• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Introduction
 Production of potatoes in...
 Movement of potatoes
 Prices of potatoes
 Cost of producing potatoes
 Appendix






Group Title: Agricultural economics mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 69-1
Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida Irish potatoes
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071981/00001
 Material Information
Title: Statistics on production, shipments and prices of Florida Irish potatoes
Physical Description: iii, 35 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Greene, R. E. L ( Robert Edward Lee ), 1910-
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Potatoes -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Potatoes -- Prices   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
General Note: Agricultural economics mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 69-1
Statement of Responsibility: by R.E.L. Greene.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071981
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50806064

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Summary
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Production of potatoes in Florida
        Page 1
        Trend in acres, yield, production and value, 1924-25 to 1966-67
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Relative trend in the production of potatoes in Florida and the United States
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Trend in winter and spring acreage in Florida
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
    Movement of potatoes
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Shipments of stored crop and new potatoes from Florida and other states
            Page 13
        Shipment of potatoes from various areas in Florida
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
    Prices of potatoes
        Page 17
        Variations in monthly prices and seasonal price pattern of potatoes by decades
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Farm price of potatoes in April in Florida and the United States
            Page 20
        Relation between production and price of potatoes in Florida
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Relation between shipments and prices of potatoes
            Page 23
        Relation between prices receive for potatoes in Florida and the general level of all farm
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Relation between prices received for potatoes in Florida and the general level of prices paid by farmers in the United States
            Page 26
    Cost of producing potatoes
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Appendix
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




C)


Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC 69-1


STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND
PRICES OF FLORIDA IRISH POTATOES



by

R. E. L. Greene
Agricultural Economist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Department of Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


July 1968












TABLE OF CONTENTS



SUMMARY . . . * *

INTRODUCTION. . . . . *

PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA .. . . .


Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1966-67 .. . . .* .
Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes in
Florida and the United States. . .
Trend in Winter and Spring Acreage in Florida. .


MOVENENT OF POTATOES. . .. .


Shipments of Stored Crop and New Potatoes from
Florida and Other States *.. *
Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida


* S 4
* 0 0 5


PRICES OF POTATOES. ... . .. .* .


Variations in Monthly Prices and Seasonal Price
Pattern of Potatoes by Decades ..... *
Farm Price of Potatoes in April in Florida and
the United States . ........ *
Relation between Production and Price of Potatoes
in Florida . . *
Relation between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes.
Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes
in Florida and the General Level of All Farm
Prices in the United States. . *
Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes in
Florida and the General Level of Prices Paid by
Farmers in the United States .. .


* 0 *


* 6 *

* 0 *



O 0 *
S* *
oo00o0

eoooe.
ooo



oeoo



oooO


COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES.. . .. ....

APPENDIX. e a * e * *


Page
ii

1

1


1

5
7

10


* *..4

* 0
* S S







SUMMARY


While there have been significant trends in the potato industry in
Florida during the past 43 years, the most important changes have occurred
since World War II. During the five-year period 1954-55 to 1958-59, an
average of 43,080 acres of potatoes were harvested per season with an
average yield of 140 hundredweight per acre. This was 36 hundredweight
or 35 percent more than the average yield of the 1944-45 to 1948-49 period.
Average production during the 1954-55 to 1958-59 period was 6,034,000
hundredweight and cash value was $18,157,000. Compared with the five seasons
1944-45 to 1948-49, production increased 119 percent but value increased
only 82 percent. For the three seasons 1964-65 to 1966-67, average acreage
was 40,267, production per acre 142 hundredweight, total production
5,718,000 hundredweight and average value $22,492,000.

At the present time, Florida produces two percent of the total United
States production compared to less than one percent during the years
1935-39.

The trend in acreage of potatoes for winter and spring harvest was
quite similar from the 1939-40 season to the 1956-57 season. Acreage
declined in both harvest periods from 1957-58 to 1961-62 but the decrease
was the greatest in the winter area. The spring acreage has recovered its
production since 1961-62 but the winter acreage is still below its usual
production before the decline occurred. Of the total acres in Florida,
about 26 percent is for winter harvest and 74 percent for spring harvest.
During the period 1962-63 to 1966-67 approximately 63 percent of the winter
potato acreage was in Dade County and 91 percent of the spring acreage in
the Hastings area.

Shipments of new crop potatoes from Florida begin in December, in-
crease until April or early May and end in June. The volume of movement
of new crop potatoes is small compared with that of stored potatoes.
Stored crop potatoes move to market at the rate of 4,000 to 4,500 cars
weekly from January to the middle of April. Thereafter stored crop move-
ment declines rapidly each week to end in July.

Very few new crop potatoes move from states other than Florida before
the latter part of April. Shipments from other states increase rapidly
during May and June.

Although potatoes are shipped from Florida from December to June,
nearly 90 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May. During
December and January practically all of the Florida shipments originate
in the Lake Okeechobee and Fort Myers-Immokalee areas. Two-fifths of
the volume in February and over three-fourths in March are from Dade County.
In April, about 29 percent are from Dade County and nearly 56 percent from
the Hastings area. During May and June from 91 percent to 86 percent of
the Florida shipments are from the Hastings area. Of the shipments from
Florida for the five seasons 1962-63 to 1966-67, 68 percent originated







in the Hastings area, 17 percent in Dade County, 12 percent in other south
Florida counties and three percent in other north Florida counties.

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers are usually highest
in January and decline as the season progresses. The difference between
the January and June price has been increasing in recent years. The
Florida price of potatoes usually moves with the price of all potatoes
in the United States but at a higher level. The spread between Florida
prices and all potato prices in April has ranged from minus 19 cents to
$2.46 per hundredweight.

Normally there is an inverse relationship between Florida production
and price of potatoes. Prices decline as volume of shipments increase.
Prices do not increase when shipments decline in Florida because the
volume of new potatoes from other areas is high.

The index of prices received for Florida potatoes tends to fluctuate
around the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States.
Since 1946-47, the Florida price has been below the United States all-
commodity index in nine seasons and equal to or above this index in eleven
seasons. Florida potato prices have also fluctuated more than prices paid
by Florida farmers in the United States for commodities used in production.
Since the 1948-49 season, Florida's potato prices have been equal to or
below the index of prices paid by farmers in the United States with an
ever widening spread between the two indexes.

Production costs per unit vary inversely with yield per acre. In
the 1966-67 season, Dade County was the only area that had a cost lower
than the average for the five seasons 1961-62 to 1965-66. Yield in Dade
County in 1966-67 was 20 percent above the average of the 1962-66 period.
Returns in 1966-67 were below the five-year average in all areas.








STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND
PRICES OF FLORIDA IRISH POTATOES

by

R. E. L. Greene


INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present statistical data relating
to the production and marketing of Irish Potatoes in Florida. These data
are needed by commodity groups and others who use factual information as
background material for the formulation of policies on marketing and other
problems relating to the Irish potato industry in the State.


PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA

In most counties of Florida Irish potatoes are produced for home use if
not for sale. However, commercial production is limited to six major areas.
The commercial crop is classified into winter and spring production. The
winter crop is produced in Dade, Palm Beach, Collier, Hendry and Lee coun-
ties. The spring crop is grown in St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Clay, Alachua
and Escambia counties with a relatively small volume of production from some
other north and south Florida counties.


Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1966-67

Acres: The acreage of Irish potatoes ranged from 17,000 acres in the
1932-33 season to 54,300 acres in the 1956-57 season (Table 1 and Fig. 1).
Acreage harvested declined sharply during the late forties. Acres harvested
has been fairly high during the sixties.

Yield Per Acre: Per acre yield of Irish potatoes has shown a signifi-
cant increase since World War II. The greatest increase occurred during
the period 1950-54. The highest yield on record for all of Florida occurred
in the 1962-63 season when the state average was 179 hundredweights per
acre. The average yield during the five-year period 1949-50 to 1953-54
was 153 hundredweights per acre. This was 49 hundredweights or 47 percent
greater than the yield during the preceding five-year period. The yield








STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND
PRICES OF FLORIDA IRISH POTATOES

by

R. E. L. Greene


INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present statistical data relating
to the production and marketing of Irish Potatoes in Florida. These data
are needed by commodity groups and others who use factual information as
background material for the formulation of policies on marketing and other
problems relating to the Irish potato industry in the State.


PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA

In most counties of Florida Irish potatoes are produced for home use if
not for sale. However, commercial production is limited to six major areas.
The commercial crop is classified into winter and spring production. The
winter crop is produced in Dade, Palm Beach, Collier, Hendry and Lee coun-
ties. The spring crop is grown in St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Clay, Alachua
and Escambia counties with a relatively small volume of production from some
other north and south Florida counties.


Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1966-67

Acres: The acreage of Irish potatoes ranged from 17,000 acres in the
1932-33 season to 54,300 acres in the 1956-57 season (Table 1 and Fig. 1).
Acreage harvested declined sharply during the late forties. Acres harvested
has been fairly high during the sixties.

Yield Per Acre: Per acre yield of Irish potatoes has shown a signifi-
cant increase since World War II. The greatest increase occurred during
the period 1950-54. The highest yield on record for all of Florida occurred
in the 1962-63 season when the state average was 179 hundredweights per
acre. The average yield during the five-year period 1949-50 to 1953-54
was 153 hundredweights per acre. This was 49 hundredweights or 47 percent
greater than the yield during the preceding five-year period. The yield








STATISTICS ON PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS AND
PRICES OF FLORIDA IRISH POTATOES

by

R. E. L. Greene


INTRODUCTION

This publication was prepared to present statistical data relating
to the production and marketing of Irish Potatoes in Florida. These data
are needed by commodity groups and others who use factual information as
background material for the formulation of policies on marketing and other
problems relating to the Irish potato industry in the State.


PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN FLORIDA

In most counties of Florida Irish potatoes are produced for home use if
not for sale. However, commercial production is limited to six major areas.
The commercial crop is classified into winter and spring production. The
winter crop is produced in Dade, Palm Beach, Collier, Hendry and Lee coun-
ties. The spring crop is grown in St. Johns, Flagler, Putnam, Clay, Alachua
and Escambia counties with a relatively small volume of production from some
other north and south Florida counties.


Trend in Acres, Yield, Production and Value,
1924-25 to 1966-67

Acres: The acreage of Irish potatoes ranged from 17,000 acres in the
1932-33 season to 54,300 acres in the 1956-57 season (Table 1 and Fig. 1).
Acreage harvested declined sharply during the late forties. Acres harvested
has been fairly high during the sixties.

Yield Per Acre: Per acre yield of Irish potatoes has shown a signifi-
cant increase since World War II. The greatest increase occurred during
the period 1950-54. The highest yield on record for all of Florida occurred
in the 1962-63 season when the state average was 179 hundredweights per
acre. The average yield during the five-year period 1949-50 to 1953-54
was 153 hundredweights per acre. This was 49 hundredweights or 47 percent
greater than the yield during the preceding five-year period. The yield







Table 1. Acreage, Yield per Acre, Production and Value of Florida Irish
Potatoes, 1924-25 to 1966-67 and Five-Season Averages, 1924-25
to 1966-67

Production :
SAcres : Yield : of value Average : Total
: harvested : per acre : in cwts.: price : value
Xu CW1,000


Cwt.


1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59


21,900
23,100
28,000
31,000
22,000

31,000
27,000
21,500
17,000
23,500
24,800
24,500
31,300
31,400
26,700

25,600
26,800
25,000
26,600
28,600
31,100
35,300
23,100
20,700
21,800

24,600
24,200
30,600
41,500
32,800
38,000
41,700
54,300
44,400
37,000


74
71
63
75
71

48
79
42
79
84
58
62
73
80
78

97
70
92
77
67
97
102
79
102
147

136
156
150
148
178
160
162
140
135
133


1,000
Cwt.

1,630
1,636
1,764
2,338
1,558

1,488
2,138
903
1,346
1,974
1,443
1,515
2,271
2,525
2,078

2,484
1,877
2,294
2,065
1,927
3,021
3,606
1,817
2,107
3,205

3,351
3,774
4,589
5,926
5,839
6,080
6,766
7,076
5,582
4,668


Dollars
per Cwt.

2.90
5.07
3.12
2.47
3.01

3.10
1.78
2.13
1.42
1.88
1.73
2.42
2.20
1.17
1.82

1.52
1.50
2.57
3.23
3.33
3.98
3.28
2.65
4.18
3.84

2.80
3.08
4.11
2.66
2.52
3.99
3.65
1.97
2.65
2.81


1,000
Dollars

4,726
8,287
5,498
5,785
4,695

4,606
3,818
1,933
1,908
3,708
2,504
3,652
4,998
2,960
3,774

3,766
2,803
5,901
6,675
6,431
12,033
11,828
4,809
8,807
12,321

9,379
11,624
18,877
15,747
14,727
24,279
24,723
13,910
14,744
13,127








*: : Production
Season: Acres : Yield of value : Average : Total
: harvested : per-acre : in cts.: price : value
in cwts.

1,000 Dollars 1,000
Cwt. Cwt. per Cwt. Dollars

1959-60 37,300 122 4,535 3.92 17,794
1960-61 34,100 170 5,810 2.28 13,251
1961-62 30,500 152 4,633 3.11 14,396
1962-63 35,100 179 6,255 2.50 15,611
1963-64 32,700 158 5,180 3.69 19,128
1964-65 41,200 148 6,082 4.70 28,604
1965-66 43,500 145 6,294 3.52 22,162
1966-67a 36,100 132 4,778 3.50 16,709

Five-Season Averages:

1924-25 1928-29 25,200 71 1,785 3.25 5,798
1929-30 1933-34 24,000 65 1,570 2.04 3,195
1934-35 1938-39 27,740 71 1,966 1.82 3,578
1939-40 1943-44 26,550 80 2,129 2.40 5,114
1944-45 1948-49 26,400 104 2,751 3.62 9,960

1949-50 1953-54 30,740 153 4,696 3.00 14,071
1954-55 1958-59 43,080 140 6,034 3.01 18,157
1959-60 1963-64 33,940 156 5,283 3.04 16,036
1964-65 1966-67' 40,267 142 5,718 3.93 22,492

-/Preliminary data

Three-season average

Source: USDA Agricultural Statistics, 1957 and Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, 1961 and 1967







Acres
Harvested
60,000





50,000





40,000





30,000


20,000

20,000


10,000 \ /
V

0 11i 1,
1924-25 1929-30 1934-35 1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60

Fig. Acreage, Yield per Acre and Production of Irish Potatoes in Florida,
Seasons 1924-25 to 1966-67.


Production
(1,000 cwts.) pe
7,200 -


6,600 -


\ \6,000 -


j 5,400 -
/


1; 4,800 -


/ 4,200 --


3,600 -


3,000 -


2,400 -


1,800 -


1,200 --


10- -
1964-65


Yield
Cwts.
Sr acre
180


165


150


135


120


105


90


75


60


45


30


0








during the 1954-55 to 1958-59 period declined to 140 hundredweights per
acre but the yield during the 1959-60 to 1963-64 period was 156 hundred-
weights per acre.
Growers rapidly adopted new higher yielding varieties of potatoes
which performed well under Florida conditions. They used more seed and
fertilizer per acre and followed better soil moisture and disease and
insect control methods as these were developed. The above factors are
largely responsible for the increase in yield per acre. Variations in
growing conditions over the state and within areas have been very important
in the fluctuations in yields from year to year.

Production: The increase in yield per acre coupled with an increase
in acreage from the low point during the 1947-48 season has resulted in
a substantial increase in total production. The largest production on
record was the 7,076,000 hundredweights harvested during the 1956-57 season.
For the five seasons 1954-55 to 1958-59, production averaged 6,034,000
hundredweight. Production for the three seasons 1964-65 to 1966-67 aver-
aged 5,718,000 hundredweights or only five percent below the production
for the 1954-55 to 1958-59 period.

Value: Increased production has resulted in a substantial increase
in cash income from potatoes. The highest income on record was the
$28,604,000 received by farmers for their 1964-65 crop. This was more than
five times the income received annually during the five-year period 1939-40
to 1943-44 and 58 percent greater than that received during the 1955-59
period. Income during the three seasons 1964-65 to 1966-67 averaged
$22,492,000. This was the highest average annual income of any period.
A reasonably high acreage and a good price accounted for the high income
during this period.


Relative Trend in the Production of Potatoes in
Florida and the United States

During the past two and one-half decades there has been only a
moderate change in the production of potatoes in the United States (Fig. 2).
A slight increase from 1936 to 1946 was offset by a decrease for the period
1947 to 1951. Since 1951 United States production has increased about
50 percent. Florida's production, on the other hand, doubled from 1935 to




-6-


Index

300




250


A i

200

-Florida


150




100 ; A

--- United States


50




0
1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965

Years

Fig. 2. Relative Trend in Production of Irish Potatoes,
United States and Florida 1935-67.
(1947-49 = 100)


Source: Appendix Table 1.







1946 and doubled again from 1950 to 1957. Production decreased in 1958,
1959 and 1960. Production has fluctuated sharply from 1960 to 1967 but
has averaged about two and one-half times the production during 1937 to
1946. Florida produced 2.9 percent of the total United States' production
in 1956-57 and two percent in 1965-66 as compared to less than one percent
during the years 1935-39.


Trend in Winter and Spring Acreage in Florida

Commercial Irish potato production in Florida is rather easily divided
into three areas--West, North and South Florida (Fig. 3). West Florida
production is centered primarily in Escambia County. Potatoes in that area
are shipped with those from Baldwin County, Alabama. Except for Escambia,
few counties west of the Suwannee River produce potatoes for the commercial
market. North Florida production is centered in the Hastings area, com-
prising St. Johns, Putnam and Flagler counties. Alachua, Bradford and
Union counties also produce some potatoes for the spring market. All coun-
ties south of the Pasco, Sumter, Lake, Orange and Volusia county lines
have been included in South Florida. The Dade County, Everglades, Fort
Myers-Immokalee areas of South Florida produce the winter crop. Some
early spring potatoes are also grown in South Florida.
From the 1939-40 season to the 1956-57 season, the trend in acreage of
winter and spring harvested potatoes was quite similar (Fig. 4). Acreage
declined in both harvesting periods from 1957-58 to 1961-62 but the decrease
was greatest in the winter area. The spring acreage has recovered its
production since 1961-62 but the winter acreage is still below its usual
production before the decline occurred,
Acreage declined sharply after 1945-46 for one season in the spring
area and for two seasons in the winter harvesting area. Following two sea-
sons of adjustment, harvested acreage increased steadily in both areas,
reaching a peak in the 1952-53 season. Acreage was reduced in both areas
in 1953-54 but increased for the three succeeding seasons. Since 1956-57
the decline in winter harvested acreage has been greater than that for
spring harvest. Of the total acreage in Florida for the five seasons
1962-63 to 1966-67, 26 percent was for winter harvest and 74 percent for
spring harvest.











Escambia


West
Florida


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUNTIES IN FLORIDA
NUMBERED TO AGREE WITH KEY MAP


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette


35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.


Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


. 49


South
Florida


14 -
- -- -


Fort Myers--
Immokalee


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.


Fig. 3. Areas of Commercial
Irish Potato Production
in Florida.


North
Florida


- Hastings


Dade








Acres
Harvested


30,000
S'I
28,000 I
I t
26,000 I
/\ i I

Ai / -
24,000
I\/

22,000 \1
? v
/ Spring I
20,000 Spring
20,000/ acreage f
/ I
18,000/
/

16,000 I


14,000 /

12,000 \1


10,000
Winter
acreage
8,000


6,000



1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60 1964-65
Seasons

Fig. 4. Trend in Acres of Winter and Spring Irish Potatoes
Harvested, Florida, 1939-40 1966-67.


Source: Appendix Table 2.





-10-


Percent of Winter Potato Acreage in Various Areas: The largest
proportion of the potatoes produced for winter harvest is produced in
Dade County (Fig. 5). However, the proportion of the winter crop grown
in Dade County has fluctuated widely over the last 28 years. In the 1939-40
season, acreage in Dade County accounted for 63 percent of the total winter
acreage. For the next six seasons the proportion of the winter crop grown
in Dade County declined, reaching a low of 48 percent in the 1945-46 season.
Dade County acreage increased to 79 percent of the total winter crop in
the 1947-48 season and decreased to 47 percent in the 1956-57 season. In
1960-61, 63 percent of the winter acreage was in Dade County and 64 percent
in the 1966-67 season. Plantings in Collier, Hendry-Lee and Palm Beach-
Martin County areas have been erratic.

Percent of Spring Crop Acreage in Various Areas: The Hastings area
grows the major proportion of the spring crop acreage (Fig. 6). Normally
80 percent or more of the spring crop acreage is in that area. The pro-
portion of the spring crop acreage grown in the Hastings area declined
from 1940-41 to the 1945-46 season, reaching a low of 57 percent in that
year. The proportion of the spring acreage grown in other North Florida
counties has decreased from 15 to a low of two percent annually. For the
five seasons 1962-63 to 1966-67, 91 percent of the spring acreage was grown
in the Hastings area, two percent in other North Florida counties, three
percent in South Florida counties and four percent in other counties includ-
ing West Florida.


MOVEMENT OF POTATOES

Many potatoes in the late producing areas are stored as they are dug
and are shipped to market during the winter and spring months. The first
new crop potatoes begin to move to market from Florida in late December or
early January. During the early part of the season, new crop volume is
small and the amount of stored crop potatoes moved into the market is an
important factor in the demand for new crop potatoes.




-11-


Percent
100


90


80


70


60 1


50 ..

r *, ."




30' '


20 .
20 7. *^ *::,*';;^ *"-< ; **!;'


'I I. ,, .
... .. ',. ,. .


10 ~i



1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 1954-55 1959-60 1964
Seasons

Fig. 5. Percent of Winter Irish Potatoes in Selected Areas,
Florida, Seasons 1939-40 to 1966-67.


-65


Source: Appendix Table 2.




-12-


Percent
100
100 Other Counties


lorida Counti.ei .



9O.
o Either Forth
Florida .




60 .








Fig. Percent of Spring IriHastings Areas,
30Florida, Seasons 1939-40 966-67.
0 .... ..


Source: Appendix Table 2.




-13-


Shipments of Stored Crop and New Potatoes
from Florida and Other States

During the past five seasons, the movement of stored crop potatoes
has ranged between 3,335 and 5,410 cars per week from early January to
the middle of April each year (Fig. 7). Thereafter, stored crop move-
ment declined rapidly each week and is usually completed by the latter part
of June. Florida is almost the sole producer of new crop potatoes from
December to mid-April. Volume is light in December and January but increases
with Dade County harvesting in February, March and early April. The volume
of potatoes moving from Florida does not reach 500 cars per week until the
latter third of April (Fig, 8). During the last five seasons, volume of
1,000 cars per week was not reached until the second week in May. The
advent of harvesting in the Hastings area increased movement to as much as
1,400 cars per week during the last three weeks in May. After the last
week in May, Florida shipments decrease rapidly, normally to end in late
June or early July. The movement of the Florida crop about equals the
movement of stored crop potatoes in late May and early June. Because of
weather conditions the movement of the Florida crop, especially in the
Hastings area, has been two to three weeks later than normal.
The movement of new crop potatoes from states other than Florida does
not begin in volume until the latter part of April or early May when har-
vesting starts in Alabama and California (Fig. 8). Volume of new crop
states increase rapidly during May and June.


Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida

Although potatoes are shipped from Florida from December to June,
90 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May (Fig. 9). The two
peak months are April and May when the crop is moving in volume from the
Hastings area.
The first movement of potatoes from Florida is usually from the Lake
Okeechobee section. During December and January practically all of the
shipments originate there and in the Fort Myers-Immokalee area. Ship-
ments from Dade County begin in February and continue until early April.
Twenty-six percent of the volume in February and over 71 percent in March
are from Dade County. The end of the shipments in Dade County, about April 10,




-13-


Shipments of Stored Crop and New Potatoes
from Florida and Other States

During the past five seasons, the movement of stored crop potatoes
has ranged between 3,335 and 5,410 cars per week from early January to
the middle of April each year (Fig. 7). Thereafter, stored crop move-
ment declined rapidly each week and is usually completed by the latter part
of June. Florida is almost the sole producer of new crop potatoes from
December to mid-April. Volume is light in December and January but increases
with Dade County harvesting in February, March and early April. The volume
of potatoes moving from Florida does not reach 500 cars per week until the
latter third of April (Fig, 8). During the last five seasons, volume of
1,000 cars per week was not reached until the second week in May. The
advent of harvesting in the Hastings area increased movement to as much as
1,400 cars per week during the last three weeks in May. After the last
week in May, Florida shipments decrease rapidly, normally to end in late
June or early July. The movement of the Florida crop about equals the
movement of stored crop potatoes in late May and early June. Because of
weather conditions the movement of the Florida crop, especially in the
Hastings area, has been two to three weeks later than normal.
The movement of new crop potatoes from states other than Florida does
not begin in volume until the latter part of April or early May when har-
vesting starts in Alabama and California (Fig. 8). Volume of new crop
states increase rapidly during May and June.


Shipment of Potatoes from Various Areas of Florida

Although potatoes are shipped from Florida from December to June,
90 percent of the crop moves in March, April and May (Fig. 9). The two
peak months are April and May when the crop is moving in volume from the
Hastings area.
The first movement of potatoes from Florida is usually from the Lake
Okeechobee section. During December and January practically all of the
shipments originate there and in the Fort Myers-Immokalee area. Ship-
ments from Dade County begin in February and continue until early April.
Twenty-six percent of the volume in February and over 71 percent in March
are from Dade County. The end of the shipments in Dade County, about April 10,





-14-


Carlots

6,000





5,000

/ -


4,000 / \S
Stored crop New crop




3,000





2,000 \

o/ \
/\


1,000 \


0


2 3 4 12 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 23 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 12
Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June July
Weeks

Fig. 7. Weekly Carlot Shipments of Stored and New Crop Irish Potatoes
During the Florida Season, Average 1962-63 to 1966-67.

Source: D. L. Brooke, Florida Truck Crop Competition,
Agr. Econ. Mimeo Reports EC 64-5, 65-3, 66-2, 67-1 and 68-1.




-15-


Carlots

6,000





5,000


.r- / .


'-S
-- Stored crop


I
I
I
L
I
r


\\ i


I'


New crop
Florida -


23 4
Dec.


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 41 2 3 45
Jan. Feb. March April


Weeks

Fig. 8. Weekly Carlot Shipments of Storad Crop
Potatoes from Florida and Other States
Season, Average 1962-63 to 1966-67.


1 2 3 4
May


1 2 3 4 1 2
June July


and Na> a ;rp Irish
During the Florida


Source: D. L. Brooke, Florida Truck Crop Competition,
Agr. Econ. Mimeo Reports EC 64-5, 65-3, 66-2, 67-1 and 68-1.


New crop \
Other states /
/


I'
I',
I
I


4,000





3,000


2,000





1,000


" I r I T I




-16-


Percent


100



90



80



70



60



50



40



30



20



10


0


0.2 415 1.9








* 4 4 *.


*** 4'




a4''. '4,'* .. .
9* 4.* II
I.9.' .994' 1 4





99 4 |



949 .9


Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May


June


10.1 29.2 51.1 6.0





iih
4I : i i i






i i. B!
t 4" 4!i:



.' .....


ii' ......

