• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of tables and figures
 List of appendix tables
 Introduction
 Objectives
 Description of the study area
 Budgeting technique
 Characteristics of representative...
 Summary
 Appendix tables






Group Title: Agricultural economics research report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 69-9
Title: Economic and operational characteristics of beef cattle ranches in West Central Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071975/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic and operational characteristics of beef cattle ranches in West Central Florida
Physical Description: 41 p., : figs., tables, ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brodnax, H. D
Eddleman, B. R
Publisher: Un. of Florida, Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.D. Brodnax and B.R. Eddleman.
General Note: April 1969.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
General Note: Agricultural economics research report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - EC 69-9
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071975
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 30081925

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of tables and figures
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of appendix tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Objectives
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Description of the study area
        Page 5
    Budgeting technique
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Characteristics of representative ranches
        Page 13
        Representative ranches
            Page 13
        Management and production practices
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Investment
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Receipts
            Page 24
        Costs
            Page 24
        Net cash income
            Page 25
    Summary
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Appendix tables
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH REPORT EC 69-9


April 1969











ECONOMIC AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF

BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA



by
H. D. Brodnax, Jr. and B. R. Eddleman



















Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida
in cooperation with
Farm Production Economics Division
Economic Research Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture







AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH REPORT EC 69-9


April 1969


ECONOMIC AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA

by

H. D. Brodnax, Jr. and B. R. Eddleman


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida
in cooperation with
Farm Production Economics Division
Economic Research Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The authors wish to express grateful appreciation to the ranchers -
who supplied information concerning inventories, investments, management
practices, costs, and incomes. L. L. Oliver and R. T. Faulkner (formerly
University of Florida students) assisted in the study by collecting data
from the ranchmen during the summer of 1967.























PREFACE


This study is part of the research project, "An Economic Appraisal
of the Development, Operation, and Financial Management of Beef Cattle Pro-
duction Units in Florida." This project is a cooperative effort of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Farm Production Economics Di-
vision of the Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The overall objective of this project is to determine the optimum size,
organization, production practices, and method of financing beef cattle
production units in Florida for obtaining specified income levels and firm
growth over time.











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The authors wish to express grateful appreciation to the ranchers -
who supplied information concerning inventories, investments, management
practices, costs, and incomes. L. L. Oliver and R. T. Faulkner (formerly
University of Florida students) assisted in the study by collecting data
from the ranchmen during the summer of 1967.























PREFACE


This study is part of the research project, "An Economic Appraisal
of the Development, Operation, and Financial Management of Beef Cattle Pro-
duction Units in Florida." This project is a cooperative effort of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Farm Production Economics Di-
vision of the Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The overall objective of this project is to determine the optimum size,
organization, production practices, and method of financing beef cattle
production units in Florida for obtaining specified income levels and firm
growth over time.











TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-------------------------------------------------- ii

PREFACE------------------------------------------------------- ii

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES--------------------------------- iv

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES------------------------------------------ vi

INTRODUCTION-----------------------------------------------------1

OBJECTIVES------------------------------------------------------- 5

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA----------------------------------- 5

BUDGETING TECHNIQUE---------------------------------------------- 7

CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATIVE RANCHES------------------------ 13

Representative ranches---------------------------------- 13

Management and production practices---------------------- 14

Investment----------------------------------------------- 18

Receipts------------------------------------------------ 24

Costs---------------------------------------------------- 24

Net cash income------------------------------------------ 25

SUMMARY---------------------------------------------------------- 25

APPENDIX TABLES-------------------------------------------------- 28












iii









LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES


Table Page

1 Beef cattle: Number of cattle and ranches by size groups,
Florida, Jan. 1, 1967 2

2 Beef cattle: Number of head by geographic area and size
of ranch, Florida, Jan. 1, 1967 3

3 Number of farms reporting cattle, number of cattle and
calves, and sales of cattle and calves by counties, West
Central Florida, 1964 6

4 Average 1966 cattle prices used for months needed in
analysis, 16 Florida livestock auctions combined 9

5 Total land grazed, number of animal units, and number of
mature brood cows for each representative ranch, West
Central Florida, 1966 13

6 Land use, livestock numbers, and stocking rate for each
ranch size group, West Central Florida, 1966 15

7 Selling weights, beef produced, and general production
practices for each ranch size group, West Central
Florida, 1966 17

8 Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns
for ranch size I, 43 animal units, West Central Florida,
1966 19

9 Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns
for ranch size II, 215 animal units, West Central
Florida, 1966 20

10 Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns
for ranch size III, 703 animal units, West Central
Florida, 1966 21

11 Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns
for ranch size IV, 1,287 animal units, West Central
Florida, 1966 22

12 Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns
for ranch size V, 3,131 animal units, West Central
Florida, 1966 23

iv











LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES (Continued)


Returns to operator owned resources by .size of ranch
and land ownership, West Central Florida, 1966


Figure


Livestock areas in Florida, shaded area is study area


Table


Page



26









LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Table Page


1 Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch
size I, 30 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966 29

2 Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch
size II, 150 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966 30

3 Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch
size III, 480 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966 31

4 Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch
size IV, 900 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966 32

5 Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch
size V, 2,100 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966 33

6 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size I with
full ownership, 30 mature cows, 43 animal units, West
Central Florida, 1966 34

7 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size II with
full ownership, 150 mature cows, 215 animal units, West
Central Florida, 1966 35

8 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size II
with fifty percent of land rented, 150 mature cows,
215 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966 36

9 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size III
with full ownership, 480 mature cows, 703 animal units,
West Central Florida, 1966 37

10 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size III
with seventy-five percent of land rented, 480 mature
cows, 703 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966 38

11 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size IV
with full ownership, 900 mature cows, 1,287 animal
units, West Central Florida, 1966 39











LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

12 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size IV
with fifty percent of land rented, 900 mature cows,
1,287 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966 40

13 Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size V
with full ownership, 2,100 mature cows, 3,131 animal
units, West Central Florida, 1966 41









ECONOMIC AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
BEEF CATTLE RANCHES IN WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA

by

H. D. Brodnax, Jr. and B. R. Eddleman 1/







INTRODUCTION


Beef cattle production represents an important segment of Florida's

agriculture. In 1966, cash receipts from cattle and calves totaled $103

million or approximately 10 percent of total cash receipts for all farm

commodities in the State, 2/ This represented an increase of $31.5 million

over the amount received for cattle and calves sold in 1964.

In 1964, 3.6 percent of all farms in Florida were considered to be

commercial livestock ranches. Commercial ranches accounted for approximately

40 percent of all agricultural acreage. Average size per ranch was 4,164

acres with an investment in land and buildings of $488,578. 3/ Forty-seven

percent of all farms in Florida reported some cattle and calves in 1964.



1/ Brodnax is Agricultural Economist, Farm Production Economics
Division, Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture sta-
tioned at University of Florida. Eddleman is Assistant Agricultural
Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

2/ Florida Department of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural
Statistics Livestock Summary for 1966.

2/ U. S. Census of Agriculture, 1964, Vol. 1 Pt. 29, Fla., Farm
Characteristics, by Economic Class, Table 21, Pt. 10, P. 234.







Florida's beef production units are generally either large ranches

or small farms with a few brood cows as a supplementary enterprise. A

large segment of the beef industry is located on huge ranches similar to

those in the southwestern and western States. As indicated in table 1,

300 ranches, each with 1,000 head or more, operated 43.3 percent of all

beef cattle in 1966. This is compared with 15,000 units, each with less

than 100 head, operating 27.1 percent of the cattle.


Table 1.--Beef cattle:


Number of cattle and ranches by size groups,
Florida, Jan. 1, 1967 a/
Siz goup I umer f atte ersiz gou


Size group Number of Cattle per size group
(number of head) ranches
(number of head) I ranches 1,000 head Percent of total

1 99 15,000 444 27.1

100 499 1,450 323 19.8

500 999 250 161 9.8

1,000 and over 300 708 43.3

Total 17,000 1,636 100.0


a/ Source:
Statistics Livestock


Florida Department
Summary for 1966.


of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural


The distribution of beef cattle in Florida by geographic area is

presented in table 2 (fig. 1 geographic livestock areas in Florida).

Central Florida has the largest concentration of beef cattle with 46.5 percent

of the State total. As indicated in table 2, there are wide variations in

size concentration of beef cattle operations between geographic areas. The

northwest and north areas of the State are characterized by general row


- 2-








crop-livestock

winter grazing


Table 2.--Beef


operations. These regions raise some feed grains and utilize

for the beef enterprise.


cattle: Number of head by geographic area and size of ranch,
Florida, Jan. 1, 1967 a/


Size Beef cattle population
Area
group Total Area State
Number head 1,000 head percent Percent

1 99 98 57.6 6.0
Nor t 100 499 45 26.5 2.7
500 999 19 11.2 1.2
1,000 and over 8 4.7 .5
170 100.0 10.4

1 99 141 42.7 8.6
100 499 90 27.3 5.6
North 500 999 38 11.5 2.3
1,000 and over 61 18.5 3.7
330 100.0 20.2

1 99 171 22.5 10.4
100 499 155 20.4 9.5
Central 500 999 72 9.4 4.4
1,000 and over 363 47.7 22.2
761 100.0 46.5

1 99 34 9.1 2.1
100 499 33 8.8 2.0
south 500 999 32 8.5 1.9
1,000 and over 276 73.6 16.9
375 100.0 22.9


a/ Source: Florida Department of
Statistics Livestock Summary for 1966.


Agriculture, Florida


Agricultural


Larger and more specialized ranches are predominant in the Central

and Southern areas of the State. These areas depend almost entirely on

year-round grazing of permanent pastures with a small amount of supplemen-

tary feeding.


- 3 -



























































_/ -^ %,


Figure 1. Livestock areas in Florida, shaded area is study area.



4 -










OBJECTIVES


The objective of this report is to develop budgets for representative

ranch resource situations specializing in cow-calf systems in the study area.

The detailed budgets of the representative ranches include: (1) organization

of land and other resources, (2) inventories of livestock and machinery, and

(3) estimates of costs and returns from each cow-calf production system.



DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA


The study area consists of nine counties (Pasco, Hillsborough,

Pinellas, Manatee, Hardee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Charlotte, and Lee) in West

Central Florida (fig. 1). These counties are below the normal freeze line

and west of the State's major citrus belt. This group of counties was

selected because of similar climatic and physical conditions that influence

livestock production and the relatively large number of cattle located in

the area.

Average annual rainfall is approximately 55 inches with the largest

amounts occurring in late spring and summer. The average year mean temper-

ature is approximately 730F with an average maximum and minimum of 840F and

610F, respectively. 4/ With this mild climate and abundant rainfall, year-

round grazing is possible throughout the area.



4/ 1966 Climatological Report, Range Cattle Experiment Station,
Mimeo. Ser. RCS 67-1, Jan. 1967.


-5-







This area of the State is mainly in the southern Florida flatwoods

region. Native vegetation consists primarily of pond pines, numerous hard-

woods, herbs, palmetto, cypress, wiregrass, and other native grasses. The

major types of soils are fine sand and sand of the Leon series. Being a

coastal region the area is dominated by somewhat poorly drained soils. 5/

According to the 1964 Census of Agriculture, there were 7,911 farms

of all types in the study area. Thirty-two percent of these farms were

classified as having some form of cow-calf system, table 3. The study area

had 14.5 percent of the State's ranches, 18.6 percent of the total cattle,

and 18 percent of the total gross sales from cattle and calves in 1964.


Table 3.--Number of farms reporting cattle, number of cattle and
sales of cattle and calves by counties, West Central Florida,


calves, and
1964 a/


Farms with Cattle Sales of
County cows that and cattle and
have calved calves calves
Number Number Dollars

Charlotte 33 16,796 376,052
DeSoto 194 38,374 861,172
Hardee 394 54,443 1,511,082
Hillsborough 933 94,942 5,348,627
Lee 115 15,362 292,042
Manatee 280 44,706 1,744,979
Pasco 400 43,551 1,317,813
Pinellas 65 6,766 388,302
Sarasota 117 24,101 996,126
Total 2,531 339,041 12,836,195
State total 17,501 1,822,007 71,459,246

a/ Source: Derived from U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1964.



5/ Principal Soil Areas of Florida, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 717,
Aug. 1967.


-6-










OBJECTIVES


The objective of this report is to develop budgets for representative

ranch resource situations specializing in cow-calf systems in the study area.

The detailed budgets of the representative ranches include: (1) organization

of land and other resources, (2) inventories of livestock and machinery, and

(3) estimates of costs and returns from each cow-calf production system.



DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA


The study area consists of nine counties (Pasco, Hillsborough,

Pinellas, Manatee, Hardee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Charlotte, and Lee) in West

Central Florida (fig. 1). These counties are below the normal freeze line

and west of the State's major citrus belt. This group of counties was

selected because of similar climatic and physical conditions that influence

livestock production and the relatively large number of cattle located in

the area.

Average annual rainfall is approximately 55 inches with the largest

amounts occurring in late spring and summer. The average year mean temper-

ature is approximately 730F with an average maximum and minimum of 840F and

610F, respectively. 4/ With this mild climate and abundant rainfall, year-

round grazing is possible throughout the area.



4/ 1966 Climatological Report, Range Cattle Experiment Station,
Mimeo. Ser. RCS 67-1, Jan. 1967.


-5-








Range herds in this area are relatively large with large areas over

which to graze. Citrus is produced on the eastern fringe of the area, but

there is very little competition between citrus and beef for resources. Only

one large metropolitan center is in the area. Some of the grazing land is

held for speculative purposes and some for phosphate mining.



BUDGETING TECHNIQUE


Information concerning beef cattle operations on the ranches in the

area was obtained during the summer of 1967 by interviews from a stratified

random sample of 150 beef cattle producers. The sample primarily consisted

of cow-calf operations because it was the major type of cattle system in the

area. This study was not concerned with cattle feeding operations.

The stratification grouped individual producers into five categories

on the basis of the number of head of cattle on the ranch on January 1, 1966.

These size groups were: (I) less than 100 head; (II) 100-499 head; (III)

500-999 head; (IV)1,000-1,999 head; and (V) 2,000 head and greater.

Information was obtained from the field schedule concerning present

resource and livestock inventories, enterprise organization, costs, and

financial management practices on cow-calf production units in 1966. Repre-

sentative ranch units were developed for each of the five stratified groups

from the interview data.

To deveTop these representative ranch units the schedules were

edited and separated into the individual size groups. A frequency distri-

bution analysis was undertaken to determine the most common characteristics

within each production size group. Information such as frequency of levels


- 7 -






in inventories, stocking rates, investments, production costs, and management

practices provided the basis for developing the representative ranch inven-

tories and budgets.

The assumptions used in developing the representative units follow

as closely as possible the actual production situation. Some static condi-

tions were assumed for all the representative units. These conditions were

determined by analyzing data from the total sample. The following conditions

apply to each of the representative units that were developed.

1. Ranch organization: All representative units were based solely

on a beef cow-calf operation. Calves were sold when weaned and all replace-

ment heifers were selected from the calf crop. No increase or decrease in

cattle inventory was considered when comparing the beginning with the ending

yearly inventories.

2. Ownership, management, and labor: All representative ranch units

were based on 100 percent equity because over 80 percent of the ranches in-

terviewed had neither long-term nor intermediate-term loans outstanding for

their operations. Three of the five representative ranches had two onwership

situations: (a) full land ownership, and (b) land ownership in connection

with rented grazing land. These tenure situations varied between size groups.

The representative ranches were considered to be owner-operated. All

the sample ranches in size group I were owner-operated and 85, 84, 70, and

63 percent of the sample ranches were owner-operated in size groups II, III,

IV, and V, respectively. In these larger size groups, the representative

ranch units accounted for hired management by including the amount paid for

their services and benefits as a cash cost.


- 8 -







Labor used in the ranch budgets conforms to the amount needed as

determined from the survey of ranch operations. A full-time operator worked

an average of 2,500 hours per year. Operator labor was valued at $5,000 per

year. Wage rates of part-time and full-time workers were determined from

the survey.

3. Prices received for cattle: The 1966 prices were used for the

cattle sold according to the selling month of each size group, table 4.

Cull cows and heifers were sold at the same time as the weaned calves.

Transportation and commission charges were included in cash costs.


Table 4.--Average 1966 cattle prices used for months needed in analysis, 16
Florida livestock auctions combined a/

Class Grade Monthly prices (per cwt.)
S_____d August September October
---------------Dollars----------------

Cows Utility 18.20 18.56 18.17
Heifers (over 2 years) Good 22.04 21.90 20.93
Calves (mixed sex) Good 26.25 26.37 24.99

a/ Source: Florida Department of Agriculture, Market News Section.


4. Costs of input items: Most production costs such as feed,

fertilizer, and veterinary services and supplies were derived from infor-

mation obtained from the survey. Current 1966 prices were used for valuing

input items that have a relatively uniform price. These included such items

as gasoline, farm machinery, etc. Machinery and equipment operating costs

were totals of variable and fixed costs. Variable costs were determined

on the basis of the operating hours required for the machinery.

5. Animal unit equivalents: The animal unit equivalents used for

developing the representative ranch units were as follows:


-9-








Animal unit
Type of livestock equivalents

Cow, mature 1.00
Cow, with calf 1.25
Cow, dry 1.00
Cow, culled 1.00
Heifer, 2 years and older 1.00
Heifer, coming 2 .65
Heifer, coming 1 .50
Heifer, calf .50
Steer, calf .50
Bull 1.25

An average animal unit size was determined for each representative

ranch by multiplying the animal unit equivalents for each class of livestock

by the number of animals in each particular class. This product was mul-

tiplied by the number of months each animal remained in a particular

classification. Summing the resulting animal unit months for each class of

animal and dividing the total by 12 months resulted in an average animal

unit figure that was indicative of ranch size (appendix tables 1-5).

6. Feed: The total hay requirement was produced on the ranch.

Other feed requirements were developed from the survey information.

7. Yields and general production practices: Number of mature cows,

calf crop, weaning ages and weights, culling percentage, death loss,

breeding seasons, calving seasons, selling periods, cows to bull ratio, hay

production, and other management practices were based on data from the in-

terviews. The most frequently occurring level of these factors for each

size group was used in developing the coefficients. Many of these practices

vary among the representative ranches.

8. Land usage and stocking rates: Acreage for each representative

ranch was allocated according to the most common land situations. Acres

operated were divided into total land grazed and other land. Land grazed


- 10 -








was divided into: (a) improved pasture, (b) unimproved pasture, and (c)

woodland grazed. The representative ranches have varying percentages of

these land classes. Stocking rates were determined by comparing the live-

stock inventories with the acres of land grazed.

9. Investment in buildings, improvements, and equipment: The

average value of investment in buildings and improvements was based on 1966

replacement cost depreciated by 50 percent. Average investment for machinery

and equipment was calculated by the formula:

market value + salvage value
average investment =
2

Only the amounts needed for operating at the assumed level of management

were included for each representative ranch. The family home was not in-

cluded in the ranch investment.

10. Investment in livestock: Inventory value of productive

livestock was figured by averaging the initial value of a mature animal

with the salvage value. Values for bulls, mature cows, and heifers 2

years old were based on information from the schedules and current prices.

Horses were valued as given in the ranch surveys.

11. Investment in land: Consistent land values could not be

accurately established from the interviews alone. Additional information

from personal interviews with county advisors and lending institutions was

used to obtain current land values for each representative ranch according

to class and number of acres per ranch. Land values ranged from $40 per

acre for woodland grazed on the largest ranch to $125 per acre for im-

proved pastureland. The improved pasture value included the prorated


- 11 -








cost of establishing improved pasture but was exclusive of buildings and

other improvements.

12. Rental rates and taxes: Land rental rates were determined from

the data in the survey. Annual rental rates ranged from $3 per acre for im-

proved pasture on the smaller units to $1 per acre for unimproved pastureland

on the larger operations. Taxes on land, improvements, buildings, and pro-

ductive livestock were based on 100 percent evaluation at a rate of 15 mills.

This millage rate was established from analyzing the 1966 county-wide tax

rolls in the area. Machinery and equipment were taxed at the rate of 3.5

mills. Since the family home was not included in the average ranch invest-

ment, no homestead exemption was claimed.

13. Depreciation: Annual depreciation on machinery and equipment

was figured by subtracting the salvage value from the initial cost and then

dividing by the useful life in years or hours. Buildings and improvements

were depreciated by the value obtained when the replacement cost was divided

by the life in years. Bulls were depreciated by subtracting the salvage

value adjusted for expected death loss from the purchase value and dividing

this total by the years of useful life. Since replacement cows were raised

rather than purchased, no depreciation was deducted for the cow herd.

14. Interest: Interest on operating capital was figured at the

annual rate of 6 percent. Operating costs occurring during the production

period were figured on a 6 months basis with the interest included as a cash

cost. Interest was not charged on long-term investment; instead a return to

capital, management, and risk was computed.


- 12 -









CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATIVE RANCHES


Representative ranches

Cow-calf inventories and budgets were developed for five

representative ranch resource situations. .The complete livestock inventories

(by months and activity) and budgets for each situation are presented in the

appendix tables 1-13. The resource situations varied in grazing land oper-

ated from 100 acres to 17,000 acres, table 5. Ranch size in animal units

ranged from a 43-animal-unit ranch with 30 mature brood cows to 3,131-animal-

unit ranch with 2,100 mature brood cows.


Table 5.--Total land grazed, number of animal units, and number of mature
brood cows for each representative ranch, West Central Florida, 1966

Representative Size categories Average No. mature Land grazed
ranch unit (head) animal unit brood cows (acres)

I Less 100 43 30 100
II 100 499 215 150 600
III 500 999 703 480 2,900
IV 1,000 1,999 1,287 900 5,800
V 2,000 & over 3,131 2,100 17,000


A large number of ranches in size categories II, III, and IV rented

some grazing land. Thus, these three size categories have two tenure situa-

tions: (a) full land ownership and (b) land ownership with some land rented.

The basic acreage and livestock numbers were found to be similar for each

tenure situation within a size group.

The percentage of land rented was determined by analyzing information

received from ranchers within the size group that rented some grazing land.


- 13 -









CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATIVE RANCHES


Representative ranches

Cow-calf inventories and budgets were developed for five

representative ranch resource situations. .The complete livestock inventories

(by months and activity) and budgets for each situation are presented in the

appendix tables 1-13. The resource situations varied in grazing land oper-

ated from 100 acres to 17,000 acres, table 5. Ranch size in animal units

ranged from a 43-animal-unit ranch with 30 mature brood cows to 3,131-animal-

unit ranch with 2,100 mature brood cows.


Table 5.--Total land grazed, number of animal units, and number of mature
brood cows for each representative ranch, West Central Florida, 1966

Representative Size categories Average No. mature Land grazed
ranch unit (head) animal unit brood cows (acres)

I Less 100 43 30 100
II 100 499 215 150 600
III 500 999 703 480 2,900
IV 1,000 1,999 1,287 900 5,800
V 2,000 & over 3,131 2,100 17,000


A large number of ranches in size categories II, III, and IV rented

some grazing land. Thus, these three size categories have two tenure situa-

tions: (a) full land ownership and (b) land ownership with some land rented.

The basic acreage and livestock numbers were found to be similar for each

tenure situation within a size group.

The percentage of land rented was determined by analyzing information

received from ranchers within the size group that rented some grazing land.


- 13 -







Size categories II, 111, and IV were found to rent 50 percent, 75 percent,

and 50 percent, respectively.


Management and production practices

Year-round grazing was a usual practice among the ranches studied.

Pangola, bahia, and carpet grasses were the major forages used for improved

pastures. Some white clover varieties were commonly mixed with these grasses

in permanent pastures. Native forages such as wire grass provided a majority

of the grazing in the area. These native forages were usually considered

to be unimproved pastures.

The average annual stocking rate per ranch in relation to total land

grazed varied from 3.33 acres per mature cow or 2.33 acres per animal unit

on the smallest ranch to 8.10 acres per mature cow or 5.43 acres per animal

unit on the largest representative ranch, table 6. The acreage classified

as improved pasture varied from 60 percent of the land grazed on the smallest

representative unit to 17.6 percent on the largest ranch unit.

Supplemental feeding of protein concentrates generally occurred

only during the winter months. The amount of supplemental feeding depended

on the available forage. Annual outlays for feed, salt, and minerals were

$8.49, $3.76, $3.74, $4.75, and $4.12 per animal unit for the smallest to

the largest representative ranches. All representative ranches, except for

the smallest, produced their total hay requirements. Hay was generally cut

from some of the improved pastureland.

Breeding, calving, and marketing practices varied among the ranchmen

interviewed. The general practice on these ranches was to breed cows in

the late spring or early summer, to calve in the winter and early spring,


- 14 -







Table 6.--Land use, livestock numbers, and stocking rate for each ranch size group, West Central
Florida, 1966

Size groups
Item Unit (animal unit)
S(43 AU) II (215 AU) IIII (703 AU) IV (1,287 AU) V (3,131 AU)


Land
Total land grazed
Improved pasture
Unimproved pasture
Woodland grazed
Other land
Total land operated
Percentage of im-
proved pasture
Grazing land rented a/
vl
S Livestock
Mature cows
Bulls
Calves held for
replacement
Horses
Calves weaned
Calves sold
Culled cows sold
Culled heifers sold


Stocking rate
Grazing land per
mature cow
Grazing land per
animal unit


acre
acre
acre
acre
acre
acre

pct.
pct.


head
head

head
head
head
head
head
head



acre

acre


100
60
34
6
8
108

60.0
0


30
1

4
0
33
29
3
0



3.33

2.33


600
285
250
65
20
620

47.5
50.0


150
7

23
0
137
114
15
4



4.00

2.79


2,900
1,250
1,200
450
100
3,000

43.1
75.0


480
22

76
0
428
352
48
16



6.04

4.13


5,800
2,200
2,900
700
200
6,000


37.9
50.0


900
42

144
0
783
639
90
34


17,000
3,000
10,200
3,800
1,600
18,600


17.6
0


2,100
100

400
5
1,575
1,175
210
140


6.44

4.51


a/ Percentage of land grazed that was rented, if any land was rented.


8.10

5.43


c







and to sell the weaned calves in the late summer and early fall. These

practices varied between size groups. These variations are illustrated in

appendix tables 1-5.

Labor needs were greatest during the calving season, hay harvest,

roundup, and selling time. The owner-operator was considered to be full-

time on the three largest units. Operators of ranches in size group I

spent 10 percent of their work year on the ranch, while operators of size

II ranches spent 70 percent on ranch work. All operations hired some labor

but in varying amounts, table 7.

Differences in the pounds of cattle and calves produced and marketed

on each representative ranch were related to differences in calf-crop,

death loss, replacement rates, and weights of individual animals sold.

Death loss and replacement rate varied only slightly between size groups.

Therefore, a death loss of 2 percent and a replacement rate for mature cows

of 10 percent were used for all size groups. Calf-crop percentages, which

were based on weaned calves, varied from 97 percent on the smallest unit to

63 percent on the largest unit.

Selling weights of cattle and calves depend on forage production and

utilization, supplemental feeding programs, and marketing times. Calf

weights varied from 335 pounds to 400 pounds. Weaning ages ranged from 6

to 8 months. Pounds of beef produced ranged from a high of 333 pounds per

animal unit or 143 pounds per acre of land grazed on the 43-animal-unit

ranch to a low of 225 pounds per animal unit or 41 pounds per acre on the

3,131-animal-unit ranch. Beef production was calculated from weights of

calves sold and growing stock (replacement heifers).


- 16 -




Table 7.--Selling weights,


beef produced, and general production practices for each ranch size group,
West Central Florida, 1966


Size groups
Item Unit (animal unit)

_1 (43 AU) II (215 AU) III (703 AU) IV (1,287 AU) V (3,131 AU)


Weights
Calves
Culled cows
Culled heifers

Beef produced
Calves sold
Replacement heifers
Culled heifers
Total
Per animal unit
Per acre

Production practices
Calf crop (number
weaned)
Death loss
Culling rate for
mature cows
Culling rate for 2
year old heifers
Replacement rate
for bulls
Cows per bull
Age calves weaned
and sold
Selling period
Hay produced (from
pasture)
Operator's labor year
Full-time hired labor
Part-time hired labor


lb.
lb.
Ib.


lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.



pct.
pct.

pct.

pct.

pet.
no.

mo.
mo.

acre
pct.
no.
hr.


400
785
685


11,600
2,740

14,340
333
143



97
2

10



50
34

7
October

0
10
0
50


335
785
685


38,190
13,015
2,740
53,945
251
90



79
2

10

19

33.3
25

6
September

29
70
0
200


350
830
730


123,200
42,340
11,680
177,220
252
61



77
2

10

21

17
25

7
October

75
100
1
360


370
835
735


236,430
79,380
24,990
340,800
265
59



75
2

10

23

17
25

7
August

75
100
2
750


370
785
685


434,750
172,620
95,900
703,270
225
41



63
2

10

35

17
25

8
October

100
100
3
2,240


- -








The ratio of cows per bull was 25 on all ranches except the smallest.

Since all replacement heifers were selected from the calf-crop, bulls were

replaced every 2 or 3 years as necessary to prevent inbreeding on the two

smallest ranches. Average useful life of bulls for the larger operations

was 6 years.

Heifers calved at approximately 30 months of age. Enough heifers

were selected from each calf-crop to replace cows that were culled or had

died, and to allow for heifers that did not calve the first calving season.

Heifers were sold if they did not calve the first calving season. Calving

percentages were the same for both heifers and mature cows.


Investment

Average total investment with full ownership (including investment

in land, buildings, improvements, machinery and equipment, and productive

livestock) varied from $22,521 for the 43-animal-unit ranch to $1,556,184

for the 3,131-animal-unit ranch. Investment in land constituted the bulk

of the total investment, depending on the tenure situation, tables 8-12.

With full ownership and 100 percent equity, average total investment

per animal unit varied from a low $485.87 for the 215-animal-unit ranch

to a high $572.39 for the 703-animal-unit ranch. On the ranches that rented

some land, the investment per animal unit ranged from a low $278.96 for the

703-animal-unit ranch with 75 percent of the land rented to a high $361.75

for the 1,287-animal-unit ranch with 50 percent of the land rented. Invest-

ment in land amounted to an average of 70.6 percent of total investment for

the five representative ranches under full ownership. This is compared with

53.7 percent on the three ranch situations that rented some grazing land.


- 18 -








Table 8.--Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns for ranch
size I, 43 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966


Item


Capital investment:
Land, buildings, and improvements
Per acre investment in owned land, buildings,
and improvements
Cattle, machinery, and equipment


Average total investment
Average investment per animal


unit


Receipts:
Total cash receipts
Receipts per animal unit
Receipts per acre of land grazed

Costs:
Cash costs
Non-cash costs
Total costs
Costs per animal unit
Costs per acre of land grazed

Income:
Net income over cash costs
Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)
Income per animal unit
Income per acre of land grazed

Operator's labor

Returns:
Returns to capital, management, and risk
Returns per animal unit
Returns per acre of land grazed


Full land
ownershin


------Dollars-------


14,188.00

131.37
8,333.00
22,521.00
523.74


3,327.00
77.37
33.27


1,980.00
630.00
2,610.00
60.70
26.10


1,347.00

717.00
16.67
7.17

500.00


217.00
5.05
2.17


- 19 -


owne shi








Table 9.--Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns for ranch
size II, 215 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966

Land ownership
Item Full One-half owned
ownership One-half rented
-------------Dollars-------------


Capital investment:
Land, buildings, and improvements
Per acre investment in owned land,
buildings, and improvements
Cattle, machinery, and equipment
Average total investment
Average investment per
animal unit

Receipts:
Total cash receipts
Receipts per animal unit
Receipts per acre of land grazed

Costs:
Cash costs
Non-cash costs
Total costs
Costs per animal unit
Costs per acre of land
grazed

Income:
Net income over cash costs
Net ranch income (returns to invest-
ment, operator's labor, management,
and risk)
Income per animal unit
Income per acre of land grazed

Operator's labor

Returns:
Returns to capital, management, and
risk
Returns per animal unit
Returns per acre of land grazed


73,200.00

118.06
31,263.00
104,463.00

485.87


12,855.00
59.79
21.43


7,041.00
1,431.00
8,472.00
39.40


14.12


5,814.00


4,383.00
20.39
7.31

3,500.00



883.00
4.11
1.47


39,763.00

124.26
31,263.00
71,026.00

330.35


12,855.00
59.79
21.43



7,130.00
1,290.00
8,420.00
39.16


14.03


5,725.00


4,435.00
20.63
7.39

3,500.00



935.00
4.35
1.56


- 20 -


i







Table O0.--Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns for ranch
size III, 703 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966

Land ownership
Item F One-fourth owned
Full
u i. three-fourths
ownership rented
-------------Dollars--------------


Capital investment:
Land, buildings, and improvements
Per acre investment in owned land,
buildings, and improvements
Cattle, machinery, and equipment
Average total investment
Average investment per
animal unit

Receipts:
Total cash receipts
Receipts per animal unit
Receipts per acre of land grazed

Costs:
Cash costs
Non-cash costs
Total costs
Costs per animal unit
Costs per acre of land
grazed

Income:
Net income over cash costs
Net ranch income (returns to invest-
ment, operator's labor, management,
and risk)
Income per animal unit
Income per acre of land grazed

Operator's labor

Returns:
Returns to capital, management, and
risk
Returns per animal unit
Returns per acre of land grazed


298,163.00

99.39
104,224.00
402,387.00

572.39


40,472.00
57.57
13.96


23,756.00
4,250.00
28,006.00
39.84

9.66


16,716.00


12,466.00
17.73
4.30

5,000.00



7,466.00
10.62
2.57


91,888.00

111.38
104,224.00
196,112.00

278.96


40,472.00
57.57
13.96


23,936.00
3,281.00
27,217.00
38.72

9.39


16,536.00


13,255.00
18.85
4.57

5,000.00



8,255.00
11.74
2.85


- 21 -








Table ll.--Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns for ranch
size IV, 1,287 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966

Land ownership
Item Full One-half owned
ownership one-half rented
--------------Dollars------------


Capital investment:
Land, buildings, and improvements
Per acre investment in owned land,
buildings, and improvements
Cattle, machinery, and equipment
Average total investment
Average investment per
animal unit

Receipts:
Total cash receipts
Receipts per animal unit
Receipts per acre of land grazed

Costs:
Cash costs
Non-cash costs
Total costs
Costs per animal unit
Costs per acre of land
grazed

Income:
Net income over cash costs
Net ranch income (returns to invest-
ment, operator's labor, management,
and risk)
Income per animal unit
Income per acre of land grazed

