• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Economic trends in commercial celery...
 Production environment
 Production practices
 Harvesting and handling celery
 Marketing celery
 Returns to growers
 Market demand
 Appendices






Group Title: Mimeo report - Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida - no. EC 66-1
Title: Economic background and trends in the production and marketing of Florida celery
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071967/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic background and trends in the production and marketing of Florida celery
Series Title: Mimeo report Agricultural economics
Physical Description: 30 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, D.L
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1965
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Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by D.L. Brooke.
Funding: Agricultural economics mimeo report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071967
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67709432
clc - 000458726

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Economic trends in commercial celery production
        Page 2
    Production environment
        Page 3
        Production areas
            Page 3
        Seasonal pattern of production
            Page 3
        Soil types
            Page 4
        Drainage and irrigation
            Page 4
        Size of farm and type or farming
            Page 5
        Farm management problems
            Page 5
        Production risks
            Page 6
    Production practices
        Page 7
        Seed and seedbeds
            Page 7
        Fertilization practices
            Page 7
        Cultivation
            Page 8
        Insect and disease control
            Page 8
    Harvesting and handling celery
        Page 9
        Harvesting and packing
            Page 9
        Containers
            Page 10
        Precooling
            Page 10
        Grades
            Page 11
        Inspection
            Page 11
    Marketing celery
        Page 11
        Movement of celery and competition
            Page 11
        Transportation
            Page 12
        Sales organizations and methods of sale
            Page 12
        Outlets
            Page 12
        Distribution
            Page 13
        Prices of celery
            Page 13
            Page 14
    Returns to growers
        Page 15
    Market demand
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Appendices
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Do

cC 66-


.August 1965


Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC66-1









BACKGROUND AND TRENDS IN THE PRODUCTION
AND MARKETING OF FLORIDA CELERY


by

D. L. Brooke
Agricultural Economist


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Gainesville, Florida













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction . . . . . .

Economic Trends in Commercial Celery Production . .

Production Environment . . . . ...

Production areas . . . .....
Seasonal pattern of production . . .
Soil types . . . . *
Drainage and irrigation . . . .
Size of farm and type of farming . . .
Farm management problems . . . ...
Production risks . . . . ...

Production Practices . . . . ..


Seed and seedbeds . . .
Fertilization practices . .
Cultivation . . . .
Insect and disease control . .

Harvesting and Handling Celery . .


Harvesting and packing. .
Containers . .
Precooling . .
Grades . . .
Inspection... . .


Marketing Celery . . . . . ...

Movement of celery and competition . . .
Transportation . . . . .
Sales organizations and methods of sale .. . .
Outlets . . . . . . .
Distribution . . . . . .
Prices of celery . . . . .

Returns to Growers . . . . . .

Market Demand . . . . . .


Appendices . . . . .


Page


1


7


9














ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND TRENDS IN THE PRODUCTION
AND MARKETING OF FLORIDA CELERY

by

D. L. Brooke


Introduction


The material contained herein is substantially the same as that
prepared in order to present selected economic data relative to the pro-
duction and marketing of celery for fresh market from Florida before a
hearing on a proposed Federal Marketing Order on July 28, 1965. This
publication is presented to furnish growers and others with similar in-
formation which they may find useful in making future production or policy
decisions relating to the celery industry in the state. More specifically
the material presented concerns:

1. The economic background of the production of celery
in Florida.

2. Trends in the production of celery, with particular
reference to the past 10 seasons.

The marketing order being considered is intended to provide for:
(1) annual marketable quantities of celery for the Florida industry; (2)
base quantities for producers; and (3) annual marketable allotments.





Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Gainesville, Florida.









Economic Trends in Commercial Celery Production


Commercial production of celery (apium graveolens) ia Florida
dates back beyond the turn of the century.

After the 1895 freeze destroyed a large part of the citrus
plantings around Sanford, growers began to seek other crops
adapted to the area. Mr. J. N. Whitner was familiar with the
home planting of celery in Mr. Chase's garden. During the
fall of 1897 Mr. Whitner obtained enough plants from
Kalamazoo, Michigan to plant three-quarters of an acre, frxn
which a return of $1,300.00 was realized. Four carloads o.
celery were shipped from the Sanford area during the winter
of 1899.
................ ... ...o.... ...
Soon after the successful cultivation of celery in the Sanford
area, plantings were made in the vicinity of Manatee, Florida.1

Earliest State statistics indicate a production of over one million
crates in 1918.2 County statistics show the planting of 6,620 acres and
a production of 1,907,000 crates in Seminole, Manatee and Sarasota counties
in 1928-29. First recorded production in Marion County was in the spring
of 1934 and in Palm Beach County in the winter of 1936.3

During World War II acreage expanded rapidly. The largest planted
acreage of record was 14,000 acres in the 1945-46 season, of which 13,450
acres were harvested. Acreage harvested decreased after 1945-46 to a low
of 9,100 acres in 1954-55. By 1958-59 growers had increased harvested
acreage to 13,300 acres. Acreage reduction was again apparent in the
1959-60 and 1960-61 seasons. Acreage harvested increased from 10,200
acres in 1960-61 to 11,700 acres in 1964-65.

Yields per acre have increased during the past two and one-half
decades from less than 500 crates per acre in the early 1940's to around


1J. W. Wilson and N. C. Hayslip, "Insects Attacking Celery in
Florida," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 486, December
1951, p. 6.

2USDA, "Estimates of Acreage Production and Value, 1918-27,"
February 1944 (out of print).

USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Acreage
by Counties, Total Acreage, Production and Value, 1929-40," October 1940
(out of print).

Appendix Table 1.










a 685 crate average for the five-year period 1961-65. The severe winter
of 1957-58 produced the lowest average yield of the past 15 seasons. Yields
of winter and spring celery have followed the same general pattern. How-
ever, within the most recent five-year period, winter yields have averaged
about 5 percent above those of the spring crop. Average yields of 805
crates per acre for the winter crop and 780 crates for the spring crop
have been attained within the past 15 seasons.6

Celery production of value between 1951 and 1965 has ranged from
4.6 million hundredweights in 1964-65 to 3.3 million hundredweights in
1957-58.7 The winter crop has averaged about 64 percent and the spring
crop 36 percent of total production of value.


Production Environment


Production areas.--Celery for fresh market consumption is produced
commercially in four areas in the Peninsula of Florida. Major production
is in the Everglades area of western Palm Beach County. The second
largest area of production is that known as the Central Florida area which
includes production in Lake, Orange and Seminole counties. The third area
of importance is that of Sarasota County. North Florida production is
presently confined to a relatively small muckland area in Alachua County.

During the 1963-64 season 78 percent of Florida's production was
in the Everglades area, 16 percent in the Central Florida area, 4 percent
in Sarasota and 2 percent in the North Florida area. In the 1955-56
season production by areas was approximately as follows: Central Florida,
36 percent; Everglades, 48 percent; Sarasota, 11 percent and North Florida,
5 percent.8 Thus, during the past 10 seasons production has been
decreasing in the North and Central Florida and Sarasota areas and
increasing in the Everglades. Expansion in the Everglades has been the
result of increased efficiency in production and harvesting through the
use of technological improvements in machinery and in insect and disease
control. Other areas have been finding it increasingly difficult to
compete since the early 1950's.

Seasonal pattern of production.--From 1955-56 to 1957-58 the trend
in production was downward despite some slight increases in acreage


5bid.

6Appendix Figure 1.

7Appendix Table 1.


8Appendix Table 3.










a 685 crate average for the five-year period 1961-65. The severe winter
of 1957-58 produced the lowest average yield of the past 15 seasons. Yields
of winter and spring celery have followed the same general pattern. How-
ever, within the most recent five-year period, winter yields have averaged
about 5 percent above those of the spring crop. Average yields of 805
crates per acre for the winter crop and 780 crates for the spring crop
have been attained within the past 15 seasons.6

Celery production of value between 1951 and 1965 has ranged from
4.6 million hundredweights in 1964-65 to 3.3 million hundredweights in
1957-58.7 The winter crop has averaged about 64 percent and the spring
crop 36 percent of total production of value.


Production Environment


Production areas.--Celery for fresh market consumption is produced
commercially in four areas in the Peninsula of Florida. Major production
is in the Everglades area of western Palm Beach County. The second
largest area of production is that known as the Central Florida area which
includes production in Lake, Orange and Seminole counties. The third area
of importance is that of Sarasota County. North Florida production is
presently confined to a relatively small muckland area in Alachua County.

During the 1963-64 season 78 percent of Florida's production was
in the Everglades area, 16 percent in the Central Florida area, 4 percent
in Sarasota and 2 percent in the North Florida area. In the 1955-56
season production by areas was approximately as follows: Central Florida,
36 percent; Everglades, 48 percent; Sarasota, 11 percent and North Florida,
5 percent.8 Thus, during the past 10 seasons production has been
decreasing in the North and Central Florida and Sarasota areas and
increasing in the Everglades. Expansion in the Everglades has been the
result of increased efficiency in production and harvesting through the
use of technological improvements in machinery and in insect and disease
control. Other areas have been finding it increasingly difficult to
compete since the early 1950's.

Seasonal pattern of production.--From 1955-56 to 1957-58 the trend
in production was downward despite some slight increases in acreage


5bid.

6Appendix Figure 1.

7Appendix Table 1.


8Appendix Table 3.










a 685 crate average for the five-year period 1961-65. The severe winter
of 1957-58 produced the lowest average yield of the past 15 seasons. Yields
of winter and spring celery have followed the same general pattern. How-
ever, within the most recent five-year period, winter yields have averaged
about 5 percent above those of the spring crop. Average yields of 805
crates per acre for the winter crop and 780 crates for the spring crop
have been attained within the past 15 seasons.6

Celery production of value between 1951 and 1965 has ranged from
4.6 million hundredweights in 1964-65 to 3.3 million hundredweights in
1957-58.7 The winter crop has averaged about 64 percent and the spring
crop 36 percent of total production of value.


Production Environment


Production areas.--Celery for fresh market consumption is produced
commercially in four areas in the Peninsula of Florida. Major production
is in the Everglades area of western Palm Beach County. The second
largest area of production is that known as the Central Florida area which
includes production in Lake, Orange and Seminole counties. The third area
of importance is that of Sarasota County. North Florida production is
presently confined to a relatively small muckland area in Alachua County.

During the 1963-64 season 78 percent of Florida's production was
in the Everglades area, 16 percent in the Central Florida area, 4 percent
in Sarasota and 2 percent in the North Florida area. In the 1955-56
season production by areas was approximately as follows: Central Florida,
36 percent; Everglades, 48 percent; Sarasota, 11 percent and North Florida,
5 percent.8 Thus, during the past 10 seasons production has been
decreasing in the North and Central Florida and Sarasota areas and
increasing in the Everglades. Expansion in the Everglades has been the
result of increased efficiency in production and harvesting through the
use of technological improvements in machinery and in insect and disease
control. Other areas have been finding it increasingly difficult to
compete since the early 1950's.

Seasonal pattern of production.--From 1955-56 to 1957-58 the trend
in production was downward despite some slight increases in acreage


5bid.

6Appendix Figure 1.

7Appendix Table 1.


8Appendix Table 3.










planted. Winter celery production was relatively more stable than that
of the spring season. The latter tended more sharply downward. This trend
was reversed in 1958-59 with a sharp increase in acreage and production in
both the winter and spring seasons. This apparently stemmed from the high
prices received for celery following the freeze of 1957-58. The downward
trend was again evident in the 1959-60 and 1960-61 seasons. During the 9
past four seasons acreage and production have increased less than 10 percent.

Information on production in the 1964-65 season indicates that 58
percent of Florida's crop was winter harvested and 42 percent for spring
harvest. In the 1955-56 season winter production was 64 percent and
spring 36 percent of the total.10

Soil types.--Celery is grown on soil types ranging from fine sands
to "'ustard apple" muck and "saw grass" peat soils. In the Everglades
area the Okeechobee and Everglades mucks and peats of the "custard apple"
and "saw grass" types are found in depths ranging from 3 to 10 feet. In
the Zellwood area are found Everglades muck and mucky peat varying in
depth from 4 to 19 feet. In the Sarasota and Island Grove areas is
found Terra Ceia muck ranging in depth from 12 to 36 inches. The Island
Grove area also has some Delray and Manatee mineral soils with a dark
surface, 9 inches or more in depth. All of the above soils are underlain
with calcareous materials ranging from sand to clay in texture. Soils of
the Oviedo area, on which celery is grown, range from a Pamlico muck
1 to 5 feet in depth with an acid sandy clay substratum, to dominantly
Leon fine sand with an organic pan subsurface. The soils in the Sanford
area are dominantly Leon fine sand with an organic pan subsurface at 14
to 36 inches.

Drainage and irrigation.--All areas of the State producing celery
are relatively level. Although the level land lends itself to large
fields, moisture control is a problem and the necessary drainage ditches
and water furrows tend to cut up the fields. Water furrows connecting
with perimeter ditches reduce the danger of flooding by heavy rains. Where
pumps are available excess water may be drawn off quickly, and in case of
dry weather the ditches and furrows may be filled to provide subirrigation.
In the muck soils the desired moisture level can be maintained by
controlling the level of water in the drainage ditches and canals. Mole
drains are opened each year under these fields with special equipment.
They run from one ditch almost to the other at about 10 foot intervals.
In the sandy soil areas such as Sanford and parts of Oviedo drainage and
irrigation are by a tiling system installed 24 to 30 inches below the
surface and running laterally through the field. Artesian wells supply
water for irrigation, and drainage is by natural seepage and run-off
through the tiling system.


USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, op. cit.
10 ndix Table 3.
Appendix Table 3.










planted. Winter celery production was relatively more stable than that
of the spring season. The latter tended more sharply downward. This trend
was reversed in 1958-59 with a sharp increase in acreage and production in
both the winter and spring seasons. This apparently stemmed from the high
prices received for celery following the freeze of 1957-58. The downward
trend was again evident in the 1959-60 and 1960-61 seasons. During the 9
past four seasons acreage and production have increased less than 10 percent.

Information on production in the 1964-65 season indicates that 58
percent of Florida's crop was winter harvested and 42 percent for spring
harvest. In the 1955-56 season winter production was 64 percent and
spring 36 percent of the total.10

Soil types.--Celery is grown on soil types ranging from fine sands
to "'ustard apple" muck and "saw grass" peat soils. In the Everglades
area the Okeechobee and Everglades mucks and peats of the "custard apple"
and "saw grass" types are found in depths ranging from 3 to 10 feet. In
the Zellwood area are found Everglades muck and mucky peat varying in
depth from 4 to 19 feet. In the Sarasota and Island Grove areas is
found Terra Ceia muck ranging in depth from 12 to 36 inches. The Island
Grove area also has some Delray and Manatee mineral soils with a dark
surface, 9 inches or more in depth. All of the above soils are underlain
with calcareous materials ranging from sand to clay in texture. Soils of
the Oviedo area, on which celery is grown, range from a Pamlico muck
1 to 5 feet in depth with an acid sandy clay substratum, to dominantly
Leon fine sand with an organic pan subsurface. The soils in the Sanford
area are dominantly Leon fine sand with an organic pan subsurface at 14
to 36 inches.

Drainage and irrigation.--All areas of the State producing celery
are relatively level. Although the level land lends itself to large
fields, moisture control is a problem and the necessary drainage ditches
and water furrows tend to cut up the fields. Water furrows connecting
with perimeter ditches reduce the danger of flooding by heavy rains. Where
pumps are available excess water may be drawn off quickly, and in case of
dry weather the ditches and furrows may be filled to provide subirrigation.
In the muck soils the desired moisture level can be maintained by
controlling the level of water in the drainage ditches and canals. Mole
drains are opened each year under these fields with special equipment.
They run from one ditch almost to the other at about 10 foot intervals.
In the sandy soil areas such as Sanford and parts of Oviedo drainage and
irrigation are by a tiling system installed 24 to 30 inches below the
surface and running laterally through the field. Artesian wells supply
water for irrigation, and drainage is by natural seepage and run-off
through the tiling system.


USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, op. cit.
10 ndix Table 3.
Appendix Table 3.









Size of farm and type of farming.--Celery is seldom grown com-
mercially on small farms in Florida. Historically this was not the case,
because for many years prior to World War II celery was produced on 10 to
50 acre farms in the Sanford and Sarasota areas. However, with the
advent of modern machinery and higher labor costs few small farmers have
been able to compete effectively with larger farms in celery production.
Specialized equipment for production and harvesting is expensive. There-
fore, few small farmers have been able to afford the capital outlay
required for production. Even with modern machinery and methods, economies
of scale in their use permit greater efficiency or lower cost per unit on
larger farms. The few small celery growers remaining in the industry have
had the advantages of cooperative machine harvesting methods and higher
than average yields per acre. Even so, there are relatively few growers
with less than 50 acres of celery per year.

In the 1956-57 season 7 growers in the Everglades area averaged
863 acres each; 5 growers in Oviedo, 125 acres; 9 growers in Sanford,
46 acres; 9 growers in Sarasota, 26 acres and 3 growers in Zellwood, 446
acres.11 Seven seasons later 8 growers in the Everglades averaged 878
acres each; 4 growers in Oviedo, 116 acres; 3 growers in Sanford, 55 acres;
5 growers in Sarasota, 71 acres and 2 growers in Zellwood, 529 acres.
The foregoing data, while they do not include all celery growers, indicate
the present relative size of celery growers in the various production
areas.

In all areas except Sarasota and North Florida, several vegetable
crops compete with celery. Many of the farmers who grow celery also grow
snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn or leaf crops. Some growers produce as
many as nine different vegetable crops. Sweet corn, snap beans and leaf
crops are, perhaps, most competitive with celery for land and labor. The
average net returns per acre from celery normally exceeds those from
snap beans, sweet corn and leaf crops. However, less investment per
acre is required for those crops and they have a shorter period to maturity
than celery. There are, no doubt, some advantages in the use of labor
and equipment where these crops are produced on the same farms. Any
returns above cash costs of production may increase net farm income,
although a loss might be indicated if these other enterprises had to bear
a full share of the indirect or fixed costs.

Farm management problems.--The celery grower encounters all the
farm management problems usually associated with specialized enterprises


11D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida," Vol. XII, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report 58-8, March 1958.

12Unpublished data, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.









Size of farm and type of farming.--Celery is seldom grown com-
mercially on small farms in Florida. Historically this was not the case,
because for many years prior to World War II celery was produced on 10 to
50 acre farms in the Sanford and Sarasota areas. However, with the
advent of modern machinery and higher labor costs few small farmers have
been able to compete effectively with larger farms in celery production.
Specialized equipment for production and harvesting is expensive. There-
fore, few small farmers have been able to afford the capital outlay
required for production. Even with modern machinery and methods, economies
of scale in their use permit greater efficiency or lower cost per unit on
larger farms. The few small celery growers remaining in the industry have
had the advantages of cooperative machine harvesting methods and higher
than average yields per acre. Even so, there are relatively few growers
with less than 50 acres of celery per year.

In the 1956-57 season 7 growers in the Everglades area averaged
863 acres each; 5 growers in Oviedo, 125 acres; 9 growers in Sanford,
46 acres; 9 growers in Sarasota, 26 acres and 3 growers in Zellwood, 446
acres.11 Seven seasons later 8 growers in the Everglades averaged 878
acres each; 4 growers in Oviedo, 116 acres; 3 growers in Sanford, 55 acres;
5 growers in Sarasota, 71 acres and 2 growers in Zellwood, 529 acres.
The foregoing data, while they do not include all celery growers, indicate
the present relative size of celery growers in the various production
areas.

In all areas except Sarasota and North Florida, several vegetable
crops compete with celery. Many of the farmers who grow celery also grow
snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn or leaf crops. Some growers produce as
many as nine different vegetable crops. Sweet corn, snap beans and leaf
crops are, perhaps, most competitive with celery for land and labor. The
average net returns per acre from celery normally exceeds those from
snap beans, sweet corn and leaf crops. However, less investment per
acre is required for those crops and they have a shorter period to maturity
than celery. There are, no doubt, some advantages in the use of labor
and equipment where these crops are produced on the same farms. Any
returns above cash costs of production may increase net farm income,
although a loss might be indicated if these other enterprises had to bear
a full share of the indirect or fixed costs.

Farm management problems.--The celery grower encounters all the
farm management problems usually associated with specialized enterprises


11D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida," Vol. XII, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report 58-8, March 1958.

12Unpublished data, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.









having peak labor requirements and high cash costs of production and
harvesting. Peak labor requirements occur at planting and harvest, com-
plicating the problem of having an adequate labor supply. Large growers
with relatively stable planting and harvesting schedules find labor less
of a problem than smaller growers who plant and harvest less frequently.
Total growing cost ranges from $489 to $770 per acre, 29 to 31 percent of
which is the cost of labor used in production. Harvesting costs range
from $619 to $822 per acre with 32 to 40 percent of this amount being
paid to labor.13 Labor may well become the limiting factor in production
as a result of recent rulings on wage rates and the use of offshore labor
by the U. S. Department of Labor.

Production risks.--Temperature, rainfall, high winds, insect pests
and plant diseases are important factors in the production of celery.
While celery will stand more cold weather than many other vegetable crops
the North Florida area produces little winter celery. In other areas
prolonged cold retards growth and in severe cases may result in bolting
with a loss in marketable yield. Excessive rain and high winds are
damaging to both seedbeds and field-set plantings. Celery seedbeds and
early field settings are being tended during the hurricane season in all
winter producing areas.

The incidence and severity of insects and diseases is also related
to weather. Wilson and Hayslip, studying insects attacking Florida celery,
found that aphids develop much more slowly "during periods of low tempera-
tures" and that "red spider mites usually become abundant during dry, warm
portions of the growing season."l4

Variations from year to year in rainfall, temperature and light
conditions cause a large variation in yield per acre and, consequently,
total production. During the 10-year period, 1955-56 to 1964-65, average
yields for celery in the State ranged from 475 crates in 1957-58 to 715
crates per acre in 1960-61. Total production in the 1960-61 season on
10,200 acres harvested was 4.2 million hundredweights compared to 3.3
million hundredweights on 11,400 acres harvested in 1957-58.15 Yields
vary also between winter and spring crops and among producing areas in
the State. In the 1963-64 season winter yields ranged from 557 crates
per acre in Central Florida to 840 crates per acre in the Sarasota area.
Spring yields ranged from 540 crates in Sarasota and North Florida to
735 crates per acre in the Everglades.16

13
1D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC65-4.
14
Wilson and Hayslip, op. cit., pp. 11, 26.
15
Appendix Table 1.

16USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, op. cit.










Losses in planted acreage may result from weather, or from insect
and disease infestation. Florida losses have ranged from none in 1964-65
to 900 acres in 1956-57 and averaged 370 acres since 1955-56. Price con-
siderations may cause abandonment of some production. Such losses have
occurred in 6 of the past 10 seasons. They ranged from 29,000 hundred-
weights in 1955-56 to 683,000 hundredweights in the 1958-59 season.
Average annual economic abandonment for the period 1955-56 to 1964-65 has
been 139,200 hundredweights.17


Production Practices


Modern and specialized farm machinery is used for land preparation,
planting, cultivating and harvesting the crop. Most growers use multiple-
row, tractor-drawn equipment for planting, spraying and cultivating
operations. All producers plant certified seed each year and generally
follow recommended practices for fertilizer rates, insect and disease
control and other practices.

Seed and seedbeds.--Pascal and, at times, Golden celery are planted
in Florida. Utah 2-13, D-5 and Golden Supreme, when planted, are among
the more popular varieties. Seed are planted in well prepared, fumigated
seedbeds and when plants are of sufficient size (50 to 70 days from seed)
they are transplanted in rows in the field. Seedbed operations for a
fall and winter crop of celery begin as early as March 15 of each year.
In some cases the last plants are pulled from seedbeds for spring pro-
duction as late as March 10 of the succeeding year. Thus, for a large
celery grower, the growing of plants in a seedbed is a year-long operation.
The cost of raising sufficient plants in a seedbed for an acre of field-set
celery ranged from about $28 in the Everglades to $64 in the Sarasota area
during the period 1960-63.18

Fertilization practices.--Nearly all Florida soils are deficient
in the so-called essential plant foods, namely nitrogen, phosphorous and
potash. The muck soils ordinarily contain some nitrogen but are deficient
in manganese and copper.

Growers in the Everglades area apply a ton or more of an 0-8-24
to 3-8-24 fertilizer per acre and 800 pounds of an 0-8-24 to 10-0-29
mixture as a side dressing. Growers in Sanford and Oviedo apply from
4,800 to 5,500 pounds of a 4-6-5 to 5-6-10 fertilizer per acre. Zellwood
growers used about 2 tons of a 2-8-16 or 5-6-10 fertilizer and Sarasota


17Ibid.


1Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.










Losses in planted acreage may result from weather, or from insect
and disease infestation. Florida losses have ranged from none in 1964-65
to 900 acres in 1956-57 and averaged 370 acres since 1955-56. Price con-
siderations may cause abandonment of some production. Such losses have
occurred in 6 of the past 10 seasons. They ranged from 29,000 hundred-
weights in 1955-56 to 683,000 hundredweights in the 1958-59 season.
Average annual economic abandonment for the period 1955-56 to 1964-65 has
been 139,200 hundredweights.17


Production Practices


Modern and specialized farm machinery is used for land preparation,
planting, cultivating and harvesting the crop. Most growers use multiple-
row, tractor-drawn equipment for planting, spraying and cultivating
operations. All producers plant certified seed each year and generally
follow recommended practices for fertilizer rates, insect and disease
control and other practices.

Seed and seedbeds.--Pascal and, at times, Golden celery are planted
in Florida. Utah 2-13, D-5 and Golden Supreme, when planted, are among
the more popular varieties. Seed are planted in well prepared, fumigated
seedbeds and when plants are of sufficient size (50 to 70 days from seed)
they are transplanted in rows in the field. Seedbed operations for a
fall and winter crop of celery begin as early as March 15 of each year.
In some cases the last plants are pulled from seedbeds for spring pro-
duction as late as March 10 of the succeeding year. Thus, for a large
celery grower, the growing of plants in a seedbed is a year-long operation.
The cost of raising sufficient plants in a seedbed for an acre of field-set
celery ranged from about $28 in the Everglades to $64 in the Sarasota area
during the period 1960-63.18

Fertilization practices.--Nearly all Florida soils are deficient
in the so-called essential plant foods, namely nitrogen, phosphorous and
potash. The muck soils ordinarily contain some nitrogen but are deficient
in manganese and copper.

Growers in the Everglades area apply a ton or more of an 0-8-24
to 3-8-24 fertilizer per acre and 800 pounds of an 0-8-24 to 10-0-29
mixture as a side dressing. Growers in Sanford and Oviedo apply from
4,800 to 5,500 pounds of a 4-6-5 to 5-6-10 fertilizer per acre. Zellwood
growers used about 2 tons of a 2-8-16 or 5-6-10 fertilizer and Sarasota


17Ibid.


1Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.










Losses in planted acreage may result from weather, or from insect
and disease infestation. Florida losses have ranged from none in 1964-65
to 900 acres in 1956-57 and averaged 370 acres since 1955-56. Price con-
siderations may cause abandonment of some production. Such losses have
occurred in 6 of the past 10 seasons. They ranged from 29,000 hundred-
weights in 1955-56 to 683,000 hundredweights in the 1958-59 season.
Average annual economic abandonment for the period 1955-56 to 1964-65 has
been 139,200 hundredweights.17


Production Practices


Modern and specialized farm machinery is used for land preparation,
planting, cultivating and harvesting the crop. Most growers use multiple-
row, tractor-drawn equipment for planting, spraying and cultivating
operations. All producers plant certified seed each year and generally
follow recommended practices for fertilizer rates, insect and disease
control and other practices.

Seed and seedbeds.--Pascal and, at times, Golden celery are planted
in Florida. Utah 2-13, D-5 and Golden Supreme, when planted, are among
the more popular varieties. Seed are planted in well prepared, fumigated
seedbeds and when plants are of sufficient size (50 to 70 days from seed)
they are transplanted in rows in the field. Seedbed operations for a
fall and winter crop of celery begin as early as March 15 of each year.
In some cases the last plants are pulled from seedbeds for spring pro-
duction as late as March 10 of the succeeding year. Thus, for a large
celery grower, the growing of plants in a seedbed is a year-long operation.
The cost of raising sufficient plants in a seedbed for an acre of field-set
celery ranged from about $28 in the Everglades to $64 in the Sarasota area
during the period 1960-63.18

Fertilization practices.--Nearly all Florida soils are deficient
in the so-called essential plant foods, namely nitrogen, phosphorous and
potash. The muck soils ordinarily contain some nitrogen but are deficient
in manganese and copper.

Growers in the Everglades area apply a ton or more of an 0-8-24
to 3-8-24 fertilizer per acre and 800 pounds of an 0-8-24 to 10-0-29
mixture as a side dressing. Growers in Sanford and Oviedo apply from
4,800 to 5,500 pounds of a 4-6-5 to 5-6-10 fertilizer per acre. Zellwood
growers used about 2 tons of a 2-8-16 or 5-6-10 fertilizer and Sarasota


17Ibid.


1Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.









growers use about 2 tons of a 5-5-8 to 5-5-10 mixture followed by as much
as 400 pounds of nitrate of potash.19 Fertilizer costs ranged from about
$98 per acre in the Everglades to $143 per acre in the Central Florida
area from 1960-63.20

Cultivation.--Celery is cultivated several times during the growing
period with multiple-row equipment. Most growers use CDEC or a similar
preparation for controlling weeds and grass in the field, this being less
expensive than the hand labor required to keep fields clean.

Insect and disease control.--The control of insects and diseases
is a continuing problem in the production of celery. All growers follow
an active control program, applying insecticides and fungicides in the
wet spray form. Large multiple-row power driven sprayers are in general
use.

Insects attacking celery in the seedbed are aphids, mole-crickets,
garden fleahoppers and flea beetles. In the field are cutworms, army
worms, green celery worms, wireworms, red spider mites, a tortricid moth
and others.

The problem of insect control may be approached in
two ways: 1, with the idea of preventing the development
of injurious infestations or 2, control of infestations
as they appear in the field.21

Many growers prefer the preventive rather than the control method.

"Diseases constitute a serious limiting factor in celery pro-
duction both in the seedbed and in the field. In fact, successful pro-
duction is dependent upon control of diseases."22 Celery is
subject to damping off, root knot, red root, early blight, late blight,
blackheart, bacterial blight, yellows, anthracnose and others. Here
again growers prefer the preventive method in a great many cases. It is
insurance against crop failure. In general, sulfur, inorganic coppers,
antibiotics, organic fungicides, chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides are used in controlling insects and diseases
attacking celery. A 5- to 7-day spray program is the norm.23Costs of
spraying ranged from $54 to $64 per acre from 1960 to 1963.


19D. L. Brooke, "Labor and Material Requirements for Vegetable
Crops," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 660, June 1963,
pp. 34-38.
20
2D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC65-4.

21Wilson and Hayslip, op. cit., p. 34.
22R. S. Cox, "Etiology and Control of Celery Diseases in the Ever-
glades," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 598, July 1958,
p. 2.
23Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.









growers use about 2 tons of a 5-5-8 to 5-5-10 mixture followed by as much
as 400 pounds of nitrate of potash.19 Fertilizer costs ranged from about
$98 per acre in the Everglades to $143 per acre in the Central Florida
area from 1960-63.20

Cultivation.--Celery is cultivated several times during the growing
period with multiple-row equipment. Most growers use CDEC or a similar
preparation for controlling weeds and grass in the field, this being less
expensive than the hand labor required to keep fields clean.

Insect and disease control.--The control of insects and diseases
is a continuing problem in the production of celery. All growers follow
an active control program, applying insecticides and fungicides in the
wet spray form. Large multiple-row power driven sprayers are in general
use.

Insects attacking celery in the seedbed are aphids, mole-crickets,
garden fleahoppers and flea beetles. In the field are cutworms, army
worms, green celery worms, wireworms, red spider mites, a tortricid moth
and others.

The problem of insect control may be approached in
two ways: 1, with the idea of preventing the development
of injurious infestations or 2, control of infestations
as they appear in the field.21

Many growers prefer the preventive rather than the control method.

"Diseases constitute a serious limiting factor in celery pro-
duction both in the seedbed and in the field. In fact, successful pro-
duction is dependent upon control of diseases."22 Celery is
subject to damping off, root knot, red root, early blight, late blight,
blackheart, bacterial blight, yellows, anthracnose and others. Here
again growers prefer the preventive method in a great many cases. It is
insurance against crop failure. In general, sulfur, inorganic coppers,
antibiotics, organic fungicides, chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides are used in controlling insects and diseases
attacking celery. A 5- to 7-day spray program is the norm.23Costs of
spraying ranged from $54 to $64 per acre from 1960 to 1963.


19D. L. Brooke, "Labor and Material Requirements for Vegetable
Crops," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 660, June 1963,
pp. 34-38.
20
2D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report EC65-4.

21Wilson and Hayslip, op. cit., p. 34.
22R. S. Cox, "Etiology and Control of Celery Diseases in the Ever-
glades," Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 598, July 1958,
p. 2.
23Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.










Harvesting and Handling Celery


Celery matures from field-set plants in 75 to 120 days, depending
upon variety, day length, temperature, moisture, fertilization and other
factors. Upon maturity it can be held in the field for a few days without
undue quality deterioration given proper weather conditions. During hot,
humid weather it can be held only a very short time before losses in
quality and yield are effected.

Harvesting and packing.--Celery is normally harvested by hand and
packed in the field on self-propelled packinghouses known as "mule trains."
These are operated with a crew of about 60 people. The celery is cut by
hand or, if cut by a tractor-drawn blade, is trimmed by hand and placed on
an endless belt on either side of the machine's front as it moves down the
rows. From 20 to 30 rows are harvested at a time. The stalks move onto
the machine, through a washer and onto a packing belt. Crates, stored and
assembled on top of the machine, are chuted down to packers. Packers
size and grade the celery, pack the crates and set them off on a roller-
conveyor. Lids are closed and crates pushed rearward to be loaded on a
truck pulled backward by the harvester. As one truck is loaded and pulls
away another backs into position for loading. Trucks returning for loads
bring unassembled crates to the machine.

Using the method and crew outlined above, from 1,800 to 3,000
crates can be packed in a 10-hour day. This method of packing involves
less hauling and handling of stalks, resulting perhaps in less bruising,
slightly higher yields and more rapid movement of celery from ground to
precooler than an older or stationary packinghouse method previously used.
The harvester reduces flexibility of operation. Each machine has a
certain capacity per hour; therefore, the only methods of increasing
output are to increase the number of hours each machine is operated or
to add another machine and crew. Harvesters cost $15,000 to $18,000 each.
One machine can be used to harvest 400 to 600 acres of celery during the
Florida shipping season. Fixed costs of ownership increase with a
decrease in utilization of machine operating capacity.

Labor for the harvester is employed by the grower. They may be
paid on a piece-rate or day basis. Keeping a trained packing crew may
be a problem unless plantings are staggered to furnish continuous work
during the season. Costs of harvesting, packing and hauling ranged from
$0.46 to $0.60 per packed-out crate. Increasing labor costs and
restrictions on recruiting may cause some changes in harvesting and packing
methods in the near future.

Several organizations have entered the business of prepackaging
celery hearts at the shipping point. Size 4 dozen celery is normally
used, although some other sizes are adaptable. After the celery has been


24Ibid.










Harvesting and Handling Celery


Celery matures from field-set plants in 75 to 120 days, depending
upon variety, day length, temperature, moisture, fertilization and other
factors. Upon maturity it can be held in the field for a few days without
undue quality deterioration given proper weather conditions. During hot,
humid weather it can be held only a very short time before losses in
quality and yield are effected.

Harvesting and packing.--Celery is normally harvested by hand and
packed in the field on self-propelled packinghouses known as "mule trains."
These are operated with a crew of about 60 people. The celery is cut by
hand or, if cut by a tractor-drawn blade, is trimmed by hand and placed on
an endless belt on either side of the machine's front as it moves down the
rows. From 20 to 30 rows are harvested at a time. The stalks move onto
the machine, through a washer and onto a packing belt. Crates, stored and
assembled on top of the machine, are chuted down to packers. Packers
size and grade the celery, pack the crates and set them off on a roller-
conveyor. Lids are closed and crates pushed rearward to be loaded on a
truck pulled backward by the harvester. As one truck is loaded and pulls
away another backs into position for loading. Trucks returning for loads
bring unassembled crates to the machine.

Using the method and crew outlined above, from 1,800 to 3,000
crates can be packed in a 10-hour day. This method of packing involves
less hauling and handling of stalks, resulting perhaps in less bruising,
slightly higher yields and more rapid movement of celery from ground to
precooler than an older or stationary packinghouse method previously used.
The harvester reduces flexibility of operation. Each machine has a
certain capacity per hour; therefore, the only methods of increasing
output are to increase the number of hours each machine is operated or
to add another machine and crew. Harvesters cost $15,000 to $18,000 each.
One machine can be used to harvest 400 to 600 acres of celery during the
Florida shipping season. Fixed costs of ownership increase with a
decrease in utilization of machine operating capacity.

Labor for the harvester is employed by the grower. They may be
paid on a piece-rate or day basis. Keeping a trained packing crew may
be a problem unless plantings are staggered to furnish continuous work
during the season. Costs of harvesting, packing and hauling ranged from
$0.46 to $0.60 per packed-out crate. Increasing labor costs and
restrictions on recruiting may cause some changes in harvesting and packing
methods in the near future.

Several organizations have entered the business of prepackaging
celery hearts at the shipping point. Size 4 dozen celery is normally
used, although some other sizes are adaptable. After the celery has been


24Ibid.










cut and hauled from the field it is precooled, tops are cut off and each
two or three stalks sealed in a polyethylene bag. Bags of celery are
placed in new crates and loaded for shipment.

Three different types of hearts are packed: (1) a carton con-
taining one dozen packages of three stalks per bag; (2) crates which
contain two dozen packages of two stalks per bag; and (3) one-half crate
containing one dozen packages of two stalks per bag.

Containers.--Celery is packed in a wirebound crate (#3601). The
inside dimensions of this crate are 9-3/4 x 16 x 20-3/8 inches; it has a
capacity of 3,179 cubic inches25 and a shipping weight when filled with
celery of approximately 60 pounds. Container and crate liner costs range
from $0.40 to $0.43 each, depending upon source of supply and volume per
purchase.26

For special orders and in order to compete with California celery
in markets west of the Mississippi River, a one-half celery carton is
used on occasion. It is a cardboard container measuring 10 x 10-1/2 x 16
inches costing about $0.20. Sizes 2 to 3 dozen are bulk packed in this
carton.

Containers used for hearts may be crates or cartons with dimensions
approximately as follows:

(1) One dozen hearts 8-1/4 x 11 x 15 inches.

(2) Two dozen hearts 8 x 11 x 16-1/2 inches to
9 x 11-1/2 x 18 inches.

(3) One-half crate hearts 6-1/2 x 11-1/2 x 16 inches.

Precooling.--Celery is precooled before shipment to prevent decay
and to preserve freshness. This may be accomplished by either of two
methods: (1) Hydrocooling or (2) vacuum cooling. Hydrocooling is the
most commonly used method. The filled crates are passed through an ice
water bath and the temperature of the celery is quickly lowered. Vacuum
cooling is accomplished by placing the crates inside a large tube which
is then closed tightly. By a vacuum process, the heat is drawn out of
the celery and its temperature reduced to about 38-40F. After being

25So. Frt. Tariff Bu., Freight Tariff 823-B, November 10, 1952,
p. 82. More recent rulings permit use of a wider end-cleat which
strengthens the crate but reduces inside length to 19-7/8 inches with
3,101 cubic inch capacity.


26Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.










cut and hauled from the field it is precooled, tops are cut off and each
two or three stalks sealed in a polyethylene bag. Bags of celery are
placed in new crates and loaded for shipment.

Three different types of hearts are packed: (1) a carton con-
taining one dozen packages of three stalks per bag; (2) crates which
contain two dozen packages of two stalks per bag; and (3) one-half crate
containing one dozen packages of two stalks per bag.

Containers.--Celery is packed in a wirebound crate (#3601). The
inside dimensions of this crate are 9-3/4 x 16 x 20-3/8 inches; it has a
capacity of 3,179 cubic inches25 and a shipping weight when filled with
celery of approximately 60 pounds. Container and crate liner costs range
from $0.40 to $0.43 each, depending upon source of supply and volume per
purchase.26

For special orders and in order to compete with California celery
in markets west of the Mississippi River, a one-half celery carton is
used on occasion. It is a cardboard container measuring 10 x 10-1/2 x 16
inches costing about $0.20. Sizes 2 to 3 dozen are bulk packed in this
carton.

Containers used for hearts may be crates or cartons with dimensions
approximately as follows:

(1) One dozen hearts 8-1/4 x 11 x 15 inches.

(2) Two dozen hearts 8 x 11 x 16-1/2 inches to
9 x 11-1/2 x 18 inches.

(3) One-half crate hearts 6-1/2 x 11-1/2 x 16 inches.

Precooling.--Celery is precooled before shipment to prevent decay
and to preserve freshness. This may be accomplished by either of two
methods: (1) Hydrocooling or (2) vacuum cooling. Hydrocooling is the
most commonly used method. The filled crates are passed through an ice
water bath and the temperature of the celery is quickly lowered. Vacuum
cooling is accomplished by placing the crates inside a large tube which
is then closed tightly. By a vacuum process, the heat is drawn out of
the celery and its temperature reduced to about 38-40F. After being

25So. Frt. Tariff Bu., Freight Tariff 823-B, November 10, 1952,
p. 82. More recent rulings permit use of a wider end-cleat which
strengthens the crate but reduces inside length to 19-7/8 inches with
3,101 cubic inch capacity.


26Brooke, "EC65-4," op. cit.










cooled by either method, celery should be refrigerated until it reaches
the consumer. The cost of hydrocooling was $0.15 per crate in the 1963-64
season with a small additional cost for ice used in transit.26

Grades.--United States Standards for Celery27 provide for grades
to be known as U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2. Differences
in grade are the result of differences in midrib length, total stalk
length, insect or disease injury, appearance and mechanical or other
damage. Specified tolerances are permitted within each grade and visual
inspection by trained personnel is used to determine proper grade. The
number of stalks per crate may be specified by numerical count or in terms
of dozens or half-dozens. Small variation from the number of stalks
specified is permitted and count verification is part of the visual
inspection procedure.

In actual practice celery is sold on the basis of the grower's
label and reputation for a quality product. Inspection certificates are
required for sales to the Government and in Canada.

Inspection.--Through June 18 of the 1964-65 season 65.4 percent
of the celery shipped from Florida was inspected.and certified as to grade,
size or condition by the Federal-State Inspection Service.28 Growers
and sales organizations also use inspection as a means of quality control.
Inspection costs range from $0.02375 to $0.03125 per crate depending upon
whether the inspection is made at a shed or in the field.


Marketing Celery


Movement of celery and competition.--Celery is shipped from
Florida from late October to the following June or July of each season.
Of the volume reported for the 1963-64 season, 48 percent was shipped in
the months of March, April and May and 30 percent in the months of
January and February. Shipments during the months of November (4 percent)
and June (5 percent) have been increasing in recent years, indicating
an expansion of the Florida marketing season.29

Arizona used to ship 400 to 500 cars of celery from late December
to early April each year, but has had a reduced volume in recent seasons.
Texas, a new competitor, shipped 128 cars from January through March,
1964. However, California provides the major competition during all


27
2United States Standards for Celery (24 FR 2640) Effective
April 7, 1959.

28Records, Federal-State Inspection Service, Orlando, Florida.

29USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit.










cooled by either method, celery should be refrigerated until it reaches
the consumer. The cost of hydrocooling was $0.15 per crate in the 1963-64
season with a small additional cost for ice used in transit.26

Grades.--United States Standards for Celery27 provide for grades
to be known as U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2. Differences
in grade are the result of differences in midrib length, total stalk
length, insect or disease injury, appearance and mechanical or other
damage. Specified tolerances are permitted within each grade and visual
inspection by trained personnel is used to determine proper grade. The
number of stalks per crate may be specified by numerical count or in terms
of dozens or half-dozens. Small variation from the number of stalks
specified is permitted and count verification is part of the visual
inspection procedure.

In actual practice celery is sold on the basis of the grower's
label and reputation for a quality product. Inspection certificates are
required for sales to the Government and in Canada.

Inspection.--Through June 18 of the 1964-65 season 65.4 percent
of the celery shipped from Florida was inspected.and certified as to grade,
size or condition by the Federal-State Inspection Service.28 Growers
and sales organizations also use inspection as a means of quality control.
Inspection costs range from $0.02375 to $0.03125 per crate depending upon
whether the inspection is made at a shed or in the field.


Marketing Celery


Movement of celery and competition.--Celery is shipped from
Florida from late October to the following June or July of each season.
Of the volume reported for the 1963-64 season, 48 percent was shipped in
the months of March, April and May and 30 percent in the months of
January and February. Shipments during the months of November (4 percent)
and June (5 percent) have been increasing in recent years, indicating
an expansion of the Florida marketing season.29

Arizona used to ship 400 to 500 cars of celery from late December
to early April each year, but has had a reduced volume in recent seasons.
Texas, a new competitor, shipped 128 cars from January through March,
1964. However, California provides the major competition during all


27
2United States Standards for Celery (24 FR 2640) Effective
April 7, 1959.

28Records, Federal-State Inspection Service, Orlando, Florida.

29USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit.










cooled by either method, celery should be refrigerated until it reaches
the consumer. The cost of hydrocooling was $0.15 per crate in the 1963-64
season with a small additional cost for ice used in transit.26

Grades.--United States Standards for Celery27 provide for grades
to be known as U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2. Differences
in grade are the result of differences in midrib length, total stalk
length, insect or disease injury, appearance and mechanical or other
damage. Specified tolerances are permitted within each grade and visual
inspection by trained personnel is used to determine proper grade. The
number of stalks per crate may be specified by numerical count or in terms
of dozens or half-dozens. Small variation from the number of stalks
specified is permitted and count verification is part of the visual
inspection procedure.

In actual practice celery is sold on the basis of the grower's
label and reputation for a quality product. Inspection certificates are
required for sales to the Government and in Canada.

Inspection.--Through June 18 of the 1964-65 season 65.4 percent
of the celery shipped from Florida was inspected.and certified as to grade,
size or condition by the Federal-State Inspection Service.28 Growers
and sales organizations also use inspection as a means of quality control.
Inspection costs range from $0.02375 to $0.03125 per crate depending upon
whether the inspection is made at a shed or in the field.


Marketing Celery


Movement of celery and competition.--Celery is shipped from
Florida from late October to the following June or July of each season.
Of the volume reported for the 1963-64 season, 48 percent was shipped in
the months of March, April and May and 30 percent in the months of
January and February. Shipments during the months of November (4 percent)
and June (5 percent) have been increasing in recent years, indicating
an expansion of the Florida marketing season.29

Arizona used to ship 400 to 500 cars of celery from late December
to early April each year, but has had a reduced volume in recent seasons.
Texas, a new competitor, shipped 128 cars from January through March,
1964. However, California provides the major competition during all


27
2United States Standards for Celery (24 FR 2640) Effective
April 7, 1959.

28Records, Federal-State Inspection Service, Orlando, Florida.

29USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit.










cooled by either method, celery should be refrigerated until it reaches
the consumer. The cost of hydrocooling was $0.15 per crate in the 1963-64
season with a small additional cost for ice used in transit.26

Grades.--United States Standards for Celery27 provide for grades
to be known as U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2. Differences
in grade are the result of differences in midrib length, total stalk
length, insect or disease injury, appearance and mechanical or other
damage. Specified tolerances are permitted within each grade and visual
inspection by trained personnel is used to determine proper grade. The
number of stalks per crate may be specified by numerical count or in terms
of dozens or half-dozens. Small variation from the number of stalks
specified is permitted and count verification is part of the visual
inspection procedure.

In actual practice celery is sold on the basis of the grower's
label and reputation for a quality product. Inspection certificates are
required for sales to the Government and in Canada.

Inspection.--Through June 18 of the 1964-65 season 65.4 percent
of the celery shipped from Florida was inspected.and certified as to grade,
size or condition by the Federal-State Inspection Service.28 Growers
and sales organizations also use inspection as a means of quality control.
Inspection costs range from $0.02375 to $0.03125 per crate depending upon
whether the inspection is made at a shed or in the field.


Marketing Celery


Movement of celery and competition.--Celery is shipped from
Florida from late October to the following June or July of each season.
Of the volume reported for the 1963-64 season, 48 percent was shipped in
the months of March, April and May and 30 percent in the months of
January and February. Shipments during the months of November (4 percent)
and June (5 percent) have been increasing in recent years, indicating
an expansion of the Florida marketing season.29

Arizona used to ship 400 to 500 cars of celery from late December
to early April each year, but has had a reduced volume in recent seasons.
Texas, a new competitor, shipped 128 cars from January through March,
1964. However, California provides the major competition during all


27
2United States Standards for Celery (24 FR 2640) Effective
April 7, 1959.

28Records, Federal-State Inspection Service, Orlando, Florida.

29USDA, AIS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
op. cit.








of the Florida shipping season. In 1963-64 California shipped 50 percent
and Florida 49 percent of the total reported domestic carlot equivalent
volume during the Florida season. In 1959-60 California and Florida ship-
ments were 58 and 40 percent, respectively, of the total movement during
the Florida marketing period. On a weekly basis Florida shipments were
not more than 68 percent of the total weekly shipments of celery in one or
more weeks of the 1963-64 season.30 California,having overcome the seederr"
problem, has increased celery production during much of the Florida season
in recent years.

The character of the competition between Florida and California
celery is explained by Godwin in his publication, "Competitors in the
Celery Market."1 He points out that: (1) customers (housewives) prefer
California celery but not strongly enough to pay a very large premium for
it, (2) customers are more willing to substitute California celery for
Florida celery, (3) they are more sensitive to changes in the price of
California celery and (4) changes in the supply of either of the two types
of celery will materially affect the market conditions under which the
other type is sold.32

Transportation.--Celery is transported to market by rail and truck.
Shipments by truck increased from 42 percent in 1959-60 to 54 percent of
the Florida movement in 1963-64.33

Sales organizations and methods of sale.--There are two major
classes of first handlers involved in marketing Florida celery. They may
be identified as (1) individual grower organizations whose sales are
limited to their own crop and (2) grower cooperatives which market for
their members. Data are not available on the proportion of sales by class
of seller.

A study of celery sales organizations in 1962-63 indicated that
80 percent of all sales were on an f.o.b. shipping-point basis, 13.8
percent were on a delivered basis, 6 percent were consigned and 0.2 percent
were sold on a price arrival basis.34

Outlets.--During the 1962-63 season wholesale-receivers purchased
37.8 percent of Florida's celery, brokers accounted for 26.2 percent, and
chain organizations, by direct purchase, 21.8 percent of the total sales.

30
30D. L. Brooke, "Florida Truck Crop Competition," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 61-3,
October 1960, p. 6, and EC65-3, September 1963, p. 6.
3M. R. Godwin, "Competitors in the Celery Market," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 59-6,
February 1959.

32Ibid., p. 2.

33USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Vegetable
Summary," 1964 issue, p. 84.
34
G. H. Jung, "Organization and Operation of the Florida Celery
Industry," M.S. Thesis, Graduate School, University of Florida, April 1964,
p. 41.








of the Florida shipping season. In 1963-64 California shipped 50 percent
and Florida 49 percent of the total reported domestic carlot equivalent
volume during the Florida season. In 1959-60 California and Florida ship-
ments were 58 and 40 percent, respectively, of the total movement during
the Florida marketing period. On a weekly basis Florida shipments were
not more than 68 percent of the total weekly shipments of celery in one or
more weeks of the 1963-64 season.30 California,having overcome the seederr"
problem, has increased celery production during much of the Florida season
in recent years.

The character of the competition between Florida and California
celery is explained by Godwin in his publication, "Competitors in the
Celery Market."1 He points out that: (1) customers (housewives) prefer
California celery but not strongly enough to pay a very large premium for
it, (2) customers are more willing to substitute California celery for
Florida celery, (3) they are more sensitive to changes in the price of
California celery and (4) changes in the supply of either of the two types
of celery will materially affect the market conditions under which the
other type is sold.32

Transportation.--Celery is transported to market by rail and truck.
Shipments by truck increased from 42 percent in 1959-60 to 54 percent of
the Florida movement in 1963-64.33

Sales organizations and methods of sale.--There are two major
classes of first handlers involved in marketing Florida celery. They may
be identified as (1) individual grower organizations whose sales are
limited to their own crop and (2) grower cooperatives which market for
their members. Data are not available on the proportion of sales by class
of seller.

A study of celery sales organizations in 1962-63 indicated that
80 percent of all sales were on an f.o.b. shipping-point basis, 13.8
percent were on a delivered basis, 6 percent were consigned and 0.2 percent
were sold on a price arrival basis.34

Outlets.--During the 1962-63 season wholesale-receivers purchased
37.8 percent of Florida's celery, brokers accounted for 26.2 percent, and
chain organizations, by direct purchase, 21.8 percent of the total sales.

30
30D. L. Brooke, "Florida Truck Crop Competition," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 61-3,
October 1960, p. 6, and EC65-3, September 1963, p. 6.
3M. R. Godwin, "Competitors in the Celery Market," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 59-6,
February 1959.

32Ibid., p. 2.

33USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Vegetable
Summary," 1964 issue, p. 84.
34
G. H. Jung, "Organization and Operation of the Florida Celery
Industry," M.S. Thesis, Graduate School, University of Florida, April 1964,
p. 41.








of the Florida shipping season. In 1963-64 California shipped 50 percent
and Florida 49 percent of the total reported domestic carlot equivalent
volume during the Florida season. In 1959-60 California and Florida ship-
ments were 58 and 40 percent, respectively, of the total movement during
the Florida marketing period. On a weekly basis Florida shipments were
not more than 68 percent of the total weekly shipments of celery in one or
more weeks of the 1963-64 season.30 California,having overcome the seederr"
problem, has increased celery production during much of the Florida season
in recent years.

The character of the competition between Florida and California
celery is explained by Godwin in his publication, "Competitors in the
Celery Market."1 He points out that: (1) customers (housewives) prefer
California celery but not strongly enough to pay a very large premium for
it, (2) customers are more willing to substitute California celery for
Florida celery, (3) they are more sensitive to changes in the price of
California celery and (4) changes in the supply of either of the two types
of celery will materially affect the market conditions under which the
other type is sold.32

Transportation.--Celery is transported to market by rail and truck.
Shipments by truck increased from 42 percent in 1959-60 to 54 percent of
the Florida movement in 1963-64.33

Sales organizations and methods of sale.--There are two major
classes of first handlers involved in marketing Florida celery. They may
be identified as (1) individual grower organizations whose sales are
limited to their own crop and (2) grower cooperatives which market for
their members. Data are not available on the proportion of sales by class
of seller.

A study of celery sales organizations in 1962-63 indicated that
80 percent of all sales were on an f.o.b. shipping-point basis, 13.8
percent were on a delivered basis, 6 percent were consigned and 0.2 percent
were sold on a price arrival basis.34

Outlets.--During the 1962-63 season wholesale-receivers purchased
37.8 percent of Florida's celery, brokers accounted for 26.2 percent, and
chain organizations, by direct purchase, 21.8 percent of the total sales.

30
30D. L. Brooke, "Florida Truck Crop Competition," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 61-3,
October 1960, p. 6, and EC65-3, September 1963, p. 6.
3M. R. Godwin, "Competitors in the Celery Market," Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 59-6,
February 1959.

32Ibid., p. 2.

33USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Vegetable
Summary," 1964 issue, p. 84.
34
G. H. Jung, "Organization and Operation of the Florida Celery
Industry," M.S. Thesis, Graduate School, University of Florida, April 1964,
p. 41.









The remaining 14.2 percent of purchases were distributed as follows:
processors, 3.9 percent; jobbers, 3.4 percent; chain repacker-processor,
2.9 percent; Government, 2.4 percent; repackers, 1.3 percent; all other,
0.3 percent.35

Distribution.--On the basis of a sample of sales invoices for the
1962-63 season the distribution of sales by market areas was as follows:
Middle Atlantic states, 25.5 percent; East North Central states, 25.4
percent; South Atlantic states, 15.9 percent; Canada, 9.2 percent; New
England states, 6.7 percent; West South Central states, 6.0 percent; West
North Central states, 5.4 percent; East South Central states, 3.9 percent;
and exports to other countries, primarily England, 1.9 percent. Shipments
of Florida celery to Mountain and Pacific states were 0.1 percent of the
volume sold in 1962-63.36

The above data indicate that Florida's market for celery, as for
most other vegetables, is in the Eastern half of the United States and
Canada. Florida sells less than 6 percent of her volume to destinations
north of Oklahoma and Arkansas that are west of the Mississippi River.

Prices of celery.--Prices received for celery by Florida growers
depend upon: (1) the season of the year in which the celery is sold, (2)
the size of the Florida crop, (3) volume of competing products and (4)
the general price level.

The normal pattern for Florida celery prices for the period 1956-60
was a sharp decline from November to December, an increase to February,
a decline in March, a slight increase in April and a sharper increase in
May and June. This pattern has changed during the most recent five-year
period. A decline from November to December is followed by an increase
from January through March, a decline in April and May, and a rather
sharp increase in June. A more even distribution of shipments from
Florida has been achieved as a result of industrywide organized marketing
efforts.

Monthly average prices appear to rise and fall inversely with the
total supply. For the five-year period 1955-56 through 1959-60 prices in
December were 15 percent below and prices in June, 23 percent above the
annual average price. For the most recent five-year period prices in
December were 24 percent below and prices in June, 7 percent above the
average annual price.37


35Ibid., p. 37.

36Ibid., p. 53.


37
Appendix Table 4 and Figure 2.









The remaining 14.2 percent of purchases were distributed as follows:
processors, 3.9 percent; jobbers, 3.4 percent; chain repacker-processor,
2.9 percent; Government, 2.4 percent; repackers, 1.3 percent; all other,
0.3 percent.35

Distribution.--On the basis of a sample of sales invoices for the
1962-63 season the distribution of sales by market areas was as follows:
Middle Atlantic states, 25.5 percent; East North Central states, 25.4
percent; South Atlantic states, 15.9 percent; Canada, 9.2 percent; New
England states, 6.7 percent; West South Central states, 6.0 percent; West
North Central states, 5.4 percent; East South Central states, 3.9 percent;
and exports to other countries, primarily England, 1.9 percent. Shipments
of Florida celery to Mountain and Pacific states were 0.1 percent of the
volume sold in 1962-63.36

The above data indicate that Florida's market for celery, as for
most other vegetables, is in the Eastern half of the United States and
Canada. Florida sells less than 6 percent of her volume to destinations
north of Oklahoma and Arkansas that are west of the Mississippi River.

Prices of celery.--Prices received for celery by Florida growers
depend upon: (1) the season of the year in which the celery is sold, (2)
the size of the Florida crop, (3) volume of competing products and (4)
the general price level.

The normal pattern for Florida celery prices for the period 1956-60
was a sharp decline from November to December, an increase to February,
a decline in March, a slight increase in April and a sharper increase in
May and June. This pattern has changed during the most recent five-year
period. A decline from November to December is followed by an increase
from January through March, a decline in April and May, and a rather
sharp increase in June. A more even distribution of shipments from
Florida has been achieved as a result of industrywide organized marketing
efforts.

Monthly average prices appear to rise and fall inversely with the
total supply. For the five-year period 1955-56 through 1959-60 prices in
December were 15 percent below and prices in June, 23 percent above the
annual average price. For the most recent five-year period prices in
December were 24 percent below and prices in June, 7 percent above the
average annual price.37


35Ibid., p. 37.

36Ibid., p. 53.


37
Appendix Table 4 and Figure 2.









From year to year there tends to be an inverse relation between
production of celery in Florida and prices received by farmers. If
production increases, prices decline and if production decreases, prices
increase. Variations from this were evident from 1959 to 1960, from
1960 to 1961, and from 1963 to 1964.38 In those instances Florida pro-
duction and price moved in the same direction although to different
degrees. This indicates an effect on price from some source other than
Florida's supply. Godwin found that changes in the supply of California
and Florida celery have a greater effect on Florida prices than on Cali-
fornia prices.39 If there is any discernible trend in Florida celery
prices during the past 10 seasons, one would conclude that they have been
moving alowly upward with most of the change occurring during the past
five seasons.40

One measure of the efficiency of the local pricing system for a
commodity is the relationship of the season average price received for
the commodity to the local parity equivalent price. The local parity
equivalent price is that price growers should have received for the com-
modity in the local area as compared to the U. S. parity price for that
commodity. The base period for these parity calculations is the average
of prices received in the 10-year period immediately preceding the year
being reported. The comparison between the Florida parity equivalent and
Florida season average price is expressed as a percentage, i.e., a
figure of 100 percent means the Florida season average price was equal
to the Florida parity equivalent price. Percentages above 100 indicate
a higher season average price than the parity equivalent price and
vice versa.41

During the period 1956 to 1965, a span of 10 seasons, the Florida
winter season average price received for celery has been higher than the
Florida parity equivalent, winter season, price only four times. The
Florida spring season average price received for celery has been higher
than the spring Florida parity equivalent only two times. This indicates
that prices received in Florida for Florida celery have generally been
below the Florida parity equivalent price.

However, during the decade under consideration a very definite
change has been made in the method of pricing Florida celery. The
industry has been operating under a State Marketing Order since 1962,
a period of four marketing years. A more valid comparison, then, would
be that of the experience during the four years prior and subsequent to


38
Appendix Figure 3.

39
3Godwin, op. cit., pp. 19-22.

40
Appendix Figure 3.


4Appendix Table 5.








the State Marketing Order. This takes into account the periods 1958 to
1961 and 1962 to 1965, inclusive. This comparison may be even more com-
parable since the effect of a freeze on prices received is shown in one
year of each of the periods compared.

During only one of the four winter seasons and one of the four
spring seasons from 1958 to 1961 was the Florida season average price
equal to or higher than the Florida parity equivalent price. In fact,
in only those two instances was the Florida price above 70 percent of the
Florida parity equivalent price. From 1962 to 1965, in two of the four
winter seasons and in one of the four spring seasons the Florida season
average price has been above the Florida parity equivalent price. It may
be further noted that only once in the last eight quoted price seasons
has the Florida price been below 70 percent of the Florida parity equiva-
lent price. On the basis of this comparison one may conclude that the
relationship of Florida prices to Florida parity has been improved under
the policies and operational procedures of the State Marketing Order.
Also, it was shown earlier that the pattern of monthly average prices for
Florida celery was generally higher for the period 1961-65 than for the
previous five years.

Returns to Growers

Data on net returns to growers are available for selected years
by major producing areas in Florida as shown in Appendix Table 6. For
the seasons 1950-51 to 1956-57, Everglades growers had net returns42
ranging from $0.02 per crate in 1955-56 to $0.57 per crate in 1954-55.
Sarasota growers had net returns ranging from $0.67 per crate in 1954-55
to a minus $0.66 per crate in 1952-53. Negative returns accrued to Sarasota
growers in four of the seven seasons shown. Sarasota's marketing period
is primarily winter, when prices are generally somewhat lower than for the
spring crop. A high yield per acre is Sarasota's principal advantage in
celery production.

Sanford growers also suffered losses in four of the seven seasons
from 1950-51 to 1956-57. Oviedo growers had losses in two and profits
in five of the seven seasons. Of the five seasons for which Zellwood
data are available, growers showed a loss in three and a profit in two
years.

Data for the four seasons 1960-61 to 1963-64 indicate fewer
losses in all areas, except the Everglades, and greater profits than during
any other similar period of record. Returns ranging from $1.33 to $1.39
per crate in 1961-62 were largely the result of higher prices received
by Florida growers when California's production was 20 percent below
that of the previous season.


42Net profit to growers after deduction of all cash and fixed
costs of production, harvesting and selling plus a deduction of 6 percent
for interest on production expense and on capital invested in machinery
and equipment for the number of months required to produce and harvest a
crop of celery.








Market Demand


The quantity of celery which Florida can market depends upon the
proportion of the total demand for celery which she can economically
pr-rvide during that portion of the year in which production is possible
in Florida. Total national demand in any year is the sum of the con-
sum.ption of our total population. Therefore, as population increases the
demand increases, assuming income and consumption per person remain
c(.istant. Resident population increased at the rate of aboat 1.85 percent
per year between 1950 and 1960, and is expected to continue through 1975
E.t about the same rate.43

However, per capital consumption has not been constant nor is it
expected to remain at its present level. Per capital consumption in 1950
was 8.4 pounds and in 1962, 7.1 pounds.44 This is a decrease of 1.2
percent per year. By 1975 per capital consumption is expected to increase
to 7.5 pounds45--a result of the increased use of salads in the average
American's diet. This means an increase in demand of less than one-half
of 1 percent per year.

If the above estimates may be taken as valid, and they are the
best presently available from official sources, the national demand for
celery will increase by about 2.3 percent per year between 1960 and 1975.
Assuming Florida can maintain her share of the national market, it may
be concluded that a 2.0 to 2.5 percent increase in Florida production
annually might reasonably be expected.

Has Florida been maintaining her share of the national market
during the Florida marketing season? Based upon shipments reported by
U.S.D.A. for each season, Florida shipped about 45 percent during the
three-year period, 1959-61 and about 52 percent in the three-year period,
1962-64.46 This is an increase of 7 percent, but it must be remembered
that California production was 20 percent below the previous 10-year
average in 1962 and about 15 percent below the previous 10-year average in
1963-64. Weekly average interstate shipments of celery from California,
during the Florida season, were about 22 percent smaller in the three-
year period 1962-64 than during the three-year period 1959-61.47 Florida
shipments were 6.9 percent larger in 1962-64 than in 1959-61. However,
this evidence is inconclusive in view of the reduced production in Cali-
fornia in 1962 and 1964, as quoted above. Apparently all Florida has done
is fill the temporary gap since her total production increased only 6.7
percent from 1961-62 through 1964-65.48

43
Appendix Table 7.
44
Appendix Table 8.
45Estimated by University of Florida, Dare Vegetable Committee,
May, 1964.
46Appendix Table 9.
47Appendix Table 10.
48Appendix Table 1.





17



Based upon the information above Florida is maintaining her share
of the national market. Thus, Florida may expect to increase production
in line with the expected increase in national demand of about 2.0 to 2.5
percent per year. The amount of increase in any one year will depend
upon the economic conditions of the market and the industry in the partic-
ular year in question.




































APPENDICES















APPENDIX TABLE 1.--All Celery: Acreage, Production and Value in Florida,
1941-42 to 1959-60.

Seasn Acreage Yield Production Average Price Total
Planted for Harvest Per Acre of Value Per Value
(crates) (1,000 cwt) (cwt) (crate)

1941-42 9,350 466 2,611 $2.77 $1.66 $ 7,237,000
1942-43 8,750 8,750 477 2,505 6.85 4.11 17,159,000
1943-44 9,900 9,900 502 2,741 5.30 3.18 14,530,000
1944-45 11,650 11,050 499 3,245 5.80 3.48 18,820,000
1945-46 14,000 13,450 479 3,772 3.78 2.27 14,260,000
1946-47 12,000 11,400 408 2,787 6.22 3.73 17,332,000
1947-48 12,200 11,600 490 2,851 3.27 1.96 9,319,000
1948-49 9,600 9,400 576 3,153 5.04 3.02 15,894,000
1949-50 9,750 9,650 670 3,741 3.33 2.00 12,445,000
1950-51 10,900 10,400 662 4,014 3.74 2.24 15,009,000
1951-52 10,550 10,400 697 4,284 3.52 2.11 15,070,000
1952-53 10,200 10,000 647 3,840 3.35 2.01 12,856,000
1953-54 10,900 10,600 690 4,072 2.89 1.73 11,787,000
1954-55 9,200 9,100 767 4,124 3.77 2.26 15,551,000
1955-56 10,400 10,100 660 3,975 2.93 1.76 11,632,000
1956-57 11,200 10,300 633 3,910 3.82 2.29 14,920,000
1957-58 12,100 11,400 475 3,252 5.31 3.19 17,255,000
1958-59 13,800 13,300 574 3,897 2.37 1.42 9,220,000
1959-60 11,900 11,300 615 4,169 2.81 1.69 11,719,000
1960-6. 10,400 10,200 715 4,241 2.85 1.71 12,106,000
1961-62 10,800 10,600 672 4,273 5.78 3.47 24,691,000
1962-63 11,300 11,100 676 4,279 3.50 2.10 14,989,000
1963-64 11,200 11,100 692 4,423 4.72 2.83 20,861,000
1964-65a 11,700 11,700 669 4,558 4.33 2.60 19,748,000

Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summary," Vols. VII and XVI, 1951 and 1960,
"Vegetable Summary," 1964 issue and preliminary data, June, 1965.

SPreliminary.










Crates
Per Ac


800





I\ /
700 /



\/

600





500





400



1950-51 52-3



Figure l.--Celery,


54-5 56-7 58-9 60-1 62-3
Crop Years


Average Yield Per Acre in
1950-51 to 1964-65


Crates, Florida,


Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
"Florida Vegetable Crops, Annual Statistical Summary,"
Vol. XVI, 1960, pp. 17-18, and "Vegetable Summary," 1964
issue, p. 21.


64-5










APPEXDIX TABLE 2.--Florida Celery Acreage by Seasons and Areas, Planted and For Harvest, 1956 to 1965.

PLANTED
Area
1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965b

----------------------------------------Winter-----------------------------------------

Central Floridaa 1,730 1,850 1,875 1,685 1,000 880 925 880 750
Sarasota 770 650 665 580 375 320 285 320 310
Everglades 3,800 4,100 4,760 6,235 5,525 5,100 5,290 5,500 5,640

State Total 6,300 6,600 7,300 8,500 6,900 6,300 6,500 6,700 6,700 6,800


Central Floridaa
Sarasota
Everglades

State Total



Central Floridaa
Sarasota
Everglades

State Total


---------------------- -------------Spring-------------------------------------------
1,980 2,185 2,150 1,860 1,730 1,450 1,650 1,650 1,550
35 40 25 40 30 50 25 50 50
2,085 2,375 2,625 3,400 3,240 2,600 2,625 2,900 2,900

4,100 4,600 4,800 5,300 5,000 4,100 4,300 4,600 4,500 4,900

--------------------------------------- All Seasons---------------------------------------
3,710 4,035 4,025 3,545 2,730 2,330 2,575 2,530 2,300
805 690 690 620 405 370 310 370 360
5,885 6,475 7,385 9,,635 8,765 7,700 7,915 8,400 8,540

10,400 11,200 12,100 13,800 11,900 10,400 10,800 11,300 11,200 11,700





APPEXDIX TABLE 2.--Continued

FOR HARVEST
Area
1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965b

-------------------------------------- Winter-------------------------------------------

Central Floridaa 1,685 1,710 1,750 1,445 940 860 900 780 750
Sarasota 770 640 490 520 360 320 285 320 310
Everglades 3,745 3,950 4,660 6,135 5,500 5,020 5,215 5,500 5,640

State Total 6,200 6,300 6,900 8,100 6,800 6,200 6,400 6,600 6,700 6,800

.....-----------------------------------------Spring----------------

Central Floridaa 1,960 2,075 1,875 1,800 1,520 1,450 1,615 1,580 1,530
Sarasota 35 15 25 ... ... 50 25 50 50
Everglades 1,905 1,910 2,600 3,400 2,980 2,500 2,560 2,870 2,820

State Total 3,900 4,000 4,500 5,200 4,500 4,000 4,200 4,500 4,400 4,900

-------------------------------------All Seasons----------------------------------------

Central Floridaa 3,645 3,785 3,625 3,245 2,460 2,310 2,515 2,360 2,280
Sarasota 805 655 515 520 360 370 310 370 360
Everglades 5,650 5,860 7,260 9,535 8,480 7,520 7,775 8,370 8,460

State Total 10,100 10,300 11,400 13,300 11,300 10,200 10,600 11,100 11,100 11,700


aIncludes North Florida for reporting purposes.

preliminary.

Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vols. XII to XVII,
1956 to 1961 and "Vegetable Summary," 1962, 1963 and 1964 issues.








APPEXDIX TABLE 3.--Florida Celery Production by Seasons and Areas, Total and Harvested, 1956 to 1965

TOTAL (Thousand Crates)a
Area
1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965b

--------------------------------------Winter----------------------------------------------


Central Floridac
Sarasota
Everglades


State Total


1,214.4 1,145.2 867.4 818.4 617.0
700.7 526.8 348.2 379.6 297.0
2,321.9 2,445.0 2,291.4 3,662.0 3,619.0


514.0
288.0
3,693.0


582.0
257.0
3,588.0


388.0
272.0
4,070.0


418.0
260.0
3,955.0


432.0
288.0
3,757.0


4,237.0 4,117.0 3,507.0 4,860.0 4,533.0 4,495.0 4,427.0 4,730.0 4,633.0 4,477.0


------------Spring--------------------------------------------


Central Floridac
Sarasota
Everglades


1,524.1
33.3
879.6


1,620.1
8.4
771.5


730.6
16.6
1,165.8


1,073.0 904.0 1,035.0
.... 32.0
1,700.0 1,511.0 1,733.0


1,149.0
20.0
1,526.0


957.0
24.0
1,794.0


943.0 1,152.0
27.0 41.0
2,073.0 2,155.0


State Total


2,437.0 2,400.0 1,913.0 2,773.0 2,415.0 2,800.0 2,695.0 2,775.0 3,043.0 3,348.0


-------------------------------------All Seasons------------------------------------------


Central Floridac
Sarasota
Everglades,


2,738.5
734.0
3,201.5


2,765.3
535.2
3,216.5


1,598.0
364.8
3,457.2


1,891.4
379.6
5,362.0


1,521.0 1,549.0
297.0 320.0
5,130.0 5,426.0


1,731.0 1,345.0
277.0 296.0
5,114.0 5,864.0


1,361.0 1,584.0
287.0 329.0
6,028.0 5,912.0


State Total 6,674.0 6,517.0 5,420.0 7,633.0 6,948.0 7,295.0 7,122.0 7,505.0


I-


7,676.0 7,825.0





APPENDIX TABLE 3.--Continued


H A R V E S T E D (Thousand Crates)a
Area
1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965b


----------------------------------------Winter-------------------------------------------------

Central Floridac 1,214.4 1,145.2 867.4 683.0 617.0 514.0 582.0 369.0 418.0 432.0
Sarasota 700.7 526.8 348.2 297.0 297.0 288.0 257.0 242.0 260.0 288.0
Everglades 2,321.9 2,445.0 2,291.4 3,298.0 3,619.0 3,638.0 3,588.0 3,896.0 3,919.0 3,692.0

State Total 4,237.0 4,117.0 3,507.0 4,278.0 4,533.0 4,440.0 4,427.0 4,507.0 4,597.0 4,412.0

----------------------------------------Spring-----------------------------------------------

Central Floridac 1,516.1 1,620.1 730.6 901.0 904.0 995.5 1,149.0 909.0 909.0 1,136.0
Sarasota 33.2 8.4 16.6 ... ... 32.0 20.0 24.0 27.0 39.0
Everglades 838.7 771.5 1,165.8 1,316.0 1,511.0 1,600.5 1,526.0 1,692.0 1,839.0 2,010.0

State Total 2,388.0 2,400.0 1,913.0 2,217.0 2,415.0 2,628.0 2,695.0 2,625.0 2,775.0 3,185.0

-------------------------------------All Seasons---------------------------------------------
Central Floridac 2,730.5 2,765.3 1,598.0 1,584.0 1,521.0 1,509.5 1,731.0 1,278.0 1,327.0 1,568.0
Sarasota 733.9 535.2 364.8 297.0 297.0 320.0 277.0 266.0 287.0 327.0
Everglades 3,160.6 3,216.5 3,547.2 4,614.0 5,130.0 5,238.5 5,114.0 5,588.0 5,758.0 5,702.0

State Total 6,625.0 6,517.0 5,510.0 6,495.0 6,948.0 7,068.0 7,122.0 7,132.0 7,372.0 7,597.0


aConversion factor 60 pounds or 1.667 crates per cwt.

preliminary.

CIncludes North Florida for reporting purposes.

Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vols. XII to
XVII, 1956 to 1961 and "Vegetable Summary," 1962, 1963 and 1964 issues.







APPENDIX TABLE 4.--Celery: Monthly F.O.B. Florida Price Per Hundredweight, Five Seasons, 1955-56 to 1964-65
Season
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aerage


-----------------------------------------Dollars per Cwt.------------------------------------------

1955-56 .. 4.00 2.50 2.90 2.60 2.90 2.85 2.90 4.85 5.00 2.93
1956-57 3.00 4.40 3.50 4.65 5.00 3.15 2.45 4.10 5.70 .. 3.82
1957-58 .. 3.25 3.10 3.45 4.35 5.20 6.90 7.50 4.90 .. 5.31
1958-59 .. 4.25 2.75 2.35 2.20 2.00 2.10 2.30 2.80 .. 2.37
1959-60 .. 4.15 2.90 2.85 3.35 2.60 2.25 2.65 2.95 .. 2.81

Average per
cwt. 1956-60 3.00 4.01 2.95 3.24 3.50 3.17 3.31 3.89 4.24 5.00 3.45

1960-61 .. 3.10 2.15 2.55 3.10 2.60 2.85 3.15 3.85 .. 2.85
1961-62 .. 4.40 3.25 4.65 5.50 7.30 7.15 5.50 5.85 3.65 5.78
1962-63 .. 3.00 3.40 3.85 4.10 3.25 3.35 3.15 3.35 .. 3.50
1963-64 .. 3.65 3.55 4.60 6.10 6.85 3.75 3.50 4.40 .. 4.72
1964-65 .. 4.70 3.85 3.85 3.65 5.20 4.35 4.45 5.20 .. 4.33

Average per
cwt. 1961-65 .. 3.77 3.24 3.90 4.49 5.04 4.29 3.95 4.53 3.65 4.24

preliminary

Source: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, "Florida Vegetable Crops," Vol. XVI, 1960, p.20,
"Vegetable Summary," 1964 issue, p. 22 and preliminary data.






Dollars
I'er Cwt.


Nov. Dec. Jan.


Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July


Months

Figure 2.--Celery: Simple Average Monthly F.O.B. Florida Price Per
Hundredweight, Five Seasons, 1956-60 and 1961-65


Dollars
Per Cwt.


01
19


56


1958


1960
Years


1962


Million
Cwt.


1964


Figure 3.--Celery:

Source: USDA, AMS,
"Vegetable


Relationship of Harvested Production
Florida, 1955-56 to 1964-65


and Price in


"Florida Vegetable Crops," Vol. XVI, 1960, p. 19;
Summary," 1964 issue, p. 22, and Preliminary Data.


01
Oc


t.


ri I t I I. I I-


Florida \
/ \ Harvested /
/ Production /




S\ / Price



! II !I !a


1961-65 "





t 1956-60




APPENDIX TABLE 5.--Celery: Florida Season Averag. Prices, U. S. Average Parity Prices and Florida
Parity Equivalent Prices by Season, 1956 to 1965

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964a 1965a
---------------------------Dollars Per Cwt.-------------------------------
Celery Winter
U. S. Parity 4.12 4.29 4.32 4.44 4.40 4.40 4.45 4.72 4.76 5.01
Florida Parity
Equivalent 3.73 3.87 3.98 4.35 4.39 4.14 4.23 4.33 4.51 5.00
Florida Season
Average Price 2.80 4.00 4.60 2.40 2.95 2.65 5.40 3.65 5.30 4.20
Percent Florida
Average Price is
of Florida Parity
Equivalent 75 103 116 55 67 64 128 84 118 84
Celery Spring
U. S. Parity 4.18 4.32 4.37 4.45 4.42 4.40 4.46 4.73 4.76 5.10
Florida Parity
Equivalent 3.98 4.09 4.15 3.95 4.64 4.58 4.50 4.85 4.78 5.28
Florida Season
Average Price 3.15 3.50 6.60 2.30 2.55 3.20 6.40 3.25 3.75 4.52
Percent Florida
Average Price is
of Florida Parity
Equivalent 79 86 159 58 55 70 142 67 78 86


preliminary.

Source: Data from Crop Reporting Board, SRS, USDA, except for 1965 season average prices which were
furnished by the Florida Acreage Marketing Guides Committee, University of Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service and 1965 percentages computed by the author.









APPENDIX TABLE 6.--Celery: Net Returns Per Crate and Per Hundredweight by
Areas, Florida, Selected Years 1950-51 to 1963-64.

Area
Season Central Florida
Everglades Oviedo Sanford Zellwood Sarasota

-------------------------Dollars Per Crate---------------------------
1950-51 0.190 0.126 0.045 -0.188 0.340
1951-52 .151 .455 .465 .400 .449
1952-53 .085 .009 .656 .053 .663
1953-54 .067 .429 .342 .424 .382
1954-55 .571 .369 .734 a .671
1955-56 .023 .131 .283 a .230
1956-57 .268 .506 .450 .389 .405

1960-61 -0.032 -0.072b 0.022
1961-62 1.331 1.367b 1.393
1962-63 0.347 -0.257b 0.073
1963-64 0.748 0.200b a
-------------------------Dollars Per Cwt.---------------------------
1950-51 0.317 0.210 0.075 -0.313 0.567
1951-52 .252 .758 .775 .667 .748
1952-53 .142 .015 -1.094 .088 -1.105
1953-54 .112 .715 .570 .707 .637
1954-55 .952 .615 1.223 a 1.118
1955-56 .038 .218 .472 a .383
1956-57 .447 .843 .750 .648 .675

1960-61 -0.053 -0.120b 0.037
1961-62 2.218 2.278b 2.322
1962-63 0.578 -0.428b 0.122
1963-64 1.247 0.333b a


aNot available.

bOviedo, Sanford and Zellwood combined and reported as Central Florida.

Source: D. L. Brooke, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida,"
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Reports, Vols. VI to XII and 62-9, 63-8, EC64-11, and
EC65-4.








APPENDIX TABLE 7.--United States Population, 1950, 1960 and Estimated 1975.

United States
Year Population
(millions)


1950 151
1960 179
Estimated 1975 226

Source: 1950 and 1960, U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census;
1975, USDA, ERS, The Farm Index, May, 1964, p. 6.










APPENDIX TABLE 8.--United States Per Capita Consumption of Selected Vegetables
(Farm Weight Basis), 1950-62.


-----------------------------Pounds per Capita-------------------------


1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962


18.6
18.5
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.9
20.4
19.6
18.8
18.4
18.5
20.4
20.3


8.4
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.7
8.6
8.5
8.1
7.6
7.9
7.8
7.7
7.1


114.6
111.6
111.0
108.3
107.3
104.6
106.9
104.6
102.1
100.4
100.6
105.1
102.9


Source: USDA, AMS, "Supplement for 1956 to Consumption of Food in the United
States, 1909-52," Agricultural Handbook No. 62, September 1957 and
Supplements for 1958, 1960, 1962.







APPENDIX TABLE 9.--United States and Florida Shipments of Celery During the
Florida Season and Percent of Total from Florida, Seasons 1958-59 to
1963-64 and 3-Season Averages 1959-61 and 1962-64

United States Florida Percent
Season Shipments Shipments Florida
(000 crates) (000 crates)
1958-59 13,205 5,954 45.1
1959-60 14,415 6,460 44.8
1960-61 14,606 6,510 44.6
Average 14,075 6,311 44.8
1961-62 12,181 6,453 53.0
1962-63 12,728 6,413 50.0
1963-64 11,567 6,060 52.3
Average 12,159 6,309 51.9

Source: Computed from USDA, AMS, Weekly Summary Shipments--Unloads, Wash-
ington, D.C., 1959 to 1964 and USDA, AMS, Florida Agricultural
Statistics Vegetable Summary, Orlando, Florida, 1963 issue.

APPENDIX TABLE 10.--Weekly Average Interstate Shipments of Celery from
California and Florida, 1958-59 to 1963-64 and 3-Season Averages
1959-61 and 1962-64

Interstate Shipmentsa
Season California Florida
Thousand Crates

1958-59 214 180
1959-60 210 175
1960-61 212 171

Average 1959-61 212 175
1961-62 163 185
1962-63 178 183
1963-64 156 194

Average 1962-64 166 187

aCarlot equivalent data, from sources quoted below, converted to crates on
basis of average rail and truck load data for the years listed. Source
indicates California interstate sales to processors not included but does
not mention such exclusion for Florida (3.9 percent in 1962-63).
Source: (1) California data: D. L. Brooke, Florida Truck Crop Competition,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Reports, 60-3, 61-3, 62-6, 63-2, EC64-5 and EC65-3. (2)
Florida data: USDA, AMS, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, Vegetable Summary, 1963 and 1964 Issues.
DLB:ba 8/3/65
Exp. Sta., Ag. Ec. 300




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