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Title: Interview with Glynn Markham
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072029/00001
 Material Information
Title: Interview with Glynn Markham
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publication Date: February 26, 2005
 Subjects
Subject: Second World War, 1939-1945
World War II, 1939-1945
WW II
WWII
Temporal Coverage: World War II ( 1939 - 1945 )
 Notes
Funding: This text has been transcribed from an audio or video oral history. Digitization was funded by a gift from Caleb J. and Michele B. Grimes.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072029
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Department of History, University of Florida
Holding Location: This interview is part of the 'World War II' collection of interviews held by the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program of the Department of History at the University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: WWII 20

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Interview
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text



COPYRIGHT NOTICE


This Oral History is copyrighted by the Interviewee
and the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program on
behalf of the Board of Trustees of the University of
Florida.

Copyright, 2005, University of Florida.
All rights, reserved.

This oral history may be used for research,
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For all other permissions and requests, contact the
SAMUEL PROCTOR ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM at
the University of Florida






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Glynn Markham
Page -1-

Interview with Glynn Markham
Date of Interview: 26 February 2005; Alachua, Florida
Interviewer: Richard Hill III
Transcriber: Richard Hill III
Begin Tape 1, Side 1

H: Good afternoon. Today is February 26, three o' clock in the afternoon, and

I am interviewing Mr. Glen Marcum, a World War II veteran who was on

the U.S.S. McCook, during D-Day. Mr. Marcum, the first question I want

to ask you: This was a big time in United States history. It was one of the

center points of the American century. Do you remember where you were

on December 7, 1941?

M: Very much. I had just pulled into the Columbia drugstore in Lake City.

And I had ordered a strawberry milkshake and I was drinking a strawberry

milkshake when the news came over about Pearl Harbor being bombed.

So, I listened to that and I didn't know where Pearl Harbor was and I didn't

know the magnitude of what was happening. But after I learned from the

president later on, I learned the magnitude of it.

H: Once you learned the magnitude of what had occurred, what did you feel,

what did your family and friends feel, what was the general consensus of

your community?

M: Well, I just went about life as normal. I didn't sense any great danger of

America until I saw it on film, Pearl Harbor being bombed, and the

possibility of some danger coming towards America. And so that was in

1941, December the 7th. So I just lived a normal life. And didn't expect the

United States to be going to war to be doing what we were doing. And I

thought about the possibility of later on, if I got to be old enough, I would






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go into the service. So later on, that was in Lake City, in 1942, my family

moved away from Lake City to Gainesville. In Gainesville I finished up my

junior year in high school there and played in the high school band. After

my junior year I got all revved up about getting into the service. I had

some buddies that had gone in, and they looked great in their uniforms,

and I wanted to see the world. So I begged my parents when I hit

seventeen to let me go into the United States Navy.

H: So you joined the Navy at seventeen? Why the Navy?

M: Because that's where I wanted to go.

H: Did you have friends or relatives or was it just...

M: I had a next door neighbor who was in the Navy, and he was an Airedale

in the Navy, flying out of Key West. And he'd come home every other

weekend sporting his uniform off. And I had the urge to look like him.

H: When you signed up, what was your initial training like going into the

Navy? Where did they send you and what did they train you to do initially.

M: Well, I went to Bainbridge, Maryland in boot camp. I finished up eight

weeks there and they asked me what school I would go to after

graduation. My first choice was radio, and my second choice was to be a

signal man. Since I was a scout, a life scout, and I had used a lot of

symbols for signaling, like Morse code, they knew that so they put me as a

signal man. So I went to signal school for sixteen weeks, and immediately

upon graduating from signal school, I was sent to Brooklyn Navy yard to

board the U.S.S. McCook, DD496. But anyway, we boarded the McCook

and we sailed from out of the harbor, and we loaded up ammunition and






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torpedoes, and hauled out underneath the Statue of Liberty in a rough

Hudson River and I got seasick doing that. And leaving there and going

out to sea, heading out to England, we picked up submarines. We started

dropping depth charges just outside the breakwater at New York, and I

was still seasick, and we were chasing submarines or dropping depth

charges. At that point I was so seasick I didn't care if we sank or stayed

afloat. But we went on and picked up two battle wagons and two cruisers

and sailed to England. That was the heavy stuff we took for the invasion.

Of course, we didn't know when the invasion would take place, but we

went to England, and from England on up to Ireland, and on up to

Scotland, and back and forth, escorting troop ships down to England in

preparation for the invasion on June 6th, 1944.

H: When you first got onto the McCook, what were the livings conditions like

as an enlisted sailor?

M: Well, I had heard from other fellows who had been on destroyers. They

told me what the tight living conditions would be. I was assigned to the

bottom bunk, the fourth bunk. And living conditions were good, food was

good. And I enjoyed my years. I got out in 1946, after going to China and

back. But living conditions were good, and while we were in England we

escorted our second trip of troop ships down from Scotland and Ireland.

We were anchored in Weymouth Roads, England one night about

midnight and the Germans made a raid on us and they came in the city

and dropped two 500 pound bombs, barely missing us. [It] knocked us

out of commission. Our fire control was knocked out. Sonar, radar, and






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steering. After steering was knocked out we were just sitting ducks in the

English Channel. We had to be repaired.

H: But according to the reports, it says there were no personnel casualties.

M: No, personnel casualties. We were lucky. We were a lucky ship all during

the war.

H: Were you there on the ship when the air raid took place?

M: Oh, yeah. I had just gone up from the lower deck. [Starting in] my living

quarters, through the head, and was going out to starboard side of the

hatch, when the bomb dropped on the right side of us, kicking me over

against the door, and I slammed the door, and tried to find my way back

into the five inch gun handling room. But I didn't know what kind of

damage it was or how much more we would be bombed, or if we just took

two bombs.

H: Going back to the culture aboard the McCook, what was your feel for the

officers, the NCOs, and the enlisted people?

M: I have a perfect relationship with them all. The officers and the enlisted

men. No problems at all. And I respected my captain. I thought he was like

a father to me, and he had already lost two ships in the Pacific, when he

took command of the McCook. And he thought we were gonna lose that

ship, the McCook. And we survived that. Of course, we survived a lot from

there on.

H: With your ship being in England and the air raid taking place in late May,

how fast did it take for your ship to be repaired in order to take part in the

invasion?






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M: Fortunately we had a destroyer repair ship right in the bay right with us.

H: The Melville?

M: Yes. And with her repair crew and our repair crew, three days time

working around the clock, the ship was repaired and went out to sea and

tested, and we got 100 percent and a 4.0 rating. And we were put back on

the first line to go into Normandy. We were knocked out of our position.

Before the raid, we were to lead the invasion, and they put us right back

into that slot and we led the invasion across the channel. And between

that time and the invasion, we had the storm, which came about on the 5th

which cut out the invasion on the 5th of June. And I spent fourth hours on

the signal light. All the landing craft, the small landing craft, had already

proceeded across the English Channel for the invasion. And it was my job,

as a signal man, to turn them around. And for 4 hours I worked till my eyes

liked to pop out of my head trying to turn them around in the stormy

weather. Real bad weather. And then we turned back around the next day

and headed out for the invasion.

H: When did you and the rest of the crew know that you were taking a part in

the D-Day invasions?

M: The Saturday before. For sure, this is the job. The captain called us all on

the fantail and rallied us up, and said, Fellows, this is the point that you

guys, that we have been training for. We are ready to go. We will go. And

so, that was on the Saturday before.

H: When you actually started preparations for D-Day the organization, the

last minute training was there anything significant while you were waiting






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on the southern part of England before you were ready to go? What was

the mood like?

M: Oh, yeah, it was the month before. There was training at Slapton Sands.

That's where they had the last big training, the mock invasion, in southern

England. And during that Mock invasion, there were two transports that

were torpedoed. Two German high speed torpedo boats came in and sunk

two of them, and there were 700 troops lost at Slapton Sands in that

preparation. But that was kept silent. I didn't know about that really, what

had happened, until many years later. Forty or fifty years, later. I didn't

know what had really happened. They were all personnel that were

involved in that catastrophe there. They were told that if they even

squeaked one word, they'd be court martialed. And so there was nothing

said about that 700 troops lost, because they didn't want it to get out

because of the preparations for the invasion, and the Germans learning of

our preparation.

H: Right before your ships were sent out for D-Day, the order of the ships

that went out. The first things that went out were the mine sweepers and

they cleared out what was known as the Piccadilly Circus so that you guys

could come in and safely transit the channel.

M: Yeah, that was the only thing they had of us for the invasion, was wooden

English mine sweepers. They preceded us to a certain point, and then at a

certain point, they cut loose, and we went on in.

H: As you were leaving, can you describe the weather and the sea

conditions? The books say that it was cloudy, it was stormy, and the sea






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wasn't the most friendly crossing the ocean. What were your feelings

about that, with the ocean and what everyone knew at that point?

M: Well, it was unsafe really for an invasion, but Eisenhower felt that it was

the only opportunity we had to make this invasion and to make it

successful was to go on in regardless of how bad the weather was, and it

was bad for all those landing craft that had to go in on that choppy sea. It

was dangerous. A lot of them were swamped. All the fellows lost their

lives. And a lot of tanks were sunk or swamped. I watched a lot of them

through the invasion lose their lives.

H: As you were going across, I guess you were part of was known as the

bombardment crew- the destroyers, the cruisers, the battleships, the big

guns that were provided- sort of the artillery for the beachhead. There

were reports of the crews on theses ships, almost whispering to each

other as to make sure the Germans couldn't hear them, Even though they

were miles offshore. What was the feeling like as you were crossing the

channel, as you were coming up and it's dark out and you haven't quite

got to the beach yet?

M: Well, I think everybody was in fear. Everybody was praying. And we knew

that it was going to be rough, and we didn't know how rough. We had no

idea. We were told that the Air Force would be dropping bombs, and

busting up the coastline, and knocking out the Germans. But we knew that

we had designated targets, that the French underground had reported

targets, and they had pinpointed the, and we had so many targets that we

were supposed to knock out within the first ten minutes. And we did that.






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And then we had targets of opportunity from then on. But we knocked out

many pill boxes.

H: When you first came up to the beaches, well before maybe you got to the

beaches, you were on orders not to fire still to keep the surprise, or wait

until the Germans started firing at you. What was that feeling like, as you

could see the beaches, you could see the targets you had to hit, and you

couldn't fire yet?

M: That's how this story came about. [Pulls out a news article] We were

sitting there for an hour waiting. We had to wait for the battleship Texas to

open fire before we could fire. And we were praying that she would hurry

up and open fire, so we had the World War correspondent aboard from

Post magazine. And he was standing on the bridge right next to me a

whole fifty-four hours that we were at general quarters, he was on the

bridge and I was on the bridge. And we were elbowing one another. He

was making the story on the Post. That one hour is what they're talking

about. Before we commenced fire, we were all nervous. We didn't know

what was going to happen, whether they were going to knock us out, 88's

would open up. But the Germans pretty much held their fire until we

started firing.

H: When you started firing in the morning, the targets that you were assigned

according to this it says three pill boxes, thirteen machine gun nests

and three shore guns- was there a priority to those, or were you just

supposed to shoot those targets as soon as possible? Were there targets

that were more important than others?






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M: Well, the biggest one of those guns we would've knocked out and

whatever. I don't know what the gunnery officer thought was a priority. The

pill boxes, how many did they say?

H: It says three pill boxes.

M: Yeah, you know what a pill box is?

H: Yes. It says that at the end of the day, according to reports, you hit seven

more pill boxes. You guys hit some targets of opportunity and far

exceeded what you were expected to do on D-Day. You were very

successful.

M: Our captain and gunnery officer got the Bronze Star for that performance.

H: Once the battle started, our ships are firing, the Germans are firing back,

the people are starting to land on the beach and assault the beach-head.

Can you describe the sight, can you describe the sounds, as constant

explosions where people can literally not hear themselves yelling?

M: Oh yes, it was terrible. I had cotton stuck out of both ears about two

inches, as tight as I could wad them. Because the battleship Texas was

right behind us and the British cruiser, Glasgow, she was behind us, and

then the Texas battle wagon was farther back. But when those big guns

blasted off, it busted your ear drums and you couldn't hear anything, and

you couldn't hear the talk. But I have hearing problems now, I've got

hearing aids. It was scary. You could see the shells come right over us.

Sounded like a freight car that came right over across the top of us. Of

course, she was shooting targets way further in. We were [shooting at]

coastal targets. At times we were in so close we were shooting point






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Glynn Markham
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blank. We had these guys were shooting point blank. And they finally

came out waving a white flag to surrender to the McCook. As far as I

know, we were the only ship in naval history that had German prisoners to

surrender to a ship at sea.

H: The German surrender, can you describe that? Calling for the Germans

to surrender, the communication between them and the McCook until they

eventual surrendered?

M: I was right there on the bridge when they were signaling. I our head

signalman did the signaling, because I was just out of signaling school.

But he took charge of the signaling, yes, I do remember that. The captain

said either you come out and surrender or we'll just blow you out. There

won't be any of you left to talk about it. So they kept waving their white

flag. They finally marched down the cliff and turned themselves over to

the Rangers on the beach. And when I talk about having prisoners

surrender to a ship at sea people say Aw that's a bunch of nuts, he is

fabricating a bunch of lies. I say, but it's true, I was on the bridged. I

watched them, I had a pair of binoculars [around my neck] the whole fifty-

four hours we were at general quarters, and I had a long glass against the

bulkhead so that when I could not see enough with my binoculars I'd grab

that long glass and bring in everything way on down the beaches. I could

[see] more than anyone could see. I don't even believe my captain

witnessed as much or the gunnery officer. He had a pair of binoculars, but

he did not have a long glass. But his job was penetrating shooting, and

my job was just looking. I watched the ships blow up on each side of us. I






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watch the dead bodies float all around our ship. I watched the first tanks

that landed. I watched them get blown up. I watched five guys jump out

of the tank four or five I forget they tried to hide behind their burning

tank and they backed off too far away from the tank towards the water and

when they did the Germans caught them in cross fire.

I made this up [pulls up a poster board of a newspaper articles], of course

you got the questions you want answered.

H: Well, we can get to that in a moment. When you talked about getting very

close to the beach because destroyers being smaller were able to be

much more maneuverable than the cruisers and battleships. And there

was a fear of the destroyers running aground [because] they were getting

so close to the beach. Can you describe the targets? They were said to

be very hard to shoot, some of them due to German camouflage and just

from the smoke that covered the battlefield.

M: Well, it's just true, what it is. The smoke, shelling and the explosions on

the beach prohibited [us] from pinpointing some of the targets that were

coming in at us. But we were lucky. They were hitting the ships on each

side. I watched the guys run of the LCVPs [Landing Craft, Vehicle and

Personnel] as soon as the ramp went down and as soon as they hit the

water I could see them fall. And I could see the splashes of the German

shells that were hitting the water and missing the guys. I saw the guys fall

on the beach, fall in the water, fall at the end of the ramp.






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H: There were reports of some smaller craft that were hiding behind the

McCook. Did you see any of that? Ships trying to stay out of the line of

fire? And hiding behind...

M: Well, all these LCVPs were loaded down with troops coming in and they

saw the fire coming in and they knew that we were a bigger target. They

figured that we would get the first shot. That is what his book [Steve

Ambrose, D-Day] said. There were a 100 landing craft, smaller craft; of

course there were several other craft besides landing craft. There were

patrol craft that would go by and pick up the dead bodies.

H: Now the U.S.S. Corry was mined during the battle D-Day. Was mining still

a large threat or was that threat neutralized by the mind sweepers?

M: Oh, the mines were a big threat. There were a lot of ships that were lost.

There was more lost at Utah beach than at Omaha. She was lost at Utah

beach. And coincidentally, during the Korean War, they built a new Corry.

She [the previous USS Corry] sank right there [at Utah Beach]. We picked

up survivors off the Corry. During the Korean War, I was assigned to the

new Corry.

H: Did the McCook take any major damage at all?

M: None whatsoever. We were just lucky. I don't know how. The good Lord

was just with us. He had His hand on us; his arm around us. Other ships

on either side of us getting blown up and sinking. We were within 600

yards of the beach, and why the 88s did not knock us out I don't know.

We had splashes on each side of us, but fortunately we did not get hit.






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H: How long would you say that the McCook was in intense fighting? How

long did that time period last.

M: It was about three days. Well, really intense fighting it was just the first

day.

H: How long did that day seem to you? Did it go by fast? Did it go by slow?

Or when it was over it was over?

M: It was a long day. It was a long day. We had ammunition through the

second day. We ran out of ammunition, and on the morning on the third

morning we were out of ammunition and short on fuel. The admiral sent

us back to England to re-supply with ammunition and fuel.

H: It says you fired 975 salvos on the first day. How many shells did you

guys have on board?

M: I can't answer that. I don't know. I've been intending to ask, but I never

did.

H: Well, it sounds like you fired an awful lot on that day. With the troops

landing on the beach...

M: There was a lot of firing going on that day. When you fire 900 five- inch

shells as fast as you can spit them out.

H: How close were you to the beach when you were there? When you were

firing at these targets of opportunity? Once your stated objectives had

been met, can you explain what went on? The feel and mood?

M: I guess we were in and out. About the closest we were into the beach and

when we started dragging bottom was about 600 yards. I did not know we






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were dragging bottom; what I've read [in] the book and what I've heard

some of the guys tell about it.

H: What were your feelings, just general thoughts that we have not hit on

some of these discussions about D-Day. [Are] there things that you

remember, things that stand out more than others? What was most

important about that day to you?

M: Staying alive, that was the most important thing. At one time I just knew a

shell was coming in, and I ran behind the bridge with my k-pod on and a

light belt that I had pulled out of the water that was floating by from a dead

body. I waited. I thought it was a star shell. It was the next morning, the

break of day, and I just knew we were about to get a shell right into the

bridge. I waited on that thing. I prayed. And I waited and waited. It never

did hit. I learned later on that it was a star in the east. It was coming on

and flickering. It was not a star shell after all. But I sure thought that we

were gone. After we had a few splashes on each side of us I said, Well,

the next shell is going to take us out. Because there were burning landing

craft on both sides of us. The bodies were floating all around the ship and

the dead bodies on the ship.

H: You talk a lot about the dead bodies and the carnage that went on. How

accurate are movies like "Saving Private Ryan" in depicting what actually

went on that day in your opinion?

M: Oh, that movie is pretty real. About as real as it can be made, I'll put it

that way. I sat there in that movie, and I cried like a baby. I could not

even get up. I could not walk out. I was crying so hard. Finally, when I






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did, my buddies got up and started to walk out. One buddy, the buddy on

my right, he lost nineteen of his buddies in the first fifteen minutes. He

was in the Army. I formed up a D-Day Normandy club in Alachua. And

we meet once a month, and he was one of the members. For years he

would not even come to the meetings. He was afraid that too [much]

mentioned about D-day or too much mentioned about the war and he

could not stand [it]. He was commander of five tanks in Patton's Army.

He landed on D-Day. He lost 19 of his buddies the first fifteen minutes.

His was the 111th Infantry Division. He got attached to Patton's tanks. At

the Battle of the Bulge, he ran out of gas. He got out of the tank to survey

the situation and told his buddies to stay put. When he hopped out he

jumped into a foxhole and landed on top of a German who was in the

foxhole. They fought and fought, and the German got the best of him and

was about to shoot him when his buddy popped his head out of the tank

and shot and killed that German. He was sent to England, to the hospital.

He survived. He was shot three places in his body. His buddy saved the

gun that the German shot him with and gave it to him because he came

back to his unit later on in the campaign. But anyway, he sat on my right.

And another buddy, who was a Major, he had the Purple Heart, Silver

Star, Bronze Star, the Presidential Unit Citation. He lost his radio man,

who had his head shot off right beside him. But he survived. He was a

member of our D-Day club. A couple years later he died. His wife called

me to play taps for him at the First Methodist Church in Gainesville. I

came over and played taps in the balcony. But anyway, that was the two






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of them. There was one out of that group of six that is still alive today. All

the rest have died. Of course half of our D-Day group had died already.

H: Going back to a previous point with the British cruiser Glasgow and there

were other ships: British ships, Canadian ships, even Polish and Swedish

ships. This was a multinational force going through. Did you have to deal

with of these other navies from different countries or no?

M: No, I never did. For the southern France invasion I was assigned to a

French destroyer as a signalman to be a liaison between the different

ships for the invasion. But no I was not evolved with any foreigners so to

speak.

H: So you just sailed along ships from different navies? You never really had

to do much interaction between them?



M: Not for the D-Day invasion.

H: In the D-Day invasion when you were coming up to beaches in Normandy

with all the ships, how did you ever manage to stay in formation for that

long, in those seas under those conditions?

M: I don't think we did. It was left up to the individual captains to try to, but I

think there was an overlap of the points that we were to shoot. At times

we would overlap into the far end of Omaha. I don't know if we fired on

Pointe-de-Hoc or not. Two of our sister ships were assigned to that

position. But we were moving back and forth on Omaha beach, but we

were mainly in the Dog Green sector. That was the sector that they called

"The Bloody Beach." That is where the 1st and 29th Divisions went in. The






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29th Division went in on our right, and the 1st Division went in on our left.

We were right there at what they call the Dog Green, the Vierville exit.

And we penetrated and tried to knock out everything right there. But that

was the area that was called "Bloody Beach" well, all of Omaha was "The

Bloody Beach," but that was the area where I think [the movie] "Saving

Private Ryan" [tried to] portray.

H: Through out this whole ordeal, we have touched on it a little bit, but what

were your specific duties as a signalman.

M: Observe what was going on. Spotting the fire from the beach. I did no

signaling [at D-Day]. We had a First Class Signalman and a Second

Class on the bridge. I was fortunate to have a front seat to the greatest

show on earth. That was up on the bridge on the destroyer McCook

beside the war correspondent from Post Magazine, Martin Summers.

H: After the McCook served at D-Day it went on to the south of France. Did

you stay with the McCook? You said you were transferred to a French

ship. Was that something temporary or was that...

M: No, I never did get transferred. I never did go. One of the other

signalmen went and took my place.

H: So you stayed with the McCook through out the duration of the war?

M: Oh, yeah. I did go to shore at Normandy. One of the landing craft broke

loose from the beach it was vacant and it was just floating back and

bumping our ship. Being on a landing detail as signalman I and the

coxswain, and bow hook and the engineer and an officer took that landing

craft back to the beach master. So I did get to go to shore on Omaha






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beach. [That is] something that five of 300 [can say]. I went to shore. We

had to catch our whale boat back to the ship. We turned that LCVP to the

beach master and came back to our ship.

H: When did that exactly take place, that event?

M: That was the third or fourth day. We could not leave the ship for the first

three days because we were shooting.

H: Going back to the bridge during D-Day. How long were you there? Did

you ever get to sleep or get to rest? Or was this starting from England to

D-Day and throughout; were you kept up? Were you exhausted? [What

were] your physical qualities and traits throughout that day? If you want to

elaborate on those...

M: All I can tell you is about a little incident. When we were bombed out of

commission in the English Channel, in Weymouth, England. I was so

scared that I would not sleep below deck any more. I took the mattress off

of my bunk, carried up to the bridge, and dropped it into the port flag bag.

That is were I spent my sleeping, on the bridge in the flag bag. I was too

afraid that another bomb would hit beside [us] or a torpedo would blow a

hole through us and I would not make it out. I was taking every action I

could take to stay safe.

H: Well, I think you answered all the questions I had today. Was there

anything that I missed that you would like to elaborate on or continue

with? I would love to hear anything you have to say.

M: Well, I guess we pretty much covered D-Day. I was fortunate to witness

D-Day like nobody else witnessed it. I was fortunate to survive D-Day. I






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Glynn Markham
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call my self a survivor along with all my other shipmates. We stayed there

for thirty-four days at Normandy protecting the front and the invasion

forces, and the supply ships. We went to well it wasn't D-Day but we

were sent down to Cherbourg. In Cherbourg, we took two PT boats with

us. The Army had encircled Cherbourg Harbor. The Germans were trying

to escape. We were to prevent their escaping with our destroyer and two

PT boats up into the breakwater...

Tape flips

H: I think you left off with the 88s firing on you at Cherbourg.

M: Yeah, we were taking fire with the 88 guns going into Cherbourg. We

zigzagged with all of our might- at flank speed- to get out of there. We

finally got out of their range. They were popping shells on either side.

Everywhere we were at, a shell would hit. We zigged and zagged until we

got out to safe waters. Of course, the troops surrounded Cherbourg and

captured the Germans. I don't think any escaped by sea.

H: So you guys were successful at preventing anyone from escaping from

Cherbourg. Ok I think that was...

M: There was a little incident I would like to tell you about our D-Day invasion

in Southern France. The book doesn't tell anything and you don't have...

H: Operation Anvil?

M: The Southern France invasion at Toulon. We were standing to feel out

the defenses of the Germans and immediately we found big gun up on the

cliff and we shot sixty rounds of five-inch shells into the base of that mount

and they just bounced off like us spitting against the wall. They started






WWI 1-20
Glynn Markham
Page -20-

firing back at us. There were splashes sixty-five feet high. We knew

something big was up there. We got out of the way. We zigged and

zagged and got behind an island and reported back to the admiral that we

need help. The next morning they sent in the Quincy cruiser with its eight

inch guns and she fired. She was getting fired upon. She was afraid that

she was going to get blown out, so she squirmed out. So the next

Saturday morning, our captain called the admiral and told him we need

more help. He told him we could not take that gun out, we would need

more help. They sent the Nevada battle wagon with her big guns. Before

she could get into position to fire, that big gun had already set her on fire

on the tail end. So we kept hiding behind the island there, and every once

in awhile we would come out and take a pop shot at that big gun thinking

we could knock it out but we couldn't. So Saturday afternoon the Air

Force sent in a squadron of bombers. They bombed the whole perimeter

of Toulon to knock out that big gun. That big gun we found out later,

much later turned out to be a 15-inch gun shooting at us. One shell from

that would have wiped us out. What had happen, when the Germans

came into Toulon and Southern France, the French fleet was anchored at

Toulon and they scuttled...

H: All their ships?

M: All thier ships. They took that big gun and put it up there on the cliff. So

that was an exciting experience there for us.

H: What was the difference between invading northern France and southern

France?






WWI 1-20
Glynn Markham
Page -21-

M: Well, we had no resistance in southern France. We thought it was going

to be rough. First day of the invasion we went and it stormed that first

day in. But the landing was made. There was little resistance, and so it

was very successful. The big scare came about with that big gun.

H: And you said that was a naval gun that they had taken from one of French

ships and had mounted on top?

M: [It] came off of a French battle wagon. And it was mounted up on the cliff

at Toulon, France.

H: Alright, if there are no other questions...

M: Well I know this is strictly about D-Day and Normandy, but I would add just

a second to my experience.

H: Feel free, sir.

M: After the southern France invasion we were sent back to the states to be

converted to be a high speed mine sweeper. We were to lead the

invasion for Japan on November the first. That was our intention. There

was nine of us destroyers, and I have a book and it's called Black Ship,

Black Ship. They say we would have never made it out, none of us

minesweepers. So if it were not for the atomic bomb, I would not be here

today. We swept mines all around Japan after the end of the war. They

went in to Hiroshima. I went aboard a Japanese guinea pig ship at

Hiroshima. [There was] an all Japanese crew, one American officer, one

interpreter, and myself as a signalman. My ship laid way out in the bay

and gave me position reports for the Japanese ship to steer to test out the

mines [and see if they] were still alive, [the mines] the Air Force dropped






WWII-20
Glynn Markham
Page -22-

to clutter up shipping. Fortunately there were no live mines. I would get

the position from my ship, about two miles out in the bay, by light and give

it to the interpreter and he would give it to the captain. And the ship we

were on was cushioned with six to eight inches of mattresses just in case

we hit a live mine. Of course if we would have hit a live mine I don't know

what would have happened. But then we stayed on out there until that

was over. We came back to the states in April, 1946. This was my

experience with the United States Navy in World War II.

H: Well, I certainly appreciate it, Mr. Marcum. It has been good experience to

sit down and talk with you for awhile. I certainly appreciate it, sir.

M: OK




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