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Group Title: Economic series - Florida Agricultural Extension Service - 69-1
Title: Thirty-seven years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-1968
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071965/00001
 Material Information
Title: Thirty-seven years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-1968
Series Title: Economic series Agricultural Extension Service
Alternate Title: 37 years of citrus costs and returns in Florida
Citrus costs and returns in Florida
Physical Description: 22 p. i.e. leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Issued by Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, in cooperation with county agents of citrus producing counties
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.L. Brooke.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August, 1969"--P. 22.
Funding: Economic series (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071965
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50870149

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    All groves
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Total acreage
            Page 1
        Acreage per grove
            Page 1
        Trees per acre
            Page 1
        Age of grove
            Page 4
        Percent of trees grapefruit
            Page 4
    Groves 10 years of age and under
        Page 5
        Percent cost items of total
            Page 5
        Costs and returns by seasons, 1959-68
            Page 6
        Costs and returns by 5-season averages and 37-year average
            Page 7
    Groves over 10 years of age
        Page 8
        Boxes harvested per acre
            Page 9
        Operation cost
            Page 9
        Costs and returns by seasons, 1959-68
            Page 10
        Costs and returns by 5-season averages and 37-year average
            Page 11
        Labor, power and equipment costs
            Page 12
        Range in season averages of operating costs
            Page 13
        Fertilizer material costs
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Nitrogen added
            Page 15
        Spray and dust materials costs
            Page 16
        State and county taxes
            Page 17
        Returns and fruit
            Page 17
        Returns above operating costs
            Page 18
        Interest on grove valuation
            Page 19
        Total costs
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Net returns
            Page 21
        Other citrus publications available
            Page 22
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





September 1969


Agricultural Extension Service
Economic Series 69-1


THIRTY-SEVEN YEARS ;; "
of T--


CITRUS


COSTS AND


RETURNS IN FLORIDA


1931-1968





D.L. Brooke
Agricultural Economist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Issued by
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gainesville, Florida
In Cooperation with County Agents of Citrus Producing Counties


\ r
-C ~
1;








CONTENTS

Page


ALL GROVES...................................................... 1 to 4
Total Acreage.......................................... ..... 1
Acreage per Grove........................................... 1
Trees per Acre .............................................. 1
Age of Grove............................. .................... 4
Percent of Trees Grapefruit.................................. 4


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER................................ 5 to 8
Percent Cost Items of Total................................. 5
Costs and Returns by Seasons, 1959-68...................... .6
Costs and Returns by 5-Season Averages and 37-Year Average.. 7


GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE.................................... 8 to 21
Boxes Harvested per Acre................. ...................... 9
Operation Cost.............................................. 9
Costs and Returns by Seasons, 1959-68....................... 10
Costs and Returns by 5-Season Averages and 37-Year Average.. 11
Labor, Power and Equipment Costs........................... 12
Range in Season Averages of Operating Costs................. 13
Fertilizer Material Costs ................................... 13
Nitrogen Added ................... ...... ........ .............. 15
Spray and Dust Materials Costs...................... ........ 16
State and County Taxes....................................... 17
Returns from Fruit.......................................... 17
Returns Above Operating Costs............................... 18
Interest on Grove Valuation..........................*.......* 19
Total Costs.......... ................ .................. ...... 19
Net Returns........... ............ .. ***. .............**.....* 21
Other Citrus Publications Available......................... 22










Thirty-Seven Years


of

Citrus Costs and Returns

in

Florida
1931-1968



Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of citrus producing
counties and the Agricultural Experiment Stations, have conducted citrus
costs and returns studies since 1931. This study has been conducted over 37
completed seasons of 1931-68.

Groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus producing
area. From 75 to 86 percent of the groves have been in the four counties of
Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying somewhat in different seasons. Loca-
tion of the 184 groves of all ages included in the 1967-68 season is shown by
counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During this season 84 percent of
the groves and 82 percent of the acreage were in the four counties named. Twelve
counties were represented in the study this season.

Averages of data from these groves are not presented as averages for the
entire state of Florida. Groves included are only those of cooperators who
supplied records. It is thought that trends in averages of these groves are
similar to the trends in corresponding averages for all Florida groves of
similar ages.

ACREAGE PER GROVE

In 1967-68 the average for groves 10 years of age and under was 43 acres
per grove, 30 acres for groves over 10 years and 32 acres for all groves. Distri-
bution by acreage groups is shown in Table 2, page 3. More than half of all
groves and groves over 10 years included in this study contained less than 30
acres per grove. Younger groves (10 years and under) are tending toward larger
acreages per grove, with 66 percent having 30 acres or more per grove.

TREES PER ACRE

Groves included in this study averaged 81 trees per acre for the young
group, 68 for the older group and 71 for both groups in 1967-68. Eighty percent
of all groves of this study had less than 80 trees per acre. See Table 3, page
3.








Thirty-Seven Yeadrs of Costs and Returns All Grovds


P'ge 2


FLORIDA


Figure 1.--LOCATION BY COUNTIES
OF CITRUS COSTS ACCOUNT GROVES
1967-68 SEASON
Table 1.--LOCATION BY COUNTIES AND AGE
GROUPS OF 184 CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES,
1967-68 SEASON


Age in Years
10 & Over
Under 10


Percent


All All


Polk
Lake
Orange
Highlands
Pasco
Seminole
Sumter
Osceola
Hardee
Marion
Indian River
Brevard


Total


184 100.0


41.9
22.8
15.8
3.8
5.4
0.5
3.8
2.3


32 152


TO MONROE COUNTY

/ -A- p^









Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns All Groves Page 3


Table 2.--DISTRIBUTION OF 184 GROVES ACCORDING TO ACREAGE


PEPR GROVE.


1967-68 SEASON


10 Years & Under
Cumu-
Number Per- lative
Groves cent Percent


Over 10 Years of Age
Gumu-
Number Per- lative
Groves cent Paecent


All Ages
Cumu-
Number Per- lative
Groves cent Percent


Under
5 -
10 -
15 -
20 -
30 -
40 -
50 -
60 -
100 &


5
9
14
19
29
39
49
59
99
over


2.0 230.5


0.0
9.4
0.0
6.2
18.8
12.5
9.4
15.6
28.1
0.0


0.0
9.4
9.4
15.6
34.4
46.9
56.3
71.9
100.0
100.0


32 100.0 100.0


2.0
15.8
19.1
3.9
20.4
9.2
16.5
3.9
5.9
3.3


152 100.0


2.0
17.8
36.9
40.8
61.2
70.4
86.9
90.8
96.7
100.0

100.0


1.6
14.7
15.8
4.3
20.1
9.8
15.2
6.0
9.8
2.7


184 100.0


Table 3.--DISTRIBUTION OF 184 GROVES ACCORDING TO NUMBER
OF TREES PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Trees
per
Acre

Under 50
50 59
60 69
70 79
80 89
90 99
100 & over


10 Years & Under
Cumu-
Number Per- lative
Groves cent Percent

1 3.2 3.2
4 12.5 15.7
9 28.1 43.8
5 15.6 59.4
0 0.0 59.4
5 15.6 75.0
8 25.0 100.0


Over 10 Years of Age All Ages
Cumu- Cumu-
Number Per- lative Number Per- lative
Groves cent Percent Groves cent Percent


4.6
21.1
38.8
20.4
5.9
7.9
1.3


4.6
25.7
64.5
84.9
90.8
98.7
100.0


4.3
19.6
37.0
19.6
4.9
9.2
5.4


4.3
23.9
60.9
80.5
85.4
94.6
100.0


32 100.0 100.0 152 100.0 100.0


Acres
per
Grove


1.6
16.3
32.1
36.4
56.5
66.3
81.5
87.5
97.3
100.0

100.0


Page 3


--- ---


Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns All Groves


184 100.0 100.0


30 113










Thirty-Seven Years


of

Citrus Costs and Returns

in

Florida
1931-1968



Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of citrus producing
counties and the Agricultural Experiment Stations, have conducted citrus
costs and returns studies since 1931. This study has been conducted over 37
completed seasons of 1931-68.

Groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus producing
area. From 75 to 86 percent of the groves have been in the four counties of
Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying somewhat in different seasons. Loca-
tion of the 184 groves of all ages included in the 1967-68 season is shown by
counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During this season 84 percent of
the groves and 82 percent of the acreage were in the four counties named. Twelve
counties were represented in the study this season.

Averages of data from these groves are not presented as averages for the
entire state of Florida. Groves included are only those of cooperators who
supplied records. It is thought that trends in averages of these groves are
similar to the trends in corresponding averages for all Florida groves of
similar ages.

ACREAGE PER GROVE

In 1967-68 the average for groves 10 years of age and under was 43 acres
per grove, 30 acres for groves over 10 years and 32 acres for all groves. Distri-
bution by acreage groups is shown in Table 2, page 3. More than half of all
groves and groves over 10 years included in this study contained less than 30
acres per grove. Younger groves (10 years and under) are tending toward larger
acreages per grove, with 66 percent having 30 acres or more per grove.

TREES PER ACRE

Groves included in this study averaged 81 trees per acre for the young
group, 68 for the older group and 71 for both groups in 1967-68. Eighty percent
of all groves of this study had less than 80 trees per acre. See Table 3, page
3.










Thirty-Seven Years


of

Citrus Costs and Returns

in

Florida
1931-1968



Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of citrus producing
counties and the Agricultural Experiment Stations, have conducted citrus
costs and returns studies since 1931. This study has been conducted over 37
completed seasons of 1931-68.

Groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus producing
area. From 75 to 86 percent of the groves have been in the four counties of
Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying somewhat in different seasons. Loca-
tion of the 184 groves of all ages included in the 1967-68 season is shown by
counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During this season 84 percent of
the groves and 82 percent of the acreage were in the four counties named. Twelve
counties were represented in the study this season.

Averages of data from these groves are not presented as averages for the
entire state of Florida. Groves included are only those of cooperators who
supplied records. It is thought that trends in averages of these groves are
similar to the trends in corresponding averages for all Florida groves of
similar ages.

ACREAGE PER GROVE

In 1967-68 the average for groves 10 years of age and under was 43 acres
per grove, 30 acres for groves over 10 years and 32 acres for all groves. Distri-
bution by acreage groups is shown in Table 2, page 3. More than half of all
groves and groves over 10 years included in this study contained less than 30
acres per grove. Younger groves (10 years and under) are tending toward larger
acreages per grove, with 66 percent having 30 acres or more per grove.

TREES PER ACRE

Groves included in this study averaged 81 trees per acre for the young
group, 68 for the older group and 71 for both groups in 1967-68. Eighty percent
of all groves of this study had less than 80 trees per acre. See Table 3, page
3.










Thirty-Seven Years


of

Citrus Costs and Returns

in

Florida
1931-1968



Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of citrus producing
counties and the Agricultural Experiment Stations, have conducted citrus
costs and returns studies since 1931. This study has been conducted over 37
completed seasons of 1931-68.

Groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus producing
area. From 75 to 86 percent of the groves have been in the four counties of
Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying somewhat in different seasons. Loca-
tion of the 184 groves of all ages included in the 1967-68 season is shown by
counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During this season 84 percent of
the groves and 82 percent of the acreage were in the four counties named. Twelve
counties were represented in the study this season.

Averages of data from these groves are not presented as averages for the
entire state of Florida. Groves included are only those of cooperators who
supplied records. It is thought that trends in averages of these groves are
similar to the trends in corresponding averages for all Florida groves of
similar ages.

ACREAGE PER GROVE

In 1967-68 the average for groves 10 years of age and under was 43 acres
per grove, 30 acres for groves over 10 years and 32 acres for all groves. Distri-
bution by acreage groups is shown in Table 2, page 3. More than half of all
groves and groves over 10 years included in this study contained less than 30
acres per grove. Younger groves (10 years and under) are tending toward larger
acreages per grove, with 66 percent having 30 acres or more per grove.

TREES PER ACRE

Groves included in this study averaged 81 trees per acre for the young
group, 68 for the older group and 71 for both groups in 1967-68. Eighty percent
of all groves of this study had less than 80 trees per acre. See Table 3, page
3.









Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns All Groves


AGE OF GROVE

Age of tree from time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most
convenient method of designating groves when comparing yields, costs, returns
and other comparisons. In this work groves have been divided into two age
groups; groves 10 years of age and under and groves over 10 years of age.

Distribution according to average age of trees of the 184 groves included
in these data in 1967-68 is shown in Table 4. Average age of individual groves
varied from 3 to 54 years. Seventeen percent were 10 years of age or less, and
the average age of such groves was 8 years. Eighty-three percent were over
10 years of age with the average age of this group at 32 years. Twenty-eight
percent of all groves were 31 to 45 years of age, and these same ages made up
34 percent of groves over 10 years of age.


Table 4.--DISTRIBUTION OF 184 GROVES
BY AVERAGE AGE, 1967-68 SEASON


Average
Age

Under 6
6 10
11 15
16 20
21 25
26 30
31 35
36 40
41 45
46 50
51 55

3 54


Number
Groves

3
29
42
9
10
5
6
12
33
31
4

184


Cumulative
Percent Percent


1.6
15.7
22.8
4.9
5.4
2.7
3.6
6.5
17.9
16.8
2.1

100.0


1.6
17.3
40.1
45.0
50.4
53.1
56.7
63.2
81.1
.97.9
100.0

100.0


PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT


The proportion of the trees that were grapefruit influences yield,
costs and returns. Costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees were usually
higher per acre and lower per box than orange. Over the 37 seasons, 27
percent of the trees in record groves over 10 years of age were grapefruit.
In 1967-68 only 12 percent of the trees in record groves in the same age
group were grapefruit.


--


Page 4









Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns All Groves


AGE OF GROVE

Age of tree from time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most
convenient method of designating groves when comparing yields, costs, returns
and other comparisons. In this work groves have been divided into two age
groups; groves 10 years of age and under and groves over 10 years of age.

Distribution according to average age of trees of the 184 groves included
in these data in 1967-68 is shown in Table 4. Average age of individual groves
varied from 3 to 54 years. Seventeen percent were 10 years of age or less, and
the average age of such groves was 8 years. Eighty-three percent were over
10 years of age with the average age of this group at 32 years. Twenty-eight
percent of all groves were 31 to 45 years of age, and these same ages made up
34 percent of groves over 10 years of age.


Table 4.--DISTRIBUTION OF 184 GROVES
BY AVERAGE AGE, 1967-68 SEASON


Average
Age

Under 6
6 10
11 15
16 20
21 25
26 30
31 35
36 40
41 45
46 50
51 55

3 54


Number
Groves

3
29
42
9
10
5
6
12
33
31
4

184


Cumulative
Percent Percent


1.6
15.7
22.8
4.9
5.4
2.7
3.6
6.5
17.9
16.8
2.1

100.0


1.6
17.3
40.1
45.0
50.4
53.1
56.7
63.2
81.1
.97.9
100.0

100.0


PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT


The proportion of the trees that were grapefruit influences yield,
costs and returns. Costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees were usually
higher per acre and lower per box than orange. Over the 37 seasons, 27
percent of the trees in record groves over 10 years of age were grapefruit.
In 1967-68 only 12 percent of the trees in record groves in the same age
group were grapefruit.


--


Page 4








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns 10 Years and Under


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER


Averages for the seasons of 1959-60 through 1967-68 are shown in Table
6, page 6. Five-year averages for 1931-36 through 1961-66 and the 37-year
average (1931-68) for groves 10 years and under are shown in Table 7, page 7.
Average age of trees in groves per season varied from 3 to 9 years, and the
average for all 37 seasons was 7 years. Acreage varied from 319 to 3,210
acres per season, with the average for all seasons being 1,243 acres. Acreage
included in 1967-68 was 1,384 acres.

Average number of boxes of fruit harvested from this group of groves was
82 boxes per acre for the entire period. Yield in 1967-68 was 129 boxes. Yields
were lowest in 1963-64 due to low temperatures.

Operating costs per acre averaged $88.74 for the 37 seasons of 1931-68.
Such costs in 1967-68 were $156.81. The percentage of each item making up
operating costs of the two groups of groves is shown in Table 5.

Returns from fruit averaged $109.2.1 per acre for the 37-year period.
Returns from fruit in 1967-68 were $233.50 per acre and $1.81 per box.

Table 5.--SPECIFIED COST ITEMS AS PERCENT OF TOTAL,
OPERATING COST PER ACRE, 1931-68 and 1967-68


Age in Groves in Years


1931-68 1967-68
Item of Cost 10 & Under Over 10 10 & Under Over 10
Labor, power and equipment 53.2 46.2 57.7 47.3
Fertilizer materials 28.1 30.5 20.7 19.7
Spray and dust materials 7.9 11.0 12.9 16.9
State and county taxes 5.2 7.2 7.6 13.1
Miscellaneous 5.6 5.1 1.1 3.0

Total operating costs 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Returns above operating costs averaged $20.47 per acre annually for the
37-year period or 25 cents per box. This item for the season of 1967-68 was
$76.69 per acre or 59 cents per box.

Interest on investment in grove, land and trees was calculated on operator's
estimate of the valuation. The estimate requested was the investment in land
and trees from the point of view of a long-time fruit-growing enterprise. Such
valuations are often less than prices of grove sales during periods of high
fruit prices, and are usually higher than grove sale prices during periods
of depressed fruit prices.


Paee 5








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns 10 Years and Under


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER


Averages for the seasons of 1959-60 through 1967-68 are shown in Table
6, page 6. Five-year averages for 1931-36 through 1961-66 and the 37-year
average (1931-68) for groves 10 years and under are shown in Table 7, page 7.
Average age of trees in groves per season varied from 3 to 9 years, and the
average for all 37 seasons was 7 years. Acreage varied from 319 to 3,210
acres per season, with the average for all seasons being 1,243 acres. Acreage
included in 1967-68 was 1,384 acres.

Average number of boxes of fruit harvested from this group of groves was
82 boxes per acre for the entire period. Yield in 1967-68 was 129 boxes. Yields
were lowest in 1963-64 due to low temperatures.

Operating costs per acre averaged $88.74 for the 37 seasons of 1931-68.
Such costs in 1967-68 were $156.81. The percentage of each item making up
operating costs of the two groups of groves is shown in Table 5.

Returns from fruit averaged $109.2.1 per acre for the 37-year period.
Returns from fruit in 1967-68 were $233.50 per acre and $1.81 per box.

Table 5.--SPECIFIED COST ITEMS AS PERCENT OF TOTAL,
OPERATING COST PER ACRE, 1931-68 and 1967-68


Age in Groves in Years


1931-68 1967-68
Item of Cost 10 & Under Over 10 10 & Under Over 10
Labor, power and equipment 53.2 46.2 57.7 47.3
Fertilizer materials 28.1 30.5 20.7 19.7
Spray and dust materials 7.9 11.0 12.9 16.9
State and county taxes 5.2 7.2 7.6 13.1
Miscellaneous 5.6 5.1 1.1 3.0

Total operating costs 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Returns above operating costs averaged $20.47 per acre annually for the
37-year period or 25 cents per box. This item for the season of 1967-68 was
$76.69 per acre or 59 cents per box.

Interest on investment in grove, land and trees was calculated on operator's
estimate of the valuation. The estimate requested was the investment in land
and trees from the point of view of a long-time fruit-growing enterprise. Such
valuations are often less than prices of grove sales during periods of high
fruit prices, and are usually higher than grove sale prices during periods
of depressed fruit prices.


Paee 5





Table 6.--PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA BY SEASONS
-FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER, 1959-68


Item 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68
Number of grove records 28 63 64 58 50 39 34 35 32
Total acres of records 1024 2463 2521 2183 1906 1672 1651 1616 1384
Average acres per grove 37 39 39 38 38 43 49 46 43
Average age 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 8
Number of trees per acre 68 74 75 75 78 80 78 79 81
Percent of trees grapefruit 5.0 1.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5
Boxes harvested per acre 43 61 95 67 33 70 108 140 129
Costs per acre:
Labor, power and equipment $ 69.48 $ 69.80 $ 72.87 $ 62.26 $ 76.88 $107.02 $ 98.14 $ 79.08 $ 90.45
Fertilizer materials 32.16 34.93 35.50 36.62 28.83 29.66 34.56 33.04 32.55
Spray and dust materials 10.69 10.98 13.01 15.11 10.74 17.59 18.79 22.79 20.23
State and county taxes 6.55 5.30 8.02 7.22 6.49 6.58 7.90 8.67 11.91
Miscellaneous 15.87 8.14 7.42 2.57 4.16 10.46 4.82 5.83 1.67
Total operating costs 134.75 129.15 136.82 123.78 127.10 171.31 164.21 149.41 156.81
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% 45.82 47.22 57.81 60.64 66.54 75.07 85.87 87.70 87.34
Total cost without owner supervision 180.57 176.37 194.63 184.42 193.64 246.38 250.08 237.11 244.15

Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 83.99 163.63 180.58 118.77 109.68 144.45 160.83 112.18 233.50
Net returns -96.58 -12.74 -14.05 -65.65 -83.96 -101.93 -89.25 -124.93 -10.65
Returns above operating costs -50.76 34.48 43.76 -5.01 -17.42 -26.86 -3.38 -37.23 76.69
Cost per box:
Labor, power and equipment 1.61 1.15 .77 .93 2.33 1.53 .91 .57 .70
Fertilizer materials .75 .57 .37 .55 .87 .42 .32 .24 .25
Spray and dust materials .25 .18 .14 .22 .32 .25 .18 .16 .16
State and county taxes .15 .09 .08 .11 .20 .10 .07 .06 .09
Miscellaneous .37 .13 .08 .04 .13 .15 .04 .04 .02
Total operating costs 3.13 2.12 1.44 1.85 3.85 2.45 1.52 1.07 1.22
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% 1.07 .77 .61 .90 2.02 1.07 .80 .62 .67
Total cost without owner supervision 4.20 2.89 2.05 2.75 5.87 3.52 2.32 1.69 1.89

Returns per box:
Returns from fruit 1.95 2.68 1.90 1.77 3.32 2.06 1.49 .80 1.81
Net returns -2.25 -.21 -.15 -.98 -2.55 -1.46 -.83 -.89 -.08
Returns above operating costs -1.18 .56 .46 -.08 -.53 -.39 -.03 -.27 .59





Table 7.--PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA FOR SEVEN 5-YEAR
AND ONE 37-YEAR AVERAGE FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER, 1931-68

5-Year Averages
Item 1931-36 1936-41 1941-46 1946-51 1951-56 1956-61 1961-66 1931-68
Number of grove records 55 34 20 22 18 29 49 33
Total acres of records 2387 890 472 693 1016 1151 1987 1243
Average acres per grove 43 26 24 32 55 40 41 38
Average age 8 8 7 6 4 5 7 7
Number of trees per acre 62 70 75 68 62 66 77 69
Percent trees grapefruit 24.7 30.7 16.1 12.4 13.3 5.5 0.6 13.9
Boxes harvested per acre 62 119 102 102 55 41 75 82
Costs per acre:
Labor, power and equipment $ 17.98 $ 23.18 $ 25.73 $ 52.56 $ 52.54 $ 60.14 $ 83.A3 $ 47.23
Fertilizer materials 14.97 17.39 21.49 26.50 24.52 33.22 33.03 24.90
Spray and dust materials 2.07 3.68 4.07 4.75 4.96 8.63 15.05 7.00
State and county taxes 3.96 3.03 2.62 3.06 3.41 6.69 7.24 4,61
Miscellaneous 1.48 1.98 3.38 6.86 7.83 8.08 5.89 5.00
Total operating costs 40.46 49,26 57.29 93.73 93.26 116.76 144.64 88.74
Interest on grove valuarion @ 6% 25.32 26.94 22.50 25.05 31.33 41.61 69.19 37.42
Total cost without owner supervision 65.78 76.20 79.79 118.78 124.59 158.37 213.83 126.16

Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 50.11 84.36 170.70 134.71 67.54 88.40 143.20 109,21
Net returns -15.67 8.16 90.91 15.93 -57.05 -69.97 -70.63 -16.95
Returns above operating costs 9.65 35.10 113.41 40.98 -25.72 -28.36 1.44 20.47
Costs per box:
Labor, power and equipment .29 .19 .25 .51 .96 1.47 1.11 .58
Fertilizer materials .24 .15 .21 .26 .45 .81 .44 .30
Spray and dust materials .04 .03 .04 .05 .09 .21 .20 .08
State and county taxes .06 .02 .03 .03 .06 .16 .10 .06
Miscellaneous .02 .02 .03 .07 .14 .20 .08 .06
Total operating costs .65 .41 .56 .92 1.70 2.85 1.93 1.08
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% .41 .23 .22 .25 .57 1.01 .92 .46
Total cost without owner supervision 1.06 .64 .78 1.17 2.27 3.86 2.85 1.54

Returns per box:
Returns from fruit .81 .71 1.67 1.32 1.23 2.16 1.91 1.33
Net returns -.25 .07 .89 .15 -1.04 -1.70 -,.94 -.21
Returns above operating costs .16 .30 1.11 .40 .47 .69 .02 .25









Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Interest on estimated grove valuation at 6 percent averaged $37.42 per
acre for the 37 seasons. Interest for the 1967-68 season was $87.34 per acre.

Total cost without owner suprevision includes operating costs and interest
on grove investment. Interest on grove investment is a production cost, although
many growers do not consider it. When interest is not considered as a.cost, the
operating cost figure is the one desired. For those who consider interest on
grove investment as a production cost, additional calculations are given in order
to determine total cost without owner supervision and net returns after considering
interest as a cost.

Total cost without owner supervision averaged $126.16 for the 37-year period,
or $1.54 per box. Total cost in 1967-68 was $244.15 per acre or $1.89 per box.

Net returns averaged a loss of $16.95 per acre annually, or a loss of 21
cents per box. There were 26 of the 37 seasons when returns from fruit were less
than the total cost without owner supervision. Net returns were a loss of $10.65
per acre in 1967-68. Groves at these younger ages are not expected to show a
net profit in every season due toage and sometimes a low fruit price.

GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE

The number of groves over 10 years of age varied from 45 to 272 per season
and averaged 186. See Tables 8 and 9, pages 10 and 11. Grove acreage varied
from 583 in 1931-32 to 9,853 in 1940-41 and averaged 6,313 per season.

Acreage per grove was 13 acres in 1931-32. Since that time the seasonal
acreage has varied from 31 to 46 per grove and averaged 33 for the 37 seasons.
Acreage per individual grove varied from 2 to 231 in 1967-68 with 41 percent
having less than 20 acres and 70 percent with less than 40 acres. See Table 2,
page 3.

Average age of groves from time of setting nursery stock varied by seasons
from 17 to 36 years and averaged 27 years for the 37-year period. Average age
of the 152 groves included in the 1967-68 season was 32 years. See Table 8,
page 10. Age of grove should be kept in mind when comparing data as it is
accountable for many variations in groves or groups of groves of different ages.

Number of trees set per acre remained rather constant around 61 trees
until 1958-59. The past 9 seasons has averaged from 67 to 69 trees per acre.
Such was not true of the younger group. This group increased from 60 in 1931-32
to 65 in 1935-36. There were 14 seasons when the average for the younger group
exceeded 70 trees per acre. The average for this group during the entire period
was 69. See Table 7, page 7. The average for the older group was 62. See
Table 9, page 11.


Page 8







Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


It should be pointed out that these data include records for some groves
for only one season. Other groves were included for varying numbers of seasons
up to the entire 37 seasons. This turnover of groves making up the records affected
the number of trees per acre from season to season.

Percent of trees grapefruit is another. important consideration when comparing
fruit yield, costs, returns and net returns. Grapefruit groves usually have higher
yields, higher costs per acre, lower returns and net returns than orange groves of
comparable ages. Cost per box is usually lower for grapefruit due to higher yields.
Lower prices usually received for grapefruit result in lower returns and lower net
returns.

Percentage of trees grapefruit averaged 27 for the 37 seasons for groves
over 10 years of age. Individual seasons varied from 12 to 35 percent grapefruit
trees. However, the 9 most recent seasons ranged from 12 to 17 percent.

Boxes harvested per acre since 1942-43 ranged from 213 boxes in 1967-68
to 447 boxes in 1953-54. From 1958-59 through 1967-68,there were five seasons
with average yields per acre in the 300's and five seasons in the 200's. Boxes
harvested were highest of the 37 seasons in 1953-54. Boxes harvested per acre
in 1967-68 were the lowest in the past 26 seasons. Distribution of seasonal
averages is shown in Table 10.

Table 10.--DISTRIBUTION OF SEASONAL AVERAGES
OF BOXES HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1931-68

Number Cumulative
Boxes per acre Seasons Percent Percent

Less than 100 1 2.7 2.7
100 to 149 4 10.9 13.6
150 to 199 5 13.5 27.1
200 to 249 5 13.5 40.6
250 to 299 9 24.3 64.9
300 to 349 9 24.3 89.2
350 to 399 3 8.1 97.3
400 to 499 1 2.7 100.0

92 to 447 37 100.0 100.0


Boxes harvested per acre varied from 4 to 812 in the 1967-68 season. See
Table 11, page 12. Forty-two percent of these groves had less than 200 boxes
harvested per acre in 1967-68 and 83 percent less than 400 boxes per acre.


Page 9







Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


It should be pointed out that these data include records for some groves
for only one season. Other groves were included for varying numbers of seasons
up to the entire 37 seasons. This turnover of groves making up the records affected
the number of trees per acre from season to season.

Percent of trees grapefruit is another. important consideration when comparing
fruit yield, costs, returns and net returns. Grapefruit groves usually have higher
yields, higher costs per acre, lower returns and net returns than orange groves of
comparable ages. Cost per box is usually lower for grapefruit due to higher yields.
Lower prices usually received for grapefruit result in lower returns and lower net
returns.

Percentage of trees grapefruit averaged 27 for the 37 seasons for groves
over 10 years of age. Individual seasons varied from 12 to 35 percent grapefruit
trees. However, the 9 most recent seasons ranged from 12 to 17 percent.

Boxes harvested per acre since 1942-43 ranged from 213 boxes in 1967-68
to 447 boxes in 1953-54. From 1958-59 through 1967-68,there were five seasons
with average yields per acre in the 300's and five seasons in the 200's. Boxes
harvested were highest of the 37 seasons in 1953-54. Boxes harvested per acre
in 1967-68 were the lowest in the past 26 seasons. Distribution of seasonal
averages is shown in Table 10.

Table 10.--DISTRIBUTION OF SEASONAL AVERAGES
OF BOXES HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1931-68

Number Cumulative
Boxes per acre Seasons Percent Percent

Less than 100 1 2.7 2.7
100 to 149 4 10.9 13.6
150 to 199 5 13.5 27.1
200 to 249 5 13.5 40.6
250 to 299 9 24.3 64.9
300 to 349 9 24.3 89.2
350 to 399 3 8.1 97.3
400 to 499 1 2.7 100.0

92 to 447 37 100.0 100.0


Boxes harvested per acre varied from 4 to 812 in the 1967-68 season. See
Table 11, page 12. Forty-two percent of these groves had less than 200 boxes
harvested per acre in 1967-68 and 83 percent less than 400 boxes per acre.


Page 9






Table 8.--PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA
BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE, 1959-68


Item
Number of grove records
Total acres of records
Average acres per grove
Average age
Number of trees grapefruit
Percent trees grapefruit
Boxes harvested per acre
Costs per acre:
Labor, power and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision


Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit
Net returns
Returns above operating costs
Costs per box:
Labor, power and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision

Returns per box:
Returns from fruit
Net returns
Returns above operating costs


S1959-60 1960-61 1961-62
122 140 142
2764 3579 3667
23 26 26
35 34 34
67 67 67
16.6 15.3 15.7
343 302 337


1962-63
133
3427
26
35
68
15.5
234


$109.24 $ 98.82 $103.90. $104.78
67.00 71.02 66.75 66.12
34.07 J 34.83.~~~36.53 34.95
16.27 16.72 '19.44 18.92
10.52 8.64 14.80 9.02
237.10 230.03 241.42 233.79
85.12 87.53 94.51 92.54
322.22 317.56 335.93 326.33


630.30
308.08
393.20


.32
.19
.10
.05
.03
.69
.25
.94


1.84
.90
1.15


691.39
373.83
461.36


.33
.24
.11
.05
.03
.76
.29
1.05


2.29
1.24
1.53


546.12
210.19
304.70


.31
.20
.11
.06
.04
.72
.28
1.00


1.62
.62
.90


488.33
162.00
254.54


.45
.28
.15
.08
.04
1.00
.40
1.40


2.09
.69
1.09


1963-64
143
3670
26
34
68
14.6
226


$124.33
51.79
32.14
19.25
8.59
236.10
89.34
325.44


804.96
479.52
568.86


.55
.23
.14
.08
.04
1.04
.40
1.44


3.56
2.12
2.52


1964-65
134
3436
26
36
69
13.4
267


$109.33
54.17
34.82
18.66
20.93
237.91
90.78
328.69


553.97
225.28
316.06


.41
.20
.13
.07
.08
.89
.34
1.23


2.07
.84
1.18


1965-66
123
2995
24
35
68
13.4
284


$111.27
54.27
34.55
19.44
22.23
241.76
90.63
332.39


401.22
68.83
159.46


.39
.19
.12
.07
.08
.85
.32
1.17


1.41
.24
.56


1966-67
113
3012
27
35
68
11.5
327


$ 83.05
47.52
35.14
19.60
14.02
199.33
90.83
290.16


268.50
-21.66
69.17


.25
.15
.11
.06
.04
.61
.28
.89


.82
-.07
.21


1967-68
152
4575
30
32
68
12.0
213


$ 84.89
35.33
30.39
23.46
5.42
179.49
94.85
274.34


398.03
123.69
218.54


.40
.17
.14
.11
.02
.84
.45
1.29


1.87
.58
1.03


393.20


v .--


--=





Table 9.--PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA FOR SEVEN 5-YEAR
AND ONE 37-YEAR AVERAGE FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE, 1931-68
5-Year Averages
Item 1931-36 1936-41 1941-46 1946-51 1951-56 1956-61 1961-66 1931-68
Number of grove records 159 266 230 205 180 147 135 186
Total acres of records 5041 9234 8140 7292 6757 5351 3439 6313
Average acres per grove 32 35 35 36 38 36 26 33
Average age 18 19 23 26 30 34 35 27
Number of trees per acre 59 60 62 62 61 63 68 62
Percent trees grapefruit 31.8 31.1 31.6 30.7 29.3 22.8 14.6 27.0
Boxes harvested per acre 126 175 250 314 359 301 270 257
Costs per acre:
Labor, power and equipment $ 22.70 $ 23.19 $ 41.40 $ 72.67 $ 88.14 $109.27 $110.72 $ 67.79
Fertilizer materials 23.35 23.22 39.28 48.12 60.88 61.49 58.62 44.80
Spray and dust materials 3.33 4.75 7.54 11.47 19.81 25.26 34.60 16.20
State and county taxes 6.47 4.83 4.42 8.62 11.39 14.65 19.14 10.56
Miscellaneous 1.39 2.11 5.56 7.51 10.39 9.61 15.12 7.51
Total operating costs 57.24 58.10 98.20 148.39 190.61 220.28 238.20 146.86
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% 37.91 30.53 30.55 42.31 63.41 75.57 91.56 55.27
Total cost without owner supervision 95.15 88.63 128.75 190.70 254.02 295.85 329.76 202.13

Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 93.45 102.02 420.70 328.95 307.77 564.34 558.92 339.16
Net returns -1.70 13.39 291.95 138.25 53.75 268.49 229.16 137.03
Returns above operating costs 36.21 43.92 322.50 180.56 117.16 344.06 320.72 192.30
Costs per box:
Labor, power and equipment .18 .13 .16 .23 .24 .36 .41 .26
Fertilizer materials .19 .13 .16 .15 .17 .21 .22 .18
Spray.and dust materials .03 .03 .03 .04 .06 .08 .13 .06
State and county taxes .05 .03 .02 .03 .03 .05 .07 .04
Miscellaneous .01 .01 .02 .02 .03 .03 .05 .03
Total operating costs .46 .33 .39 .47 .53 .73 .88 .57
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% .30 .17 .12 .14 .18 .25 .34 .22
Total cost without owner supervision .76 .50 .51 .61 .71 .98 1.22 .79

Returns per box:
Returns from fruit .75 .58 1.68 1.05 .86 1.87 2.07 1.32
Net returns -.01 .08 1.17 .44 .15 .89 .85 .53
Returns above operating costs .29 .25 1.29 .58 .33 1.14 1.19 .75








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Table 11.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING
TO FRUIT HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Boxes per Acre


Under
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500 i


Number
Groves


100
149
199
249
299
349
399
449
499
over


4 to 812


Percent
20.8
12.1
9.4
9.4
12.1
8.7
10.8
3.3
3.3
10.1

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
20.8
32.9
42.3
51.7
63.8
72.5
83.3
86.6
89.9
100.0

100.0


No fruit harvested on three groves

Operating costs were made up of five items: (1) Labor, power and
equipment; (2) fertilizer materials; (3) spray and dust materials: (4) state
and county taxes; and (5) miscellaneous costs. Distribution of the latest year
and 37-year averages of these costs is shown in Table 5, page 5.

Operating costs per box were 84 cents in 1967-68. Forty-five percent
had such costs of less than 80 cents. See Table 12. An additional 35 percent
had costs from 80 cents to $1.49 and 13 percent had costs of $2.00 or more
per box. Lower yields automatically increased costs per box.


Table 12.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149
TO OPERATING COST PER BOX,


GROVES ACCORDING
1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Box
Less than $ 0.40
$0.40 to .59
.60 to .79
.80 to .99
1.00 to 1.49
1.50 to 1.99
2.00 to 2.99
3.00 and over


Number
Groves
11
28
28
27
25
11
10
9


Percent
7.4
18.8
18.8
18.1
16.8
7.4
6.7
6.0


Cumulative
Percent
7.4
26.2
45.0
63.1
79.9
87.3
94.0
100.0


$0.29 to $36.49 149


Page 12


100.0 100.0








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years

Operating costs per acre by individual groves ranged from
in the 1967-68 season and averaged $179.49. See Table 13. On
groves, $200.00 per acre or more was spent for operating costs
$250.00 or more on 18 percent.


Page 13


$51.43 to $464.33
43 percent of the
that season and


Table 13.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO
OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Acre
Less than $ 100
$ 100 to 149
150 to 199
200 to 249
250 to 299
300 to 399
400 and over

51.43 464.33


Number
Groves
9
36
42
37
20
7


Percent
5.9
23.7
27.6
24.3
13.2
4.6
0.7


100.0


Cumulative
Percent
5.9
29.6
57.2
81.5
94.7
99.3
100.0

100.0 -


Operating costs by seasons ranged from $44.90 per acre in 1934-35 to
$241.76 in 1965-66 and from 30 cents per box in four seasons to $104 in 1963-64.
See Table 14.


Table 14.--AVERAGE AND RANGE OF OPERATING COST ITEMS
PER SEASON, 1931-68


Per Acre
Cost Items Average Range


Labor, power & equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous


$ 67.79
44.80
16.20
10.56
7.51


$17.33 to
17.74 to
2.99 to
4.07 to
.53 to


Per Box
Average Range
cents cents


$124.33'
71.02
36.53
23.46
22.23


11 to
11 to
2 to
1 to
* to


Operating costs


$146.86 $44.90 to $241.76


57 30 to 104


* Less than $0.005








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years

Operating costs per acre by individual groves ranged from
in the 1967-68 season and averaged $179.49. See Table 13. On
groves, $200.00 per acre or more was spent for operating costs
$250.00 or more on 18 percent.


Page 13


$51.43 to $464.33
43 percent of the
that season and


Table 13.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO
OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Acre
Less than $ 100
$ 100 to 149
150 to 199
200 to 249
250 to 299
300 to 399
400 and over

51.43 464.33


Number
Groves
9
36
42
37
20
7


Percent
5.9
23.7
27.6
24.3
13.2
4.6
0.7


100.0


Cumulative
Percent
5.9
29.6
57.2
81.5
94.7
99.3
100.0

100.0 -


Operating costs by seasons ranged from $44.90 per acre in 1934-35 to
$241.76 in 1965-66 and from 30 cents per box in four seasons to $104 in 1963-64.
See Table 14.


Table 14.--AVERAGE AND RANGE OF OPERATING COST ITEMS
PER SEASON, 1931-68


Per Acre
Cost Items Average Range


Labor, power & equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous


$ 67.79
44.80
16.20
10.56
7.51


$17.33 to
17.74 to
2.99 to
4.07 to
.53 to


Per Box
Average Range
cents cents


$124.33'
71.02
36.53
23.46
22.23


11 to
11 to
2 to
1 to
* to


Operating costs


$146.86 $44.90 to $241.76


57 30 to 104


* Less than $0.005








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Mdre was spent- for labor, power and equipment than any other cost item.
The average was $67.79 per acre per season and ranged from $17.33 to $124.33.
The cost exceeded the cost of fertilizer materials in 29 of the 37 seasons.
Spread between costs of the two items increased during recent seasons with the
cost of labor, power and equipment increasing faster than fertilizer materials.
This item amounted to $84.89 per acre in 1967-68 and ranked thirteenth highest
of the period. Decreases in number of boxes harvested caused increases in cost
per box. Such costs were highest in 1963-64 at 55 cents and 1967-68 was sixth
highest at 40 cents. The average for 37 seasons was 26 cents per box.

Table 15 shows the distribution of groves as to the amount of money spent
per acre for labor, power and equipment in 1967-68. The amount spent varied
from $18.64 to $273.39 per acre. Thirteen percent had spent less than $50.00
per acre for this item and 51 percent less than $90.00. Sixteen percent had
spent $130.00 or more per acre for this item.

Table 15.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT
FOR LABOR, POWER AND EQUIPMENT PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost Per Acre Groves Percent Percent
Less than $ 30 3 2.0 2.0
$ 30 to 49 17 11.2 13.2
50 to 69 34 22.4 35.6
70 to 89 24 15.8 51.4
90 to 109 20 13.1 64.5
110 to 129 29 19.1 83.6
130 to 149 13 8.5 92.1
150 to 169 1 0.7 92.8
170 and over 11 7.2 100.0

*18;64 to $273.39 152 100.0 100.0


The cost item.of second importance was fertilizer materials. This item
averaged 31 percent of operating costs and amounted to $44.80 for the 37-year
average. The range in seasonal cost for these materials was from $17.74 to
$71.02. During 15 of the seasons this item averaged less than $40.00 per
acre. This cost was $35.33 per acre in 1967-68.

Table 16, page 15, shows the distribution of these costs per acre by groves
in 1967-68 season. The variation was from $0.64 per acre to $81.94. Sixty-six
percent of these groves had less than $40.00 per acre spent for fertilizer and
7 percent had $60.00 or more.


Page 14








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Table 16.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY
SPENT PER ACRE FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Acre
Less than $20
$ 20 to 29
30 to 39
40 to 49
50 to 59
60 to 69
70 to 79
80 and over

0.64 to 81.94


Number
Groves
16
32
53
23
17
7
3
1

152


Percent
10.5
21.1
34.9
15.1
11.2
4.6
2.0
0.6

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
10.5
31.6
66.5
81.6
92.8
97.4
99.4
100.0

100.0


Fertilizer costs per box ranged from $0.01 to $8.21 and averaged 17 cents.
See Table 17. Fourty-four percent of the groves had this cost at less than
15 cents per box and 81 percent at less than 30 cents.


Table 17.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY
SPENT PER BOX FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Box
$0.01 to $0.09
.10 to .14
.15 to .19
.20 to .24
,25 to .29
.30 to .34
.35 to .39
.40 to .59
.60 and over

0.01 to 8.21


Number
Groves
29
36
31
15
10
5
3
7
13

149


Percent
19.5.
24.2
20.8
10.1
6.7
3.3
2.0
4.7
8.7

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
19.5
43.7
64.5
74.6
81.3
84.6.
86.6
91.3
100.0

100.0


Nitrogen is an important element in fertilizers added. Distribution of
groves in 1967-68 according to amount of nitrogen in fertilizers applied per
box of fruit harvested is shown in Table 18, page 16. Range was from 0.01
to 36.72 pounds of nitrogen applied per box and the average was 0.70 pounds.
There were 22 percent of the groves that had less than 0.50 pounds applied
per box and 56 percent had less than 0.80 pound. Sixty-six percent received
0.60 pound or more.


Page 15








Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Table 18.--DISTRIBURION OF 141 GROVES ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF
NITROGEN APPLIED PER BOX OF FRUIT HARVESTED, 1967-68 SEASON


Lbs. N. per Box

.01 to .29
.30 to .39
.40 to .49
.50 to .59
.60 to .69
.70 to .79
.80 to .89
.90 to .99
1.00 to 1.29
1.30 and over

0.01 to 36.72


Number
Groves
7
12
12
17
13
18
8
10
11
33

141


Percent
5.0
8.5
8.5
12.0
9.2
12.8
5.7
7.1
7.8
23.4

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
5.0
13.5
22.0
34.0
43.2
56.0
61.7
68.8
76.6
100.0

100.0


Spray and dust material costs averaged $16.20 per acre for the 37-year
average and made up 11 percent of the operating costs. These materials cost
$30.39 per acre in 1967-68. This cost was 14 cents per box. Variation was from
no expense to $79.35 per acre. See Table 19. There were 2 groves, 1 percent,
that received no spray or dust. Fifty-five percent had these costs of $20.00
to $39.99. Twenty-five percent had these costs at $40.00 or more.


Table 19.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT FOR
SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Acre


None
$ 0.01 to
5.00 to
10.00 to
15.00 to
20.00 to
25.00 to
30.00 to
35.00 to
40.00 to
50.00 to
60.00 and


$ 4.99
9.99
14.99
19.99
24.99
29.99
34.99
39.99
49.99
59.99
over


Number
Groves


Cumulative
Percent Percent


1.3
4.6
5.3
2.0
7.2
11.8
13.2
13.8
15.8
11.8
7.9
5.3


152 100.0


1.3
5.9
11.2
13.2
20.4
32.2
45.4
59.2
75.0
86.8
94.7
100.0

100.0


Page 16


0.00 to 79.35







Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


State and county taxes averaged $10.56 per acre for the 37-year period, or
4 cents per box. Taxes in 1967-68 averaged $23.46 per acre or 11 cents per box.
The range was from $2.40 to $57.73 per acre. See Table 20. Seventeen percent
had taxes of less than $15.00 and 33 percent more than $25.00 per acre. Higher
assessed valuations accounted for the increase in 1967-68 over earlier seasons.


Table 20.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO STATE
AND COUNTY TAXES PAID PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Taxes per Acre


Under
$ 5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00


$ 5.00
$ 9.99
14.99
19.99
24.99
29.99
over


2.40 to 57.73


Number
Groves
4
10
12
38
38
13
37

152


Percent
2.6
6.6
7.9
25.0
25.0
8.6
24.3

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
2.6
9.2
17.1
42.1
67.1
75.7
100.0

100.0


Miscellaneous cost averaged 5 percent of the operating cost over the 37-year
period or $7.51 per acre. Miscellaneous cost was $5.42 per acre or 2 cents per
box in 1967-68. This cost included such items as overhead, trees for replace-
ment, city taxes, drainage district assessments, and fuel for grove heating.

Returns from fruit averaged $339.16 for the entire period,or $1.32 per box.
Yield and price determine the per-acre returns from fruit. There were 50 groves,
34 percent, that had returns from fruit of less than $300.00 per acre and 20
percent with returns of more than $700.00. See Table 21. The range was from
$1.67 to $1,367.10.


Table 21.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149
FROM FRUIT PER ACRE,


Returns per Acre
Less than $ 99
$100 to 299
300 to 499
500 to 699
700 to 899
900 to 1099
1100 and ovc:

1.67 to 1367.1.0


Number
Groves
15
35
37
32
18
7
5


GROVES ACCORDING TO RETURNS
1967-68 SEASON


Percent
10.1
23.5
24.8
21.5
12.1
4.7
3.3


Cumulative
Percent
10.1
33.6
58.4
79.9
92.0
96.7
100.0


149 100.0


Page 17


100.0







Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


State and county taxes averaged $10.56 per acre for the 37-year period, or
4 cents per box. Taxes in 1967-68 averaged $23.46 per acre or 11 cents per box.
The range was from $2.40 to $57.73 per acre. See Table 20. Seventeen percent
had taxes of less than $15.00 and 33 percent more than $25.00 per acre. Higher
assessed valuations accounted for the increase in 1967-68 over earlier seasons.


Table 20.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO STATE
AND COUNTY TAXES PAID PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Taxes per Acre


Under
$ 5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00


$ 5.00
$ 9.99
14.99
19.99
24.99
29.99
over


2.40 to 57.73


Number
Groves
4
10
12
38
38
13
37

152


Percent
2.6
6.6
7.9
25.0
25.0
8.6
24.3

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
2.6
9.2
17.1
42.1
67.1
75.7
100.0

100.0


Miscellaneous cost averaged 5 percent of the operating cost over the 37-year
period or $7.51 per acre. Miscellaneous cost was $5.42 per acre or 2 cents per
box in 1967-68. This cost included such items as overhead, trees for replace-
ment, city taxes, drainage district assessments, and fuel for grove heating.

Returns from fruit averaged $339.16 for the entire period,or $1.32 per box.
Yield and price determine the per-acre returns from fruit. There were 50 groves,
34 percent, that had returns from fruit of less than $300.00 per acre and 20
percent with returns of more than $700.00. See Table 21. The range was from
$1.67 to $1,367.10.


Table 21.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149
FROM FRUIT PER ACRE,


Returns per Acre
Less than $ 99
$100 to 299
300 to 499
500 to 699
700 to 899
900 to 1099
1100 and ovc:

1.67 to 1367.1.0


Number
Groves
15
35
37
32
18
7
5


GROVES ACCORDING TO RETURNS
1967-68 SEASON


Percent
10.1
23.5
24.8
21.5
12.1
4.7
3.3


Cumulative
Percent
10.1
33.6
58.4
79.9
92.0
96.7
100.0


149 100.0


Page 17


100.0










Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


The average on-tree price
price was from $0.42 to $4.94.
had a fruit price of less than
per box.


received in 1967-68 was $1.87 per box. Range in
See Table 22. Sixty-five percent of the groves
$2.00 and 94 percent received less than $3.00


Table 22.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING
TO PRICE RECEIVED FOR FRUIT, 1967-68 SEASON


Price per Box
Less than $1.00
$1.00 to 1.24
1.25 to 1.49
1.50 to 1.74
1.75 to 1.99
2.00 to 2.24
2.25 to 2.49
2.50 to 2.74
2.75 to 2.99
3.00 and over

0.42 to 4.94


Number
Groves
4
11
19
32
31
23
9
5
6
9


Percent
2.7
7.4
12.8
21.5
20.8
15.4
6.0
3.4
4.0
6.0


100.0


Cumulative
Percent
2.7
10.1
22.9
44.4
65.2
80.6
86.6
90.0
94.0
100.0

100.0


Returns above operating costs per acre ranged from a loss of $197.60 to
a profit of $1,138.08 in 1967-68. Sixteen percent failed to return a profit.
Thirty-four percent netted from $0.00 to $199.99 per acre and 19 percent over
$500.00. See Table 23. The average was $218.54. Fifty percent netted less
than $1.00 per box. See Table 24, page 19.

Table 23.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO RETURNS
ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Returns Above
Operating Costs
Less than $ 0
$ 0 to 199
200 to 299
300 to 399
400 to 499
500 to 599
600 and over


Number
Groves
24
51
16
19
13
8
21


Percent
15.8
33.5
10.5
12.5
8.6
5.3
13.8


Cumulative
Percent
15,8
49.3
59.8
72.3
80.9
86.2
100.0


-197.60 to 1,138.08


Page 18


152 100.0


100.0












Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Table 24.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING TO RETURNS
ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER BOX, 1967-68 SEASON

Returns Above Number Cumulative
Operating Costs Groves Percent Percent
Less than $-0.01 21 14.1 14.1
$0.00 to .49 11 7.4 21.5
.50 to .99 43 28.8 50.3
1.00 to 1.49 52 34.9 85.2
1.50 and over 22 14.8 100.0

-35.01 to 3.80 149 100.0 100.0


Interest on grove valuations has been figured at 6 percent. Interest per
acre averaged $55.27 for the 37 seasons. Interest per box varied from 10 cents
in 1943-44 to 45 cents in 1967-68. The average was 22 cents for the 37 seasons.

Interest in 1967-68 averaged 45 cents per box. The increase was caused
more by low yields than an increase in grove valuation. See Table 8, page 10.
Distribution of groves according to interest per acre is shown in Table 25.
Thirty-two percent had interest charged at less than $84.00, 55 percent at less
than $96.00 and 37 percent at $108.00 or more.

Table 25.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO INTEREST
ON GROVE VALUATION PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Interest per Acre
Less than $ 71
$ 72 to 77
78 to 83
84 to 89
90 to 95
96 to 101
102 to 107
108 to 120
121 and over

39.00 to 204.00


Number
Groves
27
12
10
14
21
6
6
25
31

152


Percent
17.8
7.9
6.6
9.2
13.8
3.9
3.9
16.5
20.4

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
17.8
25.7
32.3
41.5
55.3
59.2
63.1
79.6
100.0

100.0


The total cost without owner supervision is made up of five items included
as operating costs plus. the item of interest on estimated grove valuation. This
item of interest added 38 percent to the average operating cost for the 37
seasons.


Pa e 1


Pa ep 19












Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Table 24.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING TO RETURNS
ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER BOX, 1967-68 SEASON

Returns Above Number Cumulative
Operating Costs Groves Percent Percent
Less than $-0.01 21 14.1 14.1
$0.00 to .49 11 7.4 21.5
.50 to .99 43 28.8 50.3
1.00 to 1.49 52 34.9 85.2
1.50 and over 22 14.8 100.0

-35.01 to 3.80 149 100.0 100.0


Interest on grove valuations has been figured at 6 percent. Interest per
acre averaged $55.27 for the 37 seasons. Interest per box varied from 10 cents
in 1943-44 to 45 cents in 1967-68. The average was 22 cents for the 37 seasons.

Interest in 1967-68 averaged 45 cents per box. The increase was caused
more by low yields than an increase in grove valuation. See Table 8, page 10.
Distribution of groves according to interest per acre is shown in Table 25.
Thirty-two percent had interest charged at less than $84.00, 55 percent at less
than $96.00 and 37 percent at $108.00 or more.

Table 25.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO INTEREST
ON GROVE VALUATION PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Interest per Acre
Less than $ 71
$ 72 to 77
78 to 83
84 to 89
90 to 95
96 to 101
102 to 107
108 to 120
121 and over

39.00 to 204.00


Number
Groves
27
12
10
14
21
6
6
25
31

152


Percent
17.8
7.9
6.6
9.2
13.8
3.9
3.9
16.5
20.4

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
17.8
25.7
32.3
41.5
55.3
59.2
63.1
79.6
100.0

100.0


The total cost without owner supervision is made up of five items included
as operating costs plus. the item of interest on estimated grove valuation. This
item of interest added 38 percent to the average operating cost for the 37
seasons.


Pa e 1


Pa ep 19












Thiry-SvenYears of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years


Distribution of cost per acre including interest on grove valuation for the
1967-68 season is shown in Table 26. Fifty-five percent of the groves had such
costs of less than $300.00 and 78 percent had less than $350.00. Twelve percent
had these costs at $400.00 or more. The average for all groves that season
was $274.34. Distribution of these costs per box in 1967-68 is shown in Table
27. Thirty-five percent had such costs of less than $1.00 and 26 percent were
in excess of $2.00. The average for all groves was $1.29.

Table 26.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING TO TOTAL
COST PER ACRE WITHOUT OWNER SUPERVISION, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Acre
Less than $200
$200 to 224
225 to 249
250 to 274
275 to 299
300 to 324
325 to 349
350 to 374
375 to 399
400 and over

111.43 to 554.33


Number
Groves
21
16
17
17
13
21
14
9
5
19

152


Percent
13.8
10.5
11.2
11.2
8.6
13.8
9.2
5.9
3.3
12.5

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
13.8
24.3
35.5
46.7
55.3
69.1
78.3
84.2
87.5
100.0

100.0


Table 27.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES ACCORDING TO TOTAL
COSTS PER BOX WITHOUT OWNER SUPERVISION, 1967-68 SEASON


Cost per Box
Less than $ 0.50
$0.50 to .74
.75 to .99
1.00 to 1.24
1.25 to 1.49
1.50 to 1.74
1.75 to 1.99
2.00 to 2.99
3.00 to 5.99
6.00 and over

0.14 to 59.57


Number
Groves
5
15
32
18
23
8
9
20
12
7


Percent
3.4
10.0
21.5
12.1
15.4
5.4
6.0
13.4
8.1
4.7


Cumulative
Percent
3.4
13.4
34.9
47.0
62.4
67.8
73.8
87.2
95.3
100.0


149 100.0


Page 20


100.0















Net returns is money left to the grower after paying operating costs and
interest on grove valuation. There were eight seasons when such costs were
more than returns from fruit. Net returns per acre ranged from a loss of
$287.60 to a profit of $994.08 and averaged a profit of $123.69 in 1967-68.
Twenty-eight percent had no net returns, 53 percent ranged from zero to
$399.00 and 18 percent had net returns of $400.00 or more per acre. See Table
28.

Table 28.--DISTRIBUTION OF 152 GROVES ACCORDING
TO NET RETURNS* PER ACRE, 1967-68 SEASON


Net Returns
Less than $-200
$-200 to 1
0 to 199
200 to 399
400 to 599
600 and over

-287.60 to 994.08


Number
Groves
5
38
46
35
19
9

152


Cumulative
Percent Percent
3.3 3.3
25.0 28.3
30.3 58.6
23.0 81.6
12.5 94.1
5.9 100.0


100.0


100.0


Returns above operating cost and interest on grove
valuation.

Thirty-six percent of these groves had net returns of less
per box and 24 percent ranged from $1.00 upward. See Table 29.
profit for the season was $0.58 per box.


.Table 29.--DISTRIBUTION OF 149 GROVES
TO NET RETURNS" PER BOX, 1967-68


than $0.25
The average


ACCORDING
SEASON


Net Returns
Less than $-0.01
$0.00 to .24
.25 to .49
.50 to .74
.75 to .99
1.00 to 1.24
1.25 to 1.49
1.50 and over

-59.15 to 3.43


Number
Groves
40
13
21
19
20
20
10
6

149


Percent
26.9
8.7
14.1
12.8
13.4
13.4
6.7
4.0

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
26.9
35.6
49.7
62.5
75.9
89.3
96.0
100.0

100.0


* Returns above operating cost and interest on grove
valuation.


Page 21


Thiry-SvenYears of Citrus Costs and Returns Over 10 Years










Thirty-Seven Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Page 22

Agr. Ext. Ser. Ec. Series 68-6 36 Years of Citrus Costs and Returns
in Florida, 1931-67.

68-3 35 Years of Citrus Costs and Returns
in Florida, 1931-66.

67-6 35 Years of Orange Costs and Returns
in Florida, 1931-66.

67-1 34 Years of Citrus Costs and Returns
in Florida, 1931-65

Publications of nursery stock movement series discontinued after 1967. Available is

Agr. Ec. Mimeo Report 68-3 Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida
Nurseries, July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1967.


Some other citrus publications:

Agr. Ext. Ser. Ec. Series


Agr. Ec. Mimeo Report


Agr. Ext. Ser. Circular


66-3 Citrus Yield Per Tree By Age.

65-5 Per-Acre Yield and On-Tree Price of
Florida Citrus 1929 to Date.

65-4 How Many Citrus Trees Per Acre?

65-1 Cost of Planting and Developing Florida
Citrus Groves Through 10 Years of Age.

64-6 Estimating the Value of Citrus Fruit as
it Develops.

69-5 Cost of Picking and Hauling Citrus
Fruits, 1967-68 Season.

332 Should I Buy A Citrus Grove, May, 1969.


Ext. Service 1500
DLB: eh:td August, 1969




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