I i 1:

.4.: I .,Ill









__ I


100









.4
,,: i..-i

S.. ... i.
I t




41
.f j" i 'Ia


.i i'i:ti :iii li



4".
::mi!::::jI




*..49~... 9.
..4;:. I ,;'.
t: "' !!i:
^Ji flll1



..: ii i .i i .
" i s i" : *.
h:.... I, :...:


i :il' i''i :i

iS;iiiE,
4 4 ,, ..: 4 :


Year


Months



Fig. 9. Percent Monthly Potato Shipments Are of Yearly Shipments and
Percent Shipments for Selected Areas Are of Monthly Shipments,
Florida, Five-Season Average, 1962-63 to 1966-67.


Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Vegetable
Summary 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 and 1967 Issues.


Dade County
17 Percent








Other South
Florida Counties
12 Percent







Hastings Area
68 Percent








Other North
Florida Counties
3 Percent


L




-17-


coincides with early harvest in the Hastings area. During April, about
56 percent of the shipments are from the Hastings area, 29 percent from
Dade County, 13 percent from other South Florida counties and two percent
from other North Florida counties. During May and June, 86 to 91 percent
of the shipments are from the Hastings area, and four to nine percent from
other North Florida counties, Of the total shipments from Florida for the
five seasons 1962-63 to 1966-67, 68 percent originated in the Hastings
area, 17 percent in Dade County, 12 percent in other South Florida counties
and three percent in other North Florida counties.


PRICES OF POTATOES

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers depend upon: (1) the
season of the year in which they are sold, (2) the volume of stored potatoes,
(3) the size of the Florida crop and (4) the general price level. The effect
of these factors on the price of Florida potatoes is treated in subsequent
paragraphs.


Variations in Monthly Prices and Seasonal Price
Pattern of Potatoes by Decades

Average monthly prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers normally
decreases as the season progresses. For the decades since 1930, highest
average prices were generally received in December or January (Figs. 10 and 11).
As a rule prices in January averaged 15 to 30 percent above the annual average
price. In the period 1950-59, the January price averaged $3.88; February,
$3.45; March, $3.22; April, $3.58; May, $2.92 and June, $2.70 per hundred-
weight. Increased production of March harvested potatoes in South Florida
during this decade resulted in a lower than normal March price. The increase
in average price during April over March was due primarily to high prices
resulting from the late March 1955 and February 1958 freezes.
The amount of spread between January and June price has increased each
decade since 1930. During the decade 1930-39, the drop in price from January
to June was $0.83 per hundredweight, $1.01 in the decade 1940-49 and $1.18 in
the decade 1950-59. For the seven seasons 1960-61 to 1966-67, the decrease
was $1.07 per hundredweight. A relative increase in the spring crop and
greater production in areas outside of Florida harvesting in June and July
has lowered prices for these months.




-17-


coincides with early harvest in the Hastings area. During April, about
56 percent of the shipments are from the Hastings area, 29 percent from
Dade County, 13 percent from other South Florida counties and two percent
from other North Florida counties. During May and June, 86 to 91 percent
of the shipments are from the Hastings area, and four to nine percent from
other North Florida counties, Of the total shipments from Florida for the
five seasons 1962-63 to 1966-67, 68 percent originated in the Hastings
area, 17 percent in Dade County, 12 percent in other South Florida counties
and three percent in other North Florida counties.


PRICES OF POTATOES

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers depend upon: (1) the
season of the year in which they are sold, (2) the volume of stored potatoes,
(3) the size of the Florida crop and (4) the general price level. The effect
of these factors on the price of Florida potatoes is treated in subsequent
paragraphs.


Variations in Monthly Prices and Seasonal Price
Pattern of Potatoes by Decades

Average monthly prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers normally
decreases as the season progresses. For the decades since 1930, highest
average prices were generally received in December or January (Figs. 10 and 11).
As a rule prices in January averaged 15 to 30 percent above the annual average
price. In the period 1950-59, the January price averaged $3.88; February,
$3.45; March, $3.22; April, $3.58; May, $2.92 and June, $2.70 per hundred-
weight. Increased production of March harvested potatoes in South Florida
during this decade resulted in a lower than normal March price. The increase
in average price during April over March was due primarily to high prices
resulting from the late March 1955 and February 1958 freezes.
The amount of spread between January and June price has increased each
decade since 1930. During the decade 1930-39, the drop in price from January
to June was $0.83 per hundredweight, $1.01 in the decade 1940-49 and $1.18 in
the decade 1950-59. For the seven seasons 1960-61 to 1966-67, the decrease
was $1.07 per hundredweight. A relative increase in the spring crop and
greater production in areas outside of Florida harvesting in June and July
has lowered prices for these months.




-18-


0 I I I I !
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Months


Fig. 10. Average Monthly Price Received
Selected Periods, 1930-1967.


Source: Computed from:


for Irish Potatoes,


A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida


Farm Prices, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 399, June 1944 and
Agr. Econ. Mimeo Report 49-9. USDA, AMS, Agricultural Prices,
May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957, Sept. 1958, Jan. 1959,
Jan. 1960 and Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Vegetable Summary, 1967 Issue.





-19-
Index
130

13 1950-59


/ '-- 1960-67
120
-- 190-39
/ hN \ \ \,

/ 'S.
110 /
-- 1940-49 V"


\\ \
100 \ \












c. Jan. Feb. Mar Apr. May June July









Months

Fig. 11. Seasonal Price Patterns, Florida Irish Potatoes,
Selected Periods, 1930 to 1967.

Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble,
90, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 399,












June, 1944 and Agr. Econ. Mimeo Report 49-9. USDA,
AMS, Agricultural Prices, May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957,
80 "





70


0 I II -
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Months

Fig. 11. Seasonal Price Patterns, Florida Irish Potatoes,
Selected Periods, 1930 to 1967.

Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble,
Florida Farm Prices, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 399,
June, 1944 and Agr. Econ. Mimeo Report 49-9. USDA,
AMS, Agricultural Prices, May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957,
Sept. 1958, Jan. 1959 and Jan. 1960, Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service, Vegetable Summary, 1967 Issue.




-20-


Farm Price of Potatoes in April
in Florida and the United States

The price received for potatoes in April by farmers in Florida is
very closely correlated with the April price for all potatoes in the
United States (Fig. 12). Normally the Florida price moves up or down
with the United States price but at a higher level. However, the spread
between prices in Florida and the United States has varied significantly.
Between 1925 and 1967 the largest relative spread in prices between Florida
and the United States came in the period 1925 to 1929. The annual average
April price spread from 1925 to 1929 was $1.59 as compared to $0.89 in
1940-44, $1.20 in 1950-54, $1.51 in 1955-59 and $1.36 per hundredweight
annually from 1960 to 1967. In individual years the spread in price be-
tween Florida and the United States has ranged from a minus 19 cents in
1965 to $2.46 per hundredweight in 1928.


Relation between Production and Price of
Potatoes in Florida

From year to year there tends to be an inverse relationship between
production and prices received by farmers for potatoes in Florida (Fig. 13).
If production increases, price declines and if production decreases, price
increases. A slight upward trend characterized the production of potatoes
from 1925 to 1940. During this period, prices generally declined from the
high levels during World War I and the early 1920's. From 1947 to 1957
there was a decided upward trend in the production of potatoes. Production
increased each season except in 1953-54. Even though acreage decreased in
some years, production increased because of a higher yield per acre. Price
fluctuated widely from year to year but showed a slight downward trend.
The prices of $1.97 and $2.28 per hundredweight received for the 1956-57
and 1960-61 crops by Florida farmers were the lowest season average prices
since the 1940-41 season. Production was fairly high from the 1960-61 to
the 1966-67 season. The price of $4.70 per hundredweight received during
the 1964-65 season was one of the highest on record. This resulted in a
maximum income for potatoes in that year.




-20-


Farm Price of Potatoes in April
in Florida and the United States

The price received for potatoes in April by farmers in Florida is
very closely correlated with the April price for all potatoes in the
United States (Fig. 12). Normally the Florida price moves up or down
with the United States price but at a higher level. However, the spread
between prices in Florida and the United States has varied significantly.
Between 1925 and 1967 the largest relative spread in prices between Florida
and the United States came in the period 1925 to 1929. The annual average
April price spread from 1925 to 1929 was $1.59 as compared to $0.89 in
1940-44, $1.20 in 1950-54, $1.51 in 1955-59 and $1.36 per hundredweight
annually from 1960 to 1967. In individual years the spread in price be-
tween Florida and the United States has ranged from a minus 19 cents in
1965 to $2.46 per hundredweight in 1928.


Relation between Production and Price of
Potatoes in Florida

From year to year there tends to be an inverse relationship between
production and prices received by farmers for potatoes in Florida (Fig. 13).
If production increases, price declines and if production decreases, price
increases. A slight upward trend characterized the production of potatoes
from 1925 to 1940. During this period, prices generally declined from the
high levels during World War I and the early 1920's. From 1947 to 1957
there was a decided upward trend in the production of potatoes. Production
increased each season except in 1953-54. Even though acreage decreased in
some years, production increased because of a higher yield per acre. Price
fluctuated widely from year to year but showed a slight downward trend.
The prices of $1.97 and $2.28 per hundredweight received for the 1956-57
and 1960-61 crops by Florida farmers were the lowest season average prices
since the 1940-41 season. Production was fairly high from the 1960-61 to
the 1966-67 season. The price of $4.70 per hundredweight received during
the 1964-65 season was one of the highest on record. This resulted in a
maximum income for potatoes in that year.



















\ Florida


1-


\ I
\ /


- United States


1930


1935


1940


Fig. 12. April


Price per Hundredweight Received by Farmers for Irish Potatoes,
United States and Florida, 1925 to 1967.


Source: Appendix Table 4.


Price Per
Cwt.


5.00


4.00


3.00


2.00


1.00


I'
I'
I'
I 1


I\


I

' I


I-.--'
/ I
II


/ \I
i V


0 1
1925


1945
Years


1955


1960


1965






Production
(1,000 cwt.)
6,600


6,000


5,400


4,800


4,200


3,600


3,000


2,400


1,800


1,200


600


0
1925


F
S


1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955
Seasons Ending

ig.13. Trend in Price and Production of Irish Potatoes, Florida, 1925 to 1967.
ource: Table 1.


1960


1965





-23-


Relation between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers generally show an
increase from December to January and then decline from month to month
during the Florida season (Figs. 11 and 14). Shipments, on the other hand,
show a steady month to month increase, reaching a peak in May. Although
shipments from Florida are small in June, new potatoes are moving in volume
from other areas and prices usually continue downward. Because of the
lateness in the season and hot, humid weather, quality of the potatoes
shipped from Florida in June probably is not as good as that of those
shipped earlier.


Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes in
Florida and the General Level of All Farm Prices
in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida tend to fluctuate with and
around the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States
(Fig. 15). From the 1924-25 to the 1937-38 season, the index of prices
received for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices of all farm
commodities in the United States. From 1939-40 to 1945-46 the index of
Florida potato prices was above the index of all farm commodities in the
United States except for the 1940-41 season. Since the 1946-47 season,
the Florida price index has been above the U. S. commodity index in
nine seasons and below in 11 seasons.
Potato growers are quite conscious of the fact that the cost of the
items used for the production of potatoes has continued to increase but
they have not been able to sell their product at a higher price. However,
many probably fail to realize that the volume of production has doubled.
The volume being produced at the present time is such that Florida potatoes
must be sold more in competition with the late (stored) crop. This explains
to some degree the relationship of the Florida potato price index to the
United States all commodity index.
During the past two decades, because of better varieties, increased use
of seed and fertilizer, better insect and disease control and improvements
in technology, increases in yields per acre have been large. This has helped
to decrease per unit cost of production or has kept unit cost from increasing





-23-


Relation between Shipments and Prices of Potatoes

Prices received for potatoes by Florida farmers generally show an
increase from December to January and then decline from month to month
during the Florida season (Figs. 11 and 14). Shipments, on the other hand,
show a steady month to month increase, reaching a peak in May. Although
shipments from Florida are small in June, new potatoes are moving in volume
from other areas and prices usually continue downward. Because of the
lateness in the season and hot, humid weather, quality of the potatoes
shipped from Florida in June probably is not as good as that of those
shipped earlier.


Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes in
Florida and the General Level of All Farm Prices
in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida tend to fluctuate with and
around the index of prices of all farm commodities in the United States
(Fig. 15). From the 1924-25 to the 1937-38 season, the index of prices
received for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices of all farm
commodities in the United States. From 1939-40 to 1945-46 the index of
Florida potato prices was above the index of all farm commodities in the
United States except for the 1940-41 season. Since the 1946-47 season,
the Florida price index has been above the U. S. commodity index in
nine seasons and below in 11 seasons.
Potato growers are quite conscious of the fact that the cost of the
items used for the production of potatoes has continued to increase but
they have not been able to sell their product at a higher price. However,
many probably fail to realize that the volume of production has doubled.
The volume being produced at the present time is such that Florida potatoes
must be sold more in competition with the late (stored) crop. This explains
to some degree the relationship of the Florida potato price index to the
United States all commodity index.
During the past two decades, because of better varieties, increased use
of seed and fertilizer, better insect and disease control and improvements
in technology, increases in yields per acre have been large. This has helped
to decrease per unit cost of production or has kept unit cost from increasing




-24-


Carlots
Per Month
6,000





5,000





4,000





3,000





2,000





1,000





0 -
Dec.


Price Per
Cwt.
(dollars)






5.00

Price



/ 4.00





3.00





2.00



Shipments

1.00





I I I 0
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July
Months


Fig. 14. Monthly Trend in Florida Shipments and
Potatoes, Five-Season Average, 1962-63


Prices of Irish
to 1966-67.


Source: Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Vegetable Summary, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966 and 1967 Issues.








Index
160



I I
120 \
I\ j/ /


\ -Florida Potato / \
80 Prices / "

\ / U.S. All Farm
./ \ / Product Prices
40 V /





1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965
Years

Fig.15. Comparison of the Index of Prices Received for Irish Potatoes in Florida
with the Index of Prices Received for All Farm Commodities in the
United States, 1925-1967 (1947-49 = 100).


Source: Appendix Table 5.




-26-


as much as individual cost items. With an improvement in technology, some
of the savings are usually passed on to the consumer in the form of a bet-
ter quality product, a lower relative price or both. It appears that con-
sumers have received some of both of these benefits in the case of Florida
potatoes.


Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes
in Florida and the General Level of Prices
Paid by Farmers in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida have fluctuated more than
prices paid by farmers in the United States for commodities used in pro-
duction (Fig. 16). From 1924-25 to 1929-30, the index of prices received
for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices paid by farmers in
the United States. From 1930-31 to 1940-41, the index of Florida potato
prices fluctuated around the index of prices paid. Between 1941-42 and
1948-49, potato prices were above prices paid except for the 1946-47
season. Since 1948-49, Florida's season average potato prices have been
equal to or below the index of prices paid by farmers in the United
States, with an ever widening spread between the two indexes.
Potato producers have bridged this gap by increasing yields and by
adopting improved technological methods, as explained earlier. In seasons
ending in years such as 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1961 and 1963,
the increased production per acre has not been sufficient to offset the
rising costs of items used in production.


COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES

The costs of producing potatoes in selected areas of Florida are shown
in Table 2. Per unit costs vary inversely with the yield per acre, being
high in periods of low yields and lower when yields are high. Yields and
costs also vary between different producing areas of the state in the same
year. Yields were above average and costs low in Dade County while the
reverse was the case in the Hastings area in 1966-67. In comparing returns
to growers in 1966-67 with the average of the period 1962-66, each area
showed a lover average net return.




-26-


as much as individual cost items. With an improvement in technology, some
of the savings are usually passed on to the consumer in the form of a bet-
ter quality product, a lower relative price or both. It appears that con-
sumers have received some of both of these benefits in the case of Florida
potatoes.


Relation between Prices Received for Potatoes
in Florida and the General Level of Prices
Paid by Farmers in the United States

Prices received for potatoes in Florida have fluctuated more than
prices paid by farmers in the United States for commodities used in pro-
duction (Fig. 16). From 1924-25 to 1929-30, the index of prices received
for potatoes in Florida was above the index of prices paid by farmers in
the United States. From 1930-31 to 1940-41, the index of Florida potato
prices fluctuated around the index of prices paid. Between 1941-42 and
1948-49, potato prices were above prices paid except for the 1946-47
season. Since 1948-49, Florida's season average potato prices have been
equal to or below the index of prices paid by farmers in the United
States, with an ever widening spread between the two indexes.
Potato producers have bridged this gap by increasing yields and by
adopting improved technological methods, as explained earlier. In seasons
ending in years such as 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1961 and 1963,
the increased production per acre has not been sufficient to offset the
rising costs of items used in production.


COST OF PRODUCING POTATOES

The costs of producing potatoes in selected areas of Florida are shown
in Table 2. Per unit costs vary inversely with the yield per acre, being
high in periods of low yields and lower when yields are high. Yields and
costs also vary between different producing areas of the state in the same
year. Yields were above average and costs low in Dade County while the
reverse was the case in the Hastings area in 1966-67. In comparing returns
to growers in 1966-67 with the average of the period 1962-66, each area
showed a lover average net return.









Index


160




120 /I

I \ /\ \ \
1\\ \ //
120 n I-- ---- -----



8 0- Florida Potato \
80 \ .Prices \ \
.. / V
-- United States
Prices Paid

40~ \ / N-
v



0 I I i I I I i I II II I
1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965
Years

Fig. 16. Comparison of the Index of Prices Received for Irish Potatoes in Florida
with the Index of Prices Paid for Commodities, Interest, Taxes and Wage
Rates in the United States, 1925 to 1967 (1947-49 = 100),


Source: Appendix Table 5.




-28-


Table 2. Yield Per Acre and Per Unit Costs and Returns for Irish Potatoes
in Selected Areas of Florida, 5-Season Average 1961-62 to 1965-66
and 1965-66, 1966-67

I5-Season
Item : e 1965-66 : 1966-67
average

Hastings Area

Yield per acre in hundredweights 161 134 68
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing costs $1.81 $2.41 $4.52
Harvesting and marketing costs .91 .95 .94
Total crop costs 2.72 3.36 5.46
Crop sales 3.46 3.40 3.36
Net returns 0.74 0.04 -2.10

Dade County

Yield per acre in hundredweights 166 140 200
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing costs $2.04 $2.59 $1.95
Harvesting and marketing costs 1.10 1.15 1.10
Total crop costs 3.14 3.74 3.05
Crop sales 4.12 4.67 3.52
Net returns 0.98 0.93 0.47

Everglades

Yield per acre in hundredweights 148 132
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing costs $1.86 $2.16
Harvesting and marketing costs 1.19 1.47
Total crop costs 3.05 3.63
Crop sales 3.12 3.72
Net returns 0.07 0.09

Fort Myers-Immokalee

Yield per acre in hundredweights 154 137 149
Amount per hundredweight:
Growing costs $2.28 $2.94 $2.54
Harvesting and marketing costs 1.12 1.27 1.31
Total crop costs 3.40 4.21 3.85
Crop sales 4.10 4.03 3.95
Net returns .70 -0.18 -0.10

Source: D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Agr. Econ. Mimeo Reports
67-8 and 68-4.

































APPENDIX




-30-


Table 1. Relative Trend in the Production of Irish Potatoes,
United States and Florida, 1935 1967 (1947-49 = 100)

Production (1,000 cwts.) Index 1947-49 = 100
Year
SUnited States Florida United States Florida


1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54

1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64

1964-65
1965-66
1966-67a


227,337
194,373
225,869
213,509
205,423
226,152
213,418
221,339
275,332
230,356

251,639
292,389
233,391
269,937
240,950
259,912
195,776
211,095
231,699
219,547

227,669
245,792
242,522
266,897
245,272
257,104
293,166
264,810
271,158
241,076

291,169
306,902
305,906


1,443
1,515
2,271
2,525
2,078
2,484
1,877
2,294
2,063
1,927

3,021
3,606
1,817
2,107
3,205
3,351
3,774
4,589
5,926
5,839

6,080
6,766
7,076
5,582
4,668
4,535
5,810
4,633
6,255
5,180

6,082
6,294
4,778


91.6
78.3
91.0
86.1
82.8
91.2
86.0
89.2
111.0
92.8

101.4
117.8
94.1
108.8
97.1
104.8
78.9
85.1
93.4
88.5

91.8
99.1
97.8
107.6
98.9
103.6
118.2
106.7
109.3
97.2

117,4
123.7
123.3


60.7
63.8
95.6
106.2
87.4
104.5
79.0
96.5
86.8
81.1

127.1
151.7
76.5
88.7
134.9
141.0
158.8
193.1
249.4
245.7

255.9
284.7
297.8
234.9
196.4
190.8
244.5
195.0
263.2
218.0

255.9
264.9
201.1


Preliminary data
Source: USDA, AMS, Agricultural Statistics, 1966, Crop Production, 1961,
Annual Summary Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Vegetable Crops, Vol. XVII and 1967.





Table 2. Acreage of Winter and Spring Irish Potatoes Harvested
by Production Areas and Total Florida, 1939-40 to 1966-67
SWinter Spring
SOther Other South West Florida
Date Dade South Total Hastings North Florida and Other Total Total
SFlorida Florida :Counties Counties
*._ .
*


1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67


6,000
6,000
4,800
5,100
6,000
6,350
6,500
6,050
5,800
6,700
6,600
5,700
8,000
10,800
8,800
8,400
8,900
10,700
8,450
7,200
6,700
6,100
4,300
5,320
5,090
6,400
6,500
7,630


Acreage Harvested
1,950 1,550
1,900 1,150
2,250 1,150
2,750 1,950
2,700 1,400
2,850 3,550
2,900 5,160
1,850 600
1,825 750
500 950


3,500
3,800
3,800
4,050
4,500
5,450
7,100
4,250
1,500
2,000
3,200
2,800
2,700
4,200
2,800
4,400
7,100
12,300
5,050
4,800
3,300
3,600
2,900
2,980
2,310
3,600
4,400
4,270


9,500
9,800
8,600
9,150
10,500
11,800
13,600
10,300
7,300
8,700
9,800
8,500
10,700
15,000
11,600
12,800
16,000
23,000
13,500
12,000
10,000
9,700
7,200
8,300
7,400
10,000
10,900
11,900


11,750
12,600
11,850
11,850
12,950
11,850
12,350
9,500
10,200
9,900
11,200
12,500
15,500
19,300
17,000
21,000
21,000
26,000
25,500
21,500
22,800
21,000
20,700
24,600
23,800
27,800
30,000
21,600


850
1,350
1,150
900
1,050
1,050
1,290
850
625
550
910
825
875
1,450
1,130
1,040
1,400
1,750
1,850
1,325
1,325
675
910
810
370
1,650
1,080
920


16,100
17,000
16,400
17,450
18,100
19,300
21,700
12,800
13,400
11,900
13,800
15,000
19,100
25,700
20,800
24,800
25,700
31,300
30,900
25,000
27,300
24,400
23,300
26,800
25,300
31,200
32,600
24,200


Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service
Florida Vegetable Crops, Vols. II through XVII and 1967 Issue.


750
650
950
1,500
1,400
1,750
1,875
2,025
1,450
875
1,100
925
760
630
310
910
540
390


940
1,025
1,775
3,450
1,270
1,010
1,425
1,525
2,100
1,300
2,075
1,800
930
760
820
840
980
1,290


25,600
26,800
25,000
26,600
28,600
31,100
35,300
23,100
20,700
20,600
23,600
23,500
29,800
40,700
32,400
37,600
41,700
54,300
44,400
37,000
37,300
34,100
30,500
35,100
32,700
41,200
43,500
36,100




-32-


Table 3. Average Monthly Prices Received for
Florida, 1960-61 to 1966-67


Potatoes by Seasons,


: Months
Season
S Dec. Jan. Feb. March : April : May June
: :.... : ..

1960-61 $ 3.30 $ 3.15 $ 2.80 $ 2.55 $ 1.95 $ 2.35
1961-62 $ 3.15 3.10 2.90 2.95 2.90 3.30 3.40
1962-63 4.30 3.40 2.95 2.75 2.30 2.00
1963-64 4.10 4.55 4.35 3.55 3.55 4.30
1964-65 5.70 5.50 5.30 5.10 4.75 4.45 4.80
1965-66 3.80 3.75 4.05 4.50 3.20 2.25
1966-67 5.00 5.60 3.85 3.70 3.20 2.55
Total $ 8.85 $29.10 $28.65 $26.05 $24.70 $21.95 $21.65
Average $ 4.42 $ 4.16 $ 4.09 $ 3.72 $ 3.53 $ 3.14 $ 3.09


Source: Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary, 1967.




-33-


Table 4. April Price Received by Farmers for Irish Potatoes,
United States and Florida, 1910-1967


SPrice per Hundredweight Price per Hundredweight
Year United : Year : United
: : Florida : : : Florida
States States


1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939


$ .60
.91
1.93
.74
1.09
.72
1.56
4.08
1.26
1.68

5.35
1.09
1.64
1.16
1.44
1.17
4.40
2.02
1.87
.96

2.40
1.27
.62
.66
1.25
.72
1.40
1.77
.82
1.20


$2.05
2.30
2.47
2.13
2.42
1.93
2.53
4.27
2.58
4.05

7.50
3.12
2.93
4.18
3.92
3.07
5.00
2.92
4.33
3.05

3.17
2.17
2.33
1.40
1.90
2.42
2.50
2.17
1.17
2.25


1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967


$1.32
.84
1.85
2.60
2.12
2.82
2.57
2.23
3.25
2.92

2.07
1.62
3.78
1.88
1.15
3.49
2.72
1.24
3.03
1.28

3.15
1.81
1.38
1.48
2.24
4.94
2.62
1.72


$1.92
1.67
3.08
3.75
2.75
3.92
3.33
3.17
5.00
3.67

3.17
4.25
4.17
2.83
2.08
5.75
3.89
1.81
5.21
2.66

5.55
2.55
2.90
2.75
3.55
4.75
4.50
3.70


Source: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida Farm Prices, Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 399, June 1944 and Agr. Econ. Mimeo Report 49-9. USDA,
AMS, Agricultural Prices, May 1954, Jan. 1956, Sept. 1957, Sept. 1958,
Jan. 1959, Jan. 1960, June 1961, Annual Summary 1966, Apr. 1967.




-34-


Table 5. Index of Season Average Prices Received by Florida Farmers
for Irish Potatoes, Index of Prices Received for All
Commodities in the United States and Index of Prices Paid
by Farmers for Commodities, Interest, Taxes and Wage Rates
in the United States, 1925-1967 (1947-49 = 100)

Index numbers (1947-49 = 100)

S: United States
Year : Florida :
S potato : Prices received Prices paid
S prices by farmers by farmers
-- -- ^ ^ -- ^ ---- i -- -- -^ ._ __ ii i^*. n-~r .---ir-i~i.__ __ _l__ -l ^- _____


1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944

1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954


82
143
88
70
85
87
50
60
40
53


112
91
75
117
108
79
87
116
75
71


76
87
102
106
92
95
111
106
94
91


76
83
96
104
100
103
113
114
111
111


(continued)




-35-


Table 5. (continued)


Index numbers (1947-49 = 100)

S: United States
Year Florida :
S potato P:rices received Prices paid
prices by farmers by farmers


1955 112 86 110
1956 103 85 111
1957 55 87 114
1958 75 93 117
1959 79 88 119
1960 111 88 119
1961 64 88 120
1962 87 90 123
1963 70 90 125
1964 104 87 125

1965 132 92 128
1966 99 98 134
1967 98 93 137


Source: Computed from: A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, Florida Farm
Prices, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 399, June 1944, and Agr.
Econ. Mimeo Report 49-9, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, Vegetable Summary, 1967 Issue.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs