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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Labor and material requirement...
 Costs and returns
 Marketing
 Appendix






Group Title: Mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 67-3
Title: Production and marketing of Florida strawberries
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071993/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production and marketing of Florida strawberries
Series Title: Agricultural economics mimeo report
Physical Description: 35 p., : figs. tables, ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Qualls, R. L
Publisher: Un. of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Oct. 1966.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071993
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 30080572

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Production area trends
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Purpose of study
            Page 6
        Sources of information
            Page 6
        Limitations of data
            Page 6
    Labor and material requirements
        Page 7
        Labor requirements
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Material requirements
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
    Costs and returns
        Page 17
        Costs
            Page 17
            Growing costs
                Page 17
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
            Harvesting and marketing costs
                Page 22
            Total crop cost
                Page 22
        Returns
            Page 22
            Crop sales
                Page 22
            Returns
                Page 23
    Marketing
        Page 24
        Market areas and sales practices
            Page 24
            North Florida
                Page 24
            West Central Florida
                Page 24
            Lower East Coast
                Page 24
        Weekly carlot shipments of Florida strawberries methods of transportation
            Page 25
        Methods of transportation
            Page 25
        Distribution
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Potential for market expansion
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
    Appendix
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





October, 1966


Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC67-3


PRODUCTION AND MARKETING



OF



FLORIDA STRAWBERRIES




by


D. L. Brooke and R. L. Qualls










Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida














TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION . . . . ...


Production Area Trends .
Purpose of Study . .
Sources of Information .
Limitations of Data. ..


LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS. .

Labor Requirements . .
Material Requirements. .


* 4 S

* 4 S S
* S 4 *


COSTS AND RETURNS.. . . . .


Costs. . . . . .


Growing Costs. . .
Harvesting and Marketing Costs
Total Crop Cost. . .


Returns. . . . .. 22

Crop Sales . . . ..... 22
Returns ..... . . ... 23

MARKETING . .. ............ 24


Market Areas and Sales Practices .

North Florida. . . .
West Central Florida . .
Lower East Coast . ..


. S S 9


Weekly Carlot Shipments of Florida Strawberries. .
Methods of Transportation. . . .
Distribution . . . .
Potential for Market Expansion . . .

APPENDIX .. . . . .


Page

1


* .
* .

* .


. .











PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF FLORIDA STRAWBERRIES


by

D. L. Brooke and R. L. Qualls1


INTRODUCTION

Strawberries may be grown in most sections of Florida. Commercial
production, however, is limited to three major areas in the state
(Figure 1). These areas are the Lower East Coast, including Dade, Broward
and Palm Beach counties, with 57.3 percent of the acreage in the 1964-65
season; West Central Florida, including Hillsborough, Hardee, Polk and
Manatee counties, with 30.3 percent of the acreage; and North Florida,
primarily Bradford, Alachua and Union counties, with 12.4 percent of the
acreage in the 1964-65 season.2

Total acreage of commercial strawberries in the state changed
significantly during the period 1956 to 1965 (Figure 2 and Table 1).
Acreage planted decreased from 3,700 in 1955-56 to 1,400 in 1959-60 and had
increased to 3,400 acres in 1964-65. Total production increased from a
low point of 2,600,000 pounds in 1957-58, a result of the freeze, to
27,390,000 pounds in 1964-65. Factors which played an important role in
increasing production were:

1. The introduction of a new variety, the Florida 90,
in the early 1950's.
2. Improved fertilization practices.
3. Increased use of soil fumigation for nematode control.
4. The introduction and use of plastic mulching material.

The total value of the Florida strawberry crop has varied from a
low of $675,000 during the 1957-58 season to a high of $7,678,000 in the
1964-65 season. Season average f.o.b. prices ranged from $0.260 to
$0.415 per pound during the same period. During the most recent five-
year period prices averaged $0.339 per pound.

1
Agricultural Economist and former Research Assistant, respectively,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.

2USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1965 Issue.



















Legend:

Area
1. North Florida
2. West Central Florida
3. Lower East Coast


E4,~P ~4


Figure l.--Principal Strawberry Producing Areas in Florida.














Production
Acres 1,000 Ibs.


4,000 24,000


Production 21,000
Sold /

3,000 / 18,000


15,000
Acreage
2,000 / 12,000


S9,000


1,000 / 6,000


S- 3,000

0 I 0
1955-56 1957-58 1959-60 1961-62 1963-64
Season


Figure 2.--Harvested Acreage and Quantity of Strawberries Sold in
Florida, 1955-56 through 1964-65.

Source: Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Agri-
cultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, United States Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, and University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Agricultural Economics,
Orlando, Florida, 1962 and 1965 issues.









Table l.--Acreage, Production and Value of Strawberries in Florida,
Crop Years 1955-56 through 1964-65

Acreage Yield Season
Total Quantity Total
Year Planted Harvested er Prod. Sold Average Value
Acre Price

1,000 1,000 Cents 1,000
Acres Acres Pounds Pounds Pounds Per Pound Dollars
Winter:
1955-56 3,700 3,700 2,860 10,582 10,582 27.4 2,897
1956-57 3,600 3,500 1,700 5,950 5,950 29.5 1,757
1957-58 2,600 2,000 1,300 2,600 2,600 26.0 675
1958-59 1,500 1,500 2,200 3,300 3,300 41.5 1,370
1959-60 1,400 1,400 5,100 7,140 7,140 38.2 2,728

1960-61 1,900 1,800 4,800 8,640 8,640 32.5 2,812
1961-62 2,000 1,900 7,100 13,490 13,490 35.1 4,740
1962-63 2,100 2,000 8,300 16,600 16,600 34.2 5,683
1963-64 2,800 2,800 8,000 21,600 21,600 34.5 7,455
1964-65 3,400 3,300 8,300 27,390 23,238 33.0 7,678

5-Year Averages:
1956-60 2,560 2,420 2,444 5,914 5,914 31.9 1,885
1961-65 2,440 2,360 7,082 17,540 16,714 33.9 5,674


Source: Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, United States Department
of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, and University of
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Agricultural
Economics, Orlando, Florida,1962 and 1965 issues.


Production Area Trends

Prior to 1955 the West Central Florida area accounted for
practically all of the commercial strawberry production in the state.
Since the 1955-56 season, however, there has been a definite change in
the production of strawberries among Florida areas. The West Central
Florida area decreased from about 92 percent during the 1955-56 season
to 27 percent in 1964-65 (Figure 3). During the same period, the Lower
East Coast area increased from 5 percent to 63 percent of the total pro-
duction. The North Florida area has increased from about 3 percent to
10 percent of total production in the same 10-year period. Thus, the
Lower East Coast has become the leading strawberry producing area in
Florida in a relatively short period of time. It has a warmer winter
climate which reduces the danger of frost damage and allows production
over a longer period of time, resulting in higher yields per acre.











Percent
100

90

80


20 -


Legend: E2 West Central Florida D North Florida


/











/


-l ,. 4


z/


/


/7i


/


"7


777


y/.

7,; /


'1


I I


///

7//


I f


///o
ftz


1< /


'I I


7-



/



/


55-56 56-57 57-58 58-59 59-60 60-61 61-62 62-63 63-64 64-65


L.. Season

Figure 3.--Percent of Total Production of Strawberries, by Areas, in Florida, Seasons 1955-56 to 1964-65.


R Lower East Coast


- --


--~ -


4


--i ....L


1" "


r _1 r I .-


Y





----u~-~-a


I


60


50 -








Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to provide information for present
and potential strawberry growers on labor and material requirements, pro-
duction costs and returns, and marketing practices of strawberry growers
in the three primary areas of Florida.


Sources of Information

A judgment sample of 10 to 12 growers was interviewed in each of
the production areas. The samples were selected in consultation with
county agents in the respective areas and represent farms using the more
modern methods and recommended practices.

The data obtained from growers included the amount and type of
plants, amount and analysis of fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides,
fumigants, other materials and labor and machine time required in the pro-
duction of strawberries. Information on marketing practices was obtained
from growers, county agents and marketing agencies in the respective
areas. Cost information was obtained from growers and from farm supply
dealers in each of the areas of production.

As summarized, the results show the most common practice for the
majority of growers interviewed. Unusual operations or methods were
omitted. Labor and power requirements, as shown, include the hours of man
labor and tractor use. Pumping time for irrigation motors was omitted
because growers were not able to estimate the number of hours used in a
normal season. Pumps were used extensively during some seasons and seldom
in others.


Limitations of Data

It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor required
in operating a farm cannot be obtained exclusively from the data given
for strawberries. Some labor is required for jobs not directly related
to the strawberry enterprise. If all labor performed on the farm were
prorated to various enterprises, the amount used would be higher than that
shown in the tables of requirements for strawberries.

One of the most rapidly changing aspects of farming has been in
insect and disease control measures. Many new materials have become avail-
able in recent years, and these often have resulted in changes in spraying
or dusting practices. The tables on material requirements are not to be
taken as recommendations, but represent average usages in actual practice
at the time studied (1961-63). It is suggested that proposed control
materials and measures be checked with qualified persons before using, in
order to get the latest recommendations.
The yields given in later tables are averages of records obtained.
They are higher than average yields reported by official sources and repre-
sent yields which might be experienced by better than average growers using
recommended practices. For official yield data by areas consult USDA,
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Agricultural
Statistics, Vegetable Summary, current issues.








Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to provide information for present
and potential strawberry growers on labor and material requirements, pro-
duction costs and returns, and marketing practices of strawberry growers
in the three primary areas of Florida.


Sources of Information

A judgment sample of 10 to 12 growers was interviewed in each of
the production areas. The samples were selected in consultation with
county agents in the respective areas and represent farms using the more
modern methods and recommended practices.

The data obtained from growers included the amount and type of
plants, amount and analysis of fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides,
fumigants, other materials and labor and machine time required in the pro-
duction of strawberries. Information on marketing practices was obtained
from growers, county agents and marketing agencies in the respective
areas. Cost information was obtained from growers and from farm supply
dealers in each of the areas of production.

As summarized, the results show the most common practice for the
majority of growers interviewed. Unusual operations or methods were
omitted. Labor and power requirements, as shown, include the hours of man
labor and tractor use. Pumping time for irrigation motors was omitted
because growers were not able to estimate the number of hours used in a
normal season. Pumps were used extensively during some seasons and seldom
in others.


Limitations of Data

It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor required
in operating a farm cannot be obtained exclusively from the data given
for strawberries. Some labor is required for jobs not directly related
to the strawberry enterprise. If all labor performed on the farm were
prorated to various enterprises, the amount used would be higher than that
shown in the tables of requirements for strawberries.

One of the most rapidly changing aspects of farming has been in
insect and disease control measures. Many new materials have become avail-
able in recent years, and these often have resulted in changes in spraying
or dusting practices. The tables on material requirements are not to be
taken as recommendations, but represent average usages in actual practice
at the time studied (1961-63). It is suggested that proposed control
materials and measures be checked with qualified persons before using, in
order to get the latest recommendations.
The yields given in later tables are averages of records obtained.
They are higher than average yields reported by official sources and repre-
sent yields which might be experienced by better than average growers using
recommended practices. For official yield data by areas consult USDA,
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Agricultural
Statistics, Vegetable Summary, current issues.








Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to provide information for present
and potential strawberry growers on labor and material requirements, pro-
duction costs and returns, and marketing practices of strawberry growers
in the three primary areas of Florida.


Sources of Information

A judgment sample of 10 to 12 growers was interviewed in each of
the production areas. The samples were selected in consultation with
county agents in the respective areas and represent farms using the more
modern methods and recommended practices.

The data obtained from growers included the amount and type of
plants, amount and analysis of fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides,
fumigants, other materials and labor and machine time required in the pro-
duction of strawberries. Information on marketing practices was obtained
from growers, county agents and marketing agencies in the respective
areas. Cost information was obtained from growers and from farm supply
dealers in each of the areas of production.

As summarized, the results show the most common practice for the
majority of growers interviewed. Unusual operations or methods were
omitted. Labor and power requirements, as shown, include the hours of man
labor and tractor use. Pumping time for irrigation motors was omitted
because growers were not able to estimate the number of hours used in a
normal season. Pumps were used extensively during some seasons and seldom
in others.


Limitations of Data

It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor required
in operating a farm cannot be obtained exclusively from the data given
for strawberries. Some labor is required for jobs not directly related
to the strawberry enterprise. If all labor performed on the farm were
prorated to various enterprises, the amount used would be higher than that
shown in the tables of requirements for strawberries.

One of the most rapidly changing aspects of farming has been in
insect and disease control measures. Many new materials have become avail-
able in recent years, and these often have resulted in changes in spraying
or dusting practices. The tables on material requirements are not to be
taken as recommendations, but represent average usages in actual practice
at the time studied (1961-63). It is suggested that proposed control
materials and measures be checked with qualified persons before using, in
order to get the latest recommendations.
The yields given in later tables are averages of records obtained.
They are higher than average yields reported by official sources and repre-
sent yields which might be experienced by better than average growers using
recommended practices. For official yield data by areas consult USDA,
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Agricultural
Statistics, Vegetable Summary, current issues.









LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS


The labor and material requirements, as presented, represent the
usual requirements and are subject to seasonal variations due to climatic
and b!.clogical factors. Requirements varied among the three strawberry
production areas of Florida.


Labor Requirements

Strawberry production is a labor-intensive operation over a rela-
tively long period of time. Man hour and tractor hour requirements varied
among the three production areas with most of the variation occurring in
the harvesting operation (Tables 2, 3 and 4). There was also some vari-
ation within the preharvest and postharvest operations.1 In order to
provide a better understanding of the variations in man hour and tractor
hour requirements among the different areas, the major differences are
pointed out and discussed.


Preharvest Operations

In the North Florida area where hand planting is predominant, 50.0
man hours were required. In West Central Florida and the Lower East Coast,
where planting is usually done by machine, 32.0 and 48.0 man hours were
required, respectively. The additional man hours required in the Lower
East Coast area resulted from the predominance of growers planting three
and four row beds. Growers in West Central Florida and North Florida
planted on two row beds.

Growers planting by machine found that plants were set more uni-
formly than when planted by hand. It was also much easier to obtain labor
when planting by machine.

Another difference occurred in applying plastic mulch. In North
Florida 10.0 man hours were required, while in West Central Florida and
the Lower East Coast, 50.0 and 45.0 man hours were required, respectively.
This difference in labor requirements resulted from the fact that the
mulch was applied before planting in North Florida and after planting in
the other two areas. When the mulch was applied after planting, a greater
number of workers was required to cut holes in the plastic and pull the
plants through. Fewer workers were required when the plants were set
after the plastic had been applied to the bed.


An explanation of the various operations performed is given in
the Appendix.









LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS


The labor and material requirements, as presented, represent the
usual requirements and are subject to seasonal variations due to climatic
and b!.clogical factors. Requirements varied among the three strawberry
production areas of Florida.


Labor Requirements

Strawberry production is a labor-intensive operation over a rela-
tively long period of time. Man hour and tractor hour requirements varied
among the three production areas with most of the variation occurring in
the harvesting operation (Tables 2, 3 and 4). There was also some vari-
ation within the preharvest and postharvest operations.1 In order to
provide a better understanding of the variations in man hour and tractor
hour requirements among the different areas, the major differences are
pointed out and discussed.


Preharvest Operations

In the North Florida area where hand planting is predominant, 50.0
man hours were required. In West Central Florida and the Lower East Coast,
where planting is usually done by machine, 32.0 and 48.0 man hours were
required, respectively. The additional man hours required in the Lower
East Coast area resulted from the predominance of growers planting three
and four row beds. Growers in West Central Florida and North Florida
planted on two row beds.

Growers planting by machine found that plants were set more uni-
formly than when planted by hand. It was also much easier to obtain labor
when planting by machine.

Another difference occurred in applying plastic mulch. In North
Florida 10.0 man hours were required, while in West Central Florida and
the Lower East Coast, 50.0 and 45.0 man hours were required, respectively.
This difference in labor requirements resulted from the fact that the
mulch was applied before planting in North Florida and after planting in
the other two areas. When the mulch was applied after planting, a greater
number of workers was required to cut holes in the plastic and pull the
plants through. Fewer workers were required when the plants were set
after the plastic had been applied to the bed.


An explanation of the various operations performed is given in
the Appendix.










Table 2.--Usual Man Hour and Tractor Hour Requirements Per Acre for
Producing Strawberries in the North Florida Area

Times Percent of Hours Per Acre
Operation Over Total Acreage
Acreage Covered Man Hours Tractor Hours


Preharvest:


Mowing cover crop
Plowing
Fumigating soil
Discing
Fertilizing
Bedding
Planting (hand)
Replanting
Irrigating
Hoeing
Weeding
Spraying
Applying plastic mulch
Gathering grass mulch
Applying grass mulch

Total preharvest

Harvest:

Picking
Packing
Hauling to market

Total harvest

Postharvest:

Mowing plants
Removing plastic
Discing
Planting cover crop

Total postharvest

Total--all operations


Yield


I
1
1

5.5
3
1
1
1
10
1
2
22.5
1

1


16.7
16.7
30.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
100.0
73.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
26.7
100.0


1.0
1.6
2.0
4.1
1.5
2.4
50.0
8.0
47.0
40.0
65.6
20.1
10.0
32.0
26.0


1.0
1.6
1.0
4.1
1.5
1.6





20.1
3.4
6.4
3.2


311.3 43.9



24.5 100.0 896.4
100.0 274.2
100.0 17.8

1,188.4



1 70.0 1.0 1.0
1 100.0 22.0 4.0
1 83.3 1.0 1.0
1 43.4 0.6 0.6

24.6 6.6

1,524.3 50.5


10,800 pints per acre










Table 3.--Usual Man Hour and Tractor Hour Requirements Per Acre for
Producing Strawberries in the West Central Florida Area

Times Percent of Hours Per Acre
Operation Over Total Acreage
Acreage Covered Man Hours Tractor Hours


Preharvest:


Mowing cover crop
Plowing
Fumigating soil
Discing
Harrowing
Cultivating and
fertilizing
Bedding
Planting (machine)
Replanting
Irrigating
Hoeing
Weeding
Spraying
Applying plastic mulch

Total preharvest

Harvest:

Picking
Packing
Hauling to market

Total harvest

Postharvest:

Removing plastic
Discing
Planting cover crop

Total postharvest

Total--all operations


Yield


1
1
1
7.5
3

5
1
1



19
1.5
19
1
1


14.2
73.1
36.2
100.0
18.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
40.4
100.0
100.0


1.0
1.7
2.0
7.5
0.5

10.0
2.0
32.0
18.0
36.0
40.0
45.0
15.6
50.0


1.0
1.7
2.0
7.5
0.5

10.0
2.0
9.0




15.6
10.0


261.3 59.3



46 100.0 1,020.0
100.0 55.8
100.0 13.3

1,389.1



1 100.0 8.0
2.5 67.3 2.6 2.6
1 32.6 1.8 1.8

12.4 4.4

1,662.8 63.7

12,000 pints per acre










Table 4.--Usual Man Hour and Tractor Hour Requirements Per Acre for
Producing Strawberries in the Lower East Coast Area

Times Percent of Hours Per Acre
Operation Over Total Acreage
Acreage Covered Man Hours Tractor Hours


Preharvest;
Mowing cover crop
Plowing
Fumigating soil
Discing
Harrowing
Roto-tilling
Fertilizing
Bedding
Grading plants
Planting (machine)
Replanting
Irrigating
Hoeing
Weeding
Spraying
Applying plastic mulch
Applying other mulch
Gathering grass mulch
Applying herbicide

Total preharvest
Harvest:
Picking
Packing
Hauling to shed
Hauling to market

Total harvest
Postharvest:
Mowing plants
Removing plastic
Discing
Planting cover crop
Harrowing cover crop

Total postharvest

Total--all operations


7
1
1.5
2
1
1
1
1
12.5
1
1
20.5
1
1

1.5


57.3
85.2
19.8
100.0
5.7
11.8
100.0
100.0
6.8
77.1
80.7
100.0
82.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
7.5
13.0


0.5
1.6
0.6
5.7
0.3
1.2
2.9
1.6
20.0
48.0
13.5
28.3
47.0
50.0
12.8
45.0
30.0
7.2
0.8


0.5
1.6
0.6
5.7
0.3
1.2
2.9
1.6

8.0




12.8
2.2
3.0
3.6
0.5


317.0 44.5


51 100.0 1,271.5
100.0 75.4
65.9 7.2 8.6
100.0 17.0

1,371.1 8.6


1 86.4 1.0 1.0
1 100.0 30.0 1.5
3.5 24.0 2.3 2.3
1 77.0 0.7 0.7
1 57.3 0.3 0.3

34.3 5.8

1,722.4 58.9


Yil 520pnsprar


Yield


15,250 pints per acre










Harvesting Operations

Picking required more man hours of labor than all other operations
combined in each of the three production areas. Labor requirements for
picking varied among the areas and were primarily dependent upon yield
and quality of labor available. Yield was dependent upon the number of
plants per acre, the length of the harvesting season, production practices
and climatic factors.

More man hours were devoted to packing in North Florida and West
Central Florida than in the Lower East Coast area. The berries were
carried to a packing shed, dumped onto a moving belt and hand graded in
the North and West Central Florida areas. This usually involved two or
three times the number of workers required for the packing operation in
the Lower East Coast area where undesirable berries were graded out in
the field as they were loaded onto a truck to be hauled to market.


Seasonality of Operations Requiring Labor

Most operations requiring labor in the production of strawberries
were performed during the months of July through May (Figures 4, 5 and 6).
The most labor-intensive operation was harvesting. The harvesting season
varied among the three production areas primarily because of climatic
factors. The North Florida area harvested during March and April. West
Central Florida and the Lower East Coast areas had longer seasons. The
West Central Florida area harvested from early January through mid-April.
The Lower East Coast area harvested from mid-December through mid-April.
Planting is the only other operation which required a large quantity of
labor within a relatively short period of time. Planting and replanting
were usually done during the months of October and November.

It should be noted in connection with Figures 4, 5 and 6 that all
operations were not performed throughout the entire period, but only as
necessary. For example, acreages of strawberries were irrigated, hoed,
weeded and sprayed only when it was necessary to do so during the indi-
cated periods of time.


Material Requirements

The usual material requirements varied among the three production
areas due to differences in soil, biological factors, production practices
and yield (Tables 5, 6 and 7).

Growers in all areas preferred the Florida 90 variety of plants
to other varieties. The plant requirements in the Lower East Coast area
were higher than the other two areas since growers there often planted
three and four rows per bed.

The amount of plastic mulch used per acre depended on the width
of the beds.










Preharvest:


Mowing Cover Crop LI
Plowing
Fumigating
Discing

Fertilizing
Bedding
Planting
Replanting
Irrigating 1. .. .
Hoeing .

Weeding .

Spraying -
Applying Plastic Mulch
Gathering Grass Mulch
Applying Grass Mulch

Harvest -
Postharvest


Figure 4.--Normal Season of Operations for Strawberries, North Florida.











Preharvest:


Mowing Cover Crop
Plowing
Fumigating
Discing
Harrowing
Cultivating and -. .
Fertilizing
Bedding
Planting
Replanting
Irrigating ,". "_"_ _' "
Hoeing I
Weeding- "
Spraying
Applying Plastic Mulch
Harvest -
Postharvest


Figure 5.--Normal Season of Operations for Strawberries, West Central Florida.









Freharvest:


Mowing Cover Crop
Plowing
Fumigating
Discing
Harrowing
-Roto-tilling
Fertilizing
Bedding
Planting -
Replanting
Irrigating '
Hoeing
Weeding
Spraying
Applying Plastic Mulch
Applying Other Mulch
Gathering Grass Mulch
Applying Herbicide
Harvest ',-" .. _
Postharvest I I i-


Figure 6.--Normal Season of Operations for Strawberries, Lower East Coast.










Table 5.--Usual Material Requirements Per Acre for Producing Strawberries
in the North Florida Area


Item Kind Amount

Plants Florida 90 20,250
Mulch Plastic 12,500' x 36"
Grass 6,000 lbs.
Fertilizer 4-8-8 1,900 Ibs.
10-20-10 liquid 3.8 gals.
Soil amendments Dolomite lime 1,000 Ibs.
Cover crop seed Field peas 75 lbs.
Soil fumigant D.D. 20 gals.
Spray materials Organic phosphate insecticide 2.1 gals.
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticide 1 gal.
Captan fungicide 24 lbs.
Carbonate fungicide 12 Ibs.
Harvesting containers 12 pt. flats 900
1 pt. cups 10,800




Table 6.--Usual Material Requirements Per Acre for Producing Strawberries
in the West Central Florida Area


Item Kind Amount

Plants Florida 90 20,000
Mulch Plastic 11,000' x 30"
Fertilizer 4-8-8 1,700 lbs.
Muriate of potash 400 Ibs.
Soil amendments Sludge 1,200 Ibs.
Soil fumigant D.D. 20 gals.
Spray materials Organic phosphate insecticide 9 Ibs.
Captan fungicide 45 Ibs.
Copper fungicide 6 Ibs.
Dust materials Organic phosphate insecticide 57.5 Ibs.
Herbicide Dinitros 9 gals.
Harvesting containers 12 pt. flats 1,000
1 pt. cups 12,000













Table 7.--Usual Material Requirements Per Acre for Producing Strawberries
in the Lower East Coast Area


Item Kind Amount

Plants Florida 90 27,572
Mulch Plastic 9,870' x 42"
Grass 5,250 lbs.
Fertilizer 4-8-8 1,400 'bs.
Super phosphate 1,000 Ibs.
20-20-20 liquid 21 gals.
2-20-18 liquid 12 gals.
Soil amendments Sludge 1,750 Ibs.
Cover crop seed Hegari 20 Ibs.
Soil fumigant E. D. B. 20 gals.
Spray materials Organic phosphate insecticide 1.9 gals.
Chlorinated hydrocarbon .5 gals. or
insecticide 18.8 Ibs.
Captan fungicide 41.7 Ibs.
Copper fungicide 46.5 lbs.
Herbicide Dacthal 20 lbs.
Harvesting containers 12 pt. flats 1,271
1 pt. cups 15,250


The quantity of
dependent upon yield.


containers required in each area was directly


Fertilizer programs varied among the production areas with a
4-8-8 analysis being commonly used. The remainder of the fertilizer
materials used in each area depended primarily on local soil types.

The types and quantities of spray materials varied among the pro-
duction areas as a result of differences in local biological conditions
and production practices. The insecticides and fungicides were classified
in Tables 5, 6 and 7 according to their general chemical groups rather
than according to brand names.












COSTS AND RETURNS


Complete records on costs and returns were not available from a
sufficient number of growers in each area to be used for intra-area sum-
mary and comparative purposes. Therefore, estimated costs and returns for
each production area are presented on a per acre, per flat and per pint
basis (Tables 8, 9 and 10). These estimates are based upon the labor and
material requirements data presented earlier and cost information supplied
by growers, county agents and agricultural supply stores in the respective
production areas.


Costs


Growing Costs

Land rent.--Land rent varied widely among the three production
areas--$15.00 per acre in North Florida, $30.00 per acre in West Central
Florida and $65.00 per acre on the Lower East Coast. The higher priced
land in southern areas of Florida tended to be more productive than land
in North Florida as a result of climatic factors, more intensive use and
a longer harvesting season.

Plants.--The cost of plants for each area varied from $7.50 to
$8.50 per thousand. The variation in cost can be accounted for by dif-
ferences in transportation costs to each area. The per acre cost of
plants was affected by the number of plants used per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used a larger number of plants per acre than growers
in the other two areas. A few growers raised their own plants, but they
were insignificant in number. Plant production is becoming more
specialized and intensive for greater efficiency and better quality. Most
of the plants used were grown either in Florida or Tennessee.

Fertilizer.--The per acre cost of fertilizer was dependent upon
the analysis and the amount used and varied considerably among the three
areas. North Florida averaged $61.08 per acre, West Central Florida
$91.65 per acre and the Lower East Coast $127.60 per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used larger quantities of fertilizer than West
Central Florida growers, and West Central Florida growers used larger
quantities than North Florida growers.

Spray and dust.--The cost of spray and dust materials was de-
pendent upon the extensiveness of disease and insect infestations in each
area. Therefore, the cost may vary a great deal within an area from
season to season and among areas during the same season. Cost may also












COSTS AND RETURNS


Complete records on costs and returns were not available from a
sufficient number of growers in each area to be used for intra-area sum-
mary and comparative purposes. Therefore, estimated costs and returns for
each production area are presented on a per acre, per flat and per pint
basis (Tables 8, 9 and 10). These estimates are based upon the labor and
material requirements data presented earlier and cost information supplied
by growers, county agents and agricultural supply stores in the respective
production areas.


Costs


Growing Costs

Land rent.--Land rent varied widely among the three production
areas--$15.00 per acre in North Florida, $30.00 per acre in West Central
Florida and $65.00 per acre on the Lower East Coast. The higher priced
land in southern areas of Florida tended to be more productive than land
in North Florida as a result of climatic factors, more intensive use and
a longer harvesting season.

Plants.--The cost of plants for each area varied from $7.50 to
$8.50 per thousand. The variation in cost can be accounted for by dif-
ferences in transportation costs to each area. The per acre cost of
plants was affected by the number of plants used per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used a larger number of plants per acre than growers
in the other two areas. A few growers raised their own plants, but they
were insignificant in number. Plant production is becoming more
specialized and intensive for greater efficiency and better quality. Most
of the plants used were grown either in Florida or Tennessee.

Fertilizer.--The per acre cost of fertilizer was dependent upon
the analysis and the amount used and varied considerably among the three
areas. North Florida averaged $61.08 per acre, West Central Florida
$91.65 per acre and the Lower East Coast $127.60 per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used larger quantities of fertilizer than West
Central Florida growers, and West Central Florida growers used larger
quantities than North Florida growers.

Spray and dust.--The cost of spray and dust materials was de-
pendent upon the extensiveness of disease and insect infestations in each
area. Therefore, the cost may vary a great deal within an area from
season to season and among areas during the same season. Cost may also












COSTS AND RETURNS


Complete records on costs and returns were not available from a
sufficient number of growers in each area to be used for intra-area sum-
mary and comparative purposes. Therefore, estimated costs and returns for
each production area are presented on a per acre, per flat and per pint
basis (Tables 8, 9 and 10). These estimates are based upon the labor and
material requirements data presented earlier and cost information supplied
by growers, county agents and agricultural supply stores in the respective
production areas.


Costs


Growing Costs

Land rent.--Land rent varied widely among the three production
areas--$15.00 per acre in North Florida, $30.00 per acre in West Central
Florida and $65.00 per acre on the Lower East Coast. The higher priced
land in southern areas of Florida tended to be more productive than land
in North Florida as a result of climatic factors, more intensive use and
a longer harvesting season.

Plants.--The cost of plants for each area varied from $7.50 to
$8.50 per thousand. The variation in cost can be accounted for by dif-
ferences in transportation costs to each area. The per acre cost of
plants was affected by the number of plants used per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used a larger number of plants per acre than growers
in the other two areas. A few growers raised their own plants, but they
were insignificant in number. Plant production is becoming more
specialized and intensive for greater efficiency and better quality. Most
of the plants used were grown either in Florida or Tennessee.

Fertilizer.--The per acre cost of fertilizer was dependent upon
the analysis and the amount used and varied considerably among the three
areas. North Florida averaged $61.08 per acre, West Central Florida
$91.65 per acre and the Lower East Coast $127.60 per acre. Growers in the
Lower East Coast area used larger quantities of fertilizer than West
Central Florida growers, and West Central Florida growers used larger
quantities than North Florida growers.

Spray and dust.--The cost of spray and dust materials was de-
pendent upon the extensiveness of disease and insect infestations in each
area. Therefore, the cost may vary a great deal within an area from
season to season and among areas during the same season. Cost may also









Table 8.--Estimated Costs and Returns for Strawberries in the North
Florida Area


Item


Cost


Acre
Growing costs:


Land rent
Plants
Fertilizer
Spray and dust
Cultural labor
Machine hire
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.)
Miscellaneous expense
Estimated overhead expense

Total growing cost

Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing labor
Containers
Hauling
Selling

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost
Crop sales
Returns


Average yield per acre
Average acres per grower


Average per
Flat


Pint


$ 15.00
162.00
61.08
125.60
346.00
103.83

23.49
126.14
187.93

$1,151.07 $1,279 $0.106


$ 814.20 $0.905 $0.075
369.00 0.410 0.034
40.50 0.045 0.004
27.00 0.030 0.003

$1,250.70 $1.390 $0.116

$2,401.77 $2.669 $0.222
$2,862.00 $3.180 $0.265
$ 460.23 $0.511 $0.043

-- 900 10,800
A -- --


aBased on anticipated labor cost of $1.00 per hour for common
labor and $1.20 per hour for a tractor driver.

blncludes mulch and cover crop seed.

cEstimated overhead expense includes depreciation on buildings,
equipment or irrigation system, interest on investment, payroll taxes or
licenses at 20 percent of all other growing costs except interest.


dReturns to labor and management.


I ----- -










Table 9.--Estimated Costs and Returns for Strawberries in the West Central
Florida Area


Item


Cost


Growing costs:
Land rent
Plants
Fertilizer
Spray and dust
Cultural labor
Machine hire
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.)
Miscellaneous expense
Estimated overhead expense

Total growing cost

Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing labor
Containers
Hauling
Selling

Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Returns


Average yield per acre


Acre


Average per
Flat


Pint


$ 30.00
160.00
91.65
192.84
286.44
168.73

24.96
68.75
199.68

$1,223.05 $1.223 $0.102


$ 955.80 $0.956 $0.080
410.00 0.410 0.034
33.00 0.033 0.003
300.00 0.300 0.025

$1,698.80 $1.699 $0.142
$2,921.85 $2.922 $0.244
$3,360.00 $3.360 $0.280
$ 438.15 $0.438 $0.036

-- 1,000 12,000


Average acres per grower 6


aBased on anticipated labor cost of $1.00 per hour for common
labor and $1.20 per hour for a tractor driver.

bIncludes mulch.

CEstimated overhead expense includes depreciation on buildings,
equipment or irrigation system, interest on investment, payroll taxes or
licenses at 20 percent of all other growing costs except interest.

dReturns to labor and management.










Table 10.--Estimated Costs and Returns for Strawberries in the Lower East
Coast Area


Item


Cost


Acre


Growing costs:
Land rent
Plants
Fertilizer
Spray and dust
Cultural labora
Machine hire
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.)
Miscellaneous expense
Estimated overhead expense

Total growing cost

Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing labor
Containers
Hauling
Selling

Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Returns


Average yield per acre


Average per
Flat


Pint


$ 65.00
234.36
127.60
216.84
361.36
132.87

31.79
133.54
254.31

$1,557.67 $1.226 $0.102


$1,207.45 $0.950 $0.079
457.56 0.360 0.030
50.84 0.040 0.003
446.82 0.351 0.030

$2,162.67 $1.701 $0.142
$3,720.34 $2.927 $0.244
$4,468.25 $3.515 $0.293
$ 747.91 $0.588 $0.049

-- 1,271 15,250


Average acres per grower -- --


aBased on anticipated labor cost of $1.00 per hour for common
labor and $1.20 per hour for a tractor driver.

bIncludes mulch and cover crop seed.

CEstimated overhead expense includes depreciation on buildings,
equipment or irrigation system, interest on investment, payroll taxes or
licenses at 20 percent of all other growing costs except interest.


dReturns to labor and management.











vary because of the type of control or preventive program followed by
growers. Some growers sprayed every five or 10 days regardless of the
degree of insect and disease infestation. Other growers sprayed only when
it appeared necessary.

Cultural labor.--This includes the average cost of all labor
involved in the production process. It is based upon an anticipated labor
cost of $1.00 per hour for common labor and $1.20 per hour for tractor
drivers. Labor efficiency was lower in North Florida than in either the
West Central Florida or Lower East Coast areas. The labor cost of pro-
ducing a flat of strawberries in North Florida was $0.384. In West Central
Florida and the Lower East Coast the labor cost per flat was $0.286 and
$0.284, respectively.

Machine hire.--Complete costs of machinery including depreciation,
gas, oil and repair and maintenance were not available from growers. The
costs presented for machine hire were based on custom rates for the South-
eastern United States compiled by the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers. The costs were figured on an hourly basis for each operation
requiring machinery and then summarized on a per acre basis.

Interest on production capital.--This is based upon the total pro-
duction cost for a five-month period at a 6 percent interest rate. It
represents the interest growers would have to pay if the money were
borrowed for production purposes. It does not include interest on invest-
ment which is a part of the estimated overhead expense.

Miscellaneous expenses.--Included under miscellaneous expenses
are such items as plastic mulch, grass mulch and cover crop seed. These
costs varied somewhat among areas--$126.14 in North Florida, $68.75 in
West Central Florida and $133.54 on the Lower East Coast. Growers in
North Florida and on the Lower East Coast used a plastic mulch, grass
mulch and cover crop seed while West Central Florida growers used only the
plastic mulch.

Estimated overhead expense.--Since actual cost records were not
available from all growers, such items of expense as depreciation on farm
buildings or irrigation systems, interest on capital invested in farm
equipment, payroll taxes, licenses or insurance had to be estimated. An
estimate of 20 percent of all other growing costs except interest on pro-
duction capital, was based on unpublished data on costs and returns for
strawberries in the Lower East Coast area.

Total growing cost.--This represents all costs discussed to this
point. The total growing costs were $1,151.07, $1,223.05 and $1,557.67
per acre, respectively, for North Florida, West Central Florida and the
Lower East Coast.










Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and packing labor.--The amount of this cost was directly
dependent upon the yield per acre. This was the largest single item of
cost in the production and marketing of strawberries.

Containers.--Two types of containers were used in shipping straw-
berries. One pint cups were used for market containers and 12 pint flats
were used for shipping containers.

Hauling.--This includes the cost of labor and a truck necessary
in moving strawberries from the grower to local shipping points.

Selling.--Selling costs varied considerably among the three pro-
duction areas of Florida. In North Florida, where berries were sold by
auction at a State Farmer's Market, the selling cost was $0.03 per 12 pint
flat. A rate of $0.30 per flat was charged for selling and handling by
the two shipping firms operating in the West Central Florida area. In the
Lower East Coast area, firms that handled strawberries for growers charged
10 percent of the selling price for their services.

Total harvesting and marketing costs.--The total harvesting and
marketing costs varied from area to area as did yields. Harvesting and
marketing costs were much higher than growing costs in each production
area. This cost was $1,250.70 per acre in North Florida, $1,698.80 per
acre in West Central Florida and $2,162.67 per acre on the Lower East
Coast.


Total Crop Cost

The total crop cost is the sum of the total growing costs and total
harvesting and marketing costs. This varied among areas as did the costs
which make up this figure. Variations in total crop cost among growers in
each area were primarily the result of differences in production practices
and yields.


Returns


Crop Sales

Crop sales were dependent upon the average yield in each area and
the average amount received by the grower for his strawberries. North
Florida growers received $0.265 per pint, West Central Florida growers
$0.280 per pint and the Lower East Coast growers $0.293 per pint. The
Lower East Coast growers received the highest average price for their
strawberries since their harvesting season began earlier than that of










Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and packing labor.--The amount of this cost was directly
dependent upon the yield per acre. This was the largest single item of
cost in the production and marketing of strawberries.

Containers.--Two types of containers were used in shipping straw-
berries. One pint cups were used for market containers and 12 pint flats
were used for shipping containers.

Hauling.--This includes the cost of labor and a truck necessary
in moving strawberries from the grower to local shipping points.

Selling.--Selling costs varied considerably among the three pro-
duction areas of Florida. In North Florida, where berries were sold by
auction at a State Farmer's Market, the selling cost was $0.03 per 12 pint
flat. A rate of $0.30 per flat was charged for selling and handling by
the two shipping firms operating in the West Central Florida area. In the
Lower East Coast area, firms that handled strawberries for growers charged
10 percent of the selling price for their services.

Total harvesting and marketing costs.--The total harvesting and
marketing costs varied from area to area as did yields. Harvesting and
marketing costs were much higher than growing costs in each production
area. This cost was $1,250.70 per acre in North Florida, $1,698.80 per
acre in West Central Florida and $2,162.67 per acre on the Lower East
Coast.


Total Crop Cost

The total crop cost is the sum of the total growing costs and total
harvesting and marketing costs. This varied among areas as did the costs
which make up this figure. Variations in total crop cost among growers in
each area were primarily the result of differences in production practices
and yields.


Returns


Crop Sales

Crop sales were dependent upon the average yield in each area and
the average amount received by the grower for his strawberries. North
Florida growers received $0.265 per pint, West Central Florida growers
$0.280 per pint and the Lower East Coast growers $0.293 per pint. The
Lower East Coast growers received the highest average price for their
strawberries since their harvesting season began earlier than that of










Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and packing labor.--The amount of this cost was directly
dependent upon the yield per acre. This was the largest single item of
cost in the production and marketing of strawberries.

Containers.--Two types of containers were used in shipping straw-
berries. One pint cups were used for market containers and 12 pint flats
were used for shipping containers.

Hauling.--This includes the cost of labor and a truck necessary
in moving strawberries from the grower to local shipping points.

Selling.--Selling costs varied considerably among the three pro-
duction areas of Florida. In North Florida, where berries were sold by
auction at a State Farmer's Market, the selling cost was $0.03 per 12 pint
flat. A rate of $0.30 per flat was charged for selling and handling by
the two shipping firms operating in the West Central Florida area. In the
Lower East Coast area, firms that handled strawberries for growers charged
10 percent of the selling price for their services.

Total harvesting and marketing costs.--The total harvesting and
marketing costs varied from area to area as did yields. Harvesting and
marketing costs were much higher than growing costs in each production
area. This cost was $1,250.70 per acre in North Florida, $1,698.80 per
acre in West Central Florida and $2,162.67 per acre on the Lower East
Coast.


Total Crop Cost

The total crop cost is the sum of the total growing costs and total
harvesting and marketing costs. This varied among areas as did the costs
which make up this figure. Variations in total crop cost among growers in
each area were primarily the result of differences in production practices
and yields.


Returns


Crop Sales

Crop sales were dependent upon the average yield in each area and
the average amount received by the grower for his strawberries. North
Florida growers received $0.265 per pint, West Central Florida growers
$0.280 per pint and the Lower East Coast growers $0.293 per pint. The
Lower East Coast growers received the highest average price for their
strawberries since their harvesting season began earlier than that of










Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and packing labor.--The amount of this cost was directly
dependent upon the yield per acre. This was the largest single item of
cost in the production and marketing of strawberries.

Containers.--Two types of containers were used in shipping straw-
berries. One pint cups were used for market containers and 12 pint flats
were used for shipping containers.

Hauling.--This includes the cost of labor and a truck necessary
in moving strawberries from the grower to local shipping points.

Selling.--Selling costs varied considerably among the three pro-
duction areas of Florida. In North Florida, where berries were sold by
auction at a State Farmer's Market, the selling cost was $0.03 per 12 pint
flat. A rate of $0.30 per flat was charged for selling and handling by
the two shipping firms operating in the West Central Florida area. In the
Lower East Coast area, firms that handled strawberries for growers charged
10 percent of the selling price for their services.

Total harvesting and marketing costs.--The total harvesting and
marketing costs varied from area to area as did yields. Harvesting and
marketing costs were much higher than growing costs in each production
area. This cost was $1,250.70 per acre in North Florida, $1,698.80 per
acre in West Central Florida and $2,162.67 per acre on the Lower East
Coast.


Total Crop Cost

The total crop cost is the sum of the total growing costs and total
harvesting and marketing costs. This varied among areas as did the costs
which make up this figure. Variations in total crop cost among growers in
each area were primarily the result of differences in production practices
and yields.


Returns


Crop Sales

Crop sales were dependent upon the average yield in each area and
the average amount received by the grower for his strawberries. North
Florida growers received $0.265 per pint, West Central Florida growers
$0.280 per pint and the Lower East Coast growers $0.293 per pint. The
Lower East Coast growers received the highest average price for their
strawberries since their harvesting season began earlier than that of







23



other areas. This put them in a better marketing position because of less
competition from other domestic producing areas. The West Central Florida
harvesting season began next and the North Florida area came in last.


Returns

Returns varied considerably among the three production areas.
This variation resulted from many factors; some of the more important
ones include the average yield per acre and the price growers received
for their strawberries. Yields have traditionally been higher in the
southern areas of the state than in the northern areas. As mentioned
earlier, differences in prices received among the areas resulted from
the marketing advantage held by growers in the southern areas of the
state.









MARKETING


Market Areas and Sales Practices


North Florida

Practically all growers in the North Florida area marketed the
bulk of their strawberries at the State Farmer's Market located in Starke.
The strawberries were sold by auction to representatives of chain stores
and wholesalers. Growers were charged a $0.030 per flat market fee for
using the state marketing facilities. The marketing costs in other
Florida areas were considerably higher.

A few growers marketed a small quantity of their strawberries in
nearby towns and cities. Most of those were sold direct to independent
grocery stores or retailed at the roadside.

The bulk of the North Florida crop was marketed between March 1
and April 30. North Florida growers were faced with considerably more
competition since California, Louisiana and Texas began to market straw-
berries during this time.


West Central Florida

Two commercial shipping firms handled practically all of the
strawberries marketed in the West Central Florida area. One is located
in Dover and the other in Plant City. Each of these firms precooled,
sold and shipped strawberries for growers. In return for their services,
the shipping firm charged the growers a fee of $0.30 per flat.

The West Central Florida marketing season was between January 1
and April 15. They had no competition from areas outside Florida during
the months of January and February, and therefore enjoyed a relatively
strong demand for their product. The Lower East Coast area was their
only competition during this two-month period.


Lower East Coast

Two firms handled and shipped most of the strawberries for growers
in the Lower East Coast area. These firms precooled, sold and shipped
strawberries for eight of 11 strawberry growers interviewed. Each of these
firms also grew strawberries. Rather than charge growers a set fee for
handling and shipping, both firms charged growers 10 percent of the selling
price for their services.









MARKETING


Market Areas and Sales Practices


North Florida

Practically all growers in the North Florida area marketed the
bulk of their strawberries at the State Farmer's Market located in Starke.
The strawberries were sold by auction to representatives of chain stores
and wholesalers. Growers were charged a $0.030 per flat market fee for
using the state marketing facilities. The marketing costs in other
Florida areas were considerably higher.

A few growers marketed a small quantity of their strawberries in
nearby towns and cities. Most of those were sold direct to independent
grocery stores or retailed at the roadside.

The bulk of the North Florida crop was marketed between March 1
and April 30. North Florida growers were faced with considerably more
competition since California, Louisiana and Texas began to market straw-
berries during this time.


West Central Florida

Two commercial shipping firms handled practically all of the
strawberries marketed in the West Central Florida area. One is located
in Dover and the other in Plant City. Each of these firms precooled,
sold and shipped strawberries for growers. In return for their services,
the shipping firm charged the growers a fee of $0.30 per flat.

The West Central Florida marketing season was between January 1
and April 15. They had no competition from areas outside Florida during
the months of January and February, and therefore enjoyed a relatively
strong demand for their product. The Lower East Coast area was their
only competition during this two-month period.


Lower East Coast

Two firms handled and shipped most of the strawberries for growers
in the Lower East Coast area. These firms precooled, sold and shipped
strawberries for eight of 11 strawberry growers interviewed. Each of these
firms also grew strawberries. Rather than charge growers a set fee for
handling and shipping, both firms charged growers 10 percent of the selling
price for their services.









MARKETING


Market Areas and Sales Practices


North Florida

Practically all growers in the North Florida area marketed the
bulk of their strawberries at the State Farmer's Market located in Starke.
The strawberries were sold by auction to representatives of chain stores
and wholesalers. Growers were charged a $0.030 per flat market fee for
using the state marketing facilities. The marketing costs in other
Florida areas were considerably higher.

A few growers marketed a small quantity of their strawberries in
nearby towns and cities. Most of those were sold direct to independent
grocery stores or retailed at the roadside.

The bulk of the North Florida crop was marketed between March 1
and April 30. North Florida growers were faced with considerably more
competition since California, Louisiana and Texas began to market straw-
berries during this time.


West Central Florida

Two commercial shipping firms handled practically all of the
strawberries marketed in the West Central Florida area. One is located
in Dover and the other in Plant City. Each of these firms precooled,
sold and shipped strawberries for growers. In return for their services,
the shipping firm charged the growers a fee of $0.30 per flat.

The West Central Florida marketing season was between January 1
and April 15. They had no competition from areas outside Florida during
the months of January and February, and therefore enjoyed a relatively
strong demand for their product. The Lower East Coast area was their
only competition during this two-month period.


Lower East Coast

Two firms handled and shipped most of the strawberries for growers
in the Lower East Coast area. These firms precooled, sold and shipped
strawberries for eight of 11 strawberry growers interviewed. Each of these
firms also grew strawberries. Rather than charge growers a set fee for
handling and shipping, both firms charged growers 10 percent of the selling
price for their services.









MARKETING


Market Areas and Sales Practices


North Florida

Practically all growers in the North Florida area marketed the
bulk of their strawberries at the State Farmer's Market located in Starke.
The strawberries were sold by auction to representatives of chain stores
and wholesalers. Growers were charged a $0.030 per flat market fee for
using the state marketing facilities. The marketing costs in other
Florida areas were considerably higher.

A few growers marketed a small quantity of their strawberries in
nearby towns and cities. Most of those were sold direct to independent
grocery stores or retailed at the roadside.

The bulk of the North Florida crop was marketed between March 1
and April 30. North Florida growers were faced with considerably more
competition since California, Louisiana and Texas began to market straw-
berries during this time.


West Central Florida

Two commercial shipping firms handled practically all of the
strawberries marketed in the West Central Florida area. One is located
in Dover and the other in Plant City. Each of these firms precooled,
sold and shipped strawberries for growers. In return for their services,
the shipping firm charged the growers a fee of $0.30 per flat.

The West Central Florida marketing season was between January 1
and April 15. They had no competition from areas outside Florida during
the months of January and February, and therefore enjoyed a relatively
strong demand for their product. The Lower East Coast area was their
only competition during this two-month period.


Lower East Coast

Two firms handled and shipped most of the strawberries for growers
in the Lower East Coast area. These firms precooled, sold and shipped
strawberries for eight of 11 strawberry growers interviewed. Each of these
firms also grew strawberries. Rather than charge growers a set fee for
handling and shipping, both firms charged growers 10 percent of the selling
price for their services.









MARKETING


Market Areas and Sales Practices


North Florida

Practically all growers in the North Florida area marketed the
bulk of their strawberries at the State Farmer's Market located in Starke.
The strawberries were sold by auction to representatives of chain stores
and wholesalers. Growers were charged a $0.030 per flat market fee for
using the state marketing facilities. The marketing costs in other
Florida areas were considerably higher.

A few growers marketed a small quantity of their strawberries in
nearby towns and cities. Most of those were sold direct to independent
grocery stores or retailed at the roadside.

The bulk of the North Florida crop was marketed between March 1
and April 30. North Florida growers were faced with considerably more
competition since California, Louisiana and Texas began to market straw-
berries during this time.


West Central Florida

Two commercial shipping firms handled practically all of the
strawberries marketed in the West Central Florida area. One is located
in Dover and the other in Plant City. Each of these firms precooled,
sold and shipped strawberries for growers. In return for their services,
the shipping firm charged the growers a fee of $0.30 per flat.

The West Central Florida marketing season was between January 1
and April 15. They had no competition from areas outside Florida during
the months of January and February, and therefore enjoyed a relatively
strong demand for their product. The Lower East Coast area was their
only competition during this two-month period.


Lower East Coast

Two firms handled and shipped most of the strawberries for growers
in the Lower East Coast area. These firms precooled, sold and shipped
strawberries for eight of 11 strawberry growers interviewed. Each of these
firms also grew strawberries. Rather than charge growers a set fee for
handling and shipping, both firms charged growers 10 percent of the selling
price for their services.











Three of the 11 growers interviewed did their own selling. They
sold through terminal market brokers and wholesalers and shipped by air
freight.

The Lower East Coast marketing season was between December 15 and
April 15. Like the West Central Florida area, the Lower East Coast had no
competition from areas outside Florida during the months of December,
January and February. This put them in a favorable marketing position
during those months. This appears to be the most desirable production area
in Florida insofar as marketing is concerned. Growers experienced two and
one-half months during December, January and February when their only
competition was from the West Central Florida area.


Weekly Carlot Shipments of Florida Strawberries

During recent years the trend has been toward a longer marketing
season for strawberries grown in Florida. This has come about as straw-
berry production has increased in the Lower East Coast area where climatic
conditions have been more favorable,

During the 1964-65 season, the first shipments of strawberries
from Florida were during the week ending December 12 (Table 11).

Prorating shipments on a monthly basis from Table 11 shows that
46.9 percent of the strawberries produced in Florida were marketed in the
month of March during the 1964-65 season. In the months of February and
April, 18.9 percent and 19.3 percent of the total crop was marketed,
respectively. January accounted for 10.1 percent of the shipments and
December 4.7 percent of the shipments.


Methods of Transportation

Strawberries were shipped to terminal markets predominantly by
truck (Table 12).1 Export shipments and shipments to the Mountain and
Pacific areas of the United States were by air freight. Few rail ship-
ments were made. Only two areas received strawberries by rail; the North
Atlantic area received 14 carlots and the East North Central area received
5 carlots.


Distribution

Florida growers have depended heavily on the North Atlantic area
as a market for their strawberries in recent years (Figure 7). Over 40
percent of the 1964-65 crop was marketed in the North Atlantic area. It


IThe market areas in Table 12 are shown in Figure 7.











Three of the 11 growers interviewed did their own selling. They
sold through terminal market brokers and wholesalers and shipped by air
freight.

The Lower East Coast marketing season was between December 15 and
April 15. Like the West Central Florida area, the Lower East Coast had no
competition from areas outside Florida during the months of December,
January and February. This put them in a favorable marketing position
during those months. This appears to be the most desirable production area
in Florida insofar as marketing is concerned. Growers experienced two and
one-half months during December, January and February when their only
competition was from the West Central Florida area.


Weekly Carlot Shipments of Florida Strawberries

During recent years the trend has been toward a longer marketing
season for strawberries grown in Florida. This has come about as straw-
berry production has increased in the Lower East Coast area where climatic
conditions have been more favorable,

During the 1964-65 season, the first shipments of strawberries
from Florida were during the week ending December 12 (Table 11).

Prorating shipments on a monthly basis from Table 11 shows that
46.9 percent of the strawberries produced in Florida were marketed in the
month of March during the 1964-65 season. In the months of February and
April, 18.9 percent and 19.3 percent of the total crop was marketed,
respectively. January accounted for 10.1 percent of the shipments and
December 4.7 percent of the shipments.


Methods of Transportation

Strawberries were shipped to terminal markets predominantly by
truck (Table 12).1 Export shipments and shipments to the Mountain and
Pacific areas of the United States were by air freight. Few rail ship-
ments were made. Only two areas received strawberries by rail; the North
Atlantic area received 14 carlots and the East North Central area received
5 carlots.


Distribution

Florida growers have depended heavily on the North Atlantic area
as a market for their strawberries in recent years (Figure 7). Over 40
percent of the 1964-65 crop was marketed in the North Atlantic area. It


IThe market areas in Table 12 are shown in Figure 7.











Three of the 11 growers interviewed did their own selling. They
sold through terminal market brokers and wholesalers and shipped by air
freight.

The Lower East Coast marketing season was between December 15 and
April 15. Like the West Central Florida area, the Lower East Coast had no
competition from areas outside Florida during the months of December,
January and February. This put them in a favorable marketing position
during those months. This appears to be the most desirable production area
in Florida insofar as marketing is concerned. Growers experienced two and
one-half months during December, January and February when their only
competition was from the West Central Florida area.


Weekly Carlot Shipments of Florida Strawberries

During recent years the trend has been toward a longer marketing
season for strawberries grown in Florida. This has come about as straw-
berry production has increased in the Lower East Coast area where climatic
conditions have been more favorable,

During the 1964-65 season, the first shipments of strawberries
from Florida were during the week ending December 12 (Table 11).

Prorating shipments on a monthly basis from Table 11 shows that
46.9 percent of the strawberries produced in Florida were marketed in the
month of March during the 1964-65 season. In the months of February and
April, 18.9 percent and 19.3 percent of the total crop was marketed,
respectively. January accounted for 10.1 percent of the shipments and
December 4.7 percent of the shipments.


Methods of Transportation

Strawberries were shipped to terminal markets predominantly by
truck (Table 12).1 Export shipments and shipments to the Mountain and
Pacific areas of the United States were by air freight. Few rail ship-
ments were made. Only two areas received strawberries by rail; the North
Atlantic area received 14 carlots and the East North Central area received
5 carlots.


Distribution

Florida growers have depended heavily on the North Atlantic area
as a market for their strawberries in recent years (Figure 7). Over 40
percent of the 1964-65 crop was marketed in the North Atlantic area. It


IThe market areas in Table 12 are shown in Figure 7.











Table ll.--Weekly Air, Rail and Truck Shipments of Strawberries from
Florida, 1964-65 Season


Week Out-of-State Shipments
ending Air Rail Truck Total


Carlots


1964-65
Dec. 12
19
26

Jan. 2
9
16
23
30

Feb. 6
13
20
27

Mar. 6
13
20
27

Apr. 3
10
17
24

May 1


Total


25
29
92
117


23
26
85
115

130
113
134
166

138
102
75
20


1,320


140
103
75
20


1,392


Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1965 Issue.



is quite logical that much of the crop should go to this area due to its
high population density.

States located east of the Mississippi River received 86.5 per-
cent of Florida's total crop during the 1964-65 season, and states west
of the River received approximately 7.0 percent.











Table 12.--Methods


of Transportation of Florida Strawberries by Market
Area During the 1964-65 Season


Market Area Truck Air

Percent Percent
North Atlantic 92.3a 7.7
South Atlantic 99.8 .2
East North Central 94.1b 5.9
East South Central 99.6 .4
West North Central 99.3 .7
West South Central 99.9 .1'
Mountain -- 100.0
Pacific -- 100.0
Florida 99.7 .3
Canada 98.4 1.6
Europe -- 100.0


a0f the shipments included in this figure, 2.2 percent were by


rail.
bOf the shipments included
by rail.


in this figure, 1.5 percent were


Source: Calculated from unpublished data,
keting Bureau, Jacksonville, 1966.


Florida State Mar-


Approximately 7.0 percent of the 1964-65 crop was shipped outside
the United States. Canada received most of those shipments with Bermuda,
Great Britain, West Germany and Italy receiving the rest.


Potential for Market Expansion

It appears that Florida growers were in a position to expand the
market for their crop during the 1965 calendar year (Table 13). Of the
total amount marketed during that year, 75.4 percent was during the months
of April, May, June and July. If consumers were willing to purchase one-
half of the amount in the late fall and winter months which they purchased
during April, May, June and July, Florida growers could have expanded
their market tremendously during this period of time.

Some growers might have found it difficult to expand their pro-
duction significantly since strawberries are an extremely labor-intensive









Canada
6.3%


South 00
'....... :East South Atan i
9 3%
est So th
Central
1.9% Europe
Sr-. less than
1%


Fla.




Figure 7.--Distribution of Strawberries Produced in Florida During the 1964-65 Season.

Source: Calculated from unpublished data, Florida State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, 1966.










Table 13.--Extension


May June July Aug.


16
28
54
17
77
23
173
68
56
54
47
70
75
7
16
51
38
311
26
12
4
17
54
8
17

212
101
67
49

29
16
206
62
106
47
14
2,228


33
20
65
4
107
35
176
51
65
4
38
60
120
2
8
56
35
185
24
5
4
65
64
3
5

239
113
99
41
5
25
13
123
72
70
25
6
2,065


10
9
5
25
8
88
24
30

25
43
57
1
4
20
12
82
6
4
15
1
41

2

77
23
12
20

9
5
94
33
19
1
2
807


6
4
1
9

57
8
15

11
12
15


8
4
33
3
1
3
1
10

2
47
11
2
3

4

30
5
8



313


Month
Sept.
Carlots

7
3
1
11
2
41
17
15

7
7
15

1
6
4
26
2
2
4

9

1
44
8
3
1

2
1
24
1
9
2

276


Oct. Nov. Dec. Total


60
151
216
63
340
88
855
309
297
80
204
225
381
15
53
199
141
1,007
85
47
62
89
220
13
101

1,056
414
272
144
10
96
105
595
214
295
154
26
8,682


--I`----~-~-~-I--






31




crop, and the availability of an adequate supply of labor has been a
problem.

A variety of strawberries which could be harvested beginning in
the early fall months would also be desirable for Florida growers since
there appeared to be a deficit supply in United States cities during those
months.








APPENDIX


Explanation of Operations

Preharvest Opprations

Mowing cover crops.--If a cover crop had been planted, the first
operation of the season involved mowing it before the growth and stubble
was incorporated into the soil. Mowing was done during the month of
August in North Florida and West Central Florida. Growers in the Lower
East Coast area did their mowing in July. The operation required one man,
a tractor and mower.

Plowing.--The land was usually plowed once prior to being disced.
Plowing required one man, a tractor and a two or three bottom plow. This
was usually the first operation performed in preparing the land for
planting. Plowing permitted deeper penetration of the soil than other
means of cultivation.

Fumigation.--Some growers were equipped to fumigate their own
land for the control of nematodes while others hired it done. This
operation required one man, a tractor and a fumigating machine. It was
usually performed at least two or three weeks before planting.

Discing.--The soil was usually disced before and after fumigation
a total of six or seven times. Discing helped to develop the fine, firm,
smooth soil which is most desirable when planting. One man, a tractor
and a six-foot disc were generally used.

Fertilizing.--Growers made from two to three applications of
fertilizer during the season. The first application was put on by the
broadcast method about two weeks prior to the setting of plants and before
application of the plastic mulch. The second and third applications were
put on as side dressings. One man, a tractor and a fertilizer distributor
were used in this operation.

Bedding.--Strawberries were planted on beds in order to provide
adequate drainage for the plant roots. Preparation of the beds required
a man, a tractor and a bedder. Beds varied in width from three and one-
half to five feet depending upon the number of rows of plants placed on
each bed. Growers in the North Florida and West Central Florida areas
used two row beds predominantly. Some growers in the Lower East Coast
area also used two row beds, but several were using three or four row beds.

Grading plants.--Some growers graded out undesirable plants before
planting. Plants not used were usually either too small in size or
damaged in some way. Grading required from one to several persons
depending on the number of plants to be graded and the size of the planting
crew,











Planting.--This practice varied among growers and areas. Some
growers planted by machine while others planted by hand. A tractor and
planting machine were required if planting was done by machine. The
number of laborers required for planting depended upon the type and size
of the planting machine, or the number of plants the grower desired to
set out in a given period if planting was done by hand.

Replanting.--After plants had been set out for three or four
weeks, growers occasionally replanted where plants had died. This was
generally a hand operation, and the number of persons required depended
upon the percent of missing plants and the rapidity with which the
operation was to be completed.

Irrigation.--Growers began to irrigate immediately after plants
were set out. The frequency, thereafter, usually depended upon the amount
of rainfall in the area. Most growers used portable sprinkler lines
which could be disassembled and moved from one section of a field to
another by one or two men. Thus, only one or two men were generally
required to operate an irrigation system.

Hoeing.--Growers usually hoed their acreage one to two times during
the season. This was done before the plastic and grass mulches were
applied. The number of laborers required depended upon the amount of
undesirable vegetation present and the acreage which the grower desired
to cover in a given period.

Weeding.--Strawberry plants were usually weeded one or two times
during the season to remove weeds growing through the plant holes in the
plastic. This was done by hand, and again the number of persons required
depended upon the number of weeds present and the period of time in which
the operation was to be completed.

Spraying.--Growers generally sprayed their plants every five to
10 days depending upon the severity of insect and disease infestation.
One man, a tractor and a spray machine were required for the operation.
As many as 30 sprayings were required during a crop season.

Applying plastic mulch to beds.--Practically all growers applied
a plastic mulch over the beds to help prevent the growth of undesirable
vegetation, to maintain soil moisture and to prevent the leaching of
fertilizer. The plastic was applied with a tractor attachment which
unrolled it onto the beds. Growers in some areas applied the plastic
before setting plants. In other areas the plastic was applied over the
plants, holes were cut in the plastic and the plants pulled through by
several laborers following the tractor.

Applying other mulch between beds.--Most growers in the North
Florida and Lower East Coast areas applied some form of mulch between
beds to discourage weed growth. Grass, sawdust and peanut hulls were











frequently used. This was generally a hand operation and three to five
persons were required to spread the mulch between the beds. This
operation was not performed in the West Central Florida area because
growers felt that it made their plants more susceptible to frost damage.

Cutting grass mulch.--Some growers, who used a grass mulch between
the beds, cut their own grass. This required one or two men, a tractor
with a mower attachment and a truck or trailer.

Applying herbicides.--Herbicides have been used more and more
in recent years to control weeds. This operation required the same equip-
ment and labor as that used in spraying. Both pre- and post-emergence
herbicides were used. Herbicides were applied in addition to other
methods of controlling weed growth such as hoeing, weeding and mulching.


Harvest Operations

Picking.--Picking required more man hours of labor than any other
operation throughout the season. It was strictly a hand operation, and
the number of laborers required varied from 10 to 200 depending upon the
size of the acreage to be covered. Most acreages were picked twice weekly
during the harvesting season.

Packing.--In some areas the berries were packed in the field as
they were picked. In other areas they were carried from the field to a
packing shed where they were hand-graded, packed and then hauled to market.
Florida strawberries were not government graded or inspected.


Postharvest Operations

Mowing plants.--After harvesting was completed, the plants were
usually mowed in order to remove the plastic mulch from the beds. This
required one man, a tractor and mower.

Removing plastic.--The plastic mulch was removed from the beds
after the plants had been mowed. This required approximately four or five
laborers and a truck. The plastic was hauled from the field and destroyed
so it would not interfere with cultural operations in succeeding seasons.

Breaking down beds.--When the plastic had been removed, the beds
were broken down and leveled by discing in preparing the soil for the
cover crop. This required a man, a tractor and a disc.

Planting cover crop.--Growers frequently planted a cover crop
to shade the soil and discourage weed growth throughout the summer.
The cover crop was planted with a seeder or by an airplane. When the












grower planted his own cover crop, one man, a tractor and seed distributor
were required. Hegari was the most common cover crop used by strawberry
growers.

Harrowing in the cover crop.--Some growers harrowed in their
cover crop immediately after it was planted. The harrow throws about one-
half inch of soil over the seeds, allowing for faster germination and less
loss of seed by wind erosion. This required one man, a tractor and a
harrow.







































DLB:ba 9/27/66 -- 500 copies
Ag. Ec., Ag. Exp. Sta.




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