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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Introduction
 Method of procedure
 Customer preference for tomato...
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Agricultural economics report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - 58-5
Title: Preference for sizes of Florida tomatoes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072000/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preference for sizes of Florida tomatoes
Physical Description: 13 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Godwin, M. R.
Manley, W. T.
Publisher: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by M.R. Godwin, and W.T. Manley.
General Note: Agricultural economics report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - 58-5
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072000
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67671246
clc - 000489568

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Summary
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Method of procedure
        Page 2
        Size comparisons tested
            Page 2
        The experimental design
            Page 3
        Location and nature of test stores
            Page 4
    Customer preference for tomato sizes
        Page 4
        The difference in sales of the paired comparisons
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Relative sales of sizes
            Page 7
            Page 8
        The effect of size on sales of tomatoes
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
    Acknowledgement
        Page 13
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




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Agricultural Economics Report 58-
December 1957














PREFERENCE FOR SIZES OF



















by

Marshall R. Godwin
and
William T. Manley


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Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Statio
Gainesville, Florida


























This study was undertaken at the request of the 1955-56 Florida Tomato Committee.

Substantial financial assistance was provided by the Committee in support of this work.


















CONTENTS
Page

SUMMARY .................... .. .............. .

INTRODUCTION .................................. 1

METHOD OF PROCEDURE ................... ......... .. 2

Size Comparisons Tested ............................. 2

The Experimental Design ............................ 3

Location and Nature of Test Stores . . . ..... ... 4

CUSTOMER PREFERENCE FOR TOMATO SIZES . . . .. 4

The Difference in Sales of the Paired Comparisons . . . . 5

Relative Sales of Sizes ................. .... ......... 7

The Effect of Size on Sales of Tomatoes . . . ..... ... 9

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ... ................... ...... . 13


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SUMMARY


This report contains the results of a studyof consumer preferences for five commercial

sizes of Florida tomatoes. The data on which it is based were obtained from a series of retail

store tests. In each test customers shopping for tomatoes were given an opportunityto choose

between two lots differing only in size. In the entire test series, preferences were measured

when size differences were both slight and great. The market tests were conducted with

both U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 grade tomatoes. The study was conducted in the New

York metropolitan area during the spring of 1957.

The principal findings are:

1. Large sized tomatoes are preferred over small sized ones.

2. Customers attach little importance to size differences in tomatoes unless the dif-

ference is a large one.

3. Customers appear somewhat more discriminatingwith respectto sizesof U.S. No. 1

tomatoes than for U.S. No. 2 tomatoes.

4. In order to affect the rate at which customers purchase tomatoes, a size change

approximating one-half the total size range is required.


- ii -






INTRODUCTION


For the past two seasons, the tomato industry in Florida has operated under a Market-

ing Agreement program. During this time, extensive use has been made of the regulatory

provisions of this program to control the quality of Florida tomatoes moving into consumption

channels. The use of the administrative and legal machinery afforded bya Marketing Agree-

ment to this end is testimony to the fact that tomato growers and shippers in Florida believe

that quality control is an important step in establishing and maintaining good relations with

the nation's consumers.

Along with external and internal characteristics, size is regarded as a quality factor

in the marketing of Florida tomatoes. Historically, growers and shippers in Florida have re-

lied on the pricing structure to reflect the desires of consumers for various grades and sizes.

But the market price differentials for grades and sizes tell only in a highly general fashion

what the consumer regards as quality in a tomato. The failure of the pricing structure to

fully reflect the preferences of consumers may be attributed to many causes. The most no-

table of these is the fact that price differentials between grades and sizes are highlysensi-

tive to changes in available supplies. Another major cause is inherent in our mass distribu-

tion system. In the large scale self-service retailing operations of today, the homemaker has

few, if any, choices when she shops for tomatoes. In the absence of alternative selections,

it is difficult to determine from the experiences of retailers what the consumer regards as

quality. Yet, the preference of consumers needs to be known with some degree of precision

if grades and sizes are to be used efficiently and effectively as a basis for quality control

under the Marketing Agreement program.

This study is the first of a series of investigations that will seek to provide such infor-

mation. Its purpose is to examine the nature of the preference of consumers for various sizes

of Florida tomatoes. To some extent, this study represents an exploratory venture designed

to cast light on the nature of the problem. While the results allow general conclusions


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regarding certain aspects of the preference pattern of consumers, the reader should recognize
at the outset that more complete and precise conclusions will require further research inves -

tigation.


METHOD OF PROCEDURE


Basically, this study involved a series of retail store tests in which consumers were

allowed to choose between two bulk lots of tomatoes when making a purchase. The sole

difference between the two lots was one of size. Considerable care was exercised to assure

that each lot was of the same grade and degree of color, and that equal amounts of each

size were displayed. Both lots were sold at the same price.

Size Comparisons Tested

The matched-lot displays were especially designed to permit the measurement of pref-

erences over the full range of commercial sizes normally used in Florida. They were also

arranged so that preference could be measured when the size difference between lots was

both great and small. S ince the nature of the size preference might vary with the grade

level of tomatoes, the same matched-lot tests were conducted separately with both U.S.

No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 grades. Tests were conducted with five size combinations for each

grade. These combinations were the following:

U.S. No. 1 Grade U.S. No. 2 Grade

I. 5x6:6x6 1. 5x6:6x6

II. 5x6:6x7 II. 5x6:6x7

Ill. 5x6:7x8 III. 5x6:7x8

IV. 6x7:7x8 IV. 6x7:7x8

V. 7x7:7x8 V. 7x7:7x8

It is apparent that in some instances consumers were confronted with a choice between

sizes where the difference was small (Combinations I and V), while in others the difference

was somewhat larger (Combinations II and IV). In still other cases (Combination III)


-2-








regarding certain aspects of the preference pattern of consumers, the reader should recognize
at the outset that more complete and precise conclusions will require further research inves -

tigation.


METHOD OF PROCEDURE


Basically, this study involved a series of retail store tests in which consumers were

allowed to choose between two bulk lots of tomatoes when making a purchase. The sole

difference between the two lots was one of size. Considerable care was exercised to assure

that each lot was of the same grade and degree of color, and that equal amounts of each

size were displayed. Both lots were sold at the same price.

Size Comparisons Tested

The matched-lot displays were especially designed to permit the measurement of pref-

erences over the full range of commercial sizes normally used in Florida. They were also

arranged so that preference could be measured when the size difference between lots was

both great and small. S ince the nature of the size preference might vary with the grade

level of tomatoes, the same matched-lot tests were conducted separately with both U.S.

No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 grades. Tests were conducted with five size combinations for each

grade. These combinations were the following:

U.S. No. 1 Grade U.S. No. 2 Grade

I. 5x6:6x6 1. 5x6:6x6

II. 5x6:6x7 II. 5x6:6x7

Ill. 5x6:7x8 III. 5x6:7x8

IV. 6x7:7x8 IV. 6x7:7x8

V. 7x7:7x8 V. 7x7:7x8

It is apparent that in some instances consumers were confronted with a choice between

sizes where the difference was small (Combinations I and V), while in others the difference

was somewhat larger (Combinations II and IV). In still other cases (Combination III)


-2-






consumers had a choice between lots reflecting the maximum possible size difference.

The arrangement of the five p-irs for the market tests afforded six basic comparisons.

Since one test involved 5 x 6 and 7 x 8 sizes, three comparisons were obtained for 5 x 6

and smaller sized tomatoes, and three for 7 x 8 and larger sizes.

The Experimental Design

The matched-lot tests to measure size preferences were conducted over a period of 10

days and varied from store to store in accordance with a prearranged system (Table 1). Five

retail stores were required for the tests on each of the two grades, or 10 stores in all.


TABLE 1

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF MATCHED-LOT TESTS FOR DETERMINING CONSUMER
PREFERENCE FOR VARIOUS SIZES OF FLORIDA TOMATOES

Period
Store
No. I II III
May 13 16 May 20 23 May 24 25


U.S. No. 1 Grade

1 7x7:7x8 5x6:6x6 5x6:6x7

2 5x6:7x8 6x7:7x8 7x7:7x8

3 5x6:6x7 7x7:7x8 5x6:7x8

4 5x6:6x6 5x6:7x8 6x7:7x8

5 6x7:7x8 5x6:6x7 5x6:6x6


U.S. No. 2 Grade


6 5x6:6x7 5x6:6x6 7x7:7x8

7 5x6:6x6 5x6:7x8 6x7:7x8

8 6x7:7x8 5x6:6x7 5x6:7x8

9 7x7:7x8 6x7:7x8 5x6:6x7

10 5x6:7x8 7x7:7x8 5x6:6x6


-3-






Each of the size comparisons was maintained in a test store for a period of one-half

week and then randomly shifted to another store.1 Each set of comparisons was tested three

times in three different retail stores.

Location and Nature of Test Stores

The 10 retail stores employed in the study were units of a national chain and were

all supermarkets. While their size varied considerably, all were relatively large volume

stores. The test stores were located in the heavily populated areas of New York and New

Jersey immediately west of and generally parallel to Manhattan Island.

The New York metropolitan area was selected as the locale for the tests because it is

the single most important market for Florida tomatoes. This area is also regarded as one in

which consumers are highly sensitive to quality differences in fresh fruits and vegetables.

Consequently, it was felt the reaction to size differences in this area would approach the

maximum that might be expected from the standpoint of the national market for Florida to-

matoes.

CUSTOMER PREFERENCE FOR TOMATO SIZES

The data obtained from the matched-lot retailing tests permit an examination of the

following questions with respect to customer preferences for sizes of Florida tomatoes:

1. When customers have a choice between two sizes of tomatoes, how many pounds
of the larger size will they purchase as compared to the smaller size?

2. When customers have a choice between two sizes of tomatoes, what per cent of
the total sales will be accounted for by the larger size?

3. What effect does the size of tomatoes available to customers have on the quan-
.tity that they will purchase?

All of these questions are relevant to the evaluation of the preference pattern of consumers

for different sizes of Florida tomatoes.

1Weeks were divided into two parts on the basis of sales volume rather than on the
basis of time. Analysis of the daily sales records of the cooperating firm revealed that this
involved designating Monday through Thursday as the first half of the week and Friday and
Saturday as the second half.


-4-






Each of the size comparisons was maintained in a test store for a period of one-half

week and then randomly shifted to another store.1 Each set of comparisons was tested three

times in three different retail stores.

Location and Nature of Test Stores

The 10 retail stores employed in the study were units of a national chain and were

all supermarkets. While their size varied considerably, all were relatively large volume

stores. The test stores were located in the heavily populated areas of New York and New

Jersey immediately west of and generally parallel to Manhattan Island.

The New York metropolitan area was selected as the locale for the tests because it is

the single most important market for Florida tomatoes. This area is also regarded as one in

which consumers are highly sensitive to quality differences in fresh fruits and vegetables.

Consequently, it was felt the reaction to size differences in this area would approach the

maximum that might be expected from the standpoint of the national market for Florida to-

matoes.

CUSTOMER PREFERENCE FOR TOMATO SIZES

The data obtained from the matched-lot retailing tests permit an examination of the

following questions with respect to customer preferences for sizes of Florida tomatoes:

1. When customers have a choice between two sizes of tomatoes, how many pounds
of the larger size will they purchase as compared to the smaller size?

2. When customers have a choice between two sizes of tomatoes, what per cent of
the total sales will be accounted for by the larger size?

3. What effect does the size of tomatoes available to customers have on the quan-
.tity that they will purchase?

All of these questions are relevant to the evaluation of the preference pattern of consumers

for different sizes of Florida tomatoes.

1Weeks were divided into two parts on the basis of sales volume rather than on the
basis of time. Analysis of the daily sales records of the cooperating firm revealed that this
involved designating Monday through Thursday as the first half of the week and Friday and
Saturday as the second half.


-4-






Because the 10 retail food stores in which the study was conducted varied consider-

ably with regard to volume of business, all of the test results were reduced to a comparable

basis before an analysis was made. This was accomplished by expressing the sales of tomatoes

in terms of pounds per $1000 of total store sales.

The Difference in Sales of the Paired Comparisons

In the three tests involving a comparison of size 5 x 6 Florida tomatoes with smaller

sizes, the 5 x 6 was consistently found to be the preferred size (Table 2). However, cus-

tomers exhibited little preference for a 5 x 6 over a 6 x 6 size. In comparisons of the U.S.

No. 1 grade, the 5 x 6 outsold the 6 x 6 size by 3.0 pounds per $1000 store sales. In the

U.S. No. 2 grade, sales of the 5 x 6 size exceeded those of the 6 x 6 size by only 0.7

pound.



TABLE 2

SALES OF TOMATOES FROM TESTS INVOLVING COMPARATIVE DISPLAYS OF
5 x 6 AND SMALLER SIZES OF FLORIDA TOMATOES


Sales
(Pounds per $1000 of store sales)


Size
5 x*6


Smaller
Size


Total
Sales


________________________________________ I


Amount sales of
5 x 6 exceed
sales of smaller
size


5x6:6x6

5x6:6x7

5x6:7x8


5x6

5x6

5x6


13.0

15.6

17.0



9.5

11.6

12.8


6x6

6x7

7x8


Average per test period

U.S. No. 1 Grade

10.0 2

8.5 2

4.0 2

U.S. No. 2 Grade

8.8 1

6.0 1

2.8 1


!3.0

!4.1

1 .0



8.3

7.6

5.6


-5-


Size


3.0

7.1

13.0



0.7

5.6

10.0


Slze
5 x6






The sales difference in favor of the larger tomato increased substantially as it was

sold in competition with successively smaller sizes. In tests employing 5 x 6 and 6 x 7 size

tomatoes of the U.S. No. 1 grade, the 5 x 6 outsold the 6 x 7 by 7.1 pounds per $1000 of

store sales. The difference in favor of the 5 x 6 size in the U.S. No. 2 grade tests amounted

to 5.6 pounds. At the maximum contrast of 5 x 6 and 7 x 8 sizes, the sales difference in

favor of 5 x 6's was about twice as great as when the 5 x 6's were sold competitively with

the 6 x 7 tomatoes. This held true for tests of both grades.

Within each grade, about the same total amount of tomatoes was bought when the

5 x 6 tomatoes were sold with the 6 x 6 size as when the 5 x 6's were sold with the smaller

sizes. The total sales remained about the same because the sales of the 5 x 6 tomatoes in-

creased by about the same amount that the sales of the smaller sizes decreased. This be-

havior of the purchase pattern suggests that, at the extreme contrast involving 5 x 6and7x 8

size tomatoes, few sales were lost because of the absence of tomatoes in the middle size

ranges. Further, it appears that consumers are quite willing to interchangeably use large

size tomatoes. Under such conditions, little would be gained from a sales standpoint by of-

fering customers an assortment of tomatoes involving 6 x 7and larger sizes in a retail store.

In the three comparisons of size 7 x 8 and larger sizes of tomatoes, it was found that

7 x 8's were al ways the least preferred (Table 3). In the 7 x 7 7 x 8 size comparisons,

little distinction was made between the two in tests of the U.S. No.2 grade, but customers

bought substantially greater quantities of the 7 x 7 size in tests employing U.S. No. 1 to-

matoes. When the size difference was widened from 7 x 7 7 x 8 to 6 x 7 7 x 8, there

was a sharp increase in customer purchases of the larger size. However, the larger size

gained little added advantage when the difference was further widenedto a contrast of 5 x 6

and 7 x 8 sizes. This preference pattern was found for both grades. It differs materially

from the gradual increase obtained in sales of the larger size when the 5 x 6 was compared

with smaller sizes. It suggests that, in relation to a 7 x 8 size tomato, consumers appar-

ently make little distinction between tomatoes within the 5 x 6 6 x 7 size range.


-6-





TABLE 3

SALES OF TOMATOES FROM TESTS INVOLVING COMPARATIVE DISPLAYS OF
7 x 8 AND LARGER SIZES OF FLORIDA TOMATOES

Sales Amount sales of
Size (Pounds per $1000 of store sales) larger size
Comparison I exceed sales of
Size Larger Total 7 x 8
7x8 Size Sales

Average per test period

U.S. No. 1 Grade

7x8: 7 x 7 3.7 9.6 13.3 5.9

7x8:6x7 2.6 16.3 18.9 13.7

7 x 8 : 5x 6 4.0 17.0 21.0 13.0

U.S. No. 2 Grade

7x8:7x7 4.0 5.9 9.9 1.9

7x8: 6 x 7 2.1 10.3 12.4 8.2

7x8: 5 x 6 2.8 12.8 15.6 10.0

In this series of comparisons the sales of size 7 x 8 tomatoes, while small in amount,

changed but little and not at all consistently as the 7 x 8's were sold in competition with

successively larger sizes. Evidently, there are a few consumers who are willing to buy small

sized tomatoes, even though larger ones are readily available.

Relative Sales of Sizes

When examined in percentage terms, the test results indicate that consumers may be

somewhat more sensitive to small size differences in U.S. No. 1 tomatoes than to small dif-

ferences within the U.S. No. 2 grade (Fig. 1).

Almost 57 per cent of the total purchases of tomatoes consisted of the larger size in

the 5 x 6 6 x 6 comparisons of the U.S. No. 1 grade. But in the same tests for the No. 2

grade customers made almost no distinction between these sizes, the 5 x 6's accounting for

only 52 per cent of the total purchases. A wider difference in preference between gradeswas


-7-





FIGURE 1


THE CONTRIBUTION OF EACH SIZE TO THE TOTAL SALES FROM
COMPARATIVE DISPLAYS OF FLORIDA TOMATOES


Percent Large Size
10 20 30


5x6




5x6




5x6




6x7



7x7


ibo 9b 8b 70 60 50 40


60 70 80 90 100


6x6




6x7




7x8


7x8


\ 7x8

30 20 10 0
Percent Small Size


U. S. No. 1 Grade
U. S. No. 2 Grade


-8-


\MMM"
W\W\\\\M<\~


W\
*M






found in the comparisons involving 7 x 7 and 7 x 8 sizes. Almost three-fourths of the total

sales consisted of the 7 x 7 size in tests of U.S. No. 1 grade as compared with about 60

per cent for tests of the U.S. No. 2 grade.

When the 7 x 7 7 x 8 sizes were compared, a greater share of the total sales con-

sisted of the larger size than in the 5 x 6 6 x 6 comparisons. Thus, slight size differences

apparently mean more to consumers when the difference is between small tomatoes.

The pattern of preferences for each grade was generally the same for the other size

comparisons tested. Almost two-thirds of the total sales of tomatoes consisted of the larger

size in the comparisons of sizes 5 x 6 and 6 x 7. Over 80 per cent of the sales consisted of

the larger size when either the 5 x 6 or the 6 x 7 size was marketed competitively with the

size 7 x 8.

The Effect of Size on Sales of Tomatoes

The preceding discussion has no doubt raised the question in the minds of many as to

the possible effect of size upon the quantity of tomatoes that customers will buy. Since the

study was designed specifically to examine customer preferences for sizes, the data obtained

from the market tests do not provide precise information on the effect of size on sales. How-

ever, it is possible from the test results to examine in a general fashion the relationship be-

tween size and the volume of tomatoes that customers will buy.

The largest tomatoes available to customers in this study were those involved in the

comparison of 5 x 6 and 6 x 6 sizes. In the entire series of five comparisons, the average

size of the tomatoes available to customers became gradually smaller until the7 x 7 7 x 8

comparison was reached. Hence, it is possible to rank the matched-lots themselves with

respect to the average size of tomatoes which they contained. On this basis, the data were

analyzed to determine if the total sales of tomatoes differed significantly among the five

comparisons with which customers were confronted.

The instances where the total sales of the five comparisons for each grade were found

to be the same as well as the instances in which they were found to differ are shown in


-9-








Figure 2. No differences in either grade were found in the total sales of any comparisons

involving 5 x 6 tomatoes and a smaller size. For example, about the same total amount of

tomatoes was sold in comparisons involving 5 x 6's and 6 x 6's as in those involving 5 x 6's

and7 x 8's. Also, about the same total amount was sold in comparisons involving x 6's and

7 x 8's as in those involving 6 x 7's and 7 x 8's. Further, sales were not appreciably less as

a result of pairing a7 x with a7 x 7 size than when pairing a7 x 8 with a 6 x 7 size. This

was true for both grades of tomatoes. The comparisons for each grade involving 5 x 6 and

7 x 8 sizes sold about the same total quantity of tomatoes as those consisting of 6 x 7 and

7 x 8 sizes, but significantly more than those consisting of 7 x 7 and 7 x 8 sizes.

Numerous other determinations of instances where the total sales of the test compari-

sons were about the same or different may be made from Figure 2. Each vertical line joins

the comparisons where sales were found to be about the same. Thus, the total sales of any

comparisons not joined by a continuous vertical line were different. As shown in Tables 1

and 2, the largest total quantities of tomatoes were sold in those tests where the larger sizes

were involved in the comparisons. Conversely, comparisons involving the smallest sizespro-

duced the smallest total sales of tomatoes.

From Figure 2 it would appear that consumers are not very responsive in a volume

sense to size changes in tomatoes unless the change is a rather large one. The test results

suggest that, within a grade, a change in the size of tomatoes offered customers may not af-

fect the quantity which they buy as long as the change is within the limits of about one-

half the total size range.

Consumers apparently will not alter their purchases as the result of a small change in

size regardless of where in the total range of sizes the change occurs. In other words, the

retailer may expect to sell about as many tomatoes of the 5 x 6 size as of the 6 x 6 size. He

may likewise expect to sell about as many of the 7 x 7 size as of the 7 x 8 size. However,

his sales of either 7 x 7's or 7 x 8's will likely be less than if he stocked 5 x 6's or 6 x 6's.

-10 -








FIGURE 2

COMPARISONS RESULTING IN EQUAL SALES VOLUMES
OF FLORIDA TOMATOES


Size Comparisons


U. S. No. 1


U. S. No. 2


I. 5x6:6x6





II. 5 x 6: 6x7





III. 5x6:7x8





IV. 6 x 7: 7 x 8





V. 7x7:7x8


-11 -






One must hasten to add that the test results obtained in this study are only suggestive of the

effect that size may have upon the quantity of tomatoes which customers will buy. This along

with other aspects of the preference problem, will require further investigation.


- 12 -
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The completion of this study can be only partially attributed to the efforts of the au-
thors. To a considerable extent, credit is due to the sound advice, willing assistance and
unfailing cooperation of many academic and business associates. The contributions of a few
individuals and firms were of signal importance.

The management of the Grand Union Company, East Paterson, New Jersey, made
available the retail store facilities in which the tests were conducted. Particular credit is
due to Messrs. B. W. Winters and Walter Eggers for their thoughtful consideration of the
original proposal and patient handling of the many administrative problems which the field
work created. Much credit is also due Mr. Michael Esposito of the Grand Union Company,
who, in his capacity as Produce Supervisor, gave unstintingly of his assistance during the
field work.

The assortment of tomatoes required for the study was obtained from Tomatoes, Incor-
porated, New York, New York. Mr. Robert King, Manager, made available the physical
resources of his firm in the fullest measure, and exerted every possible personal effort to
simplify the burdensome problem of maintaining supplies in the test stores.

In the Department of Agricultural Economics at the University of Florida, Dr. Vasant
L. Mote developed the analytical procedure employed in the study; Mr. L.A. Powell, Sr.,
gave invaluable advice and assistance in both the formative and analytical phases of the
study; and Mrs. Billie S. Lloyd performed the statistical computations.


-13 -




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