• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary and conclusions
 Introduction
 Method of study
 Initial investments
 Annual fixed costs
 Variable costs
 Per acre total costs
 Costs per acre-inch of water
 Appendix I: Diagrams of layout...
 Appendix II: Materials and cost...






Group Title: Mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida EC 69-8
Title: Inputs and costs of selected sprinkler irrigation systems for citrus in central Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071986/00001
 Material Information
Title: Inputs and costs of selected sprinkler irrigation systems for citrus in central Florida
Series Title: Economics mimeo report
Physical Description: 53 p. : tables, graphs, ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Reuss, L. A
Harrison, D. S ( Dalton Sidney ), 1920-
Publisher: Un. of Florida, Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
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Bibliographic ID: UF00071986
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 29968290

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Method of study
        Page 4
        The prescribed resource situation
            Page 4
        The selected systems
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Sources of data
            Page 7
    Initial investments
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Annual fixed costs
        Page 15
    Variable costs
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Per acre total costs
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Costs per acre-inch of water
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Appendix I: Diagrams of layout and operation of systems
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Appendix II: Materials and cost estimates
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







March, 1969


S. ... Econo ics Mimeo Report EC 69-8




.. -
I.i


Inputs and Costs of Selected


Sprinkler Irrigation Systems for Citrus


in Central Florida







by


L. A. Reuss and D. S. Harrison


Department of Agricultural Economics and
Department of Agricultural Engineering
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
in cooperation with
Natural Resources Economics Division
Economic Research Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture













CONTENTS


Page
Summary and Conclusions 1

Introduction 3

Method of Study 4

The Prescribed Resource Situation 4

The Selected Systems 5

Sources of Data 7

Initial Investments 8

Annual Fixed Costs 15

Variable Costs 16

Per Acre Total Costs 21

Costs per Acre-inch of Water 23


Appendix I Diagrams of layout and
operation of systems

Appendix II Materials and cost estimates













Inputs and Costs of Selected Sprinkler
Irrigation Systems for Citrus for Central Florida

1/
L. A. Reuss and D. S. Harrisonr


Summary and Conclusions

The purpose of this report is to provide interested parties with

comparisons of inputs and costs between selected systems as applied

to three sizes of grove under prescribed conditions widely encountered

in Central Florida.

Initial investments shown by the synthesized budgets ranged from

$3,000 to $46,000 depending upon size of grove, type and design of

system. Per acre initial investments averaged $230 for the perforated

pipe systems, $270 for the portable high-pressure gun system, $330 for

the self-propelled high-pressure gun system and $540 for the permanent

over-tree systems.

Annual fixed costs per acre ranged from $49 to $55 for the

permanent over-tree systems, from $33 to $47 for the self-propelled

high-pressure gun system, from $30 to $32 for the portable high-

pressure gun system and from $21 to $27 for the perforated pipe sys-

tems, depending upon the size of grove studied. Variable costs con-

sisted largely of fuel, lubrication and maintenance of power unit and



-/Interim Agricultural Economist, Department of Agricultural
Economics, and Agricultural Engineer,. Department of Agricultural
Engineering, respectively.








man labor used in operating the system (opening valves, moving pipe

or guns etc). The cost of labor was relatively small for the permanent

over-tree and self-propelled high-pressure gun systems but was a major

cost of operating the portable high-pressure gun and perforated pipe

systems.

Labor costs per acre per irrigation (2.2 inches, gross) ranged

from $0.10 to $0.15 for the permanent over-tree systems, $0.0O to

$0.35 for the self-propelled gun systems, $3 to $4 for the portable

gun systems, and $6 for the perforated pipe system, depending on size

of grove.

With six irrigations per crop season, the permanent over-tree

systems showed budgeted total annual costs per acre ranging from $62

to $67 depending upon the size of grove under study. Ranges were from

$60 to $71 for the self-propelled high-pressure gun system, $66 to $70

for the portable high-pressure gun systems and $65 to $72 for the

perforated pipe systems.

Based on six 2.2 inch applications (gross) annually and a 60-acre

grove, total costs per acre-inch were as follows: Permanent system

$4.67; self-propelled gun $4.52; portable guns $5.33; and perforated

pipe $5.38.

Designs for irrigations systems when applied to fixed acreages

under fixed operation time periods and prescribed conditions become

somewhat inflexible. Engineering standards and specifications may

require changes in several design features at one time in order to

balance total dynamic head, friction losses, power requirements, etc.

Effects of change in scale are obscured by discontinuities in type of

inputs. For the permanent overhead system and the self-propelled









high-pressure gun system, total per acre costs tend to be lowest

for the 60 acre grove and approximately the same for the 40 and 80

acre groves. For the portable high-pressure gun system per acre

total costs are similar for the 40 and 80 acre groves both being

lower than for the 60 acre grove. For the perforated pipe system

studied here per acre costs tend to increase with scale in the 40,

60, and 80 acre range in grove size. There is need to give further

study to the relationship between irrigation costs and size of grove.

In the final choice of irrigation systems, grove owners may

wish to consider their particular situations with respect to the

availability and dependability of labor, supply and cost of capital,

income tax status relative to capital improvement versus operating

expenses, relative liquidity of investment and personal preferences

for alternative systems and plans of operation.



Introduction

The acreage under irrigation in Florida has increased substan-

tially in recent years. The U. S. Census of Agriculture reported

413,000 acres irrigated in 1959 and 1,217,000 in 1964. If the

average annual acreage increase continued after 1964, the acreage

subject to irrigation may have reached 1.7 million by 1968. Of

course, the irrigated acreage in any given year depends greatly upon

the amount and distribution of rainfall. Three-fourths of the

irrigated land in 1964 was cropland harvested, the balance pastureland,

according to the Census. Nearly one-half of the irrigated cropland

was in orchards and groves.







The purchase of an irrigation system involves a considerable

outlay of capital and a large number of engineering and economic

decisions. No two grove situations are exactly alike. Often there

are opportunities to reduce costs or improve physical efficiency by

alteration of design details such as size of pipe, source of water,

and type of power, depending upon existing physical and economic

conditions. The purchaser of a system would be well advised to

consult a well-established and qualified irrigation firm before buying.

The purpose of this report is to present estimates of physical

inputs and dollar costs In considerable detail for selected sprinkler

irrigation systems for citrus. It is intended to provide interested

parties with some comparisons between systems and with input and cost

rates which can be accepted or modified as required to fit the indi-

vidual situation. All statements relate only to the prescribed

resource and design situations studied.


Method of Study

The Prescribed Resource Situation The synthesized budgets presented

here are relevant only to the prescribed resource situation. The

soil situation was specified as similar to Lakeland fine sand with a

moisture holding capacity of 3.5 inches in a soil root zone of about

5 feet, a soil situation which is fairly widespread in Central Florida.

Systems were designed for a maximum daily evapotranspiration of 0.17

inches, a minimum design frequency of irrigation of ten days and an

irrigation efficiency of 80 percent. A gross application of 2.2

inches of water per irrigation was selected so as to give a net of

approximately 1.75 inches, at 80 percent irrigation efficiency.







The purchase of an irrigation system involves a considerable

outlay of capital and a large number of engineering and economic

decisions. No two grove situations are exactly alike. Often there

are opportunities to reduce costs or improve physical efficiency by

alteration of design details such as size of pipe, source of water,

and type of power, depending upon existing physical and economic

conditions. The purchaser of a system would be well advised to

consult a well-established and qualified irrigation firm before buying.

The purpose of this report is to present estimates of physical

inputs and dollar costs In considerable detail for selected sprinkler

irrigation systems for citrus. It is intended to provide interested

parties with some comparisons between systems and with input and cost

rates which can be accepted or modified as required to fit the indi-

vidual situation. All statements relate only to the prescribed

resource and design situations studied.


Method of Study

The Prescribed Resource Situation The synthesized budgets presented

here are relevant only to the prescribed resource situation. The

soil situation was specified as similar to Lakeland fine sand with a

moisture holding capacity of 3.5 inches in a soil root zone of about

5 feet, a soil situation which is fairly widespread in Central Florida.

Systems were designed for a maximum daily evapotranspiration of 0.17

inches, a minimum design frequency of irrigation of ten days and an

irrigation efficiency of 80 percent. A gross application of 2.2

inches of water per irrigation was selected so as to give a net of

approximately 1.75 inches, at 80 percent irrigation efficiency.








The systems were applied to hypothetical rectangular survey

tracts, including a square 40 acre tract and rectangular tracts of

60 and 80 acres. A centrally located well with 200 feet depth and

100 feet of casing and a pumping lift of 90 feet was assumed as the

source of water. A tree spacing of 25 feet by 25 feet was selected.

Different assumptions concerning soil, grove size and shape, source

of water, depth of well, etc., would change the cost estimates.

The Selected Systems: The four systems selected for this study are

the predominant ones now being used for irrigation of ridge citrus in

Florida. They include (1) permanent over tree sprinkler systems,

(2) self-propelled high-pressure gun systems, (3) portable high-

pressure gun systems, and (4) portable perforated pipe systems.

Permanent systems are those in which the main lines, lateral

lines and concrete riser bases are installed below ground. The

sprinklers are spaced in multiples of the tree spacing, operate at

medium pressure (50 to 55 psi) and are supported by 21 foot galvanized

risers. Mainlines and lateral lines larger than 4 inches in diameter

are usually asbestos-cement pipe while lateral lines 4-inch and under

in diameter are polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) pipe.

The sprinklers for the permanent system selected discharge 7

gallons per minute and were spaced 75 x 75 feet in a triangular

pattern. Separate valved circuits watered acreages of similar size

and were designed to be operated not more than 75 percent of the

time. The application rate selected was 0.12-inch per hour (gross).

Initial investments in permanent type systems tend to be high,

however, manpower inputs for operation tend to be low.









Self-propelled high-pressure gun systems were designed to use

sprinklers discharging 550 gallons per minute under 35 pounds pressure

per square inch. Each unit operates by moving down rows at 250 feet

intervals at ground speeds of 12 inches per minute to give a gross

application of 2.2 inches. The units are propelled by an auxiliary

motor or by hydraulic (water) power. Spacings of 300 to 330 feet are

often used. A riser 21 feet in height is used and the discharge above

the trees covers a circle 440 feet in diameter.

The unit pulls a 660 foot length of 4-inch diameter mobile rubber

hose, connected to a stationary aluminum mainline. Ma-ximum distance

of travel is twice the length of the hose, or 1320 feet, thus a self-

propelled unit can operate 1/4-mile without attendant labor, then it

is moved 250 to 330 feet for another pass down the rows of trees. A

1400 foot cable is extended from the unit and anchored in the ground

at the opposite end of the row.

Self-propelled units tend to use little labor compared to other

portable systems.

Portable high-pressure gun systems use the same type gun as the

self-propelled system, however, the gun must be individually set-up

at spacings ranging from 160 to 240 feet, each set-up remaining a

given number of hours until the desired amount of water is discharged.

The gun is moved from one position to another either by man-power,

tractor or jeep.

One high pressure gun (550 GPM) will apply 1.0 acre-inch per

hour when spaced on a 210 x 210 foot spacing.









Perforated pipe systems are the oldest type system used in citrus

irrigation. Aluminum pipe with perforations capable of applying 0.20

to 2.00 inches per hour are laid manually between each row of trees

and allowed to operate the required time for a given application of

water. The lateral lines must be picked up by hand and moved from one

row of trees to another.

All laterals and mains consist of aluminum pipe. Pressure heads

are low (3 to 24 psi) for perforated pipe system; therefore, total

power requirements are low. However, a relatively large amount of

labor is required moving laterals and mains.

The operating plans for the portable systems used as examples

in this study provided for 9 to 22 hours of operation per day for 5

to 10 days per irrigation. The permanent over-tree system was pre-

scribed to operate nearly 16 hours per day for 8 days for each irri-

gation.

Sources of Data: Inputs and costs in this report were synthesized
2/
from information obtained from a variety of sources.- Prescribed

basic resource and operating conditions, systems design, bills of

material and other estimates of inputs reflect the collective contri-

butions of a number of experienced irrigation engineers and irrigation



-/The assistance of Dr. R. C. J. Koo, Associate Horticulturist,
Citrus Experiment Station, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida,
is gratefully acknowledged.








equipment suppliers.3/ Prices of inputs were developed from available

manufacturers' price lists modified by dealer reports of prices paid

by contractors and grove-owner purchasers of irrigation systems in
4/
Central Florida in recent times.--

Design features of selected sprinkler systems are shown in Table I.

Diagrams of system layouts are shown in Appendix I. Bills of materials

and estimates costs are summarized in the text with detailed data shown

in Appendix II. Fixed and variable cost calculations are presented

for three sizes of grove and three levels of use in terms of numbers

of irrigations per crop season. Annual operating costs per acre-inch

are compared graphically in Figures 1-2. Comments concerning the

findings are presented below in capsule paragraph form.


Initial Investments

Initial investments for the systems studied ranged from $3,145 to

$45,350 depending upon size of grove, type and design of system. (Table

2 and Appendix II),

For the 40 acre groves, initial investments ranged from $8,145 to

$21, 180, compared to $14,00 to $31,155 for the 60 acre groves, and



a/Helpful suggestions were received from many individuals including
especially Mr. Elmo Dowling, Mr. J. E. Echols, Mr. George L. Black, Jr.,
and Mr. D. S. Bentley. Final selection of materials and the content
of this report are the responsibility of the writers. Nothing in this
report should be construed as an endorsement of any commercial product
or firm.

-/In many contracts for irrigation systems unit prices tend to
become obscured in the total bid figure. Unit prices vary with design
and quality of product, pricing arrangements between manufacturer and
his distributor or dealer organization, size of job, competition from
imported materials, number of bidders at invitation-to-bid time, etc.
Under these conditions only gross approximations of unit prices were
possible.













Table 1. Design features of selected sprinkler irrigation systems,
Central Florida.




Type of system and System Application Operating Continuous Type
size of grove capacity rate time brake of
per horse power
irrigation power

(Gallon (Inches per (Hours)
per min.) hour)

Permanent
40 Acres 338 0.14 125 40 Elect.
60 486 50 "
80 676 75 Diesel

Self-propelled
high-pressure gun
40 Acres 550 1.20 110 75 Diesel
60 550 176 80 "
80 1,100 2.40 121 150 "

Portable high-
pressure gun
40 Acres 550 1.07 74 65 Diesel
60 850 1.86 71 90 "
80 1,100 2.14 74 145 "

Perforated pipe
40 Acres 550 1.60 72.5- 30 Elect.
60 840 2.32 71.2 40 "
80 1,100 3.31 72.5 65 Diesel














Table 2. Approximate initial cost of selected sprinkler irrigation systems,
Central Florida.



Type of system and Well Gun and Distribution
size of grove pump and mount system Total
motor units and
other

- - -Dollars- - - -

Permanent
40 Acres 3,470 ---- 17,710 21,180
60 4,600 ---- 26,555 31,155
80 8,250 ---- 37,600 45,850

Self-propelled
high-pressure gun
40 Acres 3,405 5,720 955 15,080
60 8,665 5,720 1,505 15,390
80 13,965 11,440 2,900 28,305

Portable high-
pressure gun
40 Acres 7,605 865 2,630 11,100
60 9,650 1,735 5,155 16,540
80 13,705 1,735 5,260 20,700

Perforated pipe
40 Acres 4,060 --- 4,085 3,145
60 5,015 .--- 9,785 14,800
80 8,085 ----- 11,505 19,590









$19,590 to $45,850 for the 80 acre groves, depending upon the type

and design of the system.

Initial investments for the perforated pipe systems ranged from

$8,145 for 40 acres to $19,590 for 80 acres. Initial investments in-

creased more rapidly than the increase in acreage, especially between

40 and 60 acre groves (Table 3). The per acre investment in pipe was

much lower for the 40 acre grove than for the 60 and 80 acre groves.

The per acre investment in diesel engine for the 80 acre grove was

substantially higher than for electric motors for the 40 and 60 acre

systems. The per acre investment in pump was higher for the 40 acre

grove than for the 60 and 80 acre grove.

For the portable high-pressure gun system initial investments

ranged from $11,100 for 40 acres to $20,700 for 80 acres. Initial

investments increased less rapidly than acreage, especially between

the 60 and 80 acre groves (Table 3). This came about because the

investment in pipe, guns, mounts and fittings was approximately the

same for the 60 and 80 acre tracts, and because the investment in

high-pressure pump and motor for the 40 acre grove was substantial

relative to the acreage served.

For the self-propelled high-pressure gun systems initial invest-

ments ranged from about $15,080 for 40 acres to $28,305 for 80 acres.

Initial investment increased only moderately in going from 40 to 60

acres, and then nearly doubled when two guns were prescribed for 80

acres. The budgets for the 40 and 60 acre groves clearly indicate

that, under certain conditions, modifications in quantity of main line

pipe and horsepower will permit one gun to serve a larger acreage

by operating longer hours per irrigation and thereby tend to reduce

fixed charges per hour, per acre and per acre-inch.













Table 3. Approximate initial cost per acre for selected irrigation
systems, Central Florida.




Type of system and Well, Guns and Distribution
size of grove pump and guns system Total
motor mounts and
other


- - Dollars - - -
Permanent
40 Acres 87 443 530
60 77 442 519
80 103 470 573

Self-propelled
high-pressure gun
40 Acres 210 143 24 377
60 145 95 25 265
80 175 143 36 354

Portable high-
pressure gun
40 Acres 190 22 66 278
60 161 29 86 276
80 171 22 66 259

Perforated pipe
40 Acres 102 102 204
60 84 163 247
80 101 .- 144 245








For the permanent over-tree systems initial investments ranged

from $21,000 for the 40 acre grove to $46,000 for the 80 acre grove.

Initial investments were more closely related to size of grove than in

the portable systems. The investment for the 60 acre grove was only

a little less than one and one-half times that for the 40 acre grove.

However, the 80 acre grove involved larger main line pipe diameters

and diesel power rather than electric power resulting in an increase

in investment per acre of $43 and $54 compared to the 40 acre and 60

acre groves, respectively.

Initial investments for pipe, sprinklers, fittings, etc. -- all

inputs except well, pump and motor -- made up an average of about 84

percent of the investment in the permanent over-tree systems, about

58 percent for the perforated pipe systems and 30 to 50 percent for

the high-pressure gun systems (Table 4).

Electricity was chosen as the source of power for the illustra-

tive systems requiring 50 or less continuous brake horsepower. Diesel

power was indicated for all other illustrative systems. The four

electric motors specified ranged in estimated cost from $1,144 to

$1,3853' and constituted from 4 to 14 percent of total initial in-

vestment for their respective systems. The eight diesel engines

specified ranged in estimated cost from $3,400 to $7,800 and consti-

tuted an average of 29 percent of total initial investment for the

high-pressure gun systems and 8 to 17 percent for the other systems.



-/Sales tax has been added to the cost of individual items
shown in the text, whereas it is shown as a separate item in the
bill of materials shown in the appendix tables.













Table 4. Percentage distribution of initial investment by major
components, selected sprinkler irrigation systems, Central
Florida.


Type of system Well, Distribution
and pump system,
size of grove and guns, all
motor other

- Percentage - -

Permanent
40 Acres 16 84
60 15 85
80 18 82

Self-propelled high-
pressure gun
40 Acres 56 44
60 55 45
80 49 51

Portable high-pressure
gun
40 Acres 69 31
60 58 42
80 66 34

Perforated pipe
40 Acres 50 50
60 34 66
80 41 59







The initial cost of pumps for the systems studied ranged from

$1,400 to $4,200, Idepending upon system capacity, pressure, total

dynamic head, etc. The estimated cost of pumps amounted to 7 percent

of total initial investment of permanent over-tree systems, 16 to 17

percent for perforated pipe and self-propelled gun systems and 23

percent for the portable high-pressure gun systems.

Per acre initial investments for the four types of systems

studied averaged approximately $230 for the perforated pipe systems,

$270 for the portable high-pressure gun systems, $330 for the self-

propelled high-pressure gun systems, and $540 for the permanent

over-tree systems.

Annual Fixed Costs

The relationship between initial investment and annual fixed

costs depends greatly upon the estimated useful life of the component

parts of the system. Generally permanent systems are considered to

have a longer life than portable systems and electric motors a longer

life than diesel engines. In the cases studied, the factor for con-

verting initial investment into annual fixed cost was found to average

9.4 percent for the selected permanent systems, 10.9 percent for the

perforated pipe systems, 11.7 percent for the portable high-pressure

gun systems, and 12.5 for the self-propelled high-pressure gun systems.

Included were taxes on the value of the system amounting to an average

of 0.70 percent of initial investment.

Annual fixed costs per acre ranged from $49 to $55 for the per-

manent over-tree systems, from $33 to $47 for the self-propelled high-

pressure gun systems, from $30 to $32 for the portable high-pressure

gun systems and from $21 to $27 for the perforated pipe systems,









depending upon the size of the grove studied. Thus, differences in

fixed cost per acre by size of grove within the same system were $2

to $14 per acre while differences between systems for the same size

of grove ran as high as $29 per acre. (Tables 5, 6, 7, and 8).

Fixed costs per acre-inch of irrigation water applied follow

initial investment as modified by differences in capital recovery

factors and vary uniformly and inversely with number of irrigation

per crop season.


Variable Costs

Variable costs consist largely of the fuel, lubrication and

maintenance of the motor or engine and the man labor used in opera-

ting the system, opening valves, moving pipe or guns, etc.

Estimates of variable costs are greatly affected by assumptions

concerning the type of power used and by assumptions concerning the

size of labor crew.

Estimates based on use of diesel power show variable costs

changing directly and immediately with the number of irrigations per

crop season. However, with electric power initial increases in use

of the irrigation system serve to reduce standby charges for elec-

tricity and increase the charge for operating current, thus causing

the increase in variable cost to lag behind the increase in hours of

use of the electrically powered irrigation system.

With reference to size and efficiency of labor crews, there are

some farm operators who hold that labor is less efficient on small acre-

ages than on large acreages. They say it may be difficult to find one

man who will handle a 40 acre portable system alone, two men likely will










Table 5. Fixed and variable costs for permanent over-tree sprinkler systems as
related to number of irrigations per crop season.


ItFixed costs Variable costs Total costs
tem 40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80
acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres

Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars

Basis 3 irrigation.- 6.6 inches per acre,
375 hours of operation per crop season

Cost pei-:
Crop season 1,987 2,920 4,366 442 538 482 2,429 3,453 4,848
Hour 5.30 7.79 11.64 1.18 1.44 1.29 6.48 9.22 12.93
Acre 49.68 48.65 54.58 11.04 8.87 6.03 60.72 57.61 60.60
Acre-inch 7.53 7.37 8.27 1.67 1.36 0.91 9.20 8.73 9.18
2/
Basis 6 irricat ions-/ 13.2 inches per acre,
750 hours of operation per crop season

Cost per;
Crop season 1,987 2,920 4,366 644 777 964 2,631 3,697 5,330
Hour 2.65 3.89 5.82 0.86 1.04 1.29 3.51 4.93 7.11
Acre 49.68 48.65 54.58 16.09 12.94 12.06 65.78 61.59 66.62
Acre-inch 3.76 3.69 4.13 1.22 0.98 0.91 4.98 4.67 5.05
2/
Basis 9 irrigations.- 19.8 inches per acre,
1.125 hours of operation per crop season

Cost per:
Crop season 1,987 2,920 4,366 905 1,090 1,447 2,.92 4,010 5,813
Hour 1.77 2.60 3.88 0.80 0.97 1.29 2.57 3.56 5.17
Acre 49.68 48.65 54.58 22.63 18.16 18.03 72.30 66.81 72.66
Acre-'nch 2.51 2.46 2.76 1.14 0.92 0.91 3.65 3.38 3.67

I a
--Sta'-by electric charge applies 9 months.


2/Sta: ~-by electric


charge applies 6 months.









Table 6. Fixed and variable cost rates for self-propelled high-pressure gun
sprinkler irrigation systems as related to number of irrigations
per crop season.


Im Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs
Iem 40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80
acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres


Basis 3 irritations, 6.6 inches per acre,
1/
330-528 hours of operation per crop season-

Cost per:
Crop season 1,871 1,964 3,561 423 809 1,068 2,294 2,773 4,629
Hour 5.67 3.72 9.81 1.28 1.53 2.94 6.95 5.25 12.75
Acre 46.78 32.73 44.51 10.53 13.48 13.35 57.35 46.22 57.86
Acre-inch 7.09 4.96 6.74 1.60 z.04 2.02 3.69 7.00 8.77

Basis 6 irritations. 13.2 inches per acre,
2/
6o0-Qo6 hours of operation per crop season-

Cost per:
Crop season 1,871 1,964 3,561 973 1,617 2,136 2,844 3,581 5,697
Hour 2.83 1.86 4.90 1.47 1.53 2.94 4.31 3.39 7.85
Acre 46.78 32.73 44.51 24.33 26.94 26.70 71.10 59.68 71.21
Acre-inch 3.54 2.48 3.37 1.84 2.04 2.02 5.39 4.52 5.39

Basis 9 irrigations. 19.8 inches per acre,
990-1584 hours of operation per crop season

Cost per:
Crop season 1,871 1,964 3,561 1,459 2,426 3,204 3,330 4,390 6,765
Hour 1.89 1.24 3.27 1.47 1.53 2.94 3.36 2.77 6.21
Acre 46.78 32.73 44.51 36.48 40.43 40.05 83.25 73.17 84.56
Acre-inch 2.36 1.65 2.25 1.84 2.04 2.02 4.20 3.70 4.27

1/ .i .. i L_ i.I =


/-330 hours

2/660 hours

3/990 hours
system.


for 40, 363 hours for 30 acre systems, and 528 hours for 60 acre system.

for 40, 726 hours for 80 acre systems, and 1,056 hours for 60 acre system

for 40, 1,089 hours for 30 acre systems, and 1,534 hours for 60 acre










Table 7. Fixed and variable cost rates for portable high-pressure gun
sprinkler irrigation systems as related to number of irrigations
per crop season.


Fixed costs Variable costs Total costs
Item 40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80
acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres acres

Basis 3 irrigations, 6.6 inches per acre,
1/
213-222 hours of operation per crop season-

Cost per:
Crop season 1,294 1,943 2,431 670 1,139 1,417 1,964 3,082 3,848
Hour 5.83 9.12 10.95 3.02 5.35 6.38 8.85 14.47 17.33
Acre 32.35 32.37 30.39 16.74 18.98 17.71 49.10 51.35 48.10
Acre-inch 4.90 4.91 4.60 2.54 2.88 2.68 7.44 7.73 7.29

Basis 6 irrigations, 13.2 inches per acre,
2/
426-444 hours of operation per crop season-

Cost per:
Crop season 1,294 1,943 2,431 1,339 2,279 2,833 2,633 4,222 5,264
Hour 2.91 4.56 5.48 3.02 5.35 6.38 5.93 9.91 11.86
Acre 32.35 32.37 30.39 33.4" 37.97 35.42 65.82 70.34 65.80
Acre-inch 2.45 2.45 2.30 2,54 2.88 2.68 4.99 5.33 4.98

Basis 9 irrigation. 19.8 inches per acre,
3/
639-666 hours of operation per crop season-

Cost per.
Crop season 1,294 1,943 2,431 2,009 3,418 4,250 3,303 5,361 6,681
Hour 1.94 3.04 3.65 3.02 5.35 6.38 4.96 8.39 10.03
Acre 32.35 32.37 30.39 50.22 56.95 53.12 82.58 89.31 83.51
Acre-inch 1.64 1.64 1.54 2.54 2.3388 2.68 4.17 4.51 4.22


1/222 hours for 40 and 80 acre systems, 213 hours for 60 acre system.

2/444 hours for 40 and 80 acre systems, 426 hours for 60 acre system.

-66,6 hours for 40 and 80 acre systems, 639 hours for 60 acre system.










Table 8. Fixed and variable cost rates for perforated pipe sprinkler
irrigation systems as related to number of irrigations per
crop season.


Fixed costs Variable costs
40 60 80 40 60 80
acres acres acres acres acres acres a

Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dol

Basis 3 irrigation, 6.6 inches per acre,
213.6-7.5 hours of operation per crop season
213,.6-217.5 hours of operation per crop season-


Total costs
40 60 80
acres acres acres

lars Dollars Dollars


Cost per:
Season
Hour
Acre
Acre-inch


Cost per:
Season
Hour
Acre
Acre-inch


85
3.9
21.4
3.2


8
21.
1 .


9 1,580 2,185 966 1,459 1,769 1,I
5 7.40 10.05 4.44 6.83 8.13 8
8 26.32 27.31 24.16 24.30 22.11 45
.5 3.99 4.14 3.66 3.68 3.35 6

Basis 6 irrigation. 13.2 inches per acre,
7.7-4.0 hours of operation per crop season/
427.7-435.0 hours of operation per crop season-


59 1,580 2,185 1,753 2,678 3,538 2,
97 3.70 5.02 4.03 6.27 8.13 6
48 26.32 27.31 43,82 44.61 44.23 65
63 1.99 2.07 3.32 3.38 3.35 1

Basis 9 Irrigations, 19.8 inches per acre,
640.8-652.5 hours of operation per crop season1


325
.39
.62
.91


612
;.00
.30
#.95


Cost per:
Season
Hour
Acre
Acre-inch


859
1.32
21.43
1.08


1,580
2.47
26.32
1.33


2,185
3.35
27.31
1.38


2,584
3.96
64.61
3.26


3,957
6.17
65.92
3.33


5,307
8.13
66.34
3.35


3,443
5.28
86.08
4.35


5,537
8.64
92.25
4.66


5 hour for 40 and 80 acre systems, 213.6 hours for 60 acre system.

-/435.0 hour for 40 and 80 acre systems, 213.6 hours for 60 acre system.

-6435. hours for 40 and 80 acre systems, 427.2 hours for 60 acre system.
2/652.5 hours for 40 and 80 acre systems, 640.8 hours for 60 acre system.


I tem


3,039
14.23
50.63
7.67


4,258
9.97
70.94
5.38


3,954
18.18
49.42
7.49


5,723
13.16
71.54
5.42


7,492
11.48
93.65
4.73


~







not be fully occupied whereas two-men or four-men crews may be fully

occupied on larger groves where more guns or more perforated lateral

lines are kept in operation at the same time. However, per acre labor

costs per irrigation are more closely related to type of system than

size of grove studied.

The cost of labor was relatively small among the permanent over-

tree and self-propelled high-pressure gun systems but was a major

cost of operating the portable gun and perforated pipe systems. Labor

costs pe'r acre per irrigation ranged from $0.10 to $0.15 for the

permanent over-tree systems, $0.60 to $0.66 for the self-propelled

high-pressure gun systems, $3 to $4 for the portable high-pressure

gun systems and $6 for the perforated pipe systems, depending on size

of grove.

Variable cost of power for the selected permanent over-tree

systems ranged from $0.65 to $1.19 per hour of operation compared

to $0.51 to $1.03 for the perforated pipe systems, $1.03 to $2.30

for the portable high-pressure gun systems, and $1.19 to $2.38 for

the self-propelled high-pressure gun systems. (Appendix II, Table 13,

18, 23, and 28).


Per Acre Total Costs

Data concerning initial investment and operating costs, espe-

cially when expressed in dollars per acre, reflect the problems en-

countered in fitting somewhat inflexible irrigation units to fixed

acreages and fixed operating time periods. Operating plans which

provided for the simultaneous operation of two over-head sections

(or two perforated pipe laterals or two high-pressure guns), instead

of one, tended to double system .capacity and increases size of well,









horsepower requirement, amount of pipe, etc. This means that there

exists certain discontinuities in fixed investment which occur when

a second gun or a second lateral is needed and thus is reflected in

the comparative costs of the systems studied. The comparisons below

are based on six irrigations per crop season.

For the permanent over-tree systems per acre costs are lower

for the 60 acre grove ($62) than for the 40 acre grove ($66), then

higher again for the 80 acre grove ($67) as diesel power is required

rather than electric. (Table 5).

When the self-propelled high-pressure gun system prescribed for

the 40 acre grove (operating cost $71 per acre with six irrigations)

is used more hours in order to serve 60 acres, operating costs per

acre are reduced to $60, a reduction which disappears when a second

gun is added In order to serve 80 acres at a cost of $71 per acre.

(Table 6).

With the portable high-pressure gun systems, one gun for the 40

acre grove ($66) and two guns for the 80 acre grove ($66) appear more

economical than two guns on the 60 acre grove ($70). (Table 7)

With the perforated pipe systems, one line operating on 40

acres produced lower per acre operating costs ($65) than two lines

operating simultaneously on 60 acres ($71) and two lines operating

on 80 acres with diesel rather than electric power slightly raises

cost ($72) above the 60 acre level. (Table 8)

Obviously 40, 60, and 80 acre systems could be combined in

various combinations to meet the needs of large grove owners. The

data in this study of three sizes of grove indicated some advantage








for the 60 acre unit with the permanent over-tree and the self-

propelled high-pressure gun systems, some advantage for 40 and 80

acre units over the 60 acre unit for the portable high-pressure gun

system and a distinct advantage for the 40 acre unit for the perfor-

ated pipe system. However, further study is needed to determine the

efficiency of size units other than 40, 60, and 80 acres.

Per acre operating costs increase, of course, with increased

use and the rate of increase tends to be inversely proportional to

the ratio of fixed costs to variable costs. For the 60 acre grove

with six irrigations per season, variable costs per acre constitute

proportions of total cost per acre as follows: permanent over-tree

system 21 percent, self-propelled high-pressure gun system 45

percent, portable high-pressure gun system 54 percent and perfor-

ated pipe system 63 percent.


Costs Per Acre-inch of Water

Cost per acre-inch of irrigation water applied was more closely

related to amount of use during the season then to size of grove

arong the 40, 60, and 80 acre sizes or the type of system among the

four types studied. (Figures 1-2). Differences between size of

grove with the same type of system and the same number of irrigations

per season were less than $1 per acre-inch excepting only the self-

propelled high-pressure gun with three irrigations per season. Here,

according to these calculations, cost per acre-inch for 60 acre grove

was $1.69 and $1.77 less than for the 40 and 80 acre groves, respec-

tively. Differences between systems with the same size of grove and

same number of irrigations ranged from $0.70 to $2.29. Among the





4.98 4.67 5.05
0.91
1.22 0.98

3.T6 3.69 4.13


40 60 80
ACRES


8.73


3 6 9
IRRIGATIONS


PERMANENT OVER-
TREE SYSTEM


40 60 80
ACRES


7.00


3 6 9
IRRIGATION


SELF-PROPELLED
HIGH- PRESSURE
GUN SYSTEM


4.99 5.33 4.98

2.54 2.88 2.68


2.45 2.45 2.30

40 60 80
ACRES


7.78


3 6 9
IRRIGATIONS


PORTABLE
HIGH-PR ESSURE
GUN SYSTEM


40 60 80
ACRES


7.67


3 6 9
IRRIGATIONS
PERFORATED
PIPE SYSTEM


FIG.1. COST PER ACRE-INCH
AS RELATED TO SIZE


OF
OF


IRRIGATION
GROVE AND


PER SEASON.


WATER BY SYSTEMS
NUMBER OF


IRRIGATIONS






5 +- t. 4.wtl 4.95 I- f
1.84 4.67 4.52 .91
1.22 2.02
S4 .98 2
32.88
z .2.54 2.04 338 2.68 3.35 a

w3.32 /

4.13
3 .636
S3.537





A B C D A B C D A B C D
SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS

40 ACRES 60 ACRES 80 ACRES
LEGEND: A- PERMANENT OVER-TREE SYSTEM. C- PORTABLE HIGH PRESSURE GUN
SYSTEM B- SELF-PROPELLED HIGH PRESSURE GUN SYSTEM.
D- PERFORATED PIPE SYSTEM.

FIG.2- COST PER ACRE-INCH OF IRRIGATION WATER BY SYSTEMS AS RELATED
TO SIZE OF GROVE; BASIS: 6 IRRIGATION PER YEAR.










four systems and three sizes of groves studied costs per acre-inch ranged

from $6.91 to $9.20 with three irrigations, $4.52 to $5.42 with six

irrigations and $3.28 to $4,73 with 9 irrigations.

With six irrigations per season, a likely average for Central

Florida, the choice between systems based only on cost per acre-inch,

became close, especially for the 40 acre grove (Figure 2). Considera-

tions such as availability and dependability of labor, supply and

cost of capital, income tax status relative to capital improvement

versus cash or accrued operating expenses and relative liquidity of

capital investment may be determining considerations, along with

the personal preferences of the grove owner.





























APPENDIX I



Diagrams of layout and operation of

selected sprinkler irrigation systems.









1320 ft


0 & Is e a s s eebm m A 0















i7 16" MAIN V S ALIVE
LL 'W"WELL Z

i
3C)







S- SPRINKLER SPACING- 75 X 75 FT.a
S*b *- --- *

w e a w e w *







*-4
ii -- f -- -- ---- ---f-- fti. -- I -''--- ---- ft I-- f ,--- ---























COVERED r12 FT. SPRINKLER SPACING-75X 75 FT.
TREE SPACING- 25X25

FIG.3.- DIAGRAM OF PERMANENT OVER-TREE SPRINKLER
IRRIGATION SYSTEM, 40 ACRE GROVE.










WELL



6"


4" 340 22C 5

40 ACRES


6 SWELL
= 6' mr 6 7 --- --


60 ACRES


FIG.4.- DIAGRAM OF MAIN LINE AND SUB-LINES, ILLUSTRATIVE PERMANENT OVER-TREE
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.




20' 250'
1 _1 1980
I I II III
-~---i- I I ---------I
I I I I I



I I I I I I
iIIIWI
6" MAIN WELL I 6"MAIN WELL
iTi I -I-- I|
II I I I I I
Ii

40 ACRE 60 ACRES
I 1 i v I

I I
<'APSTAN 250'
S2640


y I I


41) c


i$f


I Ii

I I


WELL

ACRES

S I


80


I I
I I


I I


V


-1 II
FIG. 5.- DIAGRAM OF ILLUSTRATIVE SELF-PROPELLED HIGH-PRESSURE GUN
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.


I I



I I

:6"MAIN


*n SPRINKLER
OPERATING
--- DIRECTION
OF MOVE
=DIRECTION
v OF TRAVEL


I i


W K I


I




I
I
r




975? 225'
S1320' O 1.980'

S23425+ 35 6+ 11+ 8- I3 18 + 234- 20+ 25+ 30+
O I i O I I I i
3 9+ 15 21+ 27+ 33- 3 4 9-- 10+ 154- 16 21 22+ 27+28+
4 ACRES 601ACRES
-+ 17+ 19+ 29+ 3141 5- 2( 7+ 12+ 17+ 14+ 19+ 244- 29- 26+
2I I-@---1--- I-- -l---
"^ 2 3 124- 14+l 26 364 -o + 4- WELL j. 4. 4.
I I I N I I I I I I I I
4+ 10+- 16-f 224- 2834+ + 4 + -- + + +
I i ; I I I



F F2,640'
6+ 18 2 + + ,32j- + + 4 + + + +



S6l 11+ 8 + tI *SPRINKLER
SI I I I OPERATING
34 4 9+ 10+- 15+ 16+ -t- t +
80 ACRES I (@SPRINKLER
n. f i 7r-4.. is -. i.-i-. -. i.. J ~ _L ALTERNATE


FIG.6 DIAGRAM OF ILLUSTRATIVE PORTABLE HIGH-PRESSURE GUN SPRINKLER
IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.





80 ACRES


l r 4 -

WELL
O-- --- ----- -






2640'
60 ACRES


S40 ACRES


i T J


WELL WELL






S,3 2 20'


FIG.7.- DIAGRAM OF ILLUSTRATIVE PERFORATED PIPE SPRINKLER
IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.
<> --- ^^ --- ~ --- r^ --- I





FIG. 7.- 0 DIGAMCRELLSTRTIEPEFRAE PPSRNKE
nii~ijjm IRRIGAbfTfuION SYSTEM





























APPENDIX II



Materials and Cost Estimates

Tables 9-13 Permanent over-tree system.

Tables 14-18 Self-propelled high-pressure gun system.

Tables 19-23 Portable high-pressure gun system.

Tables 24-28 Perforated pipe system.

















Table 0 Quantities of pipe, fittings and equipment for
permanent over-tree sprinkler irrigation systems


40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
grove grove grove


Irrigation pipe


6" Asbestos
4" Plastic
3" "I
21" "
2" "
211 11


cement
(PVC)


(AC)


Totals

Sprinklers, risers and riser bases

Valves, 6" check
Valves, 6" gate


(feet)


1,250
1,800
1,200
1,200
600

450
20.070

(26,570)
(number)


(feet)


3,585
1,200
1,200
600

5,400
2,700
23.940

(38,625)
(number)
468


(feet)


3,780
3,600
2,400
2,400
1,200

900
40,140

(54,420)
(number)
648


Fittings, AC or


metal strap -
saddles
Crosses
Tees


PVC Crosses
Tees
Coupling
Bushing


2
3
64
8
1,106
232


64
2
3
32
8
1,526
192


--
4
7
128
16
2,212
464










Table 10. Approximate initial cost-of component parts of
permanent over-tree sprinkler irrigation systems.


Item 40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
grove grove grove
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)

Pipe and coupling
6" AC 1,500 4,300 4,535
4" PVC 1,620 1,080 3,240
3" 660 660 1,320
21" 450 225 900
2" 150 ---- 300
211" o, ----- 810 -
1" 60 340 115
1" 2000 2 40G 4 015

Sub-total (pipe and coupling) (6,440) (9,815) (14,425)

Sprinklers 1,300 1,875 2,600

Risers and riser bases 3,240 4,680 6,480

Valves 800 800 1,500

Other fitting 900 1,480 1,350

Trenching and installation 4,350 6,885 9,300

Sub-total (items above) (17,030) (25,535) (36,155)

Well 770 935 1,430

Pump 1,340 2,170 2,750

Motor 1,225 1,315 3,750

Sub-total (well, pump, motor) (3,335) (4,420) (7,930)

Sales tax 815 1,200 1,765

Total 21,180 31,155 45,850
















Table 11 Approximate per acre initial cost of component parts of
permanent over-tree sprinkler irrigation systems


I tem


Pipe and coupling

Sprinklers, risers, bases

Valves

Other fitting

Trenching and installation

Sub-total

Well

Motor or engine

Pump

Sub-total (well, motor, pump)

Sales tax

Total


40 acre
grove

(Dollars)
161

114

20

22

109

(426)

19

31

34

(84)

20

530


60 acre
grove

(Dollars)
.164

10

13

25

115

(426)

16

22

36

(74)

20

520


80 acre
grove

(Dollars)
180

114

19

23

116

(452)

1IV

47

34

(99)

22

573


-- --









Table 12.


Annual fixed costs for capital recovery (interest and depreciation)
and taxes, permanent over-tree sprinkler irrigation system.


System Years of Capital Capital recovery Ad valorem taxesV/
ompnent useful recovery 40 60 80 40 60 80
Component ife/ factor./ acres acres acres acres acres acres
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
Pipe and
coupling 25 .0782 504 768 1,128 45 69 101
Sprinklers 8 .1610 209 302 419 9 13 18
Risers and
riser bases 25 .0782 253 366 507 23 33 45
Valves 15 .1030 82 82 155 66 6 11
Other fittings 15 .1030 93 152 191 6 10 13
Trenching and
installation 25 .0782 340 538 727 30 48 65

Sub-totals
(items above) --- (1,481) (2,208) (3,127) (119) (179) (253)

Well 25 .0782 60 73 112 5 7 1
Pump 15 .1030 138 224 283 9 15 19
Electric motor 25 .0782 96 103 --- 9 9 -
Diesel engine 15 .1030 -- -- 386 -- 26

Sub-totals
(well, pump,
motor) -- ---- (294) (400) (781) (23) (31) (55)

Sales tax 25 .0782 64 94 138 6 8 12

Total -- ---- 1,839 2,702 4,046 148 218 320


- Six hundred hours
to hours.


per year is suggested as basis for converting useful life from years


2/
- Includes depreciation and compound interest on declining balance at six percent rate
of interest. Annual straight line depreciation is obtained by dividing initial cost
less salvage by years of useful life before wear-out or obsolescence. Ordinary interoe
is obtained by multiplying mid-value between initial cost and salvage value by rate of
interest.

-/$0.70 per $100 initial cost.











Table 13. Estimated variable costs of operation, permanent over-tree irrigation
systems.


40 60 80
Item acres acres acres

Dollars Dollars Dollars

Variable costs per hour of operation

Electricity- (exclusive of standby charge) 0.52 0.65 y
Fuel --- -- 0.88-
Oil and grease-/ 0.03 0.0375 0.16
Repairs and maintenance
Motor 0.10 0.10
Engine ($0.002 per hp hour) --- --0.15

Variable costs per irrigation

Labor (@$1.50 per hour) 6.00 6.00 12.00

Variable costs per month with no irrigation

Stand-by electric charge 20.00 25.00



-Basis 0.866 KWH per brake horsepower hour at $0.015 per KWH.
1/
-Basis 0.078 gallons per horsepower hour at $0.15 per gallon.

/Basis 1 gallon per 2000 BHP/HRS electric motor or 700 BHP/HRS diesel motor
operation at $1.50 per gallon.

-Calculated at $0.50 per brake horsepower per month of standby.














Table 14 Quantities of pipe, fittings and equipment for self-
propelled high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems



40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
item grove grove grove

Aluminum pipe 510 880 1750
6-20 (480) (840) (1660)
6-10 (30) (40) (90)

Flexible hose 660 660 1320

Cable 1400 1400 2800

Self-propelled mount 1 1 2

Orchard attachment 1 1 2

High-pressure gun 1 1 2

Check valves 1 1 I

Gate valves 1 1 2

Capstans 2 2 4

Anchors 2 2 4

Hose coupling 2 2 4

Tees 0 0 1

End plugs 0 0 1

Elbows 1 1 0











Table 15.


Approximate initial cost of component parts of self-propelled
high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Item


40 acre
grove


(Dollars)


Aluminum pipe

Pipe fittings and valves

Complete self-propelled unit-
(mount, hose, cable, orchard
attachment, gun, c':vpling,
capstans and anchors)


735


5,500


60 acre
grove


(Dollars)


1,265


(Sub-total)


Well

Pump


Engine


(6,420) (6,950) (13,790)


1,430

2,900

3,750


1,430

2,900

4,000


1,850

4,075

7,500


(Sub-total, well-pump-engine)


Sales Tax

Total


(8,080) (8,330) (13,425)


580

15,080


610

15,890


1,090

28,305


80 acre
grove


Dol larsj


2,515


275


5,500


11,000


1/There are a number of self-propelled units ranging in list price from some
$4,500 to nearly $6,500, new units are being developed and old designs are
being improved.


- ,- ..----------------------















Table 16 Approximate per acre initial cost of component parts of
self-propelled high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation system


I tern



Aluminum pipe

Pipe fittings and valves

Complete self-propelled unit (s)

(Sub-total)

Well

Pump

Engine

(Sub-total, well-pump-engine)

Sales Tax

Total


40 acre
grove

(Dollars)

18

5

137

(160)

36

72

94

(202)

15

377


60 acre
grove

(Dollars)

21

3

92

(116)

24

48

67

(139)

10

265


80 acre
grove

(Dollars)

31

3

138

(172)

23

51

94

(168)

14

354











Table 17, Annual fixed costs for capital recovery (interest and depreciation) and
taxes, self-propelled high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Years of Capital Capital recovery Ad valorem taxes3
System component useful recovery,2 40 60 80 40 60 80
life factor acres acres acres acres acres acres
---------------Dol ars ---------------

Aluminum pipe 15 .1030 76 130 259 5 9 18

Pipe fittings
and valves 10 .1359 25 25 37 1 1 2

Complete self-
propelled unit (s) 10 .1359 747 747 1,495 39 39 77

(Sub-total) -- (848) (902)(1,791) (45) (49) (97)

Well 25 .0782 112 112 145 10 10 13

Pump 15 .1030 299 299 420 20 20 29

Engine 12 .1193 447 477 895 26 28 52
(Sub-total
well-pump-engine) -- --- (858) (888)(1,460) (56) (58) (94)

Sales tax 15 .1030 60 63 112 4 4 7

Total ---- 1,766 1,853 3,363 105 111 198


-Six hundred hours per
to hours.


year is suggested as basis for converting useful life from years


^ Includes depreciation and compound interest on declining balance at six percent rate
of interest. Annual straight line depreciation is obtained by dividing initial cost
less salvage by years of useful life before wear-out or obsolescence. Ordinary interest
is obtained by multiplying mid-value between initial cost and salvage value by rate
of interest.

3/$0.70 per $100 initial cost.












Table 18. Estimated variable costs of operation, self-propelled high-
pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Item 40 acre 60 acre 0o acre
grove grove grove
(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars

Variable costs per hour of operation

Fuel 0.08 0.94 1.76

Oil and grease 0.16 0.17 0.32

Engine repair and maintenance 0.15 0.16 0.30
Variable costs per irrigation

Farm tractor and wagon (@$1.50 per hour)

Moving from storage, setting-up 1.13 1.50 3.00

Changing positions 4.00 7.00 9.00

Knocking-down, moving into storage 1.12 31.50 .00

Total 6.25 10.00 15.00

Labor (@$1.50 per hour)

Moving from storage, setting-up 5.00 6.00 10.00

Changing positions 15.00 24.00 33.00

Knocking-down, moving into storage 5.00 6.00 10.00

Total 25.00 36.00 53.00


A


)














Table 19. Quantities of pipe, fittings and equipment for portable
high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems



Item 40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
grove grove grove

Irrigation pipe 1460 ft 2780 ft 3020 ft

High-pressure guns 2 4 4

High orchard mounts 2 4 4

Flange starter 1 1 1

Valves Check 1 1 1

Gate 2 4 4

Tees End-of-line 1 -

In line 1 4 3

Gun Tees 2 4 4

Elbows 2 2 2

Crosses 4 2

End plugs 2 12 8












Table 20. Approximate initial cost of component parts
pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Item


Irrigation pipe

High-pressure guns
High orchard mounts

Flange starter
Valves
Tees and crosses
Other fittings

(Sub-total)

Well
Pump
Eng i ne

(Sub-total well-pump-engine)

Sales tax

Total


40 acre
grove
(Dollars)

2,100

335
500

25
225
120
60

(3,365)

935
3,130
3,250

(7,315)

420

11,100


of portable high-


60 acre
grove
(Dollars)

4,000

670
1,000

25
350
450
130

(6,625)

1,430
3,350
4,500

(9,280)

635

16,540


80 acre
grove
(Dollars)

4,300

670
1,000

25
350
280
100

(6,725)

1,850
4,075
7,250

(13,175)

800

20,700


_
















Table 21--Approximate per acre initial cost of component parts of
portable high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems


40 acre


I tern


grove


(Dollars)


Irrigation pipe

High-pressure guns
High orchard mounts
Valves
Flange starter, tees, crosses
other fittings

Sub-total

Well
Pump
Engine

Sub-total (well-pump-engine)

Sales tax


(84)


(183)

11


60 acre 80 acre


grove


(Dollars)


(110)


(155)


grove


(Dollars)


(84)


(165)


276 259


Total


278








Table 22.


Annual fixed costs for capital recovery (interest and depreciation) and
taxes, portable high-pressure gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Years of Capital Capital recover Ad valorem taxes
System component useful recovery2, 40 60 80 40 60 80
life- factor- acres acres acres acres acres acres
---------------- Dollars--------


Irrigation pipe

High-pressure guns

High orchard mounts


Valves


.1030

.1359

.1359

.1359


216 412 443

46 91 91

68 136 136


48 48


15 28 30

2 5 5


7 7


2 2 2


Flange starter, tees
crosses, other fit-
tings


Sub-total


We ll


.1359
----

.0782

.1030

.1193



.1030


Engine

Sub-total

Sales tax


Total


28 82 55


1 4 3


(389) (769) (773) (24) (46) (47)


73 112 145

322 345 420

388 537 865

(783) (994)(1,430)

43 65 82

1,215 1,828 2,285


7 10 13

22 23 29

23 32 51

(52) (65) (93)

3 4 6

79 115 146


1/
- Six hundred hours per
to hours.


year is suggested as basis for


converting useful life from years


2/Includes depreciation and compound interest on declining balance at six percent rate
of interest. Annual straight line depreciation is obtained by dividing initial cost
less salvage by years of useful life before wear-out or obsolescence. Ordinary in-
terest is obtained by multiplying mid-value between initial cost and salvage value
by rate of interest.

3/$0.70 per $100 initial cost.










Table 23.


Estimated variable costs of operation, portable high-pressure
gun sprinkler irrigation systems.


Item 40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
grove grove grove

(Dollars) (Dollars) (Dollars)


Variable costs per hour of operation


Fuel (Basis 0.078 gal/cont. bhp hr.
@ $0.15 gal)

Oil and grease (1 gal per 700 bhp hrs
@ $1.50 gal)

Engine repair and maintenance

Variable cost!

Farm tractor and wagon (@ $1.50 per hr)
Moving from storage, setting-up
Changing positions
Knocking-down, moving into storage

Total

Labor (@ $1.50 per hour)
Moving from storage, setting-up
Changing positions
Knocking-down, moving into storage


0.76


0.14

0.13


1.05


0.19

0.18


1.70


0.31

0.29


s per irrigation


15
222
15


Total


Y















Table 24. Quantities of pipe, fittings and equipment for perforated pipe
sprinkler irrigation systems.



Item 40 acre 60 acre 80 acre
grove grove grove

(feet) (feet) (feet)

Aluminum pipe -- main line 990 2,970 3,960
-- perforated lateral 1,320 2,640 2,640

(number) (number) (number)

Pump discharge connection 1 1 1

Control tee valve 1 2 2

Elbow 90 3 4 4

Reducing elbows 2 4 4

End plugs 2 4 4

Line tee 11

Check valve 1 1 1















Table 25, Approximate initial cost of component parts of perforated pipe
sprinkler irrigation systems.


40,cru6 acr 80 acrei


I tem


Aluminum pipe

Pump discharge connection

Valves

Elbows, 900

End plugs

Line tee.

Sub-total (items above)

Well

Pump

Motor or engine

Sub-total (well-pump-motor)

Sales tax

Total


40 acre
grove

(Dollars)

3,550

15

230

115

15



(3,925)

935

1,870

1,100

(3,905)

315

8,145


60 acre
grove

(Dollars)

8,775

30

360

180

25

40

(9,410)

1,430

2,060

1,330

(4,820)

570

14,800


80 acre
grove

(Dollars)

10,425

30

360

180

25

40

(11,060)

1,850

2,675

3,250

(7,775)

755

19,590













Table 26. Approximate per acre initial cost of component parts of perforated
pipe sprinkler irrigation systems.

i li r i 40 acref Li


Item
_~~ ~~~ iCB~ IIIIIII~


40 acre
grove
(DoTlars)

88


Irrigation pipe

Valves

Elbows

Other fittings

Sub-total

Well

Pump

Motor or engine

Sub-total (wel -pump-motor)

Sales tax

Total


6

3

1

(98)

23

47

28

(98)

8

204


60 acre
grove
(Doltrs)-



6

3

2

(157)

24



22



10

247


80 acre
grove
(Dollars)

130

5

2

1

(138)

23

33

!41

(97)

10

24.5


m


I


_ __ __I IIUI-L-LUI~---I~--I~IIII~~LCI











fixed costs for
perforated pipe


capital recovery (interest and depreciation) and
sprinkler irrigation systems.


Years of Capital Capital recovery Ad valorem taxes-
System component useful recovery2, 40 60 80 40 60 80
life/ factor acres acres acres acres acres acres
------------- --Dollars----------------

Irrigation pipe 15 .1030 366 904 1,074 25 61 73

Fittings 10 .1359 51 86 86 3 5 5

Sub-total -- -- (417) (990)(1,160) (28) (66) (78)

Well 25 .0782 73 112 145 7 10 13

pump 15 .1030 193 212 276 13 14 19

Motor 25 .0782 86 104 --- 8 9 -

Engine 12 .1193 388 23

Sub-total ---- (352) (428) (809) (28) (33) (55)

Sales tax 15 .1030 32 59 78 2 4 5

Total ---- 801 1,477 2,047 58 103 138


1/
-Six hundred hours per
to hours.


year is suggested as basis for converting useful life from years


2/
- Includes depreciation and compound interest on declining balance at six percent rate
of interest. Annual straight line depreciation is obtained by dividing initial cost
less salvage by years of useful life before wear-out or obsolescence. Ordinary interest
is obtained by multiplying mid-value between initial cost and salvage value by rate
of interest.

/$0.70 per $100 initial cost.


Table 27.


Annual
taxes,













Table 28. Estimated variable costs of operation, perforated pipe
sprinkler irrigation systems.

I40 acre


40 acre
item grove

(Dollars)

Variable costs per hour of operation

Electricity (Exclusive of standby charge) 0.39

Fuel ....

Oil and greasel- 0.0225

Repair and maintenance:
Motor 0.10
Engine ($0.002 per hp hour) --..

Variable cost per irrigation

Farm tractor and wagon (@$1.50 per hour)
Moving from storage, setting up 3
Changing positions 4
Knocking down, moving into storage ..

Total 10

Labor (@$1.50 per hour)
Moving from storage, setting up 6
Changing positions 218
Knocking down, moving into storage 6

Total 230


Variable costs per month with
4/
Stand-by electric charge-


60 acre
grove
(Dollars)



0.52



0.03


0.10





9
6

24
2.4


18
320
18

356


no irrigation

15.00 20


.00


I-Basis 0.866 KWH per brake horsepower hour at $0.015 per KWH.

-Basis 0.078 gallons per horsepower hour at $0.15 per gallon.

1/Basis 1 gallon per 2000 BHP/HRS electric motor or 700 BHP/HRS diesel motor
operation at $1.50 per gallon.

/Calculated at $0.50 per brake horsepower per month of standby.


80 acre
grove
(Dollars)





0.76-

0.14



0.13




12
8
12

32


24
435
24

483


I


r


3




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