Operator's labor

Returns:
Returns to capital, management, and
risk
Returns per animal unit
Returns per acre of land grazed


528,038.00

88.01
183,878.00
711,916.00

553.16


81,248.00
63.13
14.01


49,045.00
6,058.00
55,103.00
42.82

9.50


32,203.00


26,145.00
20.31
4.51

5,000.00



21,145.00
16.43
3.65


281,688.00

90.87
183,878.00
465,566.00

361.75


81,248.00
63.13
14.01


49,603.00
5,179.00
54,782.00
42.57

9.45


31,645.00


26,466.00
20.56
4.56

5,000.00



21,466.00
16.68
3.70


- 22 -







Table 12.--Summarized investment, receipts, costs, and net returns for ranch
size V, 3,131 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966


Item


Capital investment:
Land, buildings, and improvements
Per acre investment in owned land, buildings,
and improvements
Livestock, machinery, and equipment


Average total investment
Average investment per animal


unit


Receipts:
Total cash receipts
Receipts per animal unit
Receipts per acre of land grazed

Costs:
Cash costs
Non-cash costs
Total costs
Costs per animal unit
Costs per acre of land grazed

Income:
Net income over cash costs
Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)
Income per animal unit
Income per acre of land grazed

Operator's labor

Returns:
Returns to capital, management, and risk
Returns per animal unit
Returns per acre of land grazed


Full land
ownership
-------Dollars-------



1,129,413.00

60.72
426,771.00
1,556,184.00
497.02


158,669.00
50.68
9.33


86,798.00
10,059.00
96,857.00
30.93
5.70


71,871.00

61,812.00
19.74
3.64

5,000.00


56,812.00
18.15
3.34


- 23 -







Per acre investment in owned land, buildings, and improvements ranged

from a high $131.37 for the 43-animal-unit ranch to a low $60.72 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch. Inventory value of productive livestock varied

from $5,263.00 or $122.40 per animal unit for the smallest ranch to

$398,333.00 or $127.22 per animal unit for the largest ranch. Machinery and

equipment accounted for a relatively small amount of total investment. The

average investment in machinery and equipment under full ownership was less

than 5 percent of the total investment.


Receipts

Total gross receipts varied with each ranch size in relation to

weights of calves and culled cattle, calving and culling percentages, and

selling periods, table 7. Gross receipts ranged from $3,327.00 on the

smallest ranch to $158,669.00 on the largest ranch.

Gross income per animal unit varied from a low of $50.68 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch to a high of $77.37 for the 43-unit ranch. Gross

receipts per acre of land grazed increased from $9.33 for the 17,000-acre

ranch to $33.27 for the 100-acre ranch. Representative ranch IV (1,287

animal units) had relatively high gross receipts. This was mainly due to

selling the cattle and calves during the month of August when calf prices

were high. Although this analysis does not include non-cash income and

income from sources other than the ranch, increasing land values are impor-

tant to ranchers in this area.


Costs

Total costs included cash and non-cash costs, appendix tables 6-13.

These costs varied with each ranch size and within each tenure situation.


- 24 -







Per acre investment in owned land, buildings, and improvements ranged

from a high $131.37 for the 43-animal-unit ranch to a low $60.72 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch. Inventory value of productive livestock varied

from $5,263.00 or $122.40 per animal unit for the smallest ranch to

$398,333.00 or $127.22 per animal unit for the largest ranch. Machinery and

equipment accounted for a relatively small amount of total investment. The

average investment in machinery and equipment under full ownership was less

than 5 percent of the total investment.


Receipts

Total gross receipts varied with each ranch size in relation to

weights of calves and culled cattle, calving and culling percentages, and

selling periods, table 7. Gross receipts ranged from $3,327.00 on the

smallest ranch to $158,669.00 on the largest ranch.

Gross income per animal unit varied from a low of $50.68 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch to a high of $77.37 for the 43-unit ranch. Gross

receipts per acre of land grazed increased from $9.33 for the 17,000-acre

ranch to $33.27 for the 100-acre ranch. Representative ranch IV (1,287

animal units) had relatively high gross receipts. This was mainly due to

selling the cattle and calves during the month of August when calf prices

were high. Although this analysis does not include non-cash income and

income from sources other than the ranch, increasing land values are impor-

tant to ranchers in this area.


Costs

Total costs included cash and non-cash costs, appendix tables 6-13.

These costs varied with each ranch size and within each tenure situation.


- 24 -








Cash costs included charges for such items as purchased feed, taxes, rent,

and hired labor; and non-cash costs included depreciation on buildings, im-

provements, machinery, equipment, and bulls.

Total costs per animal unit varied between size groups from $60.70

for ranch size I with full land ownership to $30.93 for ranch size V with

full land ownership. There was little cost variation within size groups due

to the varying tenure situation. Reduced investment with decreased taxes

was nearly offset by rental charges.


Net cash income

Net ranch income to investment, operator's labor, management, and

risk ranged from $717.00 to $61,812.00. This represents a high of $20.63

per animal unit for the 215-animal-unit ranch and a low of $16.67 per animal

unit for the 43-animal-unit ranch. After subtracting value of operator's

labor, returns per animal unit to capital, management, and risk varied from

a low of $4.11 for the 215-animal-unit ranch to a high of $18.15 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch, tables 8-12. Table 13 presents a comparison of re-

turns among size groups and land ownership.



SUMMARY


Information from a stratified random sample of ranches in the West

Central Florida area was used to identify resource situations and to develop

budgets for representative ranch units. Five cow-calf situations were iden-

tified. These representative ranches ranged in size from 100 acres grazed to

17,000 acres, and from a size of 43 animal units to 3,131 animal units.

Three of the representative ranches had two tenure situations: (1) full


- 25 -








Cash costs included charges for such items as purchased feed, taxes, rent,

and hired labor; and non-cash costs included depreciation on buildings, im-

provements, machinery, equipment, and bulls.

Total costs per animal unit varied between size groups from $60.70

for ranch size I with full land ownership to $30.93 for ranch size V with

full land ownership. There was little cost variation within size groups due

to the varying tenure situation. Reduced investment with decreased taxes

was nearly offset by rental charges.


Net cash income

Net ranch income to investment, operator's labor, management, and

risk ranged from $717.00 to $61,812.00. This represents a high of $20.63

per animal unit for the 215-animal-unit ranch and a low of $16.67 per animal

unit for the 43-animal-unit ranch. After subtracting value of operator's

labor, returns per animal unit to capital, management, and risk varied from

a low of $4.11 for the 215-animal-unit ranch to a high of $18.15 for the

3,131-animal-unit ranch, tables 8-12. Table 13 presents a comparison of re-

turns among size groups and land ownership.



SUMMARY


Information from a stratified random sample of ranches in the West

Central Florida area was used to identify resource situations and to develop

budgets for representative ranch units. Five cow-calf situations were iden-

tified. These representative ranches ranged in size from 100 acres grazed to

17,000 acres, and from a size of 43 animal units to 3,131 animal units.

Three of the representative ranches had two tenure situations: (1) full


- 25 -








land ownership and (2) land ownership with renting of some grazing land.

Total investment, including investment in land, buildings, improvements, ma-

chinery, and productive livestock, ranged from $22,521.00 to over $1.5 million.

Investment depended largely on ranch size and the tenure situation.


Table 13.--Returns to operator owned resources by size of ranch and land
ownership, West Central Florida, 1966

Net returns to investment,
Size of ranch operator's labor, manage- Operator's
and ownership ment, and risk investment
of land Average Average per ranch
of land peranch
per per
ranch animal unit
-----------------Dollars-------------------

Group 1, 30 cows 43 AU
Full ownership of land 717 16.67 22,521
Group II, 150 cows 215 AU
Full ownership of land 4,383 20.39 104,463
One-half owned land and
one-half land rented 4,435 20.63 71,026
Group III, 480 cows 703 AU
Full ownership of land 12,466 17.73 402,387
One-fourth owned land and
three-fourths land rented 13,255 18.85 196,112
Group IV, 900 cows 1,287 AU
Full ownership of land 26,145 20.31 711,916
One-half owned land and
one-half land rented 26,466 20.56 465,566
Group V, 2,100 cows 3,131 AU
Full ownership of land 61,812 19.74 1,556,184


Gross income per animal unit ranged from $50.68 to $77.37, and gross

income per acre of pastureland varied from $9.33 to $33.27. Total costs per

animal unit, including cash and non-cash costs, ranged from $30.93 to $60.70.

Returns to investment, operator's labor, management, and risk varied from

$717.00 to $61,812.00 as the ranches increased in size. After subtracting a


- 26 -







charge for operator's labor, returns to investment, management, and risk

ranged from $217.00 to $56,812.00.

The results of this analysis indicated little change in cash returns

under varying tenure situations. Returns to capital, management, and risk

were slightly higher for ranches that rented some grazing land. This was due

largely to smaller non-cash costs on the units that rented grazing land.

Returns were affected by the selling period and production coefficients of

the various representative ranches.

The results of this analysis should be helpful to ranchers who are

considering possible adjustment opportunities for their individual ranch

firm. Care should be used in comparing these budgets and techniques of pro-

duction with individual operations because of variations in size, location,

land use, management, etc. The inventories and budgets in this study were

based on resource situations considered to be modal or most representative

of beef cattle ranches in West Central Florida during 1966.


- 27 -



































APPENDIX TABLES









Appendix Table 1.--Beef cattle inventory by montns and activity, ranch size I, 30 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966

Calvilng season Selling period
Animal Breeding season
Cattle herd unit Animal
equiv- Total units Animal
talent time (col. 2 units
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. in x no. months
months animals) (16x15)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)
Cows:
(1) Cows, mature 1.0 30 30 30 30 30 30 6 30 180
(2) Cows, w/calf 1/ 1.25 2 33 33 33 6 41 246
(3) Cows, dry 1.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1.0 6
(4) Cows, culled 2/ 1.0 3 1 3 3
(5) Cows. died 3/ 1.0 1 1 1 3 1 3
Heifers:
(6) Heifers, 2 yrs. 1.0 4 4 4 3 4 12
(7) Heifers, coming 2 .65 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 12 3 36
(8) Heifers, coming 1 .50 4 4 2 2 4
Calves:
(9) Heifer, calves .50 16 1 8 8
(10) Steer, calves .50 17 1 9 9
Other:
(11) Bulls 1.25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1.25 15
Total animal unit months xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 516
Average animal units xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 43

1/ 97 percent calf crop (calves weaned).
2/ 10 percent replacement rate for mature cows.
3/ 2 percent death loss.











Appendix Table 2.--Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch size II, 150 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966

Calving season ICalving season
Anial Breeding season Selling period
unit Animal
Cattle herd equiv- Total units Animal
talent time (col. 2 units
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. in x no. months
months animals) (16x15)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) .(7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)
Cows:
(1) Cows, mature 1.0 150 150 150 150 150 150 6 150 900
119
(2) Cows, w/calf 1/ 1.25 18 137 137 137 137 137 6 171 1,026

(3) Cows, dry 1.0 3 36 36 36 36 36 6 36 216
(4) Cows, culled 2/ 1.0 19 1 19 19
(5) Cows, died 3/ 1.0 4 4 4 4 4 4 -16
Heifers:
(6) Heifers, 2 years 1.0 23 23 2 23 46
(7) Heifers, coming 2 .65 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 12 15 180
(8) Helfers, coming 1 .50 23 23 23 3 12 36
Calves:
(9) Heifer, calves .50 69 1 35 35
(10) Steer, calves .50 68 1 34 34
Other:
(11) Bulls 1.25 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 12 9 108
Total animal unit months xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 2,584
Average animal units xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 215


79 percent calf crop (calves weaned).
10 percent replacement rate for mature
2 percent death loss.


cows and 19 percent of 2-year-old hilfers culled.









Appendix Table 3.--Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch size III, 480 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966

Calving season I Selling period Calving season

Animal Breeding season
Animal
unit Animal
Cattle herd uRit Animal
Cattle herd equiv- Total units Animal
talent time (col. 2 units
Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. in x no. months
months animals) (16x15)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)
Cows:
(1) Cows, mature 1.0 480 480 480 480 480 5 480 2,400

(2) Cows, w/calf / 1.25 370 428 428 428 428 428 428 7 535 3,745
58
(3) Cows, dry 1.0 ll 128 128 128 128 128 128 7 128 896
(4) Cows, culled 2/ 1.0 64 1 64 64
(5) Cows, died 3/ 1.0 12 12 12 3 12 -36
Heifers:
(6) Heifers, 2 years
and older 1.0 76 76 2 76 152
(7) Heifers, coming 2 .65 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 12 49 588
(8) Heifers,'coming 1 .50 76 76 2 38 76
Calves:
(9) Heifer calves .50 214 1 107 107
(10) Steer calves .50 214 1 107 107
Other:
(11) Bulls 1.25 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 12 28 336
Total animal unit months xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 8,435
Average animal units xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 703


77 percent calf crop (weaned calves).
10 percent replacement rate for mature
2 percent death loss.


cows and 21 percent for 2-year-old heifers culled.











Appendix Table 4.--Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch size IV, 900 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966

Calving season Selling period

Animal Breeding season
Cattle herd unit Animal
equiv- Total units Animal
talent time (col. 2 units
Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. in x no. months
months animals) (16x15)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)
Cows:
(1) Cows, mature 1.0 900 900 900 900 900 900 6 900 5,400
675
(2) Cows, w/calf 1/ 1.25 608 783 783 783 783 783 6 979 5,874

(3) Cows, dry 1.0 225 261 261 261 261 261 6 261 1,566
(4) Cows, culled 2/ 1.0 124 1 124 124
(5) Cows, died j/ 1.0 20 20 20 20 20 5 20 -100
Heifers:
(6) Heifers, 2 years
and older 1.0 144 1 144 144
(7) Heifers, coming 2 .65 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 12 94 1,128
(8) Heifers, coming 1 .50 144 144 144 144 4 72 288
Calves:
(9) Heifer calves .50 391 1 195 195
(10) Steer Calves .50 392 1 196 196
Other:
(11) Bulls 1.25 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 12 53 636
Total animal unit months xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 15,451
Average animal units xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 1,287


75 percent calf crop (calves weaned).
10 percent replacement rate for mature
2 percent death loss.


cows and 23 percent of 2-year-old holfers culled.










Appendix Table 5.--Beef cattle inventory by months and activity, ranch size V, 2,100 mature cows, West Central Florida, 1966
Calving season Selling period Calving season

Animal Breeding season
Animal--------------------------------
unit Animal
Cattle herdequiv- Total units Animal
dlent time (col. 2 units
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. in x no. months
months animals) 16x15)
Cows:. .. ,. ,n .In _


Cows:
(1) Cows, mature

(2) Cows, w/calf 1/

(3) Cows, dry
(4) Cows, culled 2/
(5) Cows, died 3/
Heifers:
(6) Heifers, 2 years
and older
(7) Heifers, coming 2
(8) Heifers, coming 1
Calves:
(9) Heifer calves
(10) Steer calves
Other:
(11) Bulls
Total animal unit months
Average animal units


(2)

1.0

1.25

1.0
1.0
1.0


1.25
xx
wY


(3) (4) (5)

2,100 2,100
1,323
252
777
148


(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
2,100 2,100 2,100

1,575 1,575 1,575 1,575 1,575 1,575

925 925 925 925 925 925


350
50 50


400 400
400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400


(15)

5


(16)


k17)


2,100 10,500


7 1,969 13,783


7


1
50 3


2


400 400
400 400


6,475
350
-150


800
3,120
400

394
394

1,500
37,566
3,131


100
xx
xx


1/ 63 percent calf crop (weaned calves).
2/ 10 percent replacement rate for mature
3/ 2 percent death loss.


cows and 35 percent of 2-year-old heifers culled.


"" "






Appendix Table 6.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size I with
full ownership, 30 mature cows, 43 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966


Values per ranch
Item
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars--------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle
Average total investment

Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Total ranch income

Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


12,300
1,888
3,070
5,263
22,521


2,899
428
3,327


25
365
75
500
395
85
43
302
54
20
116
1,980

1,347


240
353
37
630

2,610


717


523.74




77.37













46.05

31.33





14.65

60.70


16.67


- 34 -







Appendix Table 7.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size II with
full ownership,150 mature cows, 215 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966


Values per ranch
Item Per
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars---------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle


Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales


Average total investment





Total ranch income


Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Custom harvesting hay
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


69,125
4,075
3,903
27 360
104,463


10,070
2,185
600
12,855


150
809
300
1,881
854
200
126
1,522
255
444
50
450
7,041

5,814


503
585
343
1,431

8,472


4,383


485.87





59.79














32.75

27.04





6.66

39.40


20.39


- 35 -








Appendix Table 8.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size II with
fifty percent of land rented, 150 mature cows, 215 animal units, West
Central Florida, 1966

Values per ranch
Item Per
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars--------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle
Average total investment

Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales
Total ranch income

Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Land rent
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Custom harvesting hay
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


36,625
3,138
3,903
27,360
71,026


10,070
2,185
600
12,855


150
809
300
1,881
854
200
126
600
1,021
245
444
50
450
7,130

5,725


362
585
343
1,290

8,420


4,435


330.35





59.79















33.16

26.63





6.00

39.16


20.63


- 36 -







Appendix Table 9.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size III with
full ownership, 480 mature cows, 703 animal units, West Central Florida, 1966

Values per ranch
Item Per
Total animal unit.
----------Dollars--------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle


Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales


Average total investment





Total ranch income


Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


285,250
12,913
13,624
90,600
402,387


30,788
7,239
2 445
40,472


195
2,630
4,500
5,230
2,085
370
450
5,865
815
200
1 416
23,756

16,716


1,587
1,943
720
4,250

28,006


12,466


572.39





57.57













33.79

23.78





6.05

39.84


17.73


- 37 -







Appendix Table 10.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size III with
seventy-five percent of land rented, 480 mature cows, 703 animal units, West
Central Florida, 1966


Values per ranch
ItePer
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars---------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle


Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales


Average total investment





Total ranch income


Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Land rent
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


86,500
5,388
13,624
90 600
196,112


30,788
7,239
2 445
40,472


195
2,630
4,500
5,230
2,085
370
450
3,300
2,785
775
200
1 416
23,936

16,536


618
1,943
720
3,281

27,217


13,255


278.96





57.57














34.05

23.52





4.67

38.72


18.85


- 38 -








Appendix Table l1.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size IV with
full ownership, 900 mature cows, 1,287 animal units, West Central Florida,
1966

Values per ranch
Item Per
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars---------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle


Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales


Average total investment





Total ranch income


Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


508,500
19,538
16,703
167.175
711,916


62,063
13,677
5,508
81,248


570
6,120
9,125
13,200
3,561
500
992
10,483
1,050
600
2 844
49,045

32,203


2,126
2,388
1 544
6,058

55,103


26,145


553.16





63.13













38.11

25.02





4.71

42.82


20.31


- 39 -







Appendix Table 12.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size IV with
fifty percent of land rented, 900 mature cows, 1,287 animal units, West
Central Florida, 1966

Values per ranch
Item Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars---------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle
Average total investment

Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales
Total ranch income

Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Land rent
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


270,500
11,188
16,703
167,175
465,566


62,063
13,677
5 508
81,248


570
6,120
9,125
13,200
3,561
500
992
4,400
6,791
900
600
2 844
49,603

31,645


1,247
2,388
1,544
5,179

54,782


26,466


361.75





63.13














38.54

24.59





4.02

42.57


20.56


- 40







Appendix Table 13.--Investment, expenses, and income for ranch size V with
full ownership, 2,100 mature cows, 3,131 animal units, West Central Florida,
1966

Values per ranch
Item Per
Per
Total animal unit
---------Dollars---------


Capital investment:
Land owned
Buildings and improvements
Machinery and equipment
Cattle
Horses


Income:
Calf sales
Cow sales
Heifer sales


Average total investment





Total ranch income


Expenses:
Veterinary services and supplies
Feed, salt, and minerals
Labor hired
Pasture maintenance and hay production
Machinery and equipment operating costs
Building and improvement repairs
Interest on operating capital
Taxes
Transportation, insurance, and utilities
Miscellaneous
Commission charge (3.5%)
Total cash costs

Net income over cash costs

Non-cash costs:
Building and improvement depreciation
Machinery and equipment depreciation
Bull depreciation
Total non-cash costs

Total expenses

Net ranch income (returns to investment,
operator's labor, management, and risk)


1,101,000
28,413
27,188
398,333
1 250
1,556,184


108,644
29,953
20,072
158,669


1,470
12,900
15,900
18,000
5,275
722
1,628
23,030
1,320
1,000
5,553
86,798

71,871


3,226
3,240
3,593
10,059

96,857


61,812


497.02





50.68













27.72

22.95





3.21

30.93


19.74


- 41 -




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs