• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Age of grove
 Groves 10 years of age and...
 Groves over 10 years of age






Group Title: AE series - Florida Agricultural Extension Service - 52-3
Title: Nineteen years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-1950
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071964/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nineteen years of citrus costs and returns in Florida, 1931-1950
Physical Description: 21 p. : ; .. cm.
Language: English
Creator: Savage, Z
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1952
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Z. Savage.
Funding: AE series - Agricultural extension service. University of Florida ; 52-3
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071964
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67698057
clc - 000446481

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Age of grove
        Page 3
    Groves 10 years of age and under
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Groves over 10 years of age
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






- I(


March 1952


AE Series No. 52-3


AtiSHALL R. GODWIN
DEpARTMENT oc AGRICULTURAL ECONOMiC


NINETEEN YEARS

of


CITRUS


COSTS AND


RETURNS


FLOOR IDA



1931 1950


Zach Savage
Associate Agricultural Economist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
















Issued by
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
In Cooperation with County Agents of Citrus Producing Counties


_~___~











NINETEEN YEARS
of
CITRUS COSTS AND RETURNS
in
FLORIDA

1931-50




Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, which includes County Agents of the citrus-
producing counties, has conducted a citrus costs and returns study since 1931.
The study has included an average of 249 groves each season for 19 seasons,
1931-50. Costs only have been tabulated for an additional season, 1950-51, as
returns from all groves have not been compiled to date.

The groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus-
producing area of Florida. From 75 to 85 percent of the groves have been in the
four counties of Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying somewhat in different
seasons. The location of the 223 groves of all ages included in the 1949-50 sea-
son is shown by counties in Figure 1 and Table 1. During this season 83 percent
of the groves and 87 percent of the acreage were in the four counties named.
Thirteen counties were represented in the study that season.

Averages of data from these groves are by no means taken to represent
averages for the entire state of Florida. Groves included in these records are
those of cooperators who would supply the records. The total acreage in groves
of all ages included in these records expressed as a percentage of the total
Florida acreage of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines is shown by season in
Table 2. The proportion included in these records varied from 0.75 percent in
1931-32 to 3.08 percent in 1935-36 and averaged 2.32 percent for the 19 seasons.
The proportion that the total number of boxes of fruit harvested from record
groves was of the total Florida production of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
is given by seasons in Table 2, also. The latter figure was larger each season
except two, 1932-33 and 1933-34, than the corresponding season figure for per-
cent of acreage and averaged 27 percent more. This indicates that the average
yield for all ages of groves for the 19-year period was approximately 27 per-
cent higher on the record groves than for the state as a whole.

Official data on tree ages of 16 years and older for the state are not
available which eliminates making a comparison of average age of trees. Over
this period 28 percent of the trees in the state were grapefruit and 30 percent
in the case of all record groves. Also it is thought that the average of the
growers who will cooperate in supplying copies of their grove records is above
the average for all growers of the state. Consequently it seems plausible to
assume that the average grove of these records was a better grove than the average
for the state as a whole. Therefore, data from these groves are expected to show
more favorable results, in most cases, than corresponding data for all groves of
the state. However, it is believed that trends in averages for these groves are








Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


FLORIDA


Figure 1. -- LOCATION BY COUNTIES /
OF CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES (T-
1949-50 SEASON









Table 1. LOCATION BY COUNTIES AND AGE GROUPS
OF 223 CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES, 1949-50 SEASON


Age in Years
County 10 & Under Over 10 All
Polk ....3 91
Lake ......... 8 35 43
Orange ....... 6 29 35
Highlands .... 0 17 17
Pasco ......., 0 11 11
Pinellas ..... 0 6 6
Hillsborough 1 5. 6
Indian River 2 3 5
Osceola ..... 3 0 3
Marion ....... 1 1 2
Manatee ....,, 0 2 2
Brevard ...... 0 1 1
St. Lucie ... 0 1 1


Percent
All
40.8
19.3
15.7
7.6
4.9
2.7
2.7
2.2
1.3
0.9
0.9
0.5
0.5


199 223 100.0


Page 2


Total ...










similar to the trends in averages for all Florida groves of corresponding
ages.

Table 2. PROPORTION OF FLORIDA ORANGE, GRAPEFRUIT AND TANGERINE
ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION INCLUDED IN GROVE RECORDS


Percent Acreage
in Records
.75
2.24
3.07
2.73
3.08
3.00
2.88
2.79
2.70
2.76
2.58
2.26
2.12
2.05
1.82
1.94
1.94
1.77
1.67
2.32


Percent Boxes Harvested
of Florida Production
1.02
2.17
2.62
2.75
3.54
3.27
3.91
3.71
4.01
3.67
3.77
3.24
3.05
2.59
2.35
2.67
2.66
2.72
2.07
2.94


AGE OF GROVE


Citrus trees produce fruit somewhat in proportion to age. Age of tree
from time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most convenient method of
delineating groves when comparing yields, costs and returns. From the inception
of this work, groves have been divided into two age groups: groves 10 years of
age and under, and groves over 10 years of age.

Trees seldom produce fruit for the first two seasons after setting.
Some fruit is usually produced during the third season. Substantial increases in
yield are common each season after the third year.

Many groves included in this study had mixed ages of trees. In such
cases the average age is used. This average is weighted by the number of trees
of each age. This procedure often results in some individual groves showing
rather high yields at young ages as well as higher figures for other items for
groves of the quoted age than would ordinarily be expected.


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER

Seasonal averages, three 5-year averages, a 4-year average and the 19-
year average for groves averaging 10 years and under are shown in Table 3. The


Season
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
Average


hlinetacn YFnrn of Citrus Casts A.nd Returns


Paze I










similar to the trends in averages for all Florida groves of corresponding
ages.

Table 2. PROPORTION OF FLORIDA ORANGE, GRAPEFRUIT AND TANGERINE
ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION INCLUDED IN GROVE RECORDS


Percent Acreage
in Records
.75
2.24
3.07
2.73
3.08
3.00
2.88
2.79
2.70
2.76
2.58
2.26
2.12
2.05
1.82
1.94
1.94
1.77
1.67
2.32


Percent Boxes Harvested
of Florida Production
1.02
2.17
2.62
2.75
3.54
3.27
3.91
3.71
4.01
3.67
3.77
3.24
3.05
2.59
2.35
2.67
2.66
2.72
2.07
2.94


AGE OF GROVE


Citrus trees produce fruit somewhat in proportion to age. Age of tree
from time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most convenient method of
delineating groves when comparing yields, costs and returns. From the inception
of this work, groves have been divided into two age groups: groves 10 years of
age and under, and groves over 10 years of age.

Trees seldom produce fruit for the first two seasons after setting.
Some fruit is usually produced during the third season. Substantial increases in
yield are common each season after the third year.

Many groves included in this study had mixed ages of trees. In such
cases the average age is used. This average is weighted by the number of trees
of each age. This procedure often results in some individual groves showing
rather high yields at young ages as well as higher figures for other items for
groves of the quoted age than would ordinarily be expected.


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER

Seasonal averages, three 5-year averages, a 4-year average and the 19-
year average for groves averaging 10 years and under are shown in Table 3. The


Season
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
Average


hlinetacn YFnrn of Citrus Casts A.nd Returns


Paze I






Table 3. --PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA.BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF. AGE. AND. UNDER


1I
Number of grove records ..............
Total acres of records ..............
Average acres per grove ..............
Average age ..........................
Number of trees per acre .............
Percent trees grapefruit .............
Boxes harvested per acre .............
Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment ........$
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ...........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous .....................
Total operating costs ...............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit ................
Net Returns ........................
Returns above operating costs ......
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment ........
Fertilizer materials ..............
Spray and dust materials ...........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous ......................
Total operating costs ...............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns ........................
Returns above operating costs ......


931-32 1932-33
25 46
1453 3011
58 65
8 9
60 59
17.5 32.7
108 41


33.56
26.76
3.93
6.12
2.83
73.20
26.49
99.69

90.62
-9.07
17.42


.31
.25
.03
.06
.03
.68
.25
.93

.84
-.09
.16


$ 14.23
13.04
1.28
3.74
1.63
33.92
23.61
57.53

19.15
-38.38
-14.77


.34
.32
.03
.09
.04
.82
.57
1.39

.46
-.93
-.36


1933-34
82
3210
39
8
63
27.8
55


$ 12.56
11.30
1.27
3.00
.58
28.71
25.97
54.68

44.62
-10.06
15.91


.23
.21
.02
.05
.01
.52
.47
.99

.81
-.18
.29


$ 12.62
11.46
2.11
3.73
.33
30.25
26.20
56.45

37.70
-18.75
7.45


.25
.22
.04
.07
.01
.59
.52
1.11

.74
-.37
.15


$ 16.93
12.30
1.77
3.22
2.02
36.24
24.33
60.57

58.45
-2.12
22.21


.31
.23
.03
.06
.04
.67
.45
1.12

1.08
-.04
.41


$ 20.45
15.79
2.91
2.67
.48
42.30
25.29
67.59

87.27
19.68
44.97


.28
.21
.04
.03
.01
.57
.34
.91

1.18
.27
.61


$ 25.34
20.63
3.86
2.14
1.23
53.20
27.20
80.40

60.90
-19.50
7.70


.28
.23
.04
.03
.01
.59
.31
.90

.6s
-.22
.09


$ 19.65
18.55
3.06
2.59
2.81
46.66
27.48
74.14

70.39
-3.75
23.73


.14
.13
.02
.02
.02
.33
.19
.52


$ 26.87
16.96
4.63
3.87
1.148
53.81
29.45
83.26

92.06
8.80
38.25


.23
.14
.04
.03
.01
.45
.24
.69


.50 .77
-.02 .08
.17 .32


$ 23.57
15.02
3.93
3.90
3.90
50.32
25.28
75.60

111.15
35.55
60.83


.14
.09
.02
.02
.02
.29
.15
.44

.65
* 21
.21
.36


(continued)
1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1940-41
52 71 54 35 31 25 25
2316 1947 1362 1090 625 748 626
45 27 25 31 20 30 25
9 8 7 8 8 8 9
63 65 67 67 69 74 72
26.9 18.8 23.2 24.6 23.0 38.9 43.6
51 54 74 89 142 120 170


'-----







Table 3. PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER


1'
Number of grove records .............
Total acres of records ..............
Average acres per grove ..............
Average age ..........................
Number of trees per acre .............
Percent trees grapefruit .............
Boxes harvested per acre .............
Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment ........$
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ...........
State and county taxes ............
Miscellaneous .....................
Total operating costs ...............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns ........................
Returns above operating costs ......
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment ........
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ..........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous ......................
Total operating costs ..............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns ........................
Returns above operating costs ......


941-42
21
571
27
9
68
45.2
117


1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 1945-46 1946-47
20 22 22 15 16
385 518 567 319 506
19 24 26 21 32
8 6 6 6 6
73 78 78 76 68
12.3 8.5 7.6 6.7 18.1
119 108 92 74 109


26.64 $ 20.31 $
20.19 20.50
6.36 4.39
3.71 2.68
1.53 2.98
58.43 50.86
23.75 23.18
82.18 74.04


111.92
29.74
53.49


.23
.17
.06
.03
.01
.50
.20
.70

.96
.26
.46


198.54
124.50
147.68


.17
.17
.04
.02
.02
.42
.20
.62


22.22
22.37
3.20
2.58
5.20
55.57
21.29
76.86

212.76
135.90
157.19


.21
.21
.03
.02
.05
.52
.20
.72


1.66 1.98
1.04 1.26
1.24 1.46


$ 29.49 $ 29.99 $ 57.83 $
22.22 22.18 33.79
3.10 3.28 4.53
2.38 1.74 2.02
3.06 4.15 9.46
60.25 61.34 107.63
24.46 19.84 25.80
84.71 81.18 133.43


186.51
101.80
126.26


.32
.24
.03
.03
.03
.65
.27
.92


143.77
62.59
82.43


.41
.30
.04
.02
.06
.83
.27
1.10


2.02 1.95
1.10 .85
1.37 1.12


126.99
-6.44
19.36


.53
.31
.04
.02
.09
.99
.24
1.23

1.17
-.06
.18


1947-48
21
726
35
6
6g
13.2
108


57.04
27.17
4.67
3.00
3.17
95.05
26.30
121.35

99.70
-21.65
4.65


.53
.25
.04
.03
.03
.88
.24
1.12

.92
-.20
.04


1948-49
23
714
31
6
67
14.7
105


$ 45.36
20.58
4.78
2.82
8.86
82.40
23.10
105.50

135.19
29.69
52.79


.43
.20
.05
.03
.08
.79
.22
1.01

1.29
.28
.50


1949-50
24
647
27
6
68
7.2
92


$ 44.76 $ 57.17
22.91 28.05
4.39 5.33
3.51 3.91
3.70 8.38
79.27 102.84
23.15 26.89
102.42 129.73


177.10
74.68
97.83


.48
.25
.05
.04
.04
.86
.25
1.11

1.92
.81
1.06


(continued)
1950-51
27
885
33
7
67
8.3






Table 3.-- PER ACEADPRBXCSS EUNAD TE AAB ESN O RVSAERGIN 0YASO G N J


19-Year
Average
1931-50


Number of grove records ..............
Total acres of records ...............
Average acres per grove ..............
Average age ..........................
Number of trees per acre ............
Percent trees grapefruit .............
Boxes harvested per acre .............


33
1123
34
7
69
21.6
96


5-Year Averages
1931-36 1936-41 1941-46


55
2387
43
8
62
24.7
62


34
890
26
8
70
30.7
119


20
472
24
7
75
16.1
102


Sconcludaea


4-Year
Average
1946-50
21
64s
31
6
68
13.3
104


Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment .......
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ..........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous ......................
Total operating costs ,..........
Interest on grove valuation @ 6 .....
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from frui t ................
Net returns ........................
Returns above operating costs ......


Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment ........
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ...........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous ......................
total operating costs ...............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns .........................
Returns above operating costs ......
Returns not yet available.


.30
.20
.04
.03
.03
.60
.26
.g6

1.13
.27
_.-.-. 51_


.29
.24
.04
.06
.02
.65
.41
1.06


.19
.15
.03
.02
.02
.41
.23
.64


.81 .71
-.25 .07
.._.. ... ..._.._.30


.25
.21
.04
.03
.03
.56
.22
.78


.49
.25
.04
.03
.06
.87
.24
1.11


1.67 1.29
.89 .18
1.11 .42


$ 28.39
19.67
3.55
3.13
3.12
57.86
24.85
82.71

108.67
25.96
50.81


$ 17.98
14.97
2.07
3.96
1.48
40.46
25.32
65.78

50.11
-15.67
9.65


$ 23.18
17.39
3.68
3.03
1.98
49.26
26.94
76.20

84.36
8.16
35.10


$ 25.73
21.49
4.07
2.62
3.38
57.29
22.50
79-79

170.70
90.91
113.41


$ 51.25
26.11
4.59
2.84
6.30
91.09
24.59
115.68

134.75
19.07
43.66


GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UTDER


AND OTHER DATA BY SEASONS FOR


Table 3. PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS,


1 \







Page 7


A1J.AJ. L V / AJ q3 J-L VJ.'..I U* -i^ --i ----

numbers of groves of these ages have been rather limited in our records during
recent seasons, although the average for the 19 seasons has been 33 groves per
season. The average age per season has varied from 6 to 9 years, and the average
of all seasons was 7 years. The acreage included has varied from 319 to 3,210
acres per season, with the average being 1,123 acres. Twenty-two percent of the
trees were grapefruit.

The average number of boxes of fruit harvested from this group of
groves was 96 boxes per acre for the entire period. This yield is less than the
average for all groves 7 years of age during the period of 1931-50, which yielded
111 boxes per acre. The average yield of 96 boxes per acre is 46 percent of the
yield of the older group of groves 21 years of age.

Operating costs per acre averaged $57.86 for the 19 seasons. This aver-
age is 67 percent of the operating costs of the older group of groves which had
an average age of 21 years. The percentage of each item making up the operating
costs of the two groups of groves is shown in Table 4.


Table 4. -- PERCENT EACH COST ITEM IS
OF TOTAL OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1931-50

Age of Groves in Years
Item of Cost 10 & Under Over 10

Labor, power, and equipment .. 49.1 43.7
Fertilizer materials ......... 34.0 37.6
Spray and dust materials ..... 6.1 7.3
State and county taxes ....... 5.4 6.8
Miscellaneous costs .......... 5.4 4.6

Total operating costs .. 100.0 100.0

Returns from fruit averaged $108.67 per acre for the 19-year period.
This was 48 percent of the returns for the older group. Returns per box were
slightly higher on the younger group. This was due, in part at least, to the
smaller proportion of grapefruit in the younger group, since grapefruit usually
brings a lower price.

Returns above operating costs averaged $50.81 per acre annually for the
period. This was 36 percent of the corresponding figure of the older group.
There was only one season, 1932-33, when returns from fruit failed to pay operat-
ing costs. Per-box returns above operating costs averaged 53 cents for the
19-year period. Upon dividing the first 15 years of this period into three 5-
year periods, the per box returns above operating costs are 16, 30 and 111 cents,
respectively, for the three periods. High fruit prices during the latter period
accounted for the good showing of that period when prices by seasons ranged from
96 cents to $2.02 per box. The last four seasons, 1946-50, averaged 42 cents in
returns above operating costs.

Interest on investment in grove land and trees was calculated from the
grove operator's estimate of the valuation. The estimate requested was for the


~~nnCa~~ Vd+tra h.F r~i~T~~C nn9t.E BnT1 PC~t~~1Tnfi








Nin t n Yers of Citru Costs and Returns P


investment in land and trees from the point of view of a long-time, fruit-growing
enterprise. Such valuations are often less than prices of grove sales during
periods of high fruit prices, and are usually higher than grove sale prices
during periods of depressed fruit prices,

Interest on estimated grove valuation at 6 percent averaged $24.85 per
acre for the 19 seasons. This figure was 73 percent of the interest on the older
group of groves.

Total cost without owner supervision includes operating costs and inter-
est on the grove investment. Interest on the grove investment is a production
cost, although many growers do not so consider it. When such is not considered
as a cost, the operating costs figure is the one desired. But for those who con-
sider interest on the grove investment as a production cost, additional calcula-
tions are here shown in order to determine the total cost without owner super-
vision, and the net returns after considering interest as a cost.

Total cost without owner supervision averaged $82.71 per acre, or 86
cents per box. This per-acre figure was 68 percent of the corresponding figure
for the older group of groves. The per-box figure of 86 cents was 48 percent
higher than that of the older groves.

Net returns, after considering interest on the grove investment as a
production cost, averaged $25.96 per acre annually, or 27 cents per box. There
were 9 of the 19 seasons when returns from fruit were less than the total cost
without owner supervision.


GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE

The number of groves of these records over 10 years of age varied from
45 to 272 per season and averaged 216 (Table 5, pages 9-11). The first two sea-
sons, 1931-32 and 1932-33, had considerably less than the average number of groves
included. The grove acreage varied from 583 acres in 1931-32 to 9,853 acres in
1940-41, and averaged 7,455 acres per season. The latter figure was 2.3 percent
of the average acreage in Florida bearing groves over this period.

The acreage per grove included in these records has not varied violently
since the second season. The average acreage per grove was 13 acres for the 1931-
32 season. Since that time the seasonal average has varied from 31 to 37 acres
per grove, and the average for the 19 seasons was 35 acres. The acreage per indi-
vidual grove varied from slightly over one acre to 537.5 acres, with 66.9 percent
with less than 20 acres in the 1949-50 season and 81.5 percent with less than 35
acres.

