derived from another H. root jirah or
jurah, with the H. preposition L 1 meaning: to.
1*1' leirah signifying: to teach, instruct. The Old
Ger. purposely designed to show the grammatical dif-
ference, by affixing to one of the verbs an n, between
the two analogous words: lehren and lernen.
LEAVE.-left-left. A-S. laefan. Frs. leva. Ger. 1. erlau-
ben, erlaubt; 2. Lassen, gelassen. This Eng. verb
has various definitions and is in fact derived from two
different H. roots.
1. 2L lev, or 3"? levav as a subst. meaning: the
heart; as a verb: to consent, permit, comply heartily.
From this H. root is derived the Ger. verb crlau.
ben, erlaubt j'? laubeb. e. g.
-', p ]( (Ps. 20. 5.
innN ^3 E (cat. 4. 9.
2. = y esav, with the H. preposition b 1, mean
ing to: 1UL.) lesav corresponding with the G6r. Verb
lassen, gelassen. Its definition is manifold to-wit: to
leave behind, to forsake, neglect, go away from, to en-
trust, leave with, bequeath, to give up or abandon, etc.
Q 3w 10 (Gen. 39. 13.
1'V- n 131''1 (Jeh. 8. 17.
iM' 133 (Ps. 88. 11.
130 Mz n (Exod. 23. 5.
The Eng. verb leave is irregular because the 1st:
H. root :1J levav ends with a double b; and the
2d. Eng. verb leave in the sense of the H. root ]eV esav
"]V], lesav is a compound word. In both cases this
condition is indicated in the imperfect and participle
cases with a hard t. The G -r. verb lassen, gelassen is
irregular because the H. root =7Y esav contains a y y.
The Ger. verb erlauben, erlaubt is regular however,
because the related H. root "3 laubeb, ends with a
consonant. From this H. root "My esav, "7) lesav,
is also derived the Eng. verb let,
LEND.-lent-lent. A-S. leanan. Goth. leTwan. Ger. leihen,
This word is derived from the H. root nl(j luwaA,
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
mf 53 nilwah, P1n khilwah. Its signification is: to,
borrow, lend-to join, attache, etc. e. g.
^DD ^"1' (Neh. 5. 4.
S(Deut. 28. 12.
The Eng. verb lend is irsegular because the H.
root being ly1 luwah or lewah, (identical with the
Goth. leiwa). This evidently corrupted derivation of
the original root is indicated in the imperfect and par-
ticiple cases with a hard t. The Ger. verbs leihen, ge-
liehen is irregular because the H. root j1 q luwah
ends with an 'I h.
XET.-let-let. A-S. laetan. Goth. letan. Ger. lassen, gelas-
This wosd is derived from the H. root ry esav
jyV lesav. See the verb leave.
1. LIE.-lay-lain. A-S. leagan. Goth. ligan. Ger. liegen
gelegen. See the verb lay.
2. LIE.-laid-laid. .-S. liegan, ligan. Goth. lingan. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root Y lueg,
meaning: to mock, deride, scorn-to deceive, dissem.
ble, disguise, etc. e. g.
nsty 1 3}- (Jes. 28. 11.
JIP pW L-P) (Jes. 38. 19.
The Eng. verb lie, is regular be .use the H. root
J^ lueg, ends with a consonant, but in order to dis-
tinguish its particular conjugation from the analogous
first verb lie, it is especially rendered regular. The
Ger. verb lilgen, gelogen, is regular because the H.
root WV lueg, contains an y y, and this is indicated
in the participle case with an n.
LIFT.-lift-lift or lifted. A-S. hlifian, Ger. litften, geliiftet
Thii is a compound word, derived from the H. root
y uf, in its conjugation ;,tyn hef, with the H.
preposition > 1, meaning to: yn- lehif or lehezf,
correlated with the A-S. hlifian. The t at the end
of the Eng. verb lift, is only a suffix. The definition
of the H. word 1~ k hef is: to fly up, raise, soar-
to raise, elevate-to swing, brandish etc.
The Ger. word luft (air) is derived from the same.
H. root. See also the verb heave. e. g.
ew13' ylP (Gen. 1. 20.
1':In 0 5lY1 (Ezek. 33. 10
13 pfV I y nn (Prov. 23. 5.
The Eng. verb lift is irregular because the end
letter t, is only a suffix, and is not necessary to be re-
peated. The Ger. verb liiften, gelilftet, is regular, be-
cause the H. root Iy uf ends with a consonant.
LIHTF T.-lighted or lit.-lighted or lit. A-S. lihtan. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. O. lihet,
meaning: set on fire, inflame, kindle, illuminate, e g.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
I'rCi L'"1DD E njl (Deut. 32. 22.
fi l nm l tOn (Mal. 3. 19.
The Eng. verb light is irregular because the H
root on" lihet ends with a t, and this is indicated
through all conjugations with a hard t. The Ger. verb
leuchten, geleuchtet is regular because the H. root
~oriL lihet, ends with a consonant.
The Eng. word light, Ger. leicht, Fr. ldger, Sl.
lahki, meaning: to be easy, not difficult, not burden-
some, is derived from another H. root ;j) lahag or
liheg. Its definition is: to be slight, superficial etc.
t"=1 ~3 --1 (Ecol. 12. 12.
The Eng. verb light in 'he last signification is reg-
ular because the H. root .j( liheg, ends with a con-
sonant g, so is likewise the Ger verb erleichtern, er-
LOAD.-loaded-loaden. A-S hlad or hladan. Ger. laden,
geladen. This worn is derived from the H. root lj;
toan, with the H. preposition -) 1, meaning to: 1YiV
lataen. See the verb lade.
LOOSE.-lost-lost or lorn. A S. leosan. Goth. liusan. Ger.
lose, losen geltst.
This word is derived from the H. root ]l. laIs;
IBBEG ULA]? VERBS.
0.l. lesut as a sub tantive and its signification is:
to escape, depart from-to be perverse, incorrigible
etc. e. g.
I3pn9 11") '* (Prov. 8. 21.
D3 p(1n DnE' mV (Prov. 4.24.
The Eng. verb loose is irregular because the H.
verb ]Y1 lus is used in its participle case in a similar
form with a t at the end n-l- lesut, as shown in
the second H. example. The Ger. v-rb lisen, gelost,
is regular, because the H. root ends with a consonant.
The Eng. word lorn, (as a second form of participle),
however, is derived from another H. root uruh,
with the H. preposition 5 1, meaning to: "'T'17
Sluruh, identical with the Ger. verb verlieren, verloren,
and its definition is mainly: to desolate, destroy, waste
-make bare, exposed etc. e. g.
ro n'Ti0 ii ly) t1 (Ps. 137. 7.
I=3 rnltr1 r 1 i (Jes. 53. 12
The Eng. word lorn and the Ger. verb verliren,
verloren have an irregular conjugation, because this
H. root i'0 uruh ends with an 1 h.
MAKE.-made-made. A-S. macian. Dan. mage. Ger.
machen, gemacht. This word has many manifold sig-
nifications and is in fact derived from two different H.
1. l)I mekin (a transformation from the H. verb
IRREG UILAR VERBS.
11h kun). Its definition is: to produce, effect,-to com-
pose, constitute-to form, fabricate etc. e. g.
"1 "t'7 11D-1 (Ps. 147. 8.
I 1 17i1n ro=D (Jer. 10. 12
The Latin machine; Ital. macina; Sp. mzaquina;
Er. and Fr. machine; Ger. machine show distinctly
the H. source 1"D mekin or 1In mechin.
2. riD n" macha, or Mn" machat,
meaning: to compell, force, push or strike against-
to attain, arrive at and many other definitions. e. g.
": 0 n 1 (Num. 34. 11.
F 1 3W (Jes. '55. 12.
NDl n (Dan. 2. 35.
The Eng. verb make is irregular because being
derived from two different H. roots, it is remarkably
indicated in this conspicuous manner. The Ger. verb
machen, gemacht is regular both H. roots end with a
MA Y.-might. A-S. magan. Goth. mogen. Ger. msgen,
This word has various definitions and is derived
from two H. roots, to-wit:
1. gn miqen, meaning: to give, to act freely-
to surround with excellence, glory-to bestow favor-
etc. e. g.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
-~1gm5 n.jm (Hos. 11. 8.
"nsn M-%4Y i p tO (Prov. 4. 9.
The Latin word magaus is derived from the same
2. lIn michan, JiDD mechonan (a transforma-
tion from them the H. root lj chinen), meaning: to
act graciously, kindly, favorably. e. g.
1,1M D'. Viln (Prov. 14. 21
p' In~ -~nv11 (Dan. 4. 24.
Both the Eng. ;nd Ger. verbs may, and mbgen,
mSchte are irregular because being derived from two
different H. roots it is specially indicated in this
*MIEAN.-meant-meant. A-S. maenan. Ger. meinen, ge-
meint. This word is derived from the H. root J .V
enah, in its transformation lJV mean, flJ~ meanah,
or rg C meant. Its signification is: to assent, to
agree, correspond with. e. g.
1 nnDVt_ ~w3 : (Eccl. 5. 19.
-D-n '" l 1 f 1y (Prov. 15. 1.
r1xn] '"1 -I D. (Prov. 16. 4.
The Eg. verb mean is irregular because the H.
word n3je meanat, from which the A-S. derived it,
ends with a t and this is apparent in the imperfect and
participle cases with a hard t. at the end. The Ger.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
verb meinen, gemeint, is regul .r for the same reason,
but in order to avoid the repetition of two n's the Ger.
MEET.-met-met. A-S. metan. Dan. mode. Icel. moeta.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this Eng.
verb, which is derived from the H. root "Il iad, in its
conjugation 1"p1 meid, 'Y1 moed pVln moedat,
meaning: a coming together, an assembly, congrega-
tion, etc. See the copious explanation under the verb
The Eng. verb meet is irregular because the H.
root ~y iad, '3fl meid i moedat ends with a
1 d, and I t, this is distinctly indicated in all conju-
gations of the verb with a hard t.
MEILT.-melted-melted or molten. A-S. meltan. Ger.
This word has various meanings and is in fact de-
rived from three different H. roots, to-wit:
1. 0 malaz, as a subst. j 1? melizah.
Its signification is: to become smooth, soft, mild, agree-
able etc. The Eng. words malt and mild; Ger. malz,
and milde; Latin mellitus; are derived from the same
H. root. e. g.
I- ~ n ?on D3 i~ (Ps. 119. 108.
S3nnD nX N~U3 -"WL n (Dan. 1. 16.
2. Mp lWhet, its transformation (o)bn meal-
hit, meaning: to inflame, set on fire-to burn, to glow.
cn~in i L-)m ~ 3 (Job. 41, 18.
r vi= o n3D l (Ps. 97. 3.
3. OeD melt, meaning: to set at liberty, cause
to escape, slip-to deliver, to melt. e. g.
ioL-Dnn mA 1r3 (Job. 41. 11
The Eng. and Ger. verbs melt, schmelzen, ge-
schmolzen are irregular in the first meaning of the
word; for the corresponding H. root nJVy melizah,
ends with an 1 h,-otherwise they are regular because
the related H. roots end with a consonant.
MO W.-mowed.-mown. A-S. mawan. Dut. maagen. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root 1"i
mochah. (The r ch, pronounced like w, and you have
the Eng. mowah, or mow). Its translation is: to strike
smite away,-to blot out, etc. e. g.
L1 -) 'S n
YNm `n L In r (Gen. 7. 23.
The Eng. verb mow is irregular because the H.
root 'I n mochah ends with a n h.
The Ger. verb mahen, gemdhet, is seemingly reg-
ular, in order to show a phonetical difference between
the infinitive and participle of this verb.
MUST.-must. A-S. most ur mot. Dut. moetan. S1. mussy.
Ger. miissen, musste
This word is derived from the H. root ~Jy uss in
its transformation lJU. muss, meaning: to be prevail-
ed by strength, power, "might etc. The t at the end
of the end of the Eng. verb must is only a suffix. e. g.
1l 1= 7 '1 (Jer. 16. 19
11= (Ps. 31. 3.
The Eng. auxiliary verb must is irregular because
the proper H. root is JYn muss, and the t in the Eng.
word must, being an affix, the Eng. grammarian avoid-
ed to double needlessly this affix, therefore: must, must.
The Ger. auxiliary verb missen, musste is regular
because the H. root ends with a consonant.
OUGHT.-ought. This word has no analogous term in any of
the modern culture languages, and is derived from the
two synonymous H. roots.
1. Jri] touches. (The 1 ch changed in gh and you
have oughes like the Eng. ought). Its definition is: to
take hold of, to seize, keep, join, unite etc.
2. "]'J touched (The ch changed in gh and you
have oughed like the Eng. ought.) Its ineaninmr is re-
sembling to the first root: to take hold of, unite one's
self. e. g.
1i' 1' it TOr 1 (Job. 17. 9.
111 7E ID 1 13 I (Job 21. 6.
n1'!: -inn I-7 (Gen. 4%. 6.
"'s l y nnl (Ezech. 21. 21.
The Eng. auxiliary verb ought is irregular be-
cau e the H. root "'i ouched ends with a d, and this
is indicated p rticularly with a hard t.
O VE.-owed--own. A-S. again. Goth. aigan. Ger. eigen,
This word has various meanings in the Eng. lanj
guage, having also many H. roots completely corres-
ponding to those sinifications.
1. 1] own and 1]1 hown meaning: to have
wealth, plenty, enough,-to possess power, manhood,
wealth, riches etc. e. g.
131R n'l"V @ \ if (Deut. 21. 17.
131 nj3tn ~'~1 (Job 20. 10.
Sin,' lin L n (Prov. 6. 31.
='n"I =-" I'D' 1ji (Prov. 19. 4.
2. The A-S. Goth. and Ger. agan, aigen and
eigen are derived from an other H. root j shagan or
r4-i hagin, meaning: to be straight, commodious,
properly, becoming, etc. c. g.
VIMn "11 1 (Ezech. 42. 12.
.- -11- (Talm.)
3. f)~ chowo or 1'-1n1 choweh (Let the n ch be
omitted and you have the Eng. owe). Its meaning is:
to render due, forfeit,-to be indebted, obligated etc.
VtIN n" t~3 M (Dan. 1. 10.
1^ 31n in lIrn (Ezech. 18. 7.
mintn ''- N'3 (Talm.
The Eng. verb owe is irregular because the H.
roots lN own and i"-j3 choweh, end with an n, re-
spectively an h.
The Ger. eignen, geeignet is seemingly regular in
order to indicate a phonetical difference between the
infinitive and participle but chiefly to avoid the repeti-
tion of two n's; for the H. root 'I) hagin from which
it is derived ends with an n and is so employed in all
PA Y.-paid-paid. It. pagare. Sp. pagar. Fr. payer.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this word,
which is derived from the H. root IE pi or pey, synon-
ymous and conformably with the Eng. word fee.
Its translation is manifold, to-wit: as a subst. the
mouth, edge, border etc., and a share, reward or por-
tion of the value, worth, merit, etc. e. g.
=- = Q 1h nn~\ (Duet. 21. 17.
f'tl I "nL (Gen. 47. 12.
The Ger. verb zahlen is derived from another
H. root. See the verb sell.
The Eng. verb pay is seemingly irregular being
only a gramatical use of changing the y into an i, as
may be observed in inflections of many words.
PEN. -pent--pit. A-S. pyndan.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this word and
is derived from the H. root 1 pen, as a adverb mean-
ing: to I e anxious, careful, to be in fear, sorrow, that
there may not occur any accident. f1 fun or pun as
a verb means: to be in anxiety, fear, sorrow etc. e. g.
j 'g Vj5 Y'n ill (Prov. 27. 23.
p N 131 p'' 1e (Gen. 42. 4.
V1 nM.t, \Q (Gen. 3. 22.
The Eng. word pen. Latin. It. and S1. penna
(writing implement) is derived from another H. root
n3Q pinah orpenah me ning: to be pointed, sharpen-
ed, etc. e. g.
~ L~y 7 r y 31 (Prov. 21. 9.
mln: i, '3n 1)711 (Zeph. 1. 16.
The Eng. verbpen is irregular. The Eng. gram-
marian desired to show in this wise, i. e. that the Eng.
verb pen has its source in the H. adverb JE pen and
not directly from the verb lD pun.
PUT.-put-put. Latin imputo. Dan. putte.
The Ger. has no analogous term for this word. It
has multifarious definitions and is derived from two
different H. roots to wit:
IRREG UULAR VERBS.
1. I13 apod, "1D apud, meaning: to put on
to attire, girdle, e, g.
13 117 IXN 1 (Lev. 8. 6.
1E)t1- 3Un 1- n sKJ1 (Exod. 29. 5.
2. 'IE)puter (omit the r and you have the
Eng. word put. The r at the end of a H. word is
frequently omitted notably in the Eng. derivations, it
being considered simply as an emphatic affix.) The
translation of this H. word is: to slip out, or away-to
let out, exempt from duty, etc. e. g.
1-0 n' DD = I -31 (Prov. 17. 14.
1T11nn =-Dt^ %0l '-) (Talm.)
The Eng. verb put is irregular because the 1. H.
root '7I apud ends with a d, and the 2. root lt
puter (without the r like put) contains a t at the end,
and this is shown in all conjugations of the Eng. verb
with a hard t.
Q UIIT.-quitted or quit-quitted or quit. Latin quieto. It.
quitare. Sp. quitar. Fr. quitter. Ger. quittiren.
This word is derived from the H. root H. ~1
kwed or kweid, or quid, like the Eng. quit.
Its definition is various, corresponding generally
to the terms of the Eng. words quit, quite, quiet, as
1. to clean, clear, put in order-to make away,
remove etc. e. g.
1) ~12' nn i (Nah. 3. 16.
'D3; n- I33010 (Talm.
2. to be heavy, rich, numerous, huge etc. e. g.
"1 1)v N:111 (Exod. 8. 20.
~1 1-3 -1pnD (Exod. 12. 38.
3. to be in glory, splendor, honor, etc. e. g.
"':1 nM 11= (Exod. 20. 12.
1" 14 '11=0 ": (I. Sam. 2. 30.
The Eng. verb quit is irregular because the H.
root "13 kwid ends with a d, and this is shown in
all conjugation of this Eng. verb with a hard t.
REAUH.-reached or raught-raught. A-S. raecan. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root rv11 reach
Omit the letter i and you have the Eng. word reach.
This H. root is ohly used as a subst. in the Bible
and its translations is: the moon, month-and therefore
its symbolical term: to extend, circulate-to attain, ar-
rive at, etc.
r- %3 y (Ps. 72. 7.
rFi ll S" (Ps. 72. 5.
D 'lt--W rr l (Ps. 104. 19.
)V1 ni'1 (Deut. 21. 13.
The Eng. verb reach is irregular. The Eng.
grammarian desired to show in this wise, that the verb
IBJEG' ULA VERBSA.
reach has its source in the H. subst. MC1 reach, and
not directly from its verb. The Ger. verb reichen, ge-
reicht is regular because the H. root ends with a con-
READ.-read-read. A-S. raedan. Goth. rodian. Ger.
This word is derived from the H. root iN) roeh,
in its transformation r*l) reiit or ~1 i reit, like
the Eng. verb read. Its definition is various, as fol-
lows: to see, view, observe-look out, provide with
.acumen, care for-to receive, find, feel-to be ap-
pearant, appearing, shown etc. The Eng. word ready
the Ger. rathen, Sl. radit (to counsel) are derived from
the same root. e. g.
'Y lv ~N =N (Eccl. 5. 10.
; -n *D D''f M n (Hab. 1. 13.
m i4 N I i n mnN (Deut. 4. 35.
The Eng. verb read is irregular because the H.
root n'4) reft ends with the affix n t, and this is in-
dicated through all conjugations with a feeble d. The
Ger. verb reden is regular, because the H. root has a
consonant at the end. The Ger. verb lesen, gelesen is
derived from the H. root 7) lez meaning: to read
in a strange language. e. g.
717 r pp e(Talm.)
.1 =D (Ps. 114. 1.
IRREG ULAR VERBS.
This Ger. verb lesen is irregular because -the H.
root y lez contains an y y.
REND.-rent-rent. A-S. rendan. Bret. ranna. Ger. tren-
This word is derived from the H. root V)U renna
(pronounce the y y like n). The letter d in the Eng.
verb rend is merely an affix. The definition of this
H. root is as follows: to break to pieces, to crush, to
ruin. e. g.
? -n 3 17- v l (Jer. 15. 12.
"n3 O3 r inn (Ps: 2. 9.
The Eng. verb rend is irregular because the prop-
er root is Vyy renna and the d in the word rend being
merely an affix, the Eng. grammarian avoided to dou-
ble needlessly this affix, therefore rend, rent. The Ger.
verb trennen is seemingly regular, in order to indicate
a phonetical difference between the infinitive and partici-
ple chiefly to avoid the repetition of two n's.
The Eng. rent. Fr. rente. S1. arena is a compound
word from the Latin prefix re meaning: reverse or re-
peat, and H. 1.) netan meaning: to give. Therefore
we obtain the combination: to return, to gi-e back,
(for a compensating purpose.)
RID.--rid-rid. A-S. hredden. SI. ratuj. Ger. retten, gerttet.
This word is derived from the H. root iF~ ~ rosh,
In its transformation "'jy' reot, j1VY reit like the
Eng. rid. The translation of this H. root is different
also in the Eng. language, to-wit: to guard, to watch
to set free, to deliver, redeem, relieve -and to remove
by violence, to destroy, to kill. e. g.
SE n^ (Gen. 30. 36.
1 r-Mir D' r ((Gen. 48. 15.
%'lY V Yr' N mn0 1 (I1. Sam. 7. 7.
1in NL m;?Y nMn (Job. 24. 21,
3in "1 I p N n 1m11 (Micha. 5. 5.
The Eng. verb rid is irregular because the H.
root -"11f roeh, np)' reit ends with the affix n t,
and this is shown in all conjugations with a feeble d.
The Ger. verb retten, gerettet is regular because
the H. word n'UY reit from which it is derived ends
with a consonant.
RIDE.-rode-rode or ridden. A-S. rzdan. Ger. reiten, ge-
This word is derived from the H. root ~\ redah
as a subst. ['1" rediah, like the Eng. ride. Its defi-
nition is: to subdue, bring down,-to rule, govern-
to walk, wander etc. e. g.
OrSD3 D3 1-111 (Lev. 26. 17
=1n 1s" 3 -111 -(Gen. 1. 28.
=1 ;? D' -I (Ps. 72. 8,
S, 1= 11" "m m' (Hos. 12.1.
Both the Eng. and Ger. verb ride, and reiten, ge-
ritten are irregular because the H. root rodeh
ends with the aspirate j h.
RING.-rang or rung-rung. A-S. Aring or ring. Dan. ringe.
The Ger. does not use this word with this concep-
tion of present instance. It is derived from the H. root
71 rung, in its transformation -i- n truwa, ;'I
hrinqa (pronunce the y y like the Fr. ng.)
The definition of this word is particularly: to shout,
to sound, to cry out, to roar and many other different
notions. e. g.
W Vl V~> .N (Jes. 16. 10
I 1-?n1 rn n (Ezra. 43. 11.
The Ger. verb ringen in another different concep-
tion. See under the verb wring. The Eng. and Ger.
word ring (ring, link,circle) derived from the same H.
root yt rung or --i, or Vy reng, meaning: to as-
sociate, be intimate with,-to join, unite one to the
other, to annex etc. e. g.
-1 O 1 1 -'T) ((Prov. 13. 30
1 i7 VuN li i. (Jud. 14. 20
The Eng. verb ring is irregular because the H.
root y1 rung ends with an y in this case pronounced
like ng, and this is distinctly shown through all the
conjugations of this verb.
RISE.-rose-risen. A-S. risan. Goth. reisan. S1. rozni
(hug,.) Gcr. riese (used only as a subst.)
This word is derived from the H. 111 roson, r, 1
Srozni. It is only used as a substantive in the Bible and
signifies: to be heighted, elevated, raised-to be prom-
inent. e. g.
IM1 no3 (Ps. 2. 2
lVKn I^Ti (Jud. 5. 3
^i Dv -1 ln n (Jes. 40. 23
The Eng. verb rise is irregular because the H root
roson ends with an I n, and this is shown distinct-
ly in the participle case with an n at the end of the
The Ger. verb reisen, gereist (to travel) is derived
from the H. root Yi ruz, as a subst. *$1O rizah,
meaning: to run to, after, to rush upon,-to hasten, etc.
'1&iM 7:8"' ;1171 (Esth. 3. 15
nm1 y' i n10D I7- (Ps. 147. 15
This Ger. verb is regular because the H. root
Yj') ruz ends with a consonant.