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Group Title: Economics mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 70-2
Title: Labor and material requirements, costs and returns for celery by areas in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Labor and material requirements, costs and returns for celery by areas in Florida
Series Title: Economics mimeo report
Physical Description: 15 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Celery -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Celery industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Brooke.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August, 1969."
Funding: Agricultural economics mimeo report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071990
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50806753

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Plant production
        Page 3
        Labor requirements
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Material requirements
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Plant population
            Page 7
        Estimated cost
            Page 7
            Page 8
    Field production and harvesting
        Page 9
        Labor requirements
            Page 9
        Material requirements
            Page 10
        Season of operations
            Page 11
            Page 12
    Costs and returns
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










Economics Mimeo Report EC70-2


LABOR AND


MATERIAL


REQ U I REMENTS,


COSTS AND RETURNS

FOR

CELERY


BY AREAS

IN FLORIDA








by

D. L. Brooke
Agricultural Economist


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gainesville, Florida


_:S --


August, 1969













Table of Contents



Page


Introduction.................. ... .......... ......... ........... 1

Plant production.......... ...................................... 3

Labor requirements........ .......... ........................ 3

Material requirements........... ............. ............ 5

Plant population............................... ............ .. 7

Estimated cost .............................................. 7

Field production and harvesting.................................. 9

Labor requirements.......... ................................. 9

Material requirements........................................ 10

Season of operations................... ............... 11

Costs and returns ............................................ 13











Labor and Material Requirements, Costs and Returns
for Celery by Areas in Florida

by
1
D. L. Brooke


Introduction

The purpose of this report is to present information on practices and

costs currently applicable to the production of celery in Florida. A repre-

sentative of each producing organization was interviewed to obtain an estimate

of the usual time required for each operation in producing and harvesting a

crop. Approximate dates of performing each operation were obtained also.

Materials used were estimated by growers together with normal plant popula-

tions and yields per acre.

The most common practice for the majority of growers interviewed was

used in developing these data. Unusual operations or methods were omitted.

Labor and power requirements as shown include the hours of man labor and

tractor or irrigation motor used. Truck use was omitted because of the

difficulty in calculating the hours used.

It should be pointed out that these data relate to one crop or

enterprise and the total amount of labor required in operating a farm cannot

be obtained from the data given in the following tables. Much labor is

required for jobs not directly related to any individual crop or enterprise.

Work on roads, bridges, fences, repairs to equipment and buildings, and all



1
Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.








2

daily farm chores come in this classification. Some attempt has been made to

include some of this labor and supervisory time but if all labor on a farm

were prorated to various enterprises the amount used would be higher than

that shown in the tables of requirements.

SThe data on costs of production, harvesting and marketing and net returns

per acre were obtained independently from that of labor and materials require-

ments.

The cost of raising plants in the seedbed was estimated by applying

average hourly costs for labor and tractor and equipment used to the man and

tractor hours estimated by growers and adding estimates of the costs of

materials used in the seedbed. To this was added an estimated cost for land

rent, interest, insurance, telephone and accounting expense as well as an

allowance for depreciation on equipment.

Information on annual costs and returns were obtained from profit and

loss statements of firms. These include items of overhead, interest, land

rent and miscellaneous expense in addition to direct costs of labor, mater-

ials and machine expense. Where more than one crop was included in a profit

and loss statement, allocations of cost were made to individual crops on the

basis of man and machine hour requirements. Land rent was charged on all

acreage in lieu of taxes and a charge was made for interest on capital

invested in machinery and equipment. Interest at the rate of 6 percent

per annum was charged on cash outlay for labor and materials for the number

of months required to produce and harvest a crop.








Plant Production

Labor Requirements: The production of celery plants in a seedbed for

transfer to the field for further growth is a complicated and lengthy process.

From time of seeding to the pulling of plants from the bed requires from 70

to 90 days, depending upon the season of the year and the daily weather.

The man and machine hours required to produce an acre of celery plants

in the seedbed are shown in Table 1. The seed are planted in beds 4 feet wide

and 300 feet long and the usual number of beds planted on an acre of land is

20. Thus, 24,000 square feet of area is actually in production with the

remaining 19,560 square feet being utilized by roadways, walkways, drive rows

and ditches.

The land to be used for seedbeds is plowed once, disked about 5 times and

levelled 2 or 3 times. The beds are thrown up with a tractor and levelled. Then

the beds are treated to kill weed seeds and nematodes, after which they may be

levelled again before the seed is planted. The land preparation process takes

about 24.8 man hours of labor and 12.0 tractor hours per acre in the Everglades

as compared to 17.4 man hours and 13.5 tractor hours in Other Florida areas.

Following hand seeding of the beds, the A-frames to hold the cloth cover

and wires are put into place. The cloth cover to protect the young seedlings

from the sun or hard rain is placed over the A-frames. The covers are laid-

back and replaced each day for the first 3 to 4 weeks of plant growth to permit

some sunlight and to encourage better air circulation. When the young plants

are sturdy enough to withstand normal weather conditions the cloths and A-frames

are removed. The seeding and early growth-stage-handling of A-frames and covers

requires about 200 man hours of labor per acre in the Everglades area and about

270 man hours in Other Florida areas.








Plant Production

Labor Requirements: The production of celery plants in a seedbed for

transfer to the field for further growth is a complicated and lengthy process.

From time of seeding to the pulling of plants from the bed requires from 70

to 90 days, depending upon the season of the year and the daily weather.

The man and machine hours required to produce an acre of celery plants

in the seedbed are shown in Table 1. The seed are planted in beds 4 feet wide

and 300 feet long and the usual number of beds planted on an acre of land is

20. Thus, 24,000 square feet of area is actually in production with the

remaining 19,560 square feet being utilized by roadways, walkways, drive rows

and ditches.

The land to be used for seedbeds is plowed once, disked about 5 times and

levelled 2 or 3 times. The beds are thrown up with a tractor and levelled. Then

the beds are treated to kill weed seeds and nematodes, after which they may be

levelled again before the seed is planted. The land preparation process takes

about 24.8 man hours of labor and 12.0 tractor hours per acre in the Everglades

as compared to 17.4 man hours and 13.5 tractor hours in Other Florida areas.

Following hand seeding of the beds, the A-frames to hold the cloth cover

and wires are put into place. The cloth cover to protect the young seedlings

from the sun or hard rain is placed over the A-frames. The covers are laid-

back and replaced each day for the first 3 to 4 weeks of plant growth to permit

some sunlight and to encourage better air circulation. When the young plants

are sturdy enough to withstand normal weather conditions the cloths and A-frames

are removed. The seeding and early growth-stage-handling of A-frames and covers

requires about 200 man hours of labor per acre in the Everglades area and about

270 man hours in Other Florida areas.









Table 1.--C Lery Seedbeds: Labor Requirements in Hours
Per Acre of Seedbed by Areas
I/
Everglades Other Florida
9 growers 6 growers
Times Man Tractor Times Man Tractor
Operation over hours hours over hours hours

Plowing 1 0.9 0.9 1 1.5 1.5
Discing 5 1.2 1.2 5 2.6 2.6
Levelling 2 1.5 1.5 3 2.0 2.0
Making beds 2 3.6 3.1 1 1.3 1.3
Treating beds 1 17.6 5.3 1 10.0 6.1
Seeding 1 1.4 1 8.2 -
Installing and removing A-frames 2 86.6 10.6 2 142.0 30.0
Handling cloth 20 113.3 30 120.0
Herbicide application 1 6.6 .7 -
Fertilizing 3 2.9 2.0 7 5.8 4.4
Cultivating 2 2.2 2.2 8 8.2 3.5
Spraying 23 126.6 20.2 16 15.0 15.0
Handweeding and thinning 5 139.2 1 175.0 -
Water control 13 31.0 20.0 35 44.5 -
Clipping plants 4 8.6 5.6 4 3.0 3.0
Post harvest land care 5 2.3 2.3 2 1.2 1.2
Supervision 2/ 54.6 54.0 -
Miscellaneous 3/ 54.6 7.6 54.0 7.1
Total hours 654.7 83.2 648.3 77.7

1/
Includes West, Central and North Florida areas.

2/
Estimated at 10 percent of man hours.

3/
Estimated at 10 percent of man and tractor hours.


The seedlings are fertilized from 3 to 7 times to keep them properly

nourished and are sprayed from 15 to 23 times during the growth cycle to prevent

damage from insects and diseases.

The amount of moisture the young plants receive is quite rigidly controlled.

Too much moisture will kill the tender feeder roots and too little will wilt

the plant and stunt growth. Water control requires from 31 to 45 hours per acre


depending u-on the area and season of growth.






5
Some handweeding and, on occasion, some thinning of plants in the bed is

necessary for proper growth.

Plants are clipped to prevent their becoming to spindly before being set

into the field. The average bed of plants is clipped about 4 times.

Total man hours required to produce plants on an acre of seedbed were

654.7 in the Everglades area and 648.3 in Other Florida areas. The tractor

hours required were 83.2 and 77.7 hours per acre, respectively.

Material Requirements: Utah-type celery of the 2-13, 2-14, 4-10A and

Florida 683 varieties are grown in the Everglades area. Growers in the Other

Florida areas mentioned these same varieties plus Florimart, another Utah-type

variety. From 3.1 to 3.4 pounds of seed are required to sow an acre of seedbeds

for plant production, Table 2.

Everglades growers use methyl bromide or chloropicrin at the rate of

200 pounds per acre for soil fumigation. They may also use as much as 50

gallons of mineral spirits per acre as a weed killer. Growers in Other Florida

areas use Vapam at the rate of 60 gallons per acre as a soil fumigant.

Plants in the muck areas receive a half-ton of 0-8-24 to 0-12-16

fertilizer per acre plus 300 pounds of nitrate of soda. Plants grown on

sandy soils receive a ton of 3-8-10 to 6-9-3 fertilizer per acre plus 1000

pounds of castor pomace and 300 pounds of lime per acre. Sandy soils are lower

in nitrogen and leaching of nutrients from the root none is more rapid than

on muck soils.

From 40 to 100 three to four inch posts, 600 A-frames, 18,000 feet of

12 to 14 guage galvanized wire and many- nails and staples are required to

erect A-frames on an acre of seedheds. Thes frames are covered by cloths

5 feet wide and 300 feet long to fit over each bed. Twenty such cloths are

required for an acre of sccdbed. A-frames, posts and wire can be re-used









approximately a dozen times but the cloths will withstand only about eight

uses before they must be replaced.


Table 2.--Celery Seedbeds: Material Requirements
Per Acre of Seedbed by Areas


Item


Seed

Soil fumigant
Herbicide
Fertilizer

Spray

A-frames
Wire
Posts
Nails, stapler
Covers


Seed
Soil fumigant
Herbicide
Fertilizer

Soil amendments

Spray

A-frames
Wire
Posts
Nails, staples or
Clothespins
Covers


Kind
Everglades
Utah 52-70-2-13, 2-14,
Florida 683
Methyl bromide, chloropicrin
Mineral spirits
0-8-24; 0-10-20; 0-12-16
Nitrate of soda
Inorganic coppers; organic fungicides;
organic phosphate insecticides
Wooden (1" x 2") used 12 times
Galvanized (12-14 guage) used 12 times
Wooden (3"-4") used 12 times

Muslin (5' x 300') used 8 times
1/
Other Florida
Utah 52-70-2-13; 2-14; Florimart
Vapam
Mineral spirits
3-8-10; 4-7-5; 4-9-3; 6-6-6
15-0-14; 15-0-15
Castor pomace, sludge, tankage
Lime
Inorganic coppers; organic fungicide;
organic phosphate insecticide
Wooden (1" x 2") used 12 times
Galvanized (12-14 guage) used 12 times
Wooden (3" x 4") used 12 times

Wooden, plastic, used 3 times
Muslin (5' x 300') used 8 times


Amount


3.1
200
50
1000
300


lb.
lb.-'
gal.-
lb.
lb.


2400 gal.-
600
18,000 ft.
40
1500
6000 ft.


3.4
60
50
2000
200
1000
300


lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.


1500 gal.
600
18,000 ft.
100
1075
8000
6000 ft.


Includes West, Central and North Florida areas









Insecticides and fungicides used to control insects and diseases are

derivatives of inorganic copper, organic fungicides and organic phosphate

insecticides. From 1500 to 2400 gallons of liquid containing these materials

in varying amounts are sprayed on an acre of plants in the seedbeds.

Plant Population: An acre of seedbeds, i.e. 20 beds 4' x 300' each,

will produce enough plants to set out 25 acres of field-set celery on the

average. Some growers indicated a seedbed would produce enough plants to

set 2 acres but most agreed that 1 acres per 1200 square foot bed was about

all that could be expected. In the Everglades area about 32,800 plants are

required to set an acre of celery in the field. In other areas of Florida,

growers indicated about 35,000 plants were required per acre of field-set

celery. Thus, in the Everglades an acre of seedbeds produces 820,000

plants and in Other Florida areas an average of 875,000 plants.

Estimated Cost: The estimated cost of producing celery plants in the

seedbed on a per acre and per thousand basis is shown in Table 3. On the

basis of an acre containing 20 seedbeds of 1,200 square feet each, the cost

of materials for the Everglades area plantings are somewhat cheaper than for

the Other Florida areas. The main differences are in the cost of soil fumigants

and fertilizer materials. There are no significant differences in the hours

of labor and tractor use required between the areas and, therefore, little

difference in costs of those items.

The differences in total costs between the areas reflect the differences

in material costs as described above, there being less than $100 difference on

a per acre basis. Using grower's yield estimates, the cost per 1,000 plants

was $2.24 in the Everglades and $2.20 per 1,000 in the Other Florida areas.

Higher yields per seedbed reduce costs per 1,000 plants materially. A yield









Insecticides and fungicides used to control insects and diseases are

derivatives of inorganic copper, organic fungicides and organic phosphate

insecticides. From 1500 to 2400 gallons of liquid containing these materials

in varying amounts are sprayed on an acre of plants in the seedbeds.

Plant Population: An acre of seedbeds, i.e. 20 beds 4' x 300' each,

will produce enough plants to set out 25 acres of field-set celery on the

average. Some growers indicated a seedbed would produce enough plants to

set 2 acres but most agreed that 1 acres per 1200 square foot bed was about

all that could be expected. In the Everglades area about 32,800 plants are

required to set an acre of celery in the field. In other areas of Florida,

growers indicated about 35,000 plants were required per acre of field-set

celery. Thus, in the Everglades an acre of seedbeds produces 820,000

plants and in Other Florida areas an average of 875,000 plants.

Estimated Cost: The estimated cost of producing celery plants in the

seedbed on a per acre and per thousand basis is shown in Table 3. On the

basis of an acre containing 20 seedbeds of 1,200 square feet each, the cost

of materials for the Everglades area plantings are somewhat cheaper than for

the Other Florida areas. The main differences are in the cost of soil fumigants

and fertilizer materials. There are no significant differences in the hours

of labor and tractor use required between the areas and, therefore, little

difference in costs of those items.

The differences in total costs between the areas reflect the differences

in material costs as described above, there being less than $100 difference on

a per acre basis. Using grower's yield estimates, the cost per 1,000 plants

was $2.24 in the Everglades and $2.20 per 1,000 in the Other Florida areas.

Higher yields per seedbed reduce costs per 1,000 plants materially. A yield










Table 3.--Estimated Costs
Acre of Seedbed and


Item EvE
Materials:
Seed $
Soil fumigant
Fertilizer materials
Insecticides and fungicides
A-frames, per use
Posts, per use
Wire, per use
Nails, staples, clothespins
Covers, per use
Total materials $

Labor and Equipment:
Labor, hand @ $1.35 per hour
machine operators @ $1.75 per hour
supervisory @$2.50 per hour
Tractors and equipment @ $2.25 per hour
Total labor and equipment $

Cash overhead:
Rent land $50/Ac./yr.
Interest on production capital (6% 3 mo.)
Other (telephone, insurance, accounting)
2% of growing cost
Total cash overhead $


of Producing Celery Plants Per
Per Thousand Plants by Areas


Cost per acre
'I


erglades Other Florida


77.50
120.00
37.25
83.15
52.00
5.00
4.95
.81
170.00
550.66


697.82
145.60
136.50
187.20
1,167.12


16.67
25.77


34.36
76.80


$ 85.00
168.00
94.58
61,23
52.00
12.50
4.95
10.81
170.00
$ 659.07


697.41
135.98
135.00
174.83
$1,143.22


25.00
27.03


36.05
$ 88.08


Non-cash overhead:
Equipment investment ($1,000 per acre)
Depreciation (10% 4 uses) 25.00 25.00
Interest (6% 3 mo.) 15.00 15.00
Total non-cash overhead $ 40.00 40.00
Total all costs per acre of seedbed $1,834.58 $1,925.37
----------Cost per 1,000 plants $ 2.24 $ 2.20
Cost per 1,000 plants $ 2.24 & $ 2.20


Includes West, Central and North Florida areas








of 1.5 acres of field-set plants per seedbed ( 1,200 square feet) would reduce

costs per 1,000 plants in the Everglades area to $1.86 and in Other Florida

areas to $1.83.

Field Production and Harvesting

Labor Requirements: The production of celery in the field is exacting

but not as intensive in the use of labor as the production of plants in the

seedbed. The planting operation, which consists of pulling the plants from

the seedbed and planting them in rows in the field takes the largest amount

of labor (Table 4). Some 47 hours per acre are required for planting in the

Everglades area and 44 hours in Other Florida areas. Hand weeding, when

necessary, uses a larger number of man hours in the Other Florida areas.

Chemical weed control in the Everglades all but eliminates this requirement.

More time is spent in insect and disease control and in irrigation and water

control than in land preparation or cultivating and fertilizing in all of

the areas.

Total production time for celery, including hours spent raising plants,

is 101 man hours in the Everglades and 138 man hours in Other Florida areas.

The principal difference between them is in the number of hours spent in hand

weeding and in water control.

The harvesting operation requires more labor than does the production

process. Harvesting requires a total of 171 man hours in the Everglades area

and 163 man hours in Other Florida areas. The celery is cut from the row by

hand or mechanically and transported into a packinghouse in or adjacent to the

field. There it is washed, graded, sized and packed into crates having a

60 pound net weight. It is transported from the packing operation to the

precooler for cooling and loading into cars or trucks for transport to market.








of 1.5 acres of field-set plants per seedbed ( 1,200 square feet) would reduce

costs per 1,000 plants in the Everglades area to $1.86 and in Other Florida

areas to $1.83.

Field Production and Harvesting

Labor Requirements: The production of celery in the field is exacting

but not as intensive in the use of labor as the production of plants in the

seedbed. The planting operation, which consists of pulling the plants from

the seedbed and planting them in rows in the field takes the largest amount

of labor (Table 4). Some 47 hours per acre are required for planting in the

Everglades area and 44 hours in Other Florida areas. Hand weeding, when

necessary, uses a larger number of man hours in the Other Florida areas.

Chemical weed control in the Everglades all but eliminates this requirement.

More time is spent in insect and disease control and in irrigation and water

control than in land preparation or cultivating and fertilizing in all of

the areas.

Total production time for celery, including hours spent raising plants,

is 101 man hours in the Everglades and 138 man hours in Other Florida areas.

The principal difference between them is in the number of hours spent in hand

weeding and in water control.

The harvesting operation requires more labor than does the production

process. Harvesting requires a total of 171 man hours in the Everglades area

and 163 man hours in Other Florida areas. The celery is cut from the row by

hand or mechanically and transported into a packinghouse in or adjacent to the

field. There it is washed, graded, sized and packed into crates having a

60 pound net weight. It is transported from the packing operation to the

precooler for cooling and loading into cars or trucks for transport to market.









Table 4.--Celery: Total Labor Requirements in Hours Per
Acre by Areas


Operation
Pre-harvest labor:
Seedbed 2/

Field:
Ditching and draining
Preparing land
Planting or setting
Cultivating and fertilizing
Insect and disease control
Hand weeding
Irrigating
Supervision
Miscellaneous
Total pre-harvest labor

Harvest labor:
Cutting and packing
Hauling to precooler
Total harvest labor
Other labor
Total all operations

Estimated yield. Howard crates


Everglades.
8 growers
Times Man Tractor
over hours hours


26.2


0.4
2.3
47.2
2.1
3.7
3.2
3.7
6.3
6.3
101.4


163.3
7.5
170.8
.5
272.7


0.4
2.3
2.2
1.6
3.7

1.7

1.2
16.4


8.3

8.3
.5
25.2


1/
Other Florida
8 growers
Times Man Tractor
over hours hours


25.9


0.9
2.7
44.0
4.2
5.2
25.0
11.2
9.3
9.3
137.7


156.0
7.0
163.0
1.4
302.1


3.1


0.9
2.7
2.0
3.8
5.2

1.3

1.6
20.6


6.0

6.0
1.4
28.0


1/
- Includes West, Central and North Florida areas.

2/
2Per acre of field-set plants.

The total man hours required to produce and harvest an acre of celery ranges

from 273 hours in the Everglades area to 302 hours in Other Florida areas. There

is little difference in power requirements per acre between the areas.

Material Requirements: Plant requirements for field setting, as pointed

out earlier, averaged 32,800 in the Everglades area and 35,000 in Other Florida

areas (Table 5). Chemicals used for weed control ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 gallons

per acre. On some acreages cyanamid, not listed in the table, was used at the

rate of 700 pounds per acre to control pink rot and 25 to 30 pounds of poison

bait was used to control cut worms.









Dolomite was added to sand land celery at the rate of 1,500 pounds per

year. Fertilizer use range(' from 2,000 pounds per acre in the Everglades to

3,000 pounds, and more in some case, in Other Florida areas.


Item

Plants
Herbicide
Fertilizer

Supplement
Spray

Containers




Plants
Soil amendments
Herbicide
Fertilizer
Spray

Containers


Table 5.--Usual Material Requirements Per Acre
of Celery in the Field by Areas

Kind
Everglades
From seedbed
CDEC, CDAA
0-8-24; 0-16-24; 0-20-16; 4-8-24;
5-16-24
15-0-15; 15-0-14
Inorganic coppers; organic fungicides;
organic phosphate insecticides
Wirebound crates or paperboard cartons,
60 lb. capacity


Other Florida /
From seedbed
Dolomite (sand only)
CDEC, CDAA
2-8-16; 5-5-8; 5-5-15; 10-3-10
Inorganic coppers; organic fungicides;
organic phosphate insecticides
Wirebound crates or paperbound cartons,
60 lb. capacity


1/
Includes West, Central and North Florida areas.

Spray mixtures ranged from 1,400 gallons in Other Florida areas to 2,400

gallons per acre in the Everglades for the control of insects and diseases.

Inorganic coppers, organic fungicides and organic phosphate insecticides were

used in all areas. For specific recommendation of mixtures and amount to be

applied for disease and insect control, the agricultural agent or other qualified

person should be consulted.

Season of Operations: Most areas begin preparation of land for the

planting of fall or winter celery in July or early August, (Table 6). The


Amount

32,800
2.4 g

2,000 11
350 11

2,400 g

70'0


al.

b.
b.

al.


35,000
1,500
1.6
3,000

1,400

700


lb.
gal.
lb.

gal.







Table 6.-- Celery: Usual Season of Operations by Areas
Everglades ICentral
Operation Fall Winter Spring
Seedbed Year-round Apr. 1 Aug. 25 June 1 Nov. 15 Sept. 1 Apr. 20

Field:
Ditching and draining July 10 Mar. 20
Preparing land June 1 Mar. 20 July 1 Aug. 15 Aug. 1 Sept. 30 Nov. 1 Jan. 10
Planting or setting Aug. 5 Mar. 25 July 25 Aug. 25 Sept. 1 Nov. 15 Dec. 15 Apr. 20
Cultivating and fertilizing Aug. 5 May 30 Aug. 10 Nov. 1 Sept. 10 Mar. 10 Dec. 20 May 30
Insect and disease control Aug. 10 June 25 July 25 Nov. 10 Sept. 10 Mar. 20 Dec. 20 June 30
Hoeing, raking, weeding Sept. 1 June 1 Oct. 15 Dec. 30 Jan. 25 May 30
Irrigating Aug. 5 June 25 July 1 Nov. 10 Sept. 1 Mar. 25 Dec. 15 June 10

Harvesting Nov. 10 June 25 Oct. 25 Nov. 20 Dec. 20 Mar. 30 Apr. 5 June 30


Operation Sarasota North Florida


Seedbed


July 1 Feb. 10


Field:
Ditching and draining
Preparing land
Planting or setting
Cultivating and fertilizing
Insect and disease control
Hoeing, raking, weeding
Irrigating


Aug.
Aug.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Aug.


Oct.
Feb.
Feb.
May
Apr.
Apr.
May


Dec. 15 Apr. 25


Nov.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.


1 -_
1-
15 -
1 -

20 -
20 -
25 -
15 -


June
Apr.
Apr.
June
June
June
June


H e I. Mq i mn 1 1


uly 1


Harvesting


Jan 1 Ma 10


MaI 1 TJ






13

Everglades plants on a scheduled basis from August to late March of each year.

In Central Florida the fall crop in Zellwood is planted in late July or August.

Zellwood plants again from December 15 to late April for spring crop production.

The winter crop in Central Florida is planted from early September to mid-November.

Sarasota plants from October 1 to early February with North Florida planting a

spring crop from mid-March to late April.

Harvesting begins in late October in Zellwood and in early November in the

Everglades area. Successive crops are harvested in each area until the season

ends when North Florida completes harvesting in late June or early July of

each year.

Costs and Returns

Five-season average costs and returns by principal producing areas are

shown in Table 7 on a per acre basis. These data, as explained earlier, were

developed from profit and loss statements of firms. Where more than one crop

was grown by the firm, allocations of costs to crops had to be made using gross

man hours and material requirements as a basis for those allocations. These

costs and those for plant production in Table 3 are not comparable because such

items as tractor and equipment costs have not been prorated to cost of seed and

plants in Table 7. Too, all labor used on seedbeds may not have been fully

allocated in Table 7.

Per-acre costs in the Sarasota and North Florida area are higher than in

the other areas because of a higher level of nearly all costs. They use more

fertilizer than other areas on a muck soil and have higher field labor and

machine costs. Their harvesting costs are comparable to those of the other

areas.












Table 7.--Celery: Costs and Returns Per Acre in Selected Areas
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68
Central 1/
Item Florida Everglades Sarasota


Total number of growers
Total number of acres
Average acres per grower
Average yield per acre (crates)


Growing costs:

Land rent
Seed and plants
Fertilizer
Spray and dust
Cultural labor
Machine hire
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production capital,
(6% 5 mo.)
Interest on capital invested
( other than land)
Miscellaneous expense
Total growing cost

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense
Containers
Hauling
Other
Selling
Total harvesting and marketing costs:
Total crop cost
Crop sales
Net return


38
9,370
247
585


42
37,133
884
593


19
2,781
146
761


Average per acre


$ 37 .02
56.48
119.73
66.48
173.22
2.43
13.47
28.38
18.08
16.23

13.42

1.81
23.27
$ 570.02


$ 339.46
261.23
44.51
121.33
94.72
$ 861.25
$1,431.27
$1,596.03
$ 164.76


$ 30.53
41.66
108.70
112.46
169.49
2.54
24.75
47.04
20.77
18.46

14.56

2.08
26.76
$ 619.80


$ 311.22
274.81
46.36
121.77
77.96
$ 832.12
$1,451.92
$1,623.35
$ 171.43


$ 52.94
44.82
152.50
112.81
320.68

43.48
70.69
36.12
53.39

22.64

3.61
54.27
$ 967.95


$ 376.87
321.76
33.66
150.25
88.93
$ 971.47
$1,939.42
$2,217.44
$ 278.02


1/
Includes North Florida









When reduced to a per-crate basis it becomes apparent that differences in

cost are not as great as one might expect from the per-acre data. Costs per-

crate for Central Florida and the Everglades are quite similar (Table 8). For

Sarasota and North Florida the higher yields bring unit costs, while still

high, more in line with those of the other two areas shown. These data for

a five year period give one a better idea of the relative competitive position

of the respective areas than would annual data.


Table 8.--Celery: Costs and Returns Per Crate in Selected Areas, 5-Season
Average 1963-64 to 1967-68

Central 1/
Item Florida Everglades Sarasota
Cost per crate
Growing cost $0.98 $1.05 $1.27
Harvesting and marketing cost 1.47 1.40 1.28
Total crop cost 2.45 2.45 2.55
Crop sales 2.73 2.74 2.91
Net returns 0.28 0.29 0.36

1/
Includes North Florida


DLB/eh 8/11/69
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 500 copies




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