The average age of groves from time of setting the nursery stock has
varied by seasons from 17 to 27 years and averaged 21 years for the 19-year
period. The average age of the 190 groves included in costs for the 1950-51
season was 28 years (Table 5, pages 9-11). The age of grove should be kept in
mind when comparing data, as it is accountable for a sizable portion of the
variations between groves or groups of groves of different ages. Over the 19-
year period the average increase per acre of 27-year-old groves over the 17-year-


Page 8


Ni~ntPPn YParn nf Citni9 Costs and Returns







Table 5. PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHFR DATA BY SA.SONTS F02 GPOVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF ACE d
(continued)

1931-32 1932-33 19213334 1934-35 1935-35 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1940-41 '
Number of grove records .............. 45 101 182 211 254 272 270 261 262 266 0
Total acres of records .............. 583 3632 6269 6499 8221 8766 8869 9381 9303 9853 4
Average acres per grove ............. 13 36 34 31 32 32 33 36 36 37
Average age ........................ 17 1 17 1s 18 18 19 19 20 20
Number of trees per acre ............ 63 58 58 58 59 60 59 60 60 61 o
Percent trees grapefruit ............ 28.2 31.5 31.7 35.0 32.5 29.7 29.8 31.6 32.0 32.4 c
Boxes harvested per acre ............ 169 133 92 121 114 138 158 205 179 197 g

Labor, power, and equipment ....... $ 31.71 $ 2526 $ 19.66 $ 17.33 $ 19.54 $ 21.72 $ 23.08 $ 22.47 $ 22.25 $ 26.42
Fertilizer materials .............. 37.92 22.92 17.74 18.94 19.22 21.80 26.95 26.70 19.90 20.73 0'
Spray and dust materials ......... 3.98 3.39 3.13 3.14 2.99 3.81 4.85 4.85 4.67 5.55
State and county taxes ............ 11.76 4.90 5.10 4.96 5.66 5.75 5.04 4.40 4.57 4.41 "
Miscellaneous ..................... .89 1.44 1.61 .53 2.49 1.79 1.71 2.05 2.06 2.96
Total operating costs .............. 86.26 57.91 47.24 44.90 49.90 54.87 61.63 60.47 53.45 60.07 >
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% .. 46.69 37.29 36.33 36.13 33.12 32.73 32.30 29.28 29.46 28.87 -
Total cost without owner supervision 132.95 95.20 83.57 81.03 83.02 87.60 93.93 89.75 82.91 88.94 a
Returns per acre:


Returns from fruit ................
Net returns .....................
Returns above operating costs .....
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment .......
Fertilizer materials .............
Spray and dust materials ..........
State and county taxes ............
Miscellaneous ....................
Total operating costs ..............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ..
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns .......................
Returns above operating costs .....


164.82
31.87
79 ~;


50.10
-45.10
-7. 1


68.22
-15.35
PO20qg


68.99
-12.04
24.09


115.13
32.11
65.23


7 q .92


.19 .19
.22 .17
.02 .03
.07 .04
.01 .01
.51 .44
.27 .28
.78 .72

.97 .38
.19 -.34
.46 -.06


.21
.19
.03
.06
.02
.51
.40
.91

.74
-.17
.23


.14
.16
.03
.04
**
.37
.30
.67

.57
-.10
.20


.17
.17
.03
.05
.02
.44
.29
.73

1.01
.28
.57


144. 10
56.50
89.23


.16
.16
.03
.04
.01
.40
.23
.63

1.04
.41
.64


7.-77
-6.16
26.14


.15
.17
.03
.03
.01
.39
.21
.60


.56
-.04


S 1. 29
-8.46
20.82


2.48
31.94


l '-i .3
22.63
51.50


.11
.14
.02
.02
.01
.30
.14
.44


.40
-.04


.56
.11


.17 .10 .17 .2b






Table 5. PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE


Number of grove records ............
Total acres of records ..............
Average acres per grove ...........
Average age ........................
Number of trees per acre ...........
Percent trees grapefruit ............
Boxes harvested per acre ............
Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment ......
Fertilizer materials ..............
Spray and dust materials .........
State and county taxes ............
Miscellaneous ......................
Total operating costs ..............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ..
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit ...............
Net returns .......................
Returns above operating costs .....


1941-42 1942-43 1943-44
262 240 222
9372 8463 7913
36 35 36
21 22 23
61 61 62
31.7 32.0 31.4
187 257 305


$ 28.23
21.50
6.07
4.39
2.40
62.59
29.41
92.00

190.93
98.93
128.34


$ 29.31
32.42
7.40
4.07
4.70
77.90
29.79
107.69

393.24
285.55
315.34


$ 37.27
41.16
6.53
4.73
4.92
94.61
29.89
124.50

519.68
395.18
425.07


1944-45 1945-46
221 205
7730 7221
35 35
23 24
62 62
31.5 31.2
225 277


$ 48.28
48.73
9.55
4.18
7.53
118.27
31.94
150.21

454.69
304.48
336.42


$ 63.89
52.58
8.16
4.74
8.24
137.61
31.72
169.33

544.94
375.61
407.33


1946-47
219
7768
35
25
62
30.9
293


$ 76.42 $
57.33
12.47
6.03
7.64
159.89
39.12
199.01


215.98
16.97
56.09


1947-48
215
7654
36
25
61
30.4
321


75.50
56.63
10.06
8.86
7.33
158.38
39.79
198.17

136.41
-61.76
-21.97


1948-49
200
7169
36
26
62
31.4
342


$ 65.73
39.18
10.91
9.05
11.85
136.72
37.62
174.34

391.03
216.69
254.31


$ 66.38
36.98
9.52
9.55
3.85
126.28
37.84
164.12

493.02
328.90
366.74


$ 79.34
49.78
14.06
9.63
6.94
159.75
57.24
216.99


Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment .......
Fertilizer materials ..............
Spray and dust materials ..........
State and county taxes ............
Miscellaneous .....................
Total operating costs ..............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ..
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit ................
Net returns .......................
Returns above operating costs .....


.15
.12
.03
.02
.01
.33
.16
.49

1.02
.53
.69


.11
.13
.03
.01
.02
.30
.12
.42

1.53
1.11
1.23


.12
.13
.02
.02
.02
.31
.10
.41

1.71
1.30
1.40


.21
.21
.04
.02
.04
.52
.14
.66

2.02
1.36
1.50


.23
.19
.03
.02
.03
.50
.11
.61

1.97
1.36
1.47


.27
.20
.04
.02
.02
.55
.13
.68

.74
.06
.19


.24
.18
.03
.03
.02
.50
.12
.62

.43
-.19
-.07


.19
.12
.03
.03
.03
.40
.11
.51

1.14
.63
.74


.26
.15
.04
.04
.01
.50
.15
.65

1.96
1.31
1.46


(continued)
1949-50 1950-51
199 190
6977 6761
35 36
27 28
61 61
30.6 30.5
252


--






- f'T'A.'n' m-r Pf____n' 'mTTP\---T- ANJT) Ol'THER DT)A BY SFASOTS FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AC-
X.Lfl n il t_.JLn4J 2UN Z IL~'J4 '"r'-u I -- -


Number of grove records .............
Total acres of records ..............
Average acres per grove ..............
Average age ..........................
Number of trees per acre .............
Percent trees grapefruit .............
Boxes harvested per acre .............


19-Year
Average
1931-50
216
7455
35
21
61
31.3
209


5-Year Averages
1931-36 1936-41 1941-46


159 266
5041 9234
32 35
18 19
59 60
31.8 31.1
126 175


230
8140
35
23
62
31.6
250


(concluded)


4-Year
Average
1946-50
208
7392
36
26
62
30.8
302


Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment ........
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ...........
State and county taxes .............
Miscellaneous .....................
Total operating costs ...............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit .................
Net returns ........ .................
Returns above operating costs ......


$ 37.92
32.60
6.37
5.90
4.00
s6.79
34.17
120.96

227.23
106.27
140.44


$ 22.70
23.35
3.33
6.47
1.39
57.24
37.91
95.15

93.45
-1.70
36.21


$ 23.19 $ 41.40
23.22 39.28
4.75 7.54
4.83 4,42
2.11 5.56
58.10 98.20
30.53 30.55
88.63 128.75

102.02 420.70
13.39 291.95
43.92 322.50


Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment ........
Fertilizer materials ...............
Spray and dust materials ..........
State and county taxes ............
Miscellaneous ......................
Total operating costs ..............
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% ...
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit .................
Net returns .......................
Returns above operating costs ......
*Returns not yet available. ** Le;


.18
.19
.03
.05
.01
.46
.30
.76


1.09
.51
....... 67
ss than $0.00o


.16
.16
.03
.02
.02
.39
.12
.51


.23
.16
.04
.03
.02
.48
.13
.61


.75 .58 1.68 1.02
-4.01 .08 1.17 .41
.29 .25 1.29 .54
5.


TaDle ). -


$ 71.01
47.53
10.74
8.37
7.67
145.32
38.59
183.91

309.11
125.20
163.79


-- -- --


------


GROVES AVEF~GING OVEF~ 10 YFARS OF ACF


\


nN~n nrp~m) T)A'PA RY S~ASONS TOIZ


r nnh *~or~ nhr71 a~e nnv rnsma RalmTT~NS





Page 12


a:naCaon Vc~nrn nf ~i+rna ~nnt~ an~ Returns


old groves was:

Number of boxes harvested .... 33 percent
Total operating costs ........ 29 "
Returns from fruit ........... 33 "
Returns above operating costs 35 "


The number of trees set per acre remained rather static around 60 trees
for the older group of groves throughout the record period. Such is not true of
the younger group. This group increased from 60 in 1931-32 to 65 trees per acre
in the 1935-36 season, and subsequent seasons were higher than the latter figure.
The two seasons with the largest number of trees per acre were 1943-44 and 1944-
45 with 78 each. The average for this group during the entire period was 69
(Table 3, pages 4-6). The average for the older group was 61.

It should be pointed out that these data include records for some
groves for only one season. Other groves were included for varying numbers of
seasons up to the entire 19 seasons. There were 16 groves included in these
data for the 19 successive seasons. This turnover of the groves making up the
records materially affected the number of trees per acre from season to season.
The 5-year averages for the younger group were 62 during 1931-36, 70 during 1936-
41, and 75 during 1941-46. Thus during recent seasons in the groves of these
records, trees have been set with a larger number per acre. The sample of young-
er groves has been rather small of recent seasons, so much so that upon the groves
attaining the age of 11 years and transfer into the older group, there have not
been sufficient acreages to increase materially the average number of trees per
acre of the older group.

The percent of trees grapefruit is another important consideration when
comparing the fruit harvested, costs, returns and/or net returns. Grapefruit
groves usually have higher yields, higher costs per acre, lower returns and net
returns per acre than orange groves of comparable ages. The cost per box is
usually lower for grapefruit due to the higher yields. The lower price usually
received for grapefruit results in lower returns per acre, and lower net returns
per acre and per box.

The percentage of trees grapefruit averaged 31 for the 19 seasons.
Individual seasons varied from 28 to 35 percent grapefruit trees.

Boxes harvested per acre averaged less than 200 each season prior to
1942-43, with the exception of the 1938-39 season when the average was 205 boxes.
Average fruit harvested since that time, 1942-50, ranged from 225 boxes in 1944-
45 which was materially lowered by hurricane damage to 342 boxes in 1948-49.
The 1948-49 figure was the highest of the 19 seasons and was 7 percent higher
than the second highest, 321 boxes, in 1947-48, and 272 percent higher than the
92-box average in 1933-34. The average age of groves in 1949-50 was 27 years,
which was 1 year older than in 1948-49 and 10 years older than in 1933-34. There
were 10 of the 19 seasons, 52 percent, when less than 200 boxes were harvested
per acre (Table 6).

The average number of boxes harvested for the 5-year period 1931-36 was
126 per acre, 1936-41 175 boxes and 1941-46 250 boxes. Yield for the third








Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


period was double that of the first. Some of the reasons for these increases in
the number of boxes harvested per acre were increases in average age' f 'rees,
better fertilizer practices, larger proportion of fruit harvested due to good
prices and the development in fruit processing; and the increasing proportion of
grove acreage irrigated may have been a factor. Fruit prices were low for some
seasons of the first two 5-year periods, resulting in some of the fruit remaining
unharvested. Less damage from low temperatures and better grove care in general
during the last two periods contributed to higher yields for these periods, and
higher prices together with the development of fruit processing facilities, con-
tributed to higher proportions of the fruit being harvested.

There were considerable variations in fruit harvested per acre between
different groves for the same season as well as seasonal average variations. The
number of boxes harvested per acre varied from 35 to 680 on 199 groves over 10
years of age in the 1949-50 season (Table 7). Sixty-five percent of these groves


Table 6. -- DISTRIBUTION OF SEASONAL AVERAGES
OF BOXES HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1931-50

Number Cumulative
Boxes per Acre Seasons Percent Percent

Less than 100 ... 1 5.2 5.2
100 to 149 ...... 4 21.1 26.3
150 to 199 ...... 5 26.3 52.6
200 to 249 ...... 2 10.5 63.1
250 to 299 ..... 4 21.1 84.2
300 to 349 ...... 3 15.8 100.0

92 to 342 .... 19 100.0 100,0


Table 7. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO
FRUIT HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Boxes per Acre Groves Percent Percent

Under 100 ........ 7 3.5 3.5
100 to 149 ....... 19 9.5 13.0
150 to 199 ....... 21 10.6 23.6
200 to 249 ...... 28 14.1 37.7
250 to 299 ....... 28 14.1 51.8
300 to 349 ....... 26 13.1 64.9
350 to 399 ....... 20 10.1 75.0
400 to 449 ....... 17 8.5 83.5
450 to 499 ....... 18 9.0 92.5
500 to 549 ....... 9 4.5 97.0
550 to 599 ....... 5 2.5 99.5
600 to 649 .......0 0 99.5
650 to 699 ....... 1 .5 100.0


35 to 68o .......199 100.0


Page 13


100.0







Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


had less than 350 boxes harvested per acre that season, and 84 percent had less
than 450 boxes. From 38 percent of these groves less than 250 boxes were har-
vested per acre.

Operating costs for the first 8 years of this study, 1931-39, averaged
$57.90 per acre. The following season, 1939-40, such costs were $53.45. There
was an increase in operating costs each year from 1939-40 to 1946-47, an increase
each season for 7 successive seasons. During part of this time the increase was
rather rapid, and these costs were $159.89 per acre in 1946-47. Operating costs
in 1947-48 were only $1.51, or 1 percent, less than for the previous season.
Such costs in 1949-50 were 21 percent less than in 1946-47, and 8 percent less
than in 1948-49. The 1950-51 operating costs were $159.75, or 27 percent more
than 1949-50, and only 14 cents less than the high season of 1946-47.

Operating costs in 1950-51 were almost three times the average for the
9 seasons from 1932-41. Furthermore, these 1950-51 costs exceeded the fruit re-
ceipts for each of the 9 seasons and exceeded the average by $69.47, or 77 per-
cent. In other words, if the costs for these 9 seasons had been the same as the
costs for 1950-51, there would have not been one of the 9 when the fruit receipts
would have equaled or exceeded operating costs. There would have been a loss in
each season and the average loss would have been $69.47 per acre.

Operating costs exceeded 50 cents per box four times in the 19 seasons,
1931-32, 1933-34, 1944-45 and 1946-47. The average for all seasons was 42 cents.
During the 1939-44 period, when operating costs were increasing on the per-acre
basis, the per-box costs fluctuated from 30 to 33 cents. Such costs were 52 cents
in the 1944-45 season. Hurricane winds materially reduced the fruit harvested in
1944-45, which increased the costs per box. Also, an increase of 25 percent over
the previous season in operating costs per acre further increased the per-box
costs. Eight of the 19 seasons had operating costs of less than 40 cents per box,
and 6 of these seasons were in the 1938-44 period.

Operating costs per acre by individual groves ranged from $37.56 to
$307.66 in the 1949-50 season and averaged $126.28 (Table 8). On 16.6 percent of
the groves $200,00 or more per acre was spent for operating costs that season.


Table 8, DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO
OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost per Acre Groves Percent Percent
$ 25 to $ 49 .... 1 .5 .5
50 to 74 .... 15 7.5 8.0
75 to 99 .... 38 19.1 27.1
100 to 124 .... 39 19.6 46.7
125 to 149 ..,. 30 15.1 61.,
150 to 174 ... 26 13.1 74.9
175 to 199 .... 17 8.5 83.4
200 to 224 .... 18 9.1 92.5
225 to 249 .... 7 3.5 96.0
250 to 274 .... 5 2.5 98.5
275 to 299 .... 1 .5 99.0
300 and over ... 2 1.0 100.0
37.56 to 307,66 199 100.0 100.0


Page 14






Paze 1I


IJIL1V oLrVl UC6L VS u -

Operating costs were made up of five items: (1) labor, power and
equipment, (2) fertilizer materials, (3) spray and dust materials, (4) state and
county taxes and (5) miscellaneous costs. The distribution of the 19-year aver-
ages of these costs is shown in Table 4. Average operating costs by seasons
ranged from $44.90 to $159.89 per acre and from 30 to 55 cents per box (Table 9).

Table 9. -- AVERAGE AND RANGE
OF OPERATING COST ITEMS PER SEASON, 1931-50

Per Acre Per Box
Cost Items Average Range Average Range
Cents Cents

Labor, power, and equipment...$ 37.92 $ 17.33 to $ 76.42 18 11 to 27
Fertilizer materials ......... 32.60 17.74 to 57.33 16 11 to 22
Spray and dust materials ..... 6.37 2.99 to 12.47 3 2 to 4
State and county taxes ....... 5.90 4.07 to 11.76 3 1 to 7
Miscellaneous ............... 4.00 .53 to 11,85 2 to 4

Operating costs ........ 86.79 44.90 to 159.89 42 30 to 55

* Less than $0.005.


More money was spent for labor, power and equipment than any other
cost item. The average was $37.92 per acre per season and ranged from $17.33 to
$76.42. This cost exceeded the cost of fertilizer materials in 12 of the 20 sea-
sons shown in Table 5. The spread between the costs of the two items has in-
creased during recent seasons with the cost of labor, power and equipment in-
creasing faster. There were 10 seasons, 1932-42, when the operating costs did
not amount to as much as the cost of the one item of labor, power and equipment
for any one of the past 6 seasons, 1945-51. Money spent for this item was $79.34
per acre in 1950-51, the highest of the 20 seasons. The increases in the number
of boxes harvested as this period progressed lessened very materially the in-
creases in costs on a per-box basis. Labor, power and equipment costs per box
were 27 cents in 1946-47, an increase of 4 cents over the previous season. Such
costs were 3 cents less in 1947-48 than in 1946-47, and decreased to 19 cents in
1948-49 which was 5 cents less than 1947-48. The average for the 19 seasons was
18 cents.

The cost item of second importance was fertilizer materials. This item
was 38 percent of the average operating costs and amounted to $32.60 per acre.
The range in the seasonal cost per acre for fertilizer materials was from $17.74
to $57.33. During 50 percent of the seasons this cost averaged less than $30.00
per acre. Fertilizer cost was $37.92 per acre in 1931-32 but was not that high
again until the 1943-44 season. These costs increased for the following 3 sea-
sons when the high of $57.33 was reached in 1946-47. There was a reduction of 32
percent in such costs in 1948-49 as compared to 1947-48, and a further reduction
of 5.6 percent in 1949-50 under 1948-49. A major contributing factor was low
fruit prices. Fertilizer materials costs increased to $49.78 in 1950-51 which
was the fourth highest of the 20 seasons.

Table 10 shows the distribution of the amount of money spent for ferti-
lizer materials per acre for the 199 groves over 10 years of age in the 1949-50


nrl~~Chrrr VAnrs ~C T)ICrra r.nd+e? anrl Rntlrma









Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Pac 16


season. The amount spent varied from $17.62 to $110.55 per acre, and averaged
$36.98. Fifty-five percent of these groves had less than $50 per acre cost for
fertilizer, and only 7 percent had such cost of $80.00 or more. On 38 percent of
these groves, the money spent for fertilizer ranged from $50.00 to $79.99.

Fertilizer costs per box varied from 22 cents in 1931-32 to 11 cents in
1939-40 and 1940-41. There were 13 seasons with such costs of less than 18 cents.
Fertilizer cost was 18 cents in 1947-48, which was a decrease of 2 cents from the
previous season; and 1948-49 showed a fertilizer cost of 12 cents, a decrease of
6 cents under the previous year. Such cost for 1949-50 ranged from 6 to 98 cents
per box and averaged 15 cents. Seventy percent of the groves had a fertilizer
cost of less than 20 cents per box.


Table 10. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO
MONEY SPENT FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost per Acre Groves Percent Percent

Under $20 ..... 7 3.5 3.5
$ 20 to $ 29 .. 24 12.1 15.6
30 to 39 .. 30 15.1 30.7
4o to 49 49 24.6 55.3
50 to 59 .. 38 19.1 74.4
60 to 69 .. 23 11.6 86.0
70 to 79 .. 15 7.5 93.5
80 to 89 .. 5 2.5 96.0
90 to 99 .. 6 3.0 99.0
100 & over ... 2 1.0 100.0

17.62 to 110.55 199 100.0 100.0


Nitrogen is an important element in fertilizers added in citrus produc-
tion. The distribution of the groves in the 1949-50 season according to the
amount of nitrogen applied per box of fruit harvested is shown in Table 11. The
range was from 0.13 to 2.17 pounds applied per box, and the average was 0.49
pounds. There were 54 percent of the groves that had less than 0.50 pounds
applied per box, and 71 percent had less than 0.60 pounds. There were 29 percent
of the groves that received 0.60 pounds or more. The usual recommendations as to
the amount of nitrogen to apply range from 0.25 to 0.33 pounds per box of fruit
anticipated. There were 86 percent of these groves that received more than 0.33
pounds of nitrogen per box of fruit harvested, and 22 percent received more than
twice this amount.

Spray and dust material costs averaged $6.37 per acre for the 19 sea-
sons and constituted 7 percent of the operating costs, There were 13 seasons,
68 percent, with spray and dust material costs of less than $8.00. The range of
the seasonal averages was from $2.99 in 1935-36 to $12.47 in 1946-47. The range
in such costs per box was from 2 to 4 cents, and the average was 3 cents. Six-
teen seasons, or 84 percent, had such costs of 3 cents per box or less.


Page 16


WinP.tnFin Yanrff nf Citrus Costs and Returns








Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Spray and dust materials cost $9.52 per acre, or 4 cents per box, in
1949-50. This cost per acre varied from nothing to $27.70 (Table 12). There
were 4 groves that received no spray or dust. Sixty-six percent of the groves
had such costs of less than $12.00 per acre, and 54 percent had such costs
ranging from $4.00 to $11.99.


Table 11. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 198 GROVES ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT
OF NITROGEN APPLIED PER BOX OF FRUIT HARVESTED
1949-50 SEASON


Lbs. N per Box


.10
.20
.30
.40
.50
.60
.70
.80
.90
1.00


Number
Groves


to .19
to .29
to .39
to .49
to .59
to .69
to .79
to .89
to .99
& above


.13 to 2.17 ..... 19S


Cumulative
Percent Percent


2.0
6.6
23.2
22.2
16.7
7.6
7.1
3.5
4.0
7.1

100.0


2.0
8.6
31.8
54.0
70.7
78.3
85.4
88.9
92.9
100.0

100.0


Table 12. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT
FOR SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Cost per Acre Groves Percent Percent

No spray or dust ....... 4 2.0 2.0
$ 0.01 to $ 1.99 ....... 10 5.0 7.0
2.00 to 3.99 ....... 9 4.5 11.5
4.00 to 5.99 ....... 20 10.1 21.6
6.00 to 7.99 ....... 40 20.1 41.7
8.00 to 9.99 ....... 27 13.6 55.3
10.00 to 11.99 ....... 21 10.6 65.9
12.00 to 13.99 ....... 12 6.0 71.9
14.00 to 15.99 ....... 14 7.1 79.0
16.00 to 17.99 ....... 12 6.0 85.0
18.00 to 19.99 ....... 10 5.0 90.0
20.00 to 21.99 ....... 7 3.5 93.5
22.00 to 23.99 ....... 6 3.0 96.5
24.00 tO 25.99 ....... 4 2.0 98.5
26.00 to 27.99 ....... 3 1.5 100.0

0.00 to 27.70 ....... 199 100.0 100.0


. Page 17



r








Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


State and county taxes averaged $5.90 per acre for the 19-year period,
or 3 cents per box. The range in such costs per season was from $4.07 per acre
in 1942-43 to $11.76 in 1931-32. The seasonal average was less than $6.00 in 14
seasons, or 74 percent of the time. The second highest season was 1949-50 at
$9.55 per acre. Such costs for the 1950-51 season were $9.63.
Miscellaneous costs averaged 5 percent of operating costs for the 19-
year period, or $4.00 per acre. This amounted to 2 cents per box. Variations in
seasonal averages were from $0.53 per acre in 1934-35 to $11.85 in 1948-49. The
average for 1949-50 was $3.85, 68 percent lower than in 1948-49. Such costs for
1950-51 were $6.94 per acre. Miscellaneous costs include such items as overhead,
trees for replacement, drainage district assessments, and fuel for grove heating.

Returns from fruit averaged $227.23 per acre for the entire period, or
$1.09 per box. Seasonal averages per acre varied from $50.10 in 1932-33 to
$544.94 in 1945-46. The per-box averages varied from 38 cents in 1932-33 to
$2.02 in 1944-45. Returns from fruit amounted to $136.41 per acre in 1947-48,
the lowest since 1940-41. However, there were 8 of the 19 seasons with lower
returns per acre. The price received for fruit in 1947-48 was 43 cents per box,
the third lowest of these seasons. There were 12 seasons in which the per-acre
returns were less than the average for the period and 13 seasons in which the per-
box returns were less than the average. Fruit returns were $391.03 per acre in
1948-49, an increase of 187 percent over the previous season, and the highest
returns since 1945-46. Another increase of 26 percent in 1949-50 brought fruit
returns to $493.02 per acre, which was the third highest of the 19 seasons. Like-
wise the returns per box showed an increase and was 43 cents in 1947-48, $1.14 in
1948-49 and $1.96 in 1949-50. The latter price is 4.6 times that for 1947-48.

Yield and price determine the per-acre returns from fruit. High yields
and high fruit prices resulted in pyramided returns per acre during the 5 seasons
of 1942-46 and 1949-50, so much so, that the average of the 19 seasons was above
any of the other 14 seasons except one, 1948-49. Average returns per acre for
these 5 seasons were 4.7 times that of either of the first two 5-year periods.

There were 2 of the 19 seasons when operating costs were higher than
the returns from fruit. The operating cost figure for 194,-50 was larger than
the returns from fruit for any one of 8 seasons. Twelve seasons, 63 percent, had
less than $200.00 in returns from fruit. The remaining 7 seasons, 37 percent,
were chiefly during the war period. There were 7 seasons, 37 percent, when re-
turns from fruit were less than 60 cents per box, and 13 seasons, 68 percent,
when less than $1.10 per box.

There were no groves in the 1949-50 season in which the fruit cost
the grove operators more money to market than they received for it (Table 13).
Often groves do not pay operating costs, and some seasons when fruit prices are
low it costs the grower more money to market the fruit than he receives for it.
In such cases the amount of the operating costs constitutes just that much addi-
tional loss.

There was 1 grove in 1949-50, 0.5 percent, that had returns from fruit
less than $100.00 per acre, and 12 groves, 6 percent, with returns from fruit
less than $200.00 per acre. Twenty-six percent of the groves had from $200.00
to $399.99 returns from fruit per acre. The range was from $79.10 to $1363.05
per acre, and the average was $493.02. The average on-tree price received was


Page 18









$1.96 per box, the highest since the 1945-46 season and the third highest of the
19 seasons.


Table 13. DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO
RETURNS FROM FRUIT PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON

Number Cumulative
Returns per Acre Groves Percent Percent

$ 1 to $ 99 .... 1 0.5 0.5
100 to 199 ..... 11 5.5 6.0
200 to 299 ..... 21 10.6 16,6
300 to 399 ..... 31 15.6 32.2
400 to 499 .... 26 13.1 45.3
500 to 599 .... 22 11.1 56.4
600 to 699 ..... 20 10.0 66.4
700 to 799 ..... 14 7.0 73.4
800 to 899 ..... 21 10.6 84.0
900 to 999 ..... 12 6.0 90.0
1000 and above .... 20 10.0 100.0

79.10 to 1363.05 199 100.0 1000l


Returns above operating costs dropped from $407.33 per acre in 1945-46
to $56.09 the following season, a drop of 86 percent. Yet there were 8 of the 19
seasons of these records that averaged lower returns above operating costs than
in 1946-47. There were 6 seasons,,1942-46, 1948-49 and 1949-50 with income above
operating costs exceeding the average for all seasons. These same 6 seasons and
one additional, 1941-42, had incomes above operating costs per box higher than the
67-cent average. There were 2 seasons, 1932-33 and 1947-48, when operating costs
exceeded returns from fruit. The returns above operating costs per acre ranged
from -$21.97 in 1947-48 to $425.07 in 1943-44, and averaged $140.44. There were
12 seasons, 63 percent, when returns above operating costs were less than $100.00
per acre, and 9 seasons, 47 percent, when they were less than 40 cents per box.

There was considerable difference between the average returns above
operating costs per acre for the first 10 seasons, $40.07, and for the remaining
9 seasons, $251.96. The latter figure is 6.3 times the former. Average returns
above operating costs per box for the latter period were 356 percent of the former
period (96 and 27 cents, respectively). There was one season in each period with
negative returns above operating costs.

Returns above operating costs were the lowest in 1947-48 of the 19 sea-
sons, when the returns from fruit lacked $21.97 of paying operating costs. On a
per-box basis the loss was 7 cents. During this season there were 141 groves, 65
percent, on which the fruit did not return operating costs. However, the follow-
ing season, 1948-49, only 5 groves, 2.5 percent, failed to return operating costs,
Again, in 1949#-50, 5 grav'es, 2,5.pqrontt, failed to retur.oeperatiag casts
(Table 14).

At the rate of returns:above operating costs in 1946-47, 65 acres of
grove would be necessary to return $3,600.00 to the owner for interest on the


Paee 14


Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns











Table 14.- DISTRIBUTION OF 199 GROVES ACCORDING TO
RETURNS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1949-50 SEASON
Number Cumulative
Net Returns Groves Percent Percent

-$100 to -$ 1 ...... 5 2.5 2.5
0 to 99 ...... 12 6.0 8.5
100 to 199 ...... 29 14.6 23.1
200 to 299 ...... 30 15.1 38.2
300 to 399 ...... 20 10.1 48.3
400 to 499 ...... 26 13.1 61.4
500 to 599 ...... 13 6.5 67.9
600 to 699 ...... 18 9.0 76.9
700 to 799 ...... 19 9.6 86.5
800 to 899 ..... 13 6.5 93.0
900 to 999 ...... 7 3.5 96.5
1000 and above ..... 7 3.5 100.0

-75.72 to 1210.69 ..199 100.0 100.0


grove investment, interest on borrowed money, his own supervision, and profit,
if any. However, at the 1948-49 rate of returns above operating costs only 15
acres would be required for a return of $3,600.00 and in 1949-50 10 acres. There
were 8 of these 19 seasons when returns above operating costs were lower than in
1946-47 and 13 when they were lower than 1948-49. The averages for these two
groups were $18.21 and $43.32 per acre, respectively. At $18.21 per acre returns
above operating costs, 198 acres would be necessary to net $3,600.00, while 84
acres would be necessary at the rate of $43.32 per acre, and 26 acres at the 19-
year average of $140,44.

Interest on grove valuation has been figured at 6 percent since the
inception of this project. The cooperators were asked for their estimate of the
valuation of their grove when considered as a long-time fruit growing enterprise.
The results were that conservative figures were given and there has been a reluz-
tance on the part of the cooperator to change his valuation even after a substan-
tial change in fruit prices and grove sale prices. Interest on grove valuation
by seasons varied from $28.87 per acre in 1940-41 to $46.69 in 1931-32. The
average was $34.17 for the 19 seasons. Interest per box varied from 10 cents in
1943-44 to 40 cents in 1933-34, and averaged 16 cents. Interest in 1950-51 was
$57.24 per acre, the highest of the 20 seasons.

Total cost without owner supervision is made up of the 5 items included
as operating costs plus the item of interest on estimated grove valuation. This
item of interest added 39 percent to the operating costs on the average. Another
way of stating the same thing is that on the average the total cost without owner
supervision was 39 percent higher than the operating costs. 'This increase varied
from 23 percent in 1945-46 to 80 percent in 1934-35 and did not amount to less
than 47 percent until the 1942-43 season. During the 6 seasons of 1944-50, this
increase amounted to 30 percent or less.


Paffe 20


M(nptpan Ye~ra nr" Ottn~a dnatn nnd Batrirnn










There are growers who do not consider interest on grove valuation as a
part of production costs, while there are others who do so consider it. Hence,
the reason for presenting both calculations of costs and returns to the grower,

Net returns in this study mean the amount left to the grower of his
returns from fruit after paying operating costs and interest on the grove valua-
tion. It is the amount left for owner supervision and profit, if any. There
were 6 of the 19 seasons when returns from fruit failed to pay total cost without
owner supervision. There were 2 of these seasons when operating costs were more
than returns from fruit. Net returns per acre ranged from -$61.76 in 1947-48 to
$395.18 in 1943-44, and averaged $106.27. The first 5 years of these records,
1931-36, averaged (minus) -$1.70 per acre for net returns. The 1936-41 period
averaged $13.39, and 1941-46 $291.95 per acre. There were 11 seasons, 58 percent,
with average net returns of less than $50.00 per acre. There were 10 seasons,
53 percent, with net returns of less than 20 cents per box, and 4 seasons had net
returns of $1.30 or more per box. The average was 51 cents per box with only 7
of the 19 seasons exceeding this amount.












ZS vm-AgriEconExt
2/29/52 1500


Pa.e 21


W4nPf.clPn YPnra nf litz7ln Cnsts nnd Returns




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs