• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Summary
 Introduction
 Purpose of report
 Data sources
 Industry characteristics
 Market outlets
 Importance of various plant...
 Transportation and distributio...
 Competition with other areas
 Problems in marketing
 Consumer purchase patterns
 Appendix tables






Group Title: Mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 70-3
Title: Trends in the Florida foliage plant industry
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071989/00001
 Material Information
Title: Trends in the Florida foliage plant industry
Series Title: Economics mimeo report
Physical Description: v, 49 l. : map. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Cecil Nuckols, 1920-
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plant industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Cecil N. Smith.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071989
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00618265
lccn - 72610742

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Summary
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Purpose of report
        Page 3
    Data sources
        Page 3
    Industry characteristics
        Page 4
        Area in cultivation
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Number of growers
            Page 6
        Total sales
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Sales per acre
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    Market outlets
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Importance of various plant types
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Transportation and distribution
        Page 14
        Transportation
            Page 14
        Distribution
            Page 17
    Competition with other areas
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Problems in marketing
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Consumer purchase patterns
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        National consumer study
            Page 26
        Consumer characteristics
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Florida consumer study
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
    Appendix tables
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/90
F Ag
Abgus t 1969
A0s1


Trends


Economics Mimeo Report EC 70-3


in the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry


by



Cecil N. Smith


M-O
1S50 -.iS


VALUE OF NET SALES OF FOLIAGE PLANTS IN CURRENT DOLLARS IN
MAJOR PRODUCING AREAS IN FLORIDA, 1956 AND 1968

Department of Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601


















Foreword


Appreciation is expressed for the cooperation of Florida foliage
growers for making available data on sales, market outlets, plants grown
and sold and other information on industry characteristics contained
herein. This report contains not only data made available to the
University of Florida, but also those generated by the Bureau of the
Census and the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Crop Reporting Board.
The initial intention of the author was to prepare a short report
concerned primarily with recent trends in market outlets and changes in
composition of plants produced and sold. Conferences with leaders in
the foliage plant industry indicated a desire to have as much pertinent
economic data as possible relating to the foliage industry released in
one report. As a consequence, the data presented here were assembled
and processed.
Comments on the contents of this report and on the economic research
needs of the foliage plant industry are invited.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Summary. . . .

Introduction . . .

Purpose of Report. . .
Data Sources . . .

Industry Characteristics .
Area in Cultivation . .

Number of Growers . .
Total Sales . . .

Sales Per Acre . .

Market Outlets . . .

Importance of Various Plant Types
Transportation and Distribution.
Transportation. . .
Distribution. . .

Competition with Other Areas .
Problems in Marketing .. ..
Consumer Purchase Patterns .
National Consumer Study .
Consumer Characteristics. ..

Florida Consumer Study. .

Appendix Tables . ... .









Page
.1

2
3

'3
4

4
6
6

8
11

14
-14
14
17

17
21

26
26
31

37
41


. . . . .













LIST OF TABLES


Table Title Page


1 Production area in foliage plants in various areas of Florida,
1956, 1961 and 1968 . ... . . 5

2 Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of sales
(at wholesale prices) in various Florida counties, 1949 and
1959 . . . 7

3 Estimated net sales of Florida foliage plants by areas, 1956,
1961 and 1967 .... .. . . . 9

4 Estimated net sales of foliage plants in Florida, selected years
from 1949 to 1967 . .... .. . 10

5 Average net sales of foliage plants per acre in various areas of
Florida, 1956, 1961 and 1967 . . . 12

6 Estimated proportion of sales of Florida foliage plants marketed
through various outlets, 1956, 1961 and 1967 . .. 13

7 Estimated relative importance of specific genera, species or
varieties of all Florida foliage plants sold in 1956, 1961
and 1967 . . .. * 15

8 Proportion of Florida foliage plants sold which were shipped
by various methods of transportation in 1956 and 1961 16

9 Number of producers, area in production and net value of sales
of foliage plants for indoor or patio use in selected states,
1966, 1967 and 1968 . . . .. 19

10 Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of sales
(at wholesale prices) in various states, 1949 and 1959 22

11 Average sales per square foot of foliage plants produced and
proportion of sales made at wholesale, in selected states,
1968 . . . . . .25











12 Commercial floriculture and related products: Purchases of
potted plants by demographic characteristics, annual totals,
United States, 1966/67 .......... ....... .. .28

13 Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of
product, by region, United States, 1966/67. . ... 29

14 Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of
product, by type of retail outlet, United States, 1966/67 .30

15 Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of
retail oulet by type of product, United States, 1966/67 32

16 Number and value of commercial floriculture and related prod-
uct purchases by type of outlet and type of product, United
States, 1966/67 .. . . . . .33

17 Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of
product by occasion or use, by type of product, United
States, 1966/67 . . . . ... ..... 34

18 Commercial floriculture and related products: Type of product
by occasion or use, United States, 1966/67 ......... 35

19 Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Price paid
per purchase by type of product, United States, 1966/67 36

20 Number of Gainesville residents interviewed who reported, by
method of acquisition, living and artificial flowers and
foliage plants in their homes, 1964 . . .... 38

21 Average expenditures for cut flowers, living foliage plants
and artificial flowers and foliage by Gainesville residents
in the 12 months preceding the interview, 1964. . 40

Appendix

22 Estimated greenhouse area devoted to growing foliage plants
in Florida, 1952 to 1962. . . . . ... 41

23 Estimated open field and shaded foliage plant production
area in Florida, 1952 to 1962 ................ 42















24 Estimated land area in shaded and open field foliage plant
production in Florida by grower size groups, 1962 .... .43

25 Estimated average and total net sales value of foliage plants
in Florida, 1956 and 1961, by geographic areas . .. .44

26 Estimated value of net sales of foliage plants sold by growers
of various sizes in different areas of Florida, 1956 and
1961 . . . . . . 45

27 Estimated gross sales of Florida foliage plants by grower size
and areas, 1957 through 1961 . . . ... 46

28 Estimated proportion of Florida foliage plant sales marketed
through various outlets, by geographic areas, 1956 and
1961 . . . . . . 48

29 Estimated distribution of Florida foliage plant sales made to
buyers in various areas, 1961 . . .... 49













Trends in the Florida Foliage Plant Industry


by

Cecil N. Smith
Agricultural Economist



Summary


The Florida foliage plant industry grew from a sales level of

less than $2 million in 1949 to more than $10 million in 1956. Since

then industry sales ranged from $10 to $13 million, and attained a volume

of more than $14 million in 1968. Foliage plant production has tended

to concentrate in the Apopka area and many small growers have left the

industry.

Sales to out-of-state greenhouse growers have been the major mar-

ket outlet for Florida foliage plants. Variety stores retained second

place with retail florists next in importance. Declines were registered

in the proportion of sales made through sales agents and to local buyers.

Philodendron cordatum remains Florida's most important foliage

plant in terms of dollar sales volume. Nevertheless, it has decreased

in importance during the past decade and a half. Combinations which

contain two or more types of plants reached a total of 11 percent of

all sales. Other types of Philodendrons, Ficus, Sansevieria and Dracena

remain major foliage plant items.

Florida now produces over half the foliage plants marketed by U.S.

growers. In 1949 Florida accounted for only 14 percent of all the plants





-2-


produced. Decreases in the value of foliage plants produced in a number
of major producing states have been registered in the past several years.
Data from a recent U.S.D.A. nation-wide study of consumer purchase
practices indicate that retail florists' shops are the sales outlet at
which consumers purchase more potted plants (including foliage plants)
than any other. A study of consumer purchase patterns in Gainesville,
Florida in 1964 showed estimated annual average consumer foliage plant
purchases of $4.63 per family unit. Those actually making purchases had
expenditures of $7.82 per family unit. Some two-thirds of the foliage
plants in people's homes at the time of the interview were acquired by own
purchases.
The recent growth trend in the Florida foliage plant industry will
probably continue. Current indications are that consumers will continue
to have an increasing amount of discretionary income not required for the
basic necessities of life. To expand markets the foliage plant industry
must aspire to an increasing share of this discretionary income and make
plans to sell more and better plants. A well-coordinated program of quality
control, improved sales coordination and market development can serve to
achieve this end.


Introduction


One of the fastest growing segments of Florida agriculture is commer-
cial floriculture. The tropical foliage plant enterprise comprises a major
segment of this complex industry. Foliage plants are grown primarily in
central Florida near Apopka and in the Dade County area; a small number of
producers are also scattered in other locations in the State. With market-
ings of less than $2 million in 1949, the total had risen to $12.6 million
in 1959. Sales in the 1960's were generally at the $12 to $13 million level,
They surpassed the $14 million mark in 1968.
iuhring the early part of this decade foliage plant sales levels tended
to remain on a plateau and a number of internal adjustments took place in the
industry. Much of the production area formerly located in south Florida was
phased out and concurrent increases took place in the Apopka or Central
Florida area. Many small producers located in other areas of the State
went out of business.








Purpose of Report


This report has been prepared to present economic data on trends in
and.pertinent characteristics of the Florida foliage plant enterprise. An
attempt is made here to bring together information from a series of studies
and reports in which data on the foliage plant industry have been published.
Data collected and analyzed in two graduate theses done at the University
of Florida are also presented. Supplemental information obtained in a
grower survey conducted in 1967 and 1968 by the Department of Agricultural
Economics at the University is included. Statistics collected and published
by the Crop Reporting Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and by
the U. S. Bureau of the Census are also contained in this report.
Information on marketing channels utilized by growers in selling plants
in 1967 and on product composition of foliage plants grown and sold was
obtained through a mail questionnaire sent to Florida foliage growers in the
summer of 1968. A follow-up mailing was made in the spring of 1969 after
the U.S.D.A. had completed making grower contacts for its crop report. A
number of personal visits and telephone calls was made to obtain information
from those foliage plant growers with two acres or more in production who
had not responded to either mail questionnaire. An analysis of these data
was made to develop estimated average characteristics of marketing channels
and types of plants grown and sold by Florida foliage plant growers in 1967.


Data Sources


In addition to two primary studies1'2 and one minor follow-up project
done at the University of Florida, major sources of data on the green foliage
plant industry are the U. S. Bureau of the Census and the U. S. Department
of Agriculture. Special census enumerations done in 1949 and in 1959 were
followed by publication of data on grower sales, numbers of growers and other


John R. Brooker, "Racent Changes in the Market Structure of the
Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University
of Florida, 1963),
2Charles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1958).








Purpose of Report


This report has been prepared to present economic data on trends in
and.pertinent characteristics of the Florida foliage plant enterprise. An
attempt is made here to bring together information from a series of studies
and reports in which data on the foliage plant industry have been published.
Data collected and analyzed in two graduate theses done at the University
of Florida are also presented. Supplemental information obtained in a
grower survey conducted in 1967 and 1968 by the Department of Agricultural
Economics at the University is included. Statistics collected and published
by the Crop Reporting Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and by
the U. S. Bureau of the Census are also contained in this report.
Information on marketing channels utilized by growers in selling plants
in 1967 and on product composition of foliage plants grown and sold was
obtained through a mail questionnaire sent to Florida foliage growers in the
summer of 1968. A follow-up mailing was made in the spring of 1969 after
the U.S.D.A. had completed making grower contacts for its crop report. A
number of personal visits and telephone calls was made to obtain information
from those foliage plant growers with two acres or more in production who
had not responded to either mail questionnaire. An analysis of these data
was made to develop estimated average characteristics of marketing channels
and types of plants grown and sold by Florida foliage plant growers in 1967.


Data Sources


In addition to two primary studies1'2 and one minor follow-up project
done at the University of Florida, major sources of data on the green foliage
plant industry are the U. S. Bureau of the Census and the U. S. Department
of Agriculture. Special census enumerations done in 1949 and in 1959 were
followed by publication of data on grower sales, numbers of growers and other


John R. Brooker, "Racent Changes in the Market Structure of the
Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University
of Florida, 1963),
2Charles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1958).





-4-


characteristics of a large number of specific commodities within the commer-
cial floricultural and nursery and bulb industries in each state and county.
Data were obtained, for example, on the number of growers and sales value
of unpotted and potted foliage plants. Tables showing this information are
presented later.
In 1957 the U. S. Department of Agriculture initiated a crop reporting
service on cut flowers with annual data requested for some four crops in a
limited number of states. Since that time, the service has been extended
to 23 states and, in addition to carnations, chrysanthemums, gladiolus and
roses, data are reported on foliage plant sales in these 23 states. The
release of foliage plant data date back only to 1966. Since then data
have been obtained and published each year.
The 23 states for which data are currently reported in the U.S.D.A.
cut flower and foliage plant crop report are estimated to account for more
than 90 percent of the national sales value of floricultural products.
These 23 states had 95 percent of the sales of green foliage plants reported
by growers in the 48 contiguous states in the 1959 Special Census.


Industry Characteristics


Area in Cultivation
The area devoted to foliage plant production in Florida during the 12
year period from 1956 to 1968 has increased some 30 acres from 585 to 605
acres but the composition has changed substantially (Table 1). The
Apopka area, which had 232 acres in foliage plants in 1956, showed a rise
to 253 in 1962 and to 322 acres in 1968. The Southeast area, on the other
hand, had more land devoted to foliage plant culture in 1956 and in 1962
than the Apopka area.
By 1968 both the absolute and relative position of the Southeast area
had changed. Apopka now led the State in the area devoted to foliage plant
culture. When acreage characteristics are analyzed, 153 acres of the 274
acre total in the Southeast area were used to produce plants extensively in
the open and 121 acres were used for more intensive production in green-
houses, plastic houses and slat or lath houses. Production in the other
scattered areas of Florida rose from 46 acres in 1956 to 63 in 1962, but the
number dropped to only 9 acres by 1968.





-4-


characteristics of a large number of specific commodities within the commer-
cial floricultural and nursery and bulb industries in each state and county.
Data were obtained, for example, on the number of growers and sales value
of unpotted and potted foliage plants. Tables showing this information are
presented later.
In 1957 the U. S. Department of Agriculture initiated a crop reporting
service on cut flowers with annual data requested for some four crops in a
limited number of states. Since that time, the service has been extended
to 23 states and, in addition to carnations, chrysanthemums, gladiolus and
roses, data are reported on foliage plant sales in these 23 states. The
release of foliage plant data date back only to 1966. Since then data
have been obtained and published each year.
The 23 states for which data are currently reported in the U.S.D.A.
cut flower and foliage plant crop report are estimated to account for more
than 90 percent of the national sales value of floricultural products.
These 23 states had 95 percent of the sales of green foliage plants reported
by growers in the 48 contiguous states in the 1959 Special Census.


Industry Characteristics


Area in Cultivation
The area devoted to foliage plant production in Florida during the 12
year period from 1956 to 1968 has increased some 30 acres from 585 to 605
acres but the composition has changed substantially (Table 1). The
Apopka area, which had 232 acres in foliage plants in 1956, showed a rise
to 253 in 1962 and to 322 acres in 1968. The Southeast area, on the other
hand, had more land devoted to foliage plant culture in 1956 and in 1962
than the Apopka area.
By 1968 both the absolute and relative position of the Southeast area
had changed. Apopka now led the State in the area devoted to foliage plant
culture. When acreage characteristics are analyzed, 153 acres of the 274
acre total in the Southeast area were used to produce plants extensively in
the open and 121 acres were used for more intensive production in green-
houses, plastic houses and slat or lath houses. Production in the other
scattered areas of Florida rose from 46 acres in 1956 to 63 in 1962, but the
number dropped to only 9 acres by 1968.








Table 1. -- Production area in foliage plants in various areas of Florida, 1956, 1961 and 1968

1956 1962 1968
Area
Shadeda Open Total Shadeda Open Total Shadeda Open Total



Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres


Apopka 229.2 2.3 231.5 232.4 21.0 253.4 315.2 6.7 321.9



Southeast 151.3 156.4 307.7 152.0 172.6 324.6 121.1 153.0 274.1



Other 46.0 46.0 52.6 10.0 62.6 8.3 0.8 9.1




FLORIDA 426.5 158.7 585.2 437.0 203.6 640.6 444.6 160.5 605.1


aIncludes glass, slat houses and plastic houses.

Source: 1956. Charles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald L. Brooke. A Survey of the Florida
Foliage Plant Industry. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 615, 1959.

1962. John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963).

1968. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Field Crops Flower and Foliage
Report. Orlando: April 30, 1969.








Data on the estimated greenhouse and open area devoted to foliage
production in Florida during the 1952-62 period are contained in Appendix
Tables 22, 23 and 24.


Number of Growers
The Special Census of Horticultural Specialties in 1949 reported 53
growers of unpotted and 13 growers of potted plants (Table 2). These
numbers had risen by 1959 to 111 growers of unpotted and 151 growers of
potted plants. No figures were reported by the Census to indicate how
many of the potted plant growers grew unpotted plants or vice versa. Orange
and Dade counties were the leaders in both unpotted and potted foliage
plants in each of the census enumerations.
There were an estimated 180 growers of foliage plants in Florida in
1957. These were distributed as follows: Apopka area 80; Southeast
area 46; and other areas in Florida 54.
The total number of growers had increased to 234 by 1962. Of these,
122 were in the Apopka or Central Florida area, 40 were in the Southeast
Florida area and 72 were scattered in other producing areas of the state.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture estimated that 155 firms were
engaged in commercial foliage plant production in Florida in 1968. Commer-
cial producers were defined as those who sold foliage plants valued at
$2,000 or mote. Of these firms, 107 were in the Apopka area, 36 in the
Southeast area and 12 in other counties of the State.
Of the 155 growers, 57 were estimated to have sales of $50,000 or more.
Sales smaller than $10,000 were registered by 35 producers and 35 had sales
ranging from $10,000 to $24,999. The remaining 28 reported net sales be-
tween $25,000 and $49,999.


Total Sales
The value of foliage plant sales in Florida increased from $1.8 million
in 1949 to $12.6 million in 1959, according to the Special Census of Horti-
cultural Specialties. Estimated sales of foliage plants by growers, ex-
cluding resale of plants purchased from other operators, amounted to $10
million in 1956. Thus the major growth of the foliage plant industry occurred
in the first half of the 1950's. Estimated net value of sales in 1961 was
$12.8 million.








Data on the estimated greenhouse and open area devoted to foliage
production in Florida during the 1952-62 period are contained in Appendix
Tables 22, 23 and 24.


Number of Growers
The Special Census of Horticultural Specialties in 1949 reported 53
growers of unpotted and 13 growers of potted plants (Table 2). These
numbers had risen by 1959 to 111 growers of unpotted and 151 growers of
potted plants. No figures were reported by the Census to indicate how
many of the potted plant growers grew unpotted plants or vice versa. Orange
and Dade counties were the leaders in both unpotted and potted foliage
plants in each of the census enumerations.
There were an estimated 180 growers of foliage plants in Florida in
1957. These were distributed as follows: Apopka area 80; Southeast
area 46; and other areas in Florida 54.
The total number of growers had increased to 234 by 1962. Of these,
122 were in the Apopka or Central Florida area, 40 were in the Southeast
Florida area and 72 were scattered in other producing areas of the state.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture estimated that 155 firms were
engaged in commercial foliage plant production in Florida in 1968. Commer-
cial producers were defined as those who sold foliage plants valued at
$2,000 or mote. Of these firms, 107 were in the Apopka area, 36 in the
Southeast area and 12 in other counties of the State.
Of the 155 growers, 57 were estimated to have sales of $50,000 or more.
Sales smaller than $10,000 were registered by 35 producers and 35 had sales
ranging from $10,000 to $24,999. The remaining 28 reported net sales be-
tween $25,000 and $49,999.


Total Sales
The value of foliage plant sales in Florida increased from $1.8 million
in 1949 to $12.6 million in 1959, according to the Special Census of Horti-
cultural Specialties. Estimated sales of foliage plants by growers, ex-
cluding resale of plants purchased from other operators, amounted to $10
million in 1956. Thus the major growth of the foliage plant industry occurred
in the first half of the 1950's. Estimated net value of sales in 1961 was
$12.8 million.







Table 2. -- Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of
counties, 1949 and


sales (at wholesale prices)
1959


in various Florida


Unpotted Plants Potted Plants All Foliage Plants

Growers Value of Growers Value of Value of
Reporting Sales Reporting Sales Sales
1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959


No. No.


Broward
Dade
Duval
Hillsborough
Lake

Lee
Manatee
Orange
Palm Beach
Pinellas

Polk
Seminole
Volusia
Others


53 111


Dollars Dollars


3,381
390,259
7,315
31,200
3,660


108,200
858,088
35,318



10,457

4,750


1,452,628


No. No. Dollars


69,363
349,244
17,848

464,585


- 4


28,923
3,007,239
511,367
30,314

a
607,371
21,362
281,859

5,389,475


1 4


13 151


1,386
250
15,000



125
307,243
63,890


50


3,500

391,444


Dollars

92,139
2,947,472
36,050
4,858
30,278

3,050
184,214
3,553,518
73,705
66,576

27,006
a
32,795
180,969

7,232,630


Dollars Dollars


3,381
391,645
7,565
46,200
3,660


108,325
1,165,331
99,208


50
10,457

8,250

1,844,072


161,502
3,296,716
53,898
4,858
494,863

3,050
213,137
6,560,757
585,072
96,890

27,006b
607,371
54,157
462,828

12,622,105


aWithheld to prevent disclosure of confidential data.
bExcludes data for unpotted plants; included with "others."

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture 1959. V
Horticultural Specialties. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962.


ol. V. Special Reports, Part 1, ,


FLORIDA









The Southeast area, which had sales exceeding those in the Central or
Apopka area in 1956, fell behind in each succeeding year for which estimated
sales data are available. Sales of foliage plants in the Southeast area
declined, absolutely and relatively, with respect to the Apopka area in the
period 1957 through 1961 (Table 3). Data on estimated sales in various
areas of the State for seven different years from 1949 to 1968 are contained
in Table 4.
From 1959 through 1966 there was relatively little change in the total
value of net sales of foliage plants in Florida. The figure was estimated
to range in the vicinity of $12 and $13 million. However, many adjustments
took place within and between major producing areas. Apparently many oper-
ators went out of business and there were many consolidations of production
units. As previously stated, production and sales tended to become more
concentrated in the Apopka area in comparison with the Southeast Florida
area and other scattered producing locations.
Net sales of foliage plants rose to $13.3 million in 1967 md to an
estimated $14.4 million in 1968. According to industry leaders, an upward
growth trend will likely continue into the future.
Additional data on net and gross sales for various components of the
foliage plant industry during various years from 1956 through 1961 are
presented in Tables 25, 26 and 27 (Appendix).


Sales Per Acre
One comparison of efficiency which can be made from one period to
another or between areas during these same periods is sales value per acre.
Ideally, such a comparison would include data on prices and profitability
of various combinations of the plants grown and sold by foliage plant pro-
ducers. Unfortunately, such data are not available. Nor are data available
on composition and value of plants grown on open land, in lath sheds or in
plastic or glass greenhouses. Thus, lack of information on the type plant
grown in each environment and the value of sales of various plants grown
under different conditions make it impossible to analyze available data so
as to achieve the desired relationships.
Hence comparisons of sales per acre in various producing areas of
Florida must be recognized as a rough measure. Nevertheless, such compar-
isons tend to indicate a rough measure of industry trends and efficiency.


-8-










Table 3. -- Estimated net sales of Florida foliage plants by areas, 1956, 1961 and 1968


1956a 1961b 1968c

Total Sales Total Sales Total Sales



Dollars Percent Dollars Percent Dollars Percent


Apopka 4,208,485 42 6,740,654 61 9,707,000 68


Southeast 5,267,747 52 3,398,083 31 4,373,000 30


Other 569,422 6 965,765 8 277,000 2




FLORIDA 10,045,654 100 11,104,502 100 14,357,000 100


Charles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald L. Brooke. A Survey of the Florida Foliage Plant
Industry. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 615, 1959.

John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant Industry"
(unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963).

Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Field Crops Flower and Foliage Report.
Orlando: April 30, 1969.





-10-


Table 4.--Estimated net sales of foliage plants in Florida, selected
years from 1949 to 1968


Area
Year
Apopka Southeast Other Total

Dollars l11arc Dollars Dollars
1949 1,179,148 494,234 170,690 1,844,072
1956 4,208,000 5,268,000 570,000 10,046,000
1959a 7,662,991 4,043,290 915,824 12,622,105

1961 8,082,670 3,638,830 1,051,810 12,773,310
1966 8,291,000 3,467,000 896,000 12,654,000e
1967 8,565,000 3,909,000 791,000 13,265,000
1968g 9,707,000 4,373,000 277,000 14,357,000


aU. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture 1959.
Vol. V. Special Reports, Part 1. Horticultural Specialties.
Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962.
bCharles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foli-
age Plant Industry" (unpublished master'o thesis, University of
Florida, 1958).

cJohn R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of
the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis,
University of Vlorida, 1963).
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Field
Crops Flower and Foliage Report. Orlando: April 18, 1967.

eRevised data for specific areas in 1966 not available. A
report published by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Ser-
Vice on April 29, 1968 shows that the revised estimate for the value
of all foliage plant sales in Florida had been raised from the
$12,654,000 shown in this table to $12,856,000.

fRevised data frcm I~lorid Crop and Livestock Reporting Ser-
vice, Orlando. Enclosure with letter dated August 19,.1969.

Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Field
Crops Flower and Folit~nR Rebrt. Orlando: April 30, 1969.




-11-


In 1968 the net sales per acre of foliage plants in Florida for all
growers was $23,727 (Table 5). These values ranged from averages of $15,954
in the Southeast to $30,155 in the Apopka area and $30,440 for growers in
other areas of the state.
Noteworthy changes occurred in the per acre value of foliage plant
production in various areas from 1956 to 1968. For example, in 1956 the
average value of production per acre in the Apopka area was $19,900. Rises
to $23,250 in 1961 and $30,150 in 1967 were recorded. This would indicate
more concentrated production in greenhouses and probably more efficient
production and marketing of plants with higher unit value sold at higher
prices than those grown in earlier years. The Southeast area, on the
other hand, sustained a large decrease in value of per acre production be-
tween 1956 and 1961, but had a rise from 1961 to 1968. The exact reasons
for these changes are not known, but it was likely caused by shifts in the
proportion of outdoor production of Sansevieria and certain other crops,
price level changes and other factors. On the other hand, the value of
production per acre of foliage plants in the other producing areas of Flori-
da tended to rise from 1956 to 1968.

Market Outlets
Data on the marketing channels utilized in selling foliage plants
in 1956., 1961 and 1967 were collected from growers and tabulated by the
University of Florida. The major outlet each year was out-of-state green-
house operators, who purchased 28 percent of the plants sold in 1956, 31
percent in 1961 and 29 percent in 1967 (Table 6).
In each of these three years variety stores retained their position
as the second most important outlet; in each year it was estimated that
growers sold approximately a fourth of their output to such stores. In
1967 the third most important type of sales outlet was retail florists.
This type of buyer purchased 15 percent of the sales value of Florida
foliage plants in 1961 and 1967, a rise from 7 percent in 1956.
The proportion of sales made through sales agents, i.e., brokers,
jobbers, cooperatives, etc., fell from 22 percent in 1956 to 14 percent
in 1967. As compared with 10 percent in 1956, only 5 percent of all foliage
plants marketed in 1967 were purchased by local growers.
Grocery stores purchased 8 percent of the foliage plants marketed in
1967, the same proportion as that in 1961. However, the 1961 study showed
a low figure of 4 percent. The 1961 figure may be somewhat low because






-12-


Table 5. -- Average net sales of foliage plants per acre
Florida, 1956, 1961 and 1968


in various areas of


Year

Area
1956a 1961b 1968c



Dollars Dollars Dollars


Apopka 19,900 23,244 30,155



Southeast 23,000 10,174 15,954



Other 12,700 17,559 30,440





FLORIDA 20,700 16,354 23,727


aCharles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald L. Brooke. A Survey of
the Florida Foliage Plant Industry. Fla. Agr. Sta. Bul. 615, 1959. p.18.
John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida
Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida,
1963), p. 50.
Computed from Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida
Field Crops Flower and Foliage Report, p. 2. Orlando: April 30, 1969.




Table 6.--Estimated proportion of sales of Florida foliage plants marketed through various outlets,
1956, 1961 and 1967


Market outlet -- Florida total -- Size group and area subtotals, 1967c

1956a 1961 1967c Large d Small e Central Other
growers growers Florida areas

Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
Greenhouse operators 28 31 29 30 14 27 34
(out-of-state)
Variety stores 23 25 24 26 19 34
Retail florists 7 15 15 16 1 19 6
Grocery stores 8 4 8 8 2 8 8
Local growers 10 7 5 3 30 7 2
Brokers and jobbersh 22 16 14 11 53 13 14
Retail (place of business) 2 1 -
Other i 1 5 6 7 2
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

aCharles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald L. Brooke. A Survey of the Florida Foliage Plant
Industry. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 615, 1959, p. 22.
John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (un-
published master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963), p, 52 (Revised data, 1967).
dEstimated from data supplied by growers to the author of this report
dSample data reported by 28 growers with sales of $50,000 or more having 79.2 percent of estimated
sales by growers in the size group.
Sample data reported by 19 growers with sales of less than $50,000 having 31.8 percent of estimated
sales by growers in the size group.
Sample data reported by 32 growers in Lake, Orange and Seminole Counties having 64.9 percent of
estimated sales in the Central Florida area.
Sample data reported by 15 growers, primarily in Broward, Dade and Palm Beach Counties, having 89.4
percent of estimated sales in counties other than Lake, Orange and Seminole.
Also includes cooperatives and other sales agents.
Less than 0.1 percent.







-14-


data were not obtained in that study from several large growers. Nevertheless,
information from leading growers indicated that, because of competition from
artificial plants and other factors, grocery stores were then less important as
outlets than in the other years studied.
Information on the estimated proportion of foliage plants which were
grown in 1956 and 1961 in.each of Florida's producing areas and marketed
through various outlets is noted in Table 28 (Appendix). Similar data for
1967, with classifications made by the Central and other producing areas and
also by large and small growers, are shown in Table 6.

Importance of Various Plant Types

The major plant item produced and sold by foliage plant producers in
1956, 1961 and 1967 was Philodendron cordatum (Table 7). However, this type
of plant, which accounted for a third of all sales in 1956 and a fourth in
1961, had dropped to an estimated fifth in 1967. Another major change was
the decline in the relative importance of Sansevieria from 16 percent of all
plant sales in 1956 to less than 6 percent in 1967.
Pothos made up about 10 percent of sales in 1956 and 1961, but was down
to 6 percent by 1967. Relative decreases from 1961 to 1967 were registered
for Ficus, Diffenbachia and Neanthe bella (dwarf palms).
An important trend in recent years has been the sale of combinations
of mixed varieties. No sales were reported for this type in 1956, but its
proportion of sales had risen to 3 percent in 1961 and 11 percent in 1967.
Two other plants on which data were not recorded in 1956 were Spathiphyllum
and Hoya. The former more than doubled in relative importance, increasing
from 0.2 percent of the total in 1961 to 1.1 percent in 1967; the 1.4 percent
of the total accounted for by the latter in 1967 represented a six-fold in-
crease in the relative importance of Hoya.


Transportation and Distribution

Transportation

A substantial change took place in methods of transportation for ship-
ping Florida foliage plants between 1956 and 1961 (Table 8). Additional
changes are still taking place. However, the only years for which specific
data on methods of transportation are available are 1956 and 1961.
Half of all foliage plants in 1956 were shipped by railway express.
This proportion dropped to 30 percent in 1961. Currently the proportion sent




Table 7.-- Estimated relative importance of specific genera, species or varieties of all Florida foliage
plants sold in 1956, 1961 and 1967

Plant Type Florida total -- Size group and area subtotals, 1967c

1956a 1961b 1967c Large d Small eCentralf Other
growers growers Florida areasg

Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
Philodendron cordatum 34.0 25.8 20.1 18.6 48.7 29.2 4.9
Philodendron--all other 16.1 17.7 15.5 16.7 4.1 16.7 14.3
Combinations--mixed varieties 3.0 10.8 11.7 1.6 16.1 1.8
iffenbachia--all species and varieties 2.1 4.8 7.2 4.9 6.5 4.0 7.5
Ficus--all species and varieties 2.3 9.2 6.4 7.0 1.3 16.2
Pothos-all species and varieties 10.3 10.9 6.3 6.7 2.6 5.5 8.2
Sansevieria--all species and varieties 15.8 8.2 5.6 5.6 8.4 3.9 9.1
Dracaena--all species and varieties 2.0 2.7 4.4 4.2 7.6 3.1 6.9
Nephthytis--all species and varieties 4.4 2.2 3.3 3.0 7.0 4.5 1.2
Neanthe bella (dwarf palm) 2.0 2.5 2.1 2.0 2.5 1.6 3.3
Pepercmia--all species and varieties 1.8 2.1 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.2
Hga--all species and varieties 0.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.3
Aglaonema (Chinese evergreens) 2.3 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.6
Sphathiphyllum 0.5 1.1 1.0 3.1 -- 3.3
Maranta--all varieties 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.1 1.2
Pilea--all species and varieties 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Others 5.0 8.0 12.2 13.0 5.9 9.3 17.9

TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


aCharles
Fla. APr. Exp.
John R.


A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and
Sta. Bul. 615, 1959. p. 19.
Brooker, "Recent Changes in the


Donald L. Brooke. A


Survey of the Florida Foliage Plant


Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant Industry"


Industry.


(unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963), p. 78.
cEstimated from data supplied by growers to the author of this report.
Sample data reported by 23 growers with sales of $50,000 or more having 58.1 percent of estimated sales
by growers in the size group.
Sample data reported by 19 growers with sales of less than $50,000 having 31.8 percent of estimated
sales by growers in the size group.
Sample data reported by 29 growers in Lake, Orange and Seminole Counties having 54.8 percent of
estimated sales in the Central Florida area.
Sample data reported by 13 growers, primarily in Broward, Dade and Palm Beach Counties, having 55.4
percent of estimated sales in counties other than Lake, Orange and Seminole.





-16-


Table 8. -- Proportion of Florida foliage plants sold which were shipped by
various methods of transportation in 1956 and 1961


Proportion of plants sold
Delivereda by each method
Method of
Transportation 1956
1956b 1961C



Percent Percent


Truck 21.0 41.8

Railway Express 49.0 29.5

Air Freight 28.3 12.5

Parcel Post 1.5 e

Bus .2 .3

Growers' Truck d 15.9


TOTAL 100.0 100.0


aExcludes transportation used to deliver plants sold locally.
bCharles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1958),
p. 53.


CJohn R.
Florida Foliage
Florida, 1953),


Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the
Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of
p. 70.


Combined with commercial truckers in 1956 survey.
Less than percent.
Less than .1 percent.







-14-


data were not obtained in that study from several large growers. Nevertheless,
information from leading growers indicated that, because of competition from
artificial plants and other factors, grocery stores were then less important as
outlets than in the other years studied.
Information on the estimated proportion of foliage plants which were
grown in 1956 and 1961 in.each of Florida's producing areas and marketed
through various outlets is noted in Table 28 (Appendix). Similar data for
1967, with classifications made by the Central and other producing areas and
also by large and small growers, are shown in Table 6.

Importance of Various Plant Types

The major plant item produced and sold by foliage plant producers in
1956, 1961 and 1967 was Philodendron cordatum (Table 7). However, this type
of plant, which accounted for a third of all sales in 1956 and a fourth in
1961, had dropped to an estimated fifth in 1967. Another major change was
the decline in the relative importance of Sansevieria from 16 percent of all
plant sales in 1956 to less than 6 percent in 1967.
Pothos made up about 10 percent of sales in 1956 and 1961, but was down
to 6 percent by 1967. Relative decreases from 1961 to 1967 were registered
for Ficus, Diffenbachia and Neanthe bella (dwarf palms).
An important trend in recent years has been the sale of combinations
of mixed varieties. No sales were reported for this type in 1956, but its
proportion of sales had risen to 3 percent in 1961 and 11 percent in 1967.
Two other plants on which data were not recorded in 1956 were Spathiphyllum
and Hoya. The former more than doubled in relative importance, increasing
from 0.2 percent of the total in 1961 to 1.1 percent in 1967; the 1.4 percent
of the total accounted for by the latter in 1967 represented a six-fold in-
crease in the relative importance of Hoya.


Transportation and Distribution

Transportation

A substantial change took place in methods of transportation for ship-
ping Florida foliage plants between 1956 and 1961 (Table 8). Additional
changes are still taking place. However, the only years for which specific
data on methods of transportation are available are 1956 and 1961.
Half of all foliage plants in 1956 were shipped by railway express.
This proportion dropped to 30 percent in 1961. Currently the proportion sent







-14-


data were not obtained in that study from several large growers. Nevertheless,
information from leading growers indicated that, because of competition from
artificial plants and other factors, grocery stores were then less important as
outlets than in the other years studied.
Information on the estimated proportion of foliage plants which were
grown in 1956 and 1961 in.each of Florida's producing areas and marketed
through various outlets is noted in Table 28 (Appendix). Similar data for
1967, with classifications made by the Central and other producing areas and
also by large and small growers, are shown in Table 6.

Importance of Various Plant Types

The major plant item produced and sold by foliage plant producers in
1956, 1961 and 1967 was Philodendron cordatum (Table 7). However, this type
of plant, which accounted for a third of all sales in 1956 and a fourth in
1961, had dropped to an estimated fifth in 1967. Another major change was
the decline in the relative importance of Sansevieria from 16 percent of all
plant sales in 1956 to less than 6 percent in 1967.
Pothos made up about 10 percent of sales in 1956 and 1961, but was down
to 6 percent by 1967. Relative decreases from 1961 to 1967 were registered
for Ficus, Diffenbachia and Neanthe bella (dwarf palms).
An important trend in recent years has been the sale of combinations
of mixed varieties. No sales were reported for this type in 1956, but its
proportion of sales had risen to 3 percent in 1961 and 11 percent in 1967.
Two other plants on which data were not recorded in 1956 were Spathiphyllum
and Hoya. The former more than doubled in relative importance, increasing
from 0.2 percent of the total in 1961 to 1.1 percent in 1967; the 1.4 percent
of the total accounted for by the latter in 1967 represented a six-fold in-
crease in the relative importance of Hoya.


Transportation and Distribution

Transportation

A substantial change took place in methods of transportation for ship-
ping Florida foliage plants between 1956 and 1961 (Table 8). Additional
changes are still taking place. However, the only years for which specific
data on methods of transportation are available are 1956 and 1961.
Half of all foliage plants in 1956 were shipped by railway express.
This proportion dropped to 30 percent in 1961. Currently the proportion sent






-17-


by express is probably only a minimal percentage. Comn-rcial truck ship-
ment in 1956 was the method used in shipping 21 percent of the plants sold.
This quantity had doubled to 42 percent by 1961. Several truck services
have improved operations over the last six or seven years and probably
account for a higher percentage now than in earlier years.
Air freight shipments accounted for 28 percent of the total in 1956
and 12 percent in 1961. A higher percentage likely now goes by air freight
than was the case in 1961.
Grower truck operations, which accounted for a very small proportion
in 1956, had risen to 16 percent of the total by 1961.


Distribution
The major market areas for Florida foliage plant shipments in 1961
were the Southeast and the Northeast (Figure 1). Each of these accounted
for 25 percent of all sales of green foliage plants in that year. The
Northwest area utilized 22 percent of Florida foliage plant shipments made
in 1961. Florida was next with 14 percent; this figure undoubtedly account-
ed for many sales made to other growers.
States of the Southwest received 8 percent of the total and those of
the West 3 percent. Exports to Canada and to other countries accounted for
3 percent of 1961 sales.
Data on the estimated sale of foliage plants in 1961 to buyers in
various market areas by growers in Florida's three geographic areas are
contained in Appendix Table 29.


Competition with Other Areas


Currently Florida supplies 54 percent of all sales of foliage plants
made by growers in the 23 states reporting in the U.S.D.A. floricultural
crops release. The second leading state, California, had only $3,028,000
in 1968 grower sales of foliage plants (Table 9). This figure represented
a decrease from the level in each of the preceding two years. Similar
downward trends in grower sales of foliage plants were also noted in a
number of the other 23 states for which data are reported in the U.S.D.A.
series.






-17-


by express is probably only a minimal percentage. Comn-rcial truck ship-
ment in 1956 was the method used in shipping 21 percent of the plants sold.
This quantity had doubled to 42 percent by 1961. Several truck services
have improved operations over the last six or seven years and probably
account for a higher percentage now than in earlier years.
Air freight shipments accounted for 28 percent of the total in 1956
and 12 percent in 1961. A higher percentage likely now goes by air freight
than was the case in 1961.
Grower truck operations, which accounted for a very small proportion
in 1956, had risen to 16 percent of the total by 1961.


Distribution
The major market areas for Florida foliage plant shipments in 1961
were the Southeast and the Northeast (Figure 1). Each of these accounted
for 25 percent of all sales of green foliage plants in that year. The
Northwest area utilized 22 percent of Florida foliage plant shipments made
in 1961. Florida was next with 14 percent; this figure undoubtedly account-
ed for many sales made to other growers.
States of the Southwest received 8 percent of the total and those of
the West 3 percent. Exports to Canada and to other countries accounted for
3 percent of 1961 sales.
Data on the estimated sale of foliage plants in 1961 to buyers in
various market areas by growers in Florida's three geographic areas are
contained in Appendix Table 29.


Competition with Other Areas


Currently Florida supplies 54 percent of all sales of foliage plants
made by growers in the 23 states reporting in the U.S.D.A. floricultural
crops release. The second leading state, California, had only $3,028,000
in 1968 grower sales of foliage plants (Table 9). This figure represented
a decrease from the level in each of the preceding two years. Similar
downward trends in grower sales of foliage plants were also noted in a
number of the other 23 states for which data are reported in the U.S.D.A.
series.












Exports
3%


Northwest
22%


Southeast
25%


Southwest
8%


Florida
14%


Figure 1. -- Market disttbbhtion of Florida foliage plants, 1961


West
3%







Table 9. -- Number of producers, area in production and net value of sales of foliage plants for indoor
or patio use in selected states, 1966, 1967 and 1968


State Producers Area in Production Net Value of Sales
1966 1967 1968 1966 1967 1968 1966 1967 1968


No. No. No.


- 1,000 Sq. Ft. --


- $1,000 -


California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida


Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Maryland
Massachusetts

Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
New Jersey
New York

North Carolina
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Tennessee


141 154


27
30
25
21c
37


33
43
43
47
124

10
89
20
69
10


2,182
28
77
c
25,760


26
31
19
18
42

32
38
41
43
111

10
91
18
79
9


96
70
19
154c
172


271
72
95
303
624


16
362
47
327
21


1,696
25
58


1,405b
98
54


26,074 26,357


69
76
19
96
201

189
54
90
321
610

10
439
49
362
21


70
b
38
87
246

150
68
45
145
547

12
322
66
312
12


3,167
82
173
c
11,678

356
226
49
349c
680

684
237
115
1,158
1,201

34
1,511
91
919
39


3,087
125
157

12,265

295
346
48
357
809

487
181
156
1,111
1,218

25
1,982
105
1,061
35


3,028.
475
145

14,357
14,357


335
b
53
357
1,071

529
236
68
403
1,346

39
1,597
143
1,020
29











Table 9. -- Number of producers, area in production and net value of sales of foliage plants for indoor
or patio use in selected states, 1966, 1967 and 1968 -- continued

Producers Area in Production Net Value of Salesa
State
1966 1967 1968 1966 1967 1968 1966 1967 1968


No. No. No.


-- 1,000 Sq. Ft. -


-- $1,000 -


Texas
Washington
Wisconsin


106 109
28 25
45 35


Total 23 States


1,039 1,014 939


32,381 31,606 31,287


23,988 26,079 26,412


aGross value of sales less cost of plant material purchased from other growers for growing on.
blndiana combined with Colorado to avoid disclosure of individual operations.
cDelaware combined with Maryland to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

Source: U.S. Crop Reporting Board. Flowers and Foliage Plants Production and Sales in Selected
States, 1956-68. U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Bulletin No. 442. Washington: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1969. pp. 33-35.


103
30
39


1,448
183
54


882
190
75


1,088
115
50


851
334
54


808
238
183


869
187
125






-21-


Florida has not always enjoyed its current position of national leader-
ship in foliage plant sales. When comparing foliage plant sales in Florida
with those in the 48 contiguous states, Florida in 1949 accounted for only
14 percent of the national total (Table 10). Florida's output comprised
39 percent of the national output in 1959. Presently the Sunshine State
probably accounts for more than half of all foliage plant production and
sales in the 48 contiguous states.
Two other comparisons of the Florida foliage plant industry with those
in states for which data are available are shown in Table 11. These are
the average value of net sales of foliage plants per square foot in produc-
tion and the proportion of net sales made at wholesale.
The net sales value of 55 cents per square foot in Florida was second
lowest in the nation and is indicative of the extensive nature of the Florida
foliage plant industry. Per square foot sales ranged from 48 cents in
Illinois to $4.96 in Ohio.
Florida growers reported that 99 percent of their marketing were made
at wholesale. This compared with only 31 percent at wholesale in North
Carolina, 44 percent in Missouri and 93 percent for the 23 states reported.
Only four reporting states had less than 75 percent of their foliage plant
sales made at wholesale.


Problems in Marketing


,Changing economic and technological conditions have interacted to bring
numerous adjustments in the Florida foliage plant industry. Further adjust-
ments can be expected in the future.
The slow-down in the rate of market growth about 1955 resulted in many
internal foliage plant industry adjustments. Among them have been the shift
of a higher proportion of the industry to the Apopka area and departure of
many small growers from the industry.
Numerous statements concerning the necessity of improving the quality
of foliage plants produced and marketed have been expressed by growers,
marketing agencies and others. Such complaints make it desirable to pursue
the development of an industry program of quality improvement and'control.









Table 10. -- Number of operators growing foliage plants


and value of sales (at wholesale prices) in various states,
1949 and 1959


Unpotted Plants Potted Plants All Foliage Plants
State
Growers Reporting Value of Sales Growers Reporting Value of Sales Value of Sales

1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959


No. No.


Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado

Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho

Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky

Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan


10 5


Dollars

767
500
17,270
688,442
15

1,735

1,452,628
768
35


24,213
14,977
13,523
15,827
1,760

27,576
2,175
30,985
15,549
59,036


Dollars

35,400

262
298,030
308


2,007 48
5
5,389,475 13
162 35
6,700 13


373,909
10,240
1,152
11,068
a

1,760
450
9,300
2,758
42,487


No. No.


15
6
15
106
10

37
2
151
22
1

110
63
43
40
25

27
24
20
58
89


159
107
83
69
41

14
19
49
85
150


Dollars Dollars


21,828
30,277
7,220
1,840,393
50,706


78,131
3,350
391,444
29,205
3,155

722,598
104,079
56,488
55,212
22,493

37,364
4,452
236,979
380,381
327,288


67,374
23,441
45,110
4,092,629
211,153

139,845
275
7,232,630
122,358
1,800

1,183,342
340,395
75,484
100,667
41,620

385,544
8,669
191,907
908,468
921,598


Dollars Dollars


22,595
30,777
24,490
2,528,835
50,721

79,866
3,350
1,844,072
29,973
3,190


746,811
119,056
70,011
71,039
24,253

64,940
6,627
267,964
395,930
386,324


102,774
23,441
45,372
4,390,659
211,461

141,852
275
12,622,105
122,520
8,500


1,557,251
350,635
76,636
111,735
41,620

387,304
9,119
201,207
911,226
964,085








Table 10. -- Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of sales (at wholesale prices) in various states,
1949 and 1959 -- continued


Unpotted Plants Potted Plants All Foliage Plants
State
Growers Reporting Value of Sales Growers Reporting Value of Sales Value of Sales

1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959


No. No.


Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska


Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York

North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon

Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee


Dollars


15,997
133
5,561

2,115


488
169,345
750
88,968

1,700

110,032
10,510
16,578

141,143

1,095
80
850


Dollars


1,560
2,780
35,313
225
1,025



11,511

110,848



53,103
1,134
a

31,647
150
220
20
a


No. No.


Dollars Dollars


73,926
36,075
228,559
4,320
10,868


- 1


11
84
8
252

30
9
212
41
30

165
11
16
6
25


4
83
5
153

20
6
127
30
25

155
8
10
10
19


2,505
706,232
7,520
1,346,384

19,393
1,362
1,136,247
53,953
63,069

1,012,350
10,080
13,972
1,005
57,576


233,923
30,917
154,592
2,528
23,882


a
1,812
1,408,420
38,462
1,419,195

74,125
13,237
1,542,302
235,256
181,348

2,004,002
18,005
34,592
4,315
127,218


Dollars Dollars


89,923
36,208
234,120
4,320
12,983


2,993
875,577
8,270
1,435,352

21,093
1,362
1,246,479
64,463
79,647

1,153,493
10,080
15,067
1,085
58,426


235,483
33,697
189,905
2,753
24,907


a
1,812
1,419,931
38,462
1,530,043

74,125
13,237
1,595,405
236,390
181,348

2,035,649
18,155
34,812
4,335
127,218








Table 10. -- Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of sales (at wholesale prices) in various states,
1949 and 1959 -- continued


Unpotted Plantsotted Plants Potted Plat All Foliage Plants
State Growers Reporting Value of Sales Growers Reportin VValueo of Sales Value of Sales

1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959 1949 1959


No. No.


Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington

West Virginia
Wisconsin
' o:-:in -

Othersc

Conterminous
United States


Dollars


366,315
3,430
2,560
322
5,542

795
3,315


100


3,315,505


Dollars


349,064

525
2,393
a

125
22,512


72,605


6,882,228


No. No. Dollars Dollars


303,379
30,379
1,968
22,902
157, ("0

10,688
125,399
360

872


989,022
223,199
950
18,135
387,356

19,210
300,404
a

26,300


2,507 1,921 9,842,266 25,606,996


Dollars Dol ars


669,694
33,809
4,528
23,224
163,422

11,483
128,714
360

772


1,338,086
223,199
1,475
20,528
387,356

19,335
322,916
a

88,885


13,157,771 32,489,224


aWithheld to avoid disclosure of confidential data.
Excludes data for a segment of the foliage plant industry.
cIncludes data for District of Columbia and for states for which data were not reported to avoid disclosure
of confidential information.

Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census. U. S. Census of Agriculture 1959. Vol. V. Special Reports, Part 1. -
Horticultural Specialties. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962.





-25-


Table 11. Average sales per square foot of foliage plants produced and
proportion of sales made at wholesale, in selected states, 1968


Average Value of Net Proportion of
State Sales per Square Sales at
Foot in Production Wholesale



Dollars Percent

CalifornVa 2.16 95
Colorado 4.85 95
Connecticut 2.69 85
Delaware c c
Florida .55 99

Illinois .48 72
Indiana b b
Iowa 1.39 56
Marylandc 4.10c 89c
Massachusetts 4.35 53

Michigan 3.53 91
Minnesota 3.47 62
Missouri 1.51 44
New Jersey 2.78 94
New York 2.46 93

North Carolina 3.25 31
Ohio 4.96 94
Oregon 2.17 96
Pennsylvania 3.27 86
Tennessee 2.42 99

Texas .80 77
Washington 1.63 91
Wisconsin 2.50 86

Total 23 States .85 93



aNet value of sales divided by square feet in production.
Indiana combined with Colorado to avoid disclosure of individual
operations.
cDelaware combined with Maryland to avoid disclosure of individual
operations.
Source: U.S. Crop Reporting Board. Flowers and Foliage Plants -
Production and Sales, 1967 and 1968, [Sp. Cr 6-1 (69)]. Washington: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, 1969.





-26-


Declines in express service have brought about problems in shipping
plants in small units to various markets. Although much of the deficit has
been made up by trucking and air services, a substantial number of problems
in shipping, handling procedures, types of containers and cold protection
still exist.
The 1968 mail survey of growers by the University of Florida indicated
the cost-price squeeze as a major problem. Costs of labor, materials and
other inputs were reporting rising faster than sale prices of foliage plants.

A number of operators also stated the necessity for growers to achieve
more bargaining power by combining in marketing groups to do a more effective
job of selling plants. Several such groups have been formed in recent years.
Several growers stated that they viewed the increasing quantity of fo-
liage plants grown and shipped to U. S. markets from Puerto Rico and Central
America as a point of major concern.


Consumer Purchase Patterns


National Consumer Study

A survey of consumer practices, preferences and attitudes related to
expenditures for goods and services of commercial floriculture was done
recently by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The 15,000 persons inter-
viewed were selected from a national probability sample which in 1967 repre-
sented an adult population of about 128 million persons 18 years of age and
3,4
above. The results presented in two publications4 are believed to be
representative of about 60 million households or consumer spending units in
1967.



Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Commercial Floriculture
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and
Services, Marketing Year Ended May 1967. U. S. Department of Agriculture
Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 855. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969,
pp. 12.
Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Consumer Purchasing Patterns for the Goods
and Services of Commercial Floriculture in the United States 1966-67: A
Preliminary Report. U. S. Department of Agriculture ERS-382. Washington:
U. S. Government Printing Office, 1968, pp. 7.




-27-


Although the U.S.D.A. consumer study did not obtain specific data on
foliage plants, many of its findings relate to the foliage plant industry.
Potted plants, for which purchase information is reported, include not only
green foliage plants, but also such potted flowering plants as chrysanthemums,
African violets and many others which are marketed through retail florist
shops, garden centers and other outlets selling the goods and services of
floriculture. No national study has yet been concerned with the character-
istics of foliage plant buyers. Nevertheless, the data in the U.S.D.A.
report tend to throw some light on the overall market situation for green
foliage plants as one of the major floricultural items.
Slightly more than half of all purchases of goods and services of flori-
culture were made at retail florists' establishments. The proportion of
such purchases made in these businesses ranged from about 50 percent in the
West to almost 60 percent in the South. Purchases made in supermarkets
accounted for 7 percent of the national total. More purchases were made at
independent garden centers than in garden centers associated with department
and other stores.
As noted in Table 12, more than 66 million potted plants were sold in
the United States in the period studied. More were marketed in the North
Central and Northeast regions than in the South and West. Females purchased
37 million plants in comparison with 29 million bought by males. Nearly a
third of all potted plants were bought by families with incomes of $10,000
or more. Other demographic characteristics are also included in Table 12.
Additional information on consumer characteristics is presented on page 31.
Some 45 percent of the total number of purchases were of cut flowers and
related items (Table 13). Arrangements made up approximately half of these
purchases. Unarranged flowers and potted plants each accounted for 16 percent
or more of all purchases. Consumer buying of unarranged cut flowers was
more prevalent in the West than in other regions.
Fifteen percent of the purchases of floricultural products in retail
florists' establishments were of potted plants (Table 14). In supermarkets
29 percent were of potted plants. Overall, 17 percent of all purchases of
floriculture and related products consisted of potted plants.





Table 12.--Commercial floriculture and related products: Purchases of potted plants by
characteristics, annual totals, United States, 1966/67


demographic


Demographic Numbers of
Characteristics potted plants
millions
Education


Grade school
High school
College

Income
Under $3,000
$3,000-$4,999
$5,000-$6,999
$7,000-$9,999
$10,000 and over
No answer

Position in household
Male head
Son
Other
Total male
Wife
Female head
Daughter
Other female
Total female


7.5
32.5
26.4



4.2
7.6
13.7
16.9
21.3
2.7



24.8
1.5
3.0
29.3
29.3
4.8
2.2
0.9
37.0


Demographic
Characteristics


Numbers of
potted plants


millions
Region


Northeast
North Central
South
West

Size Community
Total metro
500,000=and over
50,000-499,999
Under 50,000
Total non-metro
Urban
Rural


Under 25
25-39
40-49
50-64
65 and over

U. S. Total


18.5
22.4
14.3
11.2


48.2
9.1
15.5
23.6
18.2
8.7
4.5


6.7
19.1
16.6
16.5
7.5

66.4


aData for all sets of demographic characteristics do not total 66.4 million exactly because of rounding.

Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to Commercial Floriculture
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Marketing Year Ended May 1967
(Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969,
p. 27.











Table 13.--Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of product, by region, United States, 1966/67



Cut flowers and related products
Cut flowers and related products Potted Artificial Bedding Nursery Other
plants products plants stock ornamentals
Arranged Unarranged Corsages






Northeast 19.5 18.2 6.5 19.2 8.8 10.9 6.2 10.7 100.0

North Central 18.2 13.0 7.6 19.6 10.3 15.1' 6.0 10.1 100.0

South 29.6 13.0 7.6 13.8 11.8 9.8 6.2 8.2 100.0

West 16.2 22.8 7.1 14.6 8.5 12.8 8.9 9.1 100.0

U. S. total 21.2 16.2 7.2 17.0 10.0 12.2 6.7 9.5 100.0



Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to Commercial Floriculture and
Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Marketing Year Ended May 1967
(Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969,
pp. 26-29.






Table 14.-Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of product, by type of retail outlet,
United States, 1966/67



Cut flowers and related
Type of retail outlet Arti-

Arranged Unarranged Corsages Potted ficial Bedding Nursery Other Total
plants products plants stock ornamentals

- -Percent- -

Retail florist 36.6 24.2 12.5 15.4 4.0 3.2 0.0 3.2 100.0

Supermarket 1.0 12.3 0.3 28.8 9.1 18.6 5.7 24.2 100.0

Garden center, total 2.9 3.2 0.9 17.8 20.2 23.4 17.5 14.1 100.0

No affiliation 3.0 3.8 0.8 17.6 3.0 30.7 27.1 14.0 100.0
With dept. store 3.4 1.7 1.7 15.9 44.9 12.4 7.8 12.2 100.0
With other stores 1.8 4.4 0.1 22.0 15.2 26.5 12.1 17.9 100.0

Roadside stand and
street vendor 2.2 29.4 2.2 19.9 4.4 29.4 5.1 ,7.4 100.0

Other 5.7 4.2 1.4 9.9 18.4 21.7 8.5 30.2 100.0

Total 21.2 16.2 7.2 17.0 10.0 12.2 6.7 9.5 100.0


Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh.
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchasers and Buy
May 1967 (Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report I
Office, 1969, p. 20.


Statistical Supplement to Commercial


'ers of Goods and Services, Marketing


Floriculture
Year Ended


Washington U. S. Government Printing


r


^^'





-26-


Declines in express service have brought about problems in shipping
plants in small units to various markets. Although much of the deficit has
been made up by trucking and air services, a substantial number of problems
in shipping, handling procedures, types of containers and cold protection
still exist.
The 1968 mail survey of growers by the University of Florida indicated
the cost-price squeeze as a major problem. Costs of labor, materials and
other inputs were reporting rising faster than sale prices of foliage plants.

A number of operators also stated the necessity for growers to achieve
more bargaining power by combining in marketing groups to do a more effective
job of selling plants. Several such groups have been formed in recent years.
Several growers stated that they viewed the increasing quantity of fo-
liage plants grown and shipped to U. S. markets from Puerto Rico and Central
America as a point of major concern.


Consumer Purchase Patterns


National Consumer Study

A survey of consumer practices, preferences and attitudes related to
expenditures for goods and services of commercial floriculture was done
recently by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The 15,000 persons inter-
viewed were selected from a national probability sample which in 1967 repre-
sented an adult population of about 128 million persons 18 years of age and
3,4
above. The results presented in two publications4 are believed to be
representative of about 60 million households or consumer spending units in
1967.



Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Commercial Floriculture
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and
Services, Marketing Year Ended May 1967. U. S. Department of Agriculture
Mktg. Res. Rpt. No. 855. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969,
pp. 12.
Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Consumer Purchasing Patterns for the Goods
and Services of Commercial Floriculture in the United States 1966-67: A
Preliminary Report. U. S. Department of Agriculture ERS-382. Washington:
U. S. Government Printing Office, 1968, pp. 7.






-31-


Data in Table 15 indicate that consumers purchased cut flowers and
potted plants largely from retail florists' shops, but most other flori-
cultural items at other types of retail outlets. Retail florists' establishments
accounted for about 80 percent of consumer purchases of unarranged cut flowers,
more than 90 percent of cut flower arrangements and corsages and 50 percent
of the potted plants. The highest proportion of the purchases of artificial
flowers and plants was made at garden centers affiliated with department
stores.
Information on the type outlets through which consumers purchased vari-
ous floricultural products at retail is noted in Table 16. Of the nearly
$2 billion in purchases of floricultural goods and services, over half of
the number of purchases and 63 percent of the value were made at florists'
shops.
Occasions for which potted plants and other goods and services of flori-
culture were purchased are noted in Table 17. For potted plants, some 28
percent of all purchases were for use in the home with 23 percent for special
days and 17 percent for illnesses and hospital use. Other major occasions
or uses for buying potted plants were for home gardens and also for funerals
and memorials.
Data on the composition of other floricultural items are noted also in
Table 17. When the relative importance of the occasion or use for all goods
and services of floriculture was estimated, other major types were the gar-
dens, funerals and memorials, the home and special days.
The occasion or use composition for cut flowers in arranged, unarranged
and corsage form, potted plants and also for artificial flowers and certain
other items of the goods and services of floriculture is noted in Table 18.
More than 70 percent of all purchases of potted plants were valued at
$5.99 or less (Table 19). Some 37 percent of the potted plants sold for
$3.00 to $5.99 with small quantities at higher prices.

Consumer Characteristics

Analysis of data in the U.S.D.A. consumer study indicated that purchases
tended to be more frequent in metropolitan than in non-metropolitan areas
and that they tended to be larger in markets with populations of less than
50,000 persons than in markets with larger populations.






Table 15.--Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of retail outlet by type of product,
United States, 1966/67



Cut flowers and related
Tpora o- Una Cr- Potted Artificial Bedding Nursery Other Total
Type of retail out- Unar- Cor- plants products Other Total
t A e r plants products plants stock
let Arranged ranged sages

-----------------------------Percent --------------------------------------
Retail florist 93.5 80.8 80.8 49.1 21.8 14.2 6.8 17.8 54.1

Supermarket 0.4 5.5 5.5 12.2 6.7 11.3 6.2 18.4 7.3

Garden center,
total 4.2 5.9 5.9 31.2 59.9 56.4 77.2 44.1 29.7

No affiliation 2.0 3.2 3.2 13.9 4.1 33.7 54.9 19.8 13.5
With dept. store 1.7 1.1 1.1 9.9 47.5 10.6 12.5 13.3 10.5
With other stores 0.5 1.6 1.6 7.4 8.3 12.1 9.8 11.0 5.7

Roadside stand and
street vendor 0.4 6.4 6.4 4.0 1.6 8.4 2.8 2.7 3.5

Other 1.5 1.4 1.4 3.5 10.0 9.7 7.0 17.0 5.4

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to Commercial Floriculture
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Marketing Year Ended
May 1967 (Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1969, p. 20.




Table 16. Number and value


of commercial floriculture and related product.purchases by type of outlet and by
type of product, 1966-67


Florist Shop Garden Centers Other Outletsa
Type of Product
Number Value Number Value Number Value

Million Million Million
Million dollars Million dollars Million dollars

Cut flowers and related
products:

Floral arrangements 77.3 670 3.4 29 1.9 16

Unarranged 51.2 231 3.7 17 8.4 38

Corsages 26.5 116 1.1 5 .7 3

All cut flowers 155.0 1,017 8.2 51 10.9 57

Potted plants 32.6 126 20.7 80 13.0 50

Nursery stock 1.8 13 20.2 151 4.1 31

Bedding plants 6.8 18 27.2 70 13.9 36

Artificials 8.5 27 23.4 74 7.1 22

Other products 6.7 22 16.4 54 14.3 48

TOTAL 211.4 1,223 107.9 480 63.3 244


aSupemarkets roadside stands,
Supermarkets, roadside stands,


street vendors, and others.


Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Commercial Floriculture and Related Products: An Analysis
of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Marketing Year Ended May, 1967. U. S. Department of Agriculture
Marketing Research Report No. 855. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969, p. 5.






Table 17.--Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Type of occasion or use, by type of product,
United States, 1966/67



ProductSpecial Illness- n Funeral- Birthday- Other
Product Home Garden Gift Wedding Total
days hospital memorial anniversary occasions



-- Percent --
Cut flowers and related
products:

Arranged 3.6 .5.1 12.6 0.4 64.0 2.0 6.9 2.4 3.0 100.0

Unarranged 22.6 10.6 12.5 17.0 9.0 13.5 2.3 7.5 100.0

Corsage 1.1 28.8 1.3 -- 2.2 3.9 13.5 9.9 39.3 100.0

Potted plants 27.1 22.6 16.7 11.1 10.0 5.3 3.6 --- 3.6 100.0

Artificial items 48.9 12.5 4.5 1.5 15.8 2.6 3.2 0.3 10.7 100.0

Bedding plants 10.5 2.5 0.1 79.9 3.5 0.6 0.4 --- 2.5 100.0

Nursery stock 22.4 2.3 0.1 67.9 2.2 0.5 0.5 --- 4.1. 100.0

Other ornamentals 20.3 3.8 2.6 59.1 3.4 1.9 1.9 1.7 5.3 100.0

Total 18.7 10.7 9.1 28.1 20.7 3.6 5.8 1.8 7.5 100.0


Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to Commercial Floriculture
and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Marketing Year Endad Hiay 1967
(Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969,
pp. 14-18.





Table 18.--Commercial floriculture and related products: Type of product by occasion or use, United
States, 1966/67



Cut flowers and related
Cut ar orPS- otted Artificial Bedding Nursery
Unar- Cor- Sub-
Occasion or use rran ran s s oa plants products plants stock Other Total
Arranged ranged sages total

--------- -------------------- Percent ---------------------------------
Garden 0.3 0.3 8.6 0.7 44.1 20.5 25.8 100.0

Funeral-memorial 65.4 13.3 1.0 79.7 8.2 7.7 2.1 0.7 1.6 100.0

Home 4.1 19.6 0.4 24.1 24.6 26.3 6.8 7.9 10.3 100.0

Special days, total 10.0 16.0 19.4 45.4 35.9 11.2 2.8 1.4 3.3 100.0

Graduation 6.5 9.7 83.8 100.0 100.0
Thanksgiving 20.5 40.9 1.0 62.4 5.1 20.5 1.8 10.2 100.0
Christmas 16.2 5.1 7.6 28.9 35.8 20.5 0.2 6.7 7.9 100.0
Valentine's Day 31.1 44.1 3.6 78.8 15.4 1.9 3.9 100.0
Easter 4.5 12.8 22.2 39.5 49.0 5.9 4.9 0.1 0.6 100.0
Mother's Day 7.4 24.3 30.6 62.3 29.6 2.5 4.0 0.9 0.7 100.0
Memorial Day 10.4 6.6 17.0 43.7 34.3 1.6 3.4 100.0

Illness-hospital 29.2 31.2 0.8 61.2 31.2 4.8 2.8 100.0

Anniversary-birthdays 25.1 37.9 16.3 79.3 10.6 5.7 0.9 0.9 2.6 100.0

Gift 12.1 40.4 7.8 60.3 25.2 6.6 2.2 1.0 4.7 100.0

Wedding 28.4 21.3 39.8 89.5 0.2 1.8 8.5 100.0

Other 8.5 16.4 37.9 62.8 8.3 14.3 4.1 3.8 6.7 100.0


Source: Richard
and Related Products:


Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to
An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services,


commercial Floriculture


Marketing Year Ended


May 1967 (Suppl. to U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1969, p. 8.


Y





Table 19.--Purchases of goods and services of floriculture: Price
United States, 1966/67


paid per purchase by type of product,


Value per Purchase
Product
Product Under $3.00- $6.00- $10.00- $15.00- Total Purchases
$3.00 5.99 9.99 14.99 or more

- - -Percent - - Percenta Number (1,000)
Cut flowers and related
products:

Arranged 30.0 31.8 17.2 9.4 6.4 100.0 63,298

Unarranged 7.6 22.2 26.3 22.7 16.3 100.0 82,643

Corsages 23.3 47.5 11.8 6.4 3.7 100.0 28,281

Potted plants 34.0 37.4 13.4 5.7 2.1 100.0 66,404

Artificial products 46.8 32.0 9.8 3.1 3.7 100.0 38,995

Bedding plants 53.6 21.2 7.4 4.2 3.4 100.0 47,741

Nursery stock 18.7 28.9 14.5 11.1 19.6 100.0 26,118

Other ornamentals 52.4 20.7 5.3 4.8 6.1 100.0 37,332

All Products 28.2 28.8 15.3 10.4 8.8 100.0 390,812


aIncludes data on purchases where persons interviewed did


not recall price paid.


Source: Richard Hall and Stephen M. Raleigh, Jr. Statistical Supplement to Commercial Fluri-
culture and Related Products: An Analysis of Purchases and Buyers of Goods and Services, Market inc
Ended May 1967 (Suppl. to U. S. D. A. Marketing Research Report No. 855). Washington: U. S. Gover~.t.:
Printing Office, 1969, p. 5.







-37-


Women were more likely than men to make purchases of the goods and
services of floriculture throughout the year. Purchases were more frequent
among whites than among non-whites. In general, purchases tended to in-
crease with age and reach peaks among persons in the 40 to 49 year age group.
Purchasing activity was much higher by people with higher education and in-
come levels.
The most frequent users of goods and services of floriculture were
friends, with children and husbands next in order. Of non-purchasers in-
terviewed, a range of 10 to 15 percent had received floricultural products
during the period of the survey. The most often mentioned types of products
received by non-purchasers were potted plants and cut flowers and the most
frequently mentioned occasions for receiving were illness, Christmas, Mother's
Day and home use.


Florida Consumer Study
To determine characteristics and preferences of consumers toward use
of flowers, foliage plants and artificial flowers and plants, information
was obtained by personal interviews with 197 consumers in Gainesville in
19645. Residents of every 70th household in the city, selected with a ran-
dom start, were interviewed to obtain information on purchases and prefer-
ences for floricultural and competing products. Most persons interviewed
overwhelmingly felt that fresh cut flowers and foliage plants add to the
enjoyment of living.
When the 197 Gainesville residents were interviewed, 158 then had living
foliage plants in their houses (Table 20). Approximately two-thirds of these
plants were purchases by the persons interviewed with the remainder acquired
as gifts, from the garden or through a combination of purchase, gift and/or
garden. Artificial foliage plants were reported in the homes of 76 of the
residents interviewed. Nearly all of these were acquired as purchases.
The estimated average expenditures made by all Gainesville consumers
in the 12 months preceding the interview for foliage plants were estimated



5Cecil N. Smith, "A Study of Consumer Opinions and Practices about
Flowers and Flowering Plants," Proceedings of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society 81: 1968, pp. 369-375.






Table 20. -- Number of Gainesville residents interviewed who reported, by method of acquisition, living
and artificial flowers and foliage plants in their homes, 1964

Item in House
Cut Flowers Foliage Plants
Source of Item
Fresh Artificial Living Artificial



--- Number ---


Purchased 6 69 103 61

Gift 9 41 24 13

Garden 38 0 12 0

Combination of above 0 4 19 2


Subtotal 53 114 158 76


None in home 144 80 39 120

No response 0 3 0 1



Number of respondents 197 197 197 197


Flowering


Source: Cecil N. Smith, "A Study of Consumer Opinions and Practices about Flowers and
Plants," Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 81: 1968, p. 371.





-39-

)
to be $4.63 (Table 21). On the other hand, those residents who actually
reported foliage plant purchases had average expenditures of $7.82. Of
117 residents who made purchases of foliage plants in Gainesville, more
than half had expenditures of less than $5.00, nearly a fourth spent be-
tween $5.01 to $10.00 and 22 reported purchases which ranged from $10.01
to $30.00 in value.








Table 21. -- Average expenditures for cut flowers, living foliage plants and artificial flowers
and foliage by Gainesville residents in the 12 months preceding the interview, 1964


Average Purchase of
Consumer
characteristics Cut Living Artificial
Flowers Foliage Plants Flowers & Foliage


Dollars Dollars Dollars

All interviewed $15.50 $ 4.63 $ 2.75



Purchasing item only 23.50 7.82 7.53




Source: Cecil N. Smith, "A Study of Consumer Opinions and Practices about Flowers and
Flowering Plants," Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 81: 1968, p. 371.






-41-


APPENDIX


Table 22. -- Estimated greenhouse area devoted
Florida, 1952 to 1962


to growing foliage plants in


Glass Annual
Year Glass Substitute Total Area
Substitute Change

Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft. Sq. Ft. Percent

1952a 618,564 24,309 642,873

1953 670,372 53,309 723,681 13

1954 754,187 56,309 810,496 12

1955 936,827 137,829 1,074,656 33

1956 1,100,762 194,544 1,295,306 21

1957 1,272,290 255,027 1,527,317 18

1958 1,613,502 365,061 1,978,563 30

1959 1,715,852 481,777 2,207,629 12

1960 1,914,006 668,683 2,582,689 17

1961 1,980,990 965,734 2,946,724 11

1962 2,279,803 1,071,179 3,350,982b 14



aCharles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foliage Plant
Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1958), p. 137.

bIncrease in greenhouse area since 1952 was 421 percent.

Source: John R Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of
the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University
of Florida, 1963), p. 12





-42-


Table 23. -- Estimated open field and shaded foliage plant production area
in Florida, 1952 to 1962


Year Acres Annual Change


Number Percent

1952a 271

1953 293 8

1954 367 25

1955 417 14

1956 455 9

1957 504c 11

1958 530 5

1959 564 6

1960 599 6

1961 611 2

1962 641d 5e


aCharles A. Nicholls,
Plant Industry" (unpublished
p. 129.


"Marketing Analysis of the Florida Foliage
master's thesis, University of Florida, 1958),


Excludes greenhouse area.
Area shaded was 390 acres.
Area shaded was 437 acres.

e
Increase from 1952 to 1962 was 124 percent.
Source: John R. Brooker, Recent Changes in the Market Structure
of the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis,
University of Florida, 1963), p. 115.







Table 24. -- Estimated land area in shaded and open field foliage plant production in Florida by grower
size groups, 1962


Growers Shaded Area Open Field Area

in Sample Total Total Average Total Average
Per Grower Per Grower


No. No. Acres Acres Acres Acres

Small Growers
(.01 .99 acres) 37 135 34.8 .26 a a

Medium Growers
(1.0 4.99 acres) 18 64 105.3 1.65 11.3 .11

Large Growers
(5.0 9.99 acres) 15 15 71.8 4.79 13.0 .87

Very Large Growers
(10.0 and over) 20 20 225.1 11.26 179.3 8.32



All Growers 90 234 437.0 1.87 203.6 .87


aBased on the growers
for growing foliage plants.


interviewed, operators in this size group make no use of any open field area


Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant
Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963), p. 27.











Table 25. -- Estimated average and total net


sales value of foliage plants in Florida, 1956 and 1961, by
geographic areas


1956a 1961
Geo-
Average Average
graphic Grow- Produc- Net Net Sales Grow- Produc- Net Net Sales
Area
ers tiog Sales Value Per ers tio Sales Value Per
Area Value Acre Area Value Acre


No. Acres Dollars Dollars No. Acres Dollars Dollars


Central
(Apopka) 80 211 4,208,485 19,945 122 290 6,740,654 23,244

Southern
(Southeast) 46 229 5,267,747 23,003 40 334 3,398,083 10,174

Other 54 45 569,422 12,654 72 55 965,765 17,559




All 180 485 10,045,654 20,713 234 679 11,104,502 16,354


aCharles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald L. Brooke. A


Survey of the Florida Foliage Plant


Industry, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 615, December 1959, p. 43-45.
Includes greenhouse area.

Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant
Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963), p. 49.






-45-


Table 26. -- Estimated value of net sales of foliage plants sold by growers
of various sizes in different areas of Florida, 1956 and 1961


Size Group a Net Sales in
and Area 1956 1961


Dollars


Very Large Growers
Apopka
Southeast
Other


Dollars



3,250,700
2,521,703
363,000


Total

Large Growers
Apopka
Southeast
Other

Total

Medium Growers
Apopka
Southeast
Other

Total

Small Growers
Apopka
Southeast
Other

Total

All Growers
Apopka
Southeast
Other


6,135,403



4,959,000 1,254,383
3,354,000 362,880
270,000 ---

8,583,000 1,617,263



187,000 1,323,621
531,000 205,000
62,000 354,000

780,000 1,882,621



122,000 911,950
323,000 308,500
238,000 248,765

683,000 1,469,215



5,268,000 6,740,654
4,208,000 3,398,083
570,000 965,765


Grand Total


10,046,000


11,104,502


aGrower size groups defined according to area in production as follows:
Very Large: 1956 no classification; 1961 10. 0 acres and over
Large: 1956 3.0 acres and over; 1961 5.0-9.99 acres
Medium: 1956 1.0-2.99 acres; 1961 1.0-4.99 acres
Small: 1956 .01-.99 acre; 1961 .01-.99 acre
None in this classification in 1956.
Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the
Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of
Florida, 1963).








Table 27. -- Estimated gross salesa of Florida foliage plants by grower size groups and areas, 1957
through 1961


Area and Size Group 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961


--- Dollars ---


Central (Apopka)

Small Growers
Medium Growers
Large Growers
Very Large Growers

All Growers

Southern (Southeast)

Small Growers
Medium Growers
Large Growers
Very Large Growers

All Growers

Other

Small Growers
Medium Growers
Large Growers
Very Large Growers


318,780
572,988
1,832,000
3,373,162

6,096,930


418,000
100,000
429,142
3,138,929

4,086,071.



187,440
497,750

130,000


815,190 827,330 835,365


580,250
973,128
1,891,000
3,794,800

7,239,178


488,000
100,000
514,335
3,914,654

5,016,989



184,580
512,750

130,000


612,925
1,182,207
2,054,500
4,241,500

8,091,132


543,000
100,000
461,578
3,936,091

5,040,669



195,360
510,005

130,000


1,027,125
1,228,929
1,945,900
3,857,500

8,059,454


449,000
100,000
410,438
3,026,150

3,985,588



223,520
527,500

415,000


1,090,050
1,485,120
1,930,400
3,577,100

8,082,670


379,000
265,000
386,880
2,607,950

3,638,830



249,810
414,000

388,000


All Growers


1,166,020 1,051,810







Table 27. -- Estimated gross salesa of


Florida foliage plants by grower size groups and areas, 1957
through 1961 -- Continued


Area and Size Group 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961


-- Dollars --

All Areas

Small Growers 924,220 1,252,830 1,351,285 1,699,645 1,718,860
Medium Growers 1,170,738 A,585,878 1,792,212 1,856,429 2,164,120
Large Growers 2,261,142 '2,405,335 2,516,078 2,356,338 2,317,280
Very Large Growers 6,642,091 7,839,454 8,307,591 7,298,650 6,573,050

All Growers 10,998,191 13,083,497 13,967,166 13,211,062 12,773,310


aNet sales data (excluding sales made to other growers)
preceding table.
Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market
industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida,


for 1956 and 1961 are shown in the

Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant
1963), p. 45.






Table 28. -- Estimated proportion of Florida foliage plant sales marketed through various outlets, by
geographic areas, 1956 and 1961

1956a 1961
Market
Outlets Central Southern Other All Central Southern Other All
Area Area Areas Areas Area Area Areas Areas


-- Percent ---

Greenhouse
Operators
(Out-of-state) 27 30 12 28 29 40 25 31
Variety Stores 17 28 21 23 28 17 29 25
Brokers 12 16 13 14 14 21 14 16
Retail Florists 12 3 4 7 16 9 24 15
Local Growers 16 4 16 10 8 6 2 7
Grocery Stores 2 14 3 8 3 7 2 4
Department Stores 1 b 0 b 2 b b 1
Retail
(Place of Business) 0 b 25 2 b 0 4 1
Jobbers 12 5 6 8 0 0 0 0
Others 1 b 0 b 0 0 0 0


100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


aCharles A. Nicholls, "Marketing Analysis of
thesis, University of Florida, 1958), p. 46.
Less than 1 percent.


the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's


Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of the Florida Foliage Plant Industr#'
(unpublished master's thesis, University of Florida, 1963), p. 52 (Revised data, 1967).





-49-


Table 29. --


Estimated distribution of Florida foliage plant sales made
to buyers in various areas, 1961


Grower Area
Destination
Central Southern Other All Areas
(Apopka) (Southeast)


--- Dollars ---


Florida 804,829 570,210 421,395 1,796,434

Southeast 2,619,979 538,293 80,585 3,238,857

Northeast 1,905,223 1,102,561 181,345 3,189,129

Southwest 547,446 404,666 11,415 963,527

Northwest 1,879,754 630,632 348,160 2,858,546

West 190,938 152,956 7,920 351,814

Exports 134,501 239,512 990 375,003


Total 8,082,670 3,638,830 1,051,810 12,773,310




Source: John R. Brooker, "Recent Changes in the Market Structure of
the Florida Foliage Plant Industry" (unpublished master's thesis, University
of Florida, 1963), p. 58.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs