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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Age of grove
 Percent of trees grapefruit
 Groves 10 years of age and...
 Groves over 10 years of age






Group Title: AE series
Title: Twenty-one years of citrus costs and returns in Orange County, Florida, 1931-52
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071962/00001
 Material Information
Title: Twenty-one years of citrus costs and returns in Orange County, Florida, 1931-52
Series Title: AE series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 54-7
Physical Description: 16 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Savage, Zach
Publisher: Univ. of Fla. Agricultural Extension Service & Orange Co. Agricultural Agents
Place of Publication: Gainsville
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Statistics   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Orange County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Mimeograph copy.
Funding: AE series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 54-7
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071962
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01719547

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Age of grove
        Page 3
    Percent of trees grapefruit
        Page 4
    Groves 10 years of age and under
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Groves over 10 years of age
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









AE Series no. 54-7


TWENTY-ONE


YEARS


CITRUS


COSTS AND


RETURNS


FLORIDA

1931 1952


Zach Savage
Associate Agricultural Economist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations










Issued by
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
In Cooperation with County Agents of Citrus Producing Counties


December 1955











Twenty-One Years
Of
Citrus Costs and Returns
In
Florida

1931-52




Through the cooperation of interested citrus growers, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, rh.ich includes County Agents of the citrus producing
counties, and Agricultural Experiment Stations have conducted a citrus costs and
returns study since 1931. The study has included an average of 246 groves each
season for 21 seasons, 1931-52. Costs only have been tabulated for an additional
season, 1952-53, as returns from all groves have not been compiled to date.

The groves included in this study were scattered over the citrus producing
area of Florida. From 75 to 85 percent of the groves have been in the four
counties of Polk, Lake, Orange, and Highlands, varying somewhat in different
seasons. The location of the 219 groves of all ages included in the 1951-52
season is shown by counties in Figure 1 and Table 1, page 2. During this season
84 percent of the groves and 86 percent of the acreage were in the four counties
named. Fourteen counties were represented in the study that season.

Averages of data from these groves are not presented as averages for the
entire state of Florida. Groves included in these records are those of cooper-
ators who would supply the records.

Total acreage in groves of all ages included in these records expressed as
a percentage of the total Florida acreage of orange, grapefruit, and tangerine
trees over four years of age is shown by seasons in Table 2, page 3. The pro-
portion included in these records varied from 0.93 percent in 1931-32 to 3.60
percent in 1933-34 and averaged 2.57 percent for the 21 seasons. The proportion
that the total number of boxes of fruit harvested from record groves was of the
total Florida production of oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines is given by
seasons in Table 2, also. The latter figure was larger each season except four,
1932-35 and 1936-37, than the corresponding season figure for percent of acreage
and averaged 12 percent more. This indicates that the average yield for all ages
of groves for the 21-year period was approximately 12 percent higher on the record
groves than for the state as a whole.

Official data on tree ages of 16 years and older for the state are not
available, which eliminates making a comparison of average age of trees. Over
this period 23 percent of the trees in the state were grapefruit as compared to
30 percent in the case of all record groves. Also it is thought that the average
of the growers who will cooperate in supplying copies of their grove records is
above the average for all growers of the state. Consequently, it seems plausible
to assume that the average grove of these records was a better grove than the aver-
age for the state as a whole. Therefore, data from these groves are expected to
show more favorable results, in most cases, than corresponding data for all groves
of the state. However, it is believed that trends in averages for these groves
are similar to the trends in averages for all Florida groves of corresponding ages.











Twenty-One Years oC Citrus Costs and Returns Page 2


FLORIDA


Figure 1. -- LOCATION BY COUNTIES
OF CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES
1951-52 SEASON










Table 1. -- LOCATION BY COUNTIES AND AGE GROUPS
OF 219 CITRUS COST ACCOUNT GROVES, 1951-52 SEASON


County
Polk
Lake
Orange
Highlands
Pasco
Pinellas
Hillsborough
Osceola
Marion
Manatee
Indian River
Brevard
St. Lucie
Seminole


Age in Years
10 Under Over 10 All
2 82 84
9 41 50
7 27 34
o 17 17
0 11 11
0 6 6
1 3 4
2 3 5
0 2 2
0 2 2
1 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 0 1


Percent
All
38.3
22.8
15.5
7.8
5.0
2.7
1.8
2.3
0.9
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5


c
'EEP~S c '


195 219 100.0


Page 2


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Total 24










Table 2. -- PROPORTION OF FIDRIDA OAJdLG, GP.PEFRUIT, AND TAIIGERIIfE
ACREAGE AIUD PRODUCTION INCLUDED IN GROVE RECORDS


Percent Acreage
in Records
0.93
2.71
3.60
3.17
3.51
3.34
3.20
3.13
3.09
3.19
2.94
2.54
2.35
2.28
2.0
2.18
2.18
1.98
1.86
1.83
1.89

2.57


Percent Boxes Harvested
of Florida Production
1.05
2.17
2.62
2.75
3.54
3.27
3.91
3.56
4.01
3.67
3.77
3.24
3.05
2.59
2.35
2.67
2.66
2.72
2.07
2.44
2.26

2.87


AGE OF GROVE


Citrus trees produce fruit. somewhat in proportion to.age. :Age of tree from
time of setting in the grove is the easiest and most convenient method of desig-
nating groves when comparing yields, costs, and returns. From the inception of
this work, groves have been divided into two age groups: groves ten years of
age and under, and groves over ten years of age.

Distribution according to average age of trees of the 219 groves included
in these data in 1951-52 is shown in Table 3, page U. The average age of indi-
vidual groves varied from those just set to 55 years. Eleven percent of these
groves were ten years of age or less and the average age of these two groups
was five years. Eighty-nine percent were over 10 years of age and the average
age of these nine groups was 29 years. Seventy percent of all groves were 21
to 35 years of age and these same ages made up 79 percent of the groves over 10
years of age.

Trees seldom produce fruit for the first two seasons after setting. Some
fruit is usually produced during the third season. Substantial increases in
yield are common each season after the third year for a number of seasons.


Season
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
194o-1
19I1-42
1942-43
1943-4t
1944-h$
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-5o
1950-51
1951-52
Average


T-renty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Paec 3











Table 3. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 219 GROVES
ACCORDING TO AVERAGE AGE, 1951-52 SEASON


Average Number Cumulative
Age Groves Percent Percent
Under 6 12 5.5 5.5
6 to 10 12 5.5 11.0
11 to 15 7 3.2 1L.2
16 to 20 12 5.5 19.7
21 to 25 35 16.0 35.7
26 to 30 70 31.9 67.6
31 to 35 49 22.4 90.0
36 to h0 15 6.8 96.8
41 to 45 3 1.4 98.2
46 to 50 2 0.9 99.1
51 to 55 2 0.9 100.0

0 to 55 219 100.0 100.0


Many groves included in this study had mixed ages of trees. In such cases
the average age is used. This average is weighted by the number of trees of each
age. This procedure often results in some individual groves showing rather high
yields at young ages as well as higher figures for other items for groves of the
quoted age than would ordinarily be expected.


PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT

The proportion or percent of the trees that were grapefruit influenced yield
and cost. Grapefruit trees of comparable ages have higher yields than orange
trees. Production costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees are usually higher
per acre and lower per box than orange. Table 4, page 5, gives the distribution
of groves according to the percent of trees that were grapefruit in the 1951-52
season for groves averaging 10 years of age and under, groves over 10 years of
age, and groves of all ages. A higher proportion of the younger group had 10
percent or less of the trees that were grapefruit than the older group. Thirteen
percent of the trees in the younger group were grapefruit as compared to 30 per-
cent in the older group.


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AiD UIDER

Seasonal averages, four 5-year averages, and the 21-year average for groves
averaging 10 years and under are shown in Table 5, pages 6 8. The number of
groves of these ages have been rather limited in our records during recent sea-
sons, although the average for the 21 seasons has been 32 groves per season.
The average age per season has varied from five to nine years, and the average
of all seasons was seven years. The acreage included has varied from 319 to
3,210 acres per season, with the average being 1,1h2 acres.


Page 4


Tuenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns











Table 3. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 219 GROVES
ACCORDING TO AVERAGE AGE, 1951-52 SEASON


Average Number Cumulative
Age Groves Percent Percent
Under 6 12 5.5 5.5
6 to 10 12 5.5 11.0
11 to 15 7 3.2 1L.2
16 to 20 12 5.5 19.7
21 to 25 35 16.0 35.7
26 to 30 70 31.9 67.6
31 to 35 49 22.4 90.0
36 to h0 15 6.8 96.8
41 to 45 3 1.4 98.2
46 to 50 2 0.9 99.1
51 to 55 2 0.9 100.0

0 to 55 219 100.0 100.0


Many groves included in this study had mixed ages of trees. In such cases
the average age is used. This average is weighted by the number of trees of each
age. This procedure often results in some individual groves showing rather high
yields at young ages as well as higher figures for other items for groves of the
quoted age than would ordinarily be expected.


PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT

The proportion or percent of the trees that were grapefruit influenced yield
and cost. Grapefruit trees of comparable ages have higher yields than orange
trees. Production costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees are usually higher
per acre and lower per box than orange. Table 4, page 5, gives the distribution
of groves according to the percent of trees that were grapefruit in the 1951-52
season for groves averaging 10 years of age and under, groves over 10 years of
age, and groves of all ages. A higher proportion of the younger group had 10
percent or less of the trees that were grapefruit than the older group. Thirteen
percent of the trees in the younger group were grapefruit as compared to 30 per-
cent in the older group.


GROVES 10 YEARS OF AGE AiD UIDER

Seasonal averages, four 5-year averages, and the 21-year average for groves
averaging 10 years and under are shown in Table 5, pages 6 8. The number of
groves of these ages have been rather limited in our records during recent sea-
sons, although the average for the 21 seasons has been 32 groves per season.
The average age per season has varied from five to nine years, and the average
of all seasons was seven years. The acreage included has varied from 319 to
3,210 acres per season, with the average being 1,1h2 acres.


Page 4


Tuenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns












Table 4. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 219 GROVES ACCORDING
TO PERCENT OF TREES GRAPEFRUIT, 1951-52 SEASON

: 10 Years and Under :Over 10 Years of Age: All Ages
Percent : : :Cum- : : :Cumu- : :Cumu-
Grape- :Number: Per-:lative :Number: Pcr-:lative :Number: Per-:lative
fruit :Groves: cent:Percent:Groves: cent:Percent:Groves: cent:Percent
0 to 10: 16 : 66.6: 66.6 : 74 : 37.9: 37.9 : 90 : l1.1: 1h.1
II to 20: 3 : 12.4: 79.0 : 16 8.2: 46.1 : 19 : 8.7: 49.8
21 to 30: 1 : 4.2: 83.2 : 20 :10.3: 56.4 : 21 : 9.6: 59.4
31 to 40: 1 : 4.2: 87.4 : 25 : 12.8: 69.2 : 26 : 11.9: 71.3
41 to 50: 1 : 4.2: 91.6 : 26 : 13.3: 82.5 : 27 : 12.3: 83.6
51 to 60: 0 : 0.0: 91.6 : 15 : 7.7: 90.2 : 15 : 6.8: 90.4
61 to 70: 1 : 4.2: 95.8 : : 2.6: 92.8 : 6 : 2.7: 93.1
71 to 80: 0 : 0.0: 95.8 : 3 :1.5: 94.3 : 3 : 1.4: 94.5
81 to 90: 0 : 0.0: 95.8 : 4 : 2.1: 96.4 : 4 : 1.8: 96.3
91 to 100: 1 : 4.2: 100.0 : 7 : 3.6: 100.0 : 8 : 3.7: 100.0
:: : :
0 to 100: 24 :100.0: 100.0 : 195 :100.0: 100.0 : 219 :100.0: 100.0


The average number of boxes of fruit harvested from this group of groves
was 95 boxes per acre for the entire period. This-yield is less than the aver-
age for all groves seven years of age during the period of 1931-52, which yielde
127 boxes per acre. The average yield of 95 boxes per acre is 43 percent of th
yield of the older group of groves 22 years of age.

Operating costs per acre averaged $62 for the 21 seasons. This average is
66 percent of the operating costs of the older group of groves which had an aver
age age of 22 years. The percentage of each item making up the operating costs
of the two groups of groves is shotnm in Table 6.


Table 6. -- PERC~!T EACH COST ITEi IS
OF TOTAL OPERATING COSTS PER ACRE, 1931-52


Item of Cost
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
miscellaneous

Total operating costs


Age of Groves in Years
10 & Under Over 10
49.6 44.3
32.5 36.8
6.1 7.7
5.0 6.7
6.8 4.5


100.0


100.0


Returns from fruit averaged $107.92 per acre for the 21-year period. This
was 46 percent of the- returns for the older group. Returns per box were slight]
higher on the younger group. This was due, in part at least, to the smaller pro
portion of grapefruit in the younger group, since grapefruit usually brings a
lower price.


Tuenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 5






Table 5. -- PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA
BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER
(continued)


Number of grove records
Total acres of records
Average acres per grove
Average age
Number of trees per acre
Percent trees grapefruit
Boxes harvested per acre


Costs per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit
Net returns
Returns above operating costs
---- -------------------------
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit
Net returns
Returns above operating costs


1931-32
25
1453
58
8
60
17.5
108


$ 33.56
26.76
3.93
6.12
2.83
73.20
26.49
99.69

90.62
-9.07
17.42


.31
.25
.03
.06
.03
.68
.25
.93

.84
-.09
.16


1932-33
46
3011
65
9
59
32.7
41


1933-34
82
3210
39
8
63
27.8
55


$ 14.23 $ 12.56
13.04 11.30
1.28 1.27
3.74 3.00
1.63 .58
33.92 28.71
23.61 25.97
57.53 54.68

19.15 44.62
-38.38 -10.06
-14.77 15.91


.34
.32
.03
.09
;o0
.82
.57
1.39

.46
-.93
-.36


.23
.21
.02
.05
.01
.52
.47
.99

.81
-.18
.29


1934-35
52
2316
45
9
63
26.9
51


$ 12.62
11.46
2.11
3.73
.33
30.25
26.20
56.45

37.70
-18.75
7.45


.25
.22
.04
.07
.01
.59
.52
1.11

.74
-.37
.15


1935-36 1936-37
71 54
1947 1362
27 25
8 7


65
18.8
54


$ 16.93
12.30
1.77
3.22
2.02
36.24
24.33
60.57

58.45
-2.12
22.21


.31
.23
.03
.06
.0
.67
.45
1.12

1.08
-.o4
.41


67
23.2
74


$ 20.45
15.79
2.91
2.67
.48
42.30
25.29
67.59

87.27
19.68
44.97


.28
.21
.04
.03
.01
.57
.34
.91

1.18
.27
.61


1937-38 1938-39 1939-40
35 31 25
1090 625 748
31 20 30
8 8 8
67 69 74
24.6 23.0 38.9
89 142 120


$ 25.34
20.63
3.86
2.14
1.23
53.20
27.20
80.40

60.90
-19.50
7.70


.28
.23
.04
.03
.01
.59
.31
.90

.68
-.22
.09


$ 19.65
18.55
3.06
2.59
2.81
46.66
27.48
74.14

70.39
-3.75
23.73


$ 26.87
16.96
4.63
3.87
1.48
53.81
29.45
83.26

92.06
8.80
38.25


.14
.13
.02
.02
.02
.33
.19
.52

.50
-.02
.17


.23
.14
.0 h
.03
.01
.45
.24
.69

.77
.08
.32


1940-41
25
626
25
9
72
43.6
170


$ 23.57
15.02
3.93
3.90
3.90
S50.32
25.28
75.60

111.15
35.55
60.83


.14
.09
.02
.02
.02
.29
.15
.44

.65
.21
.36


- .15






Table 5. -- PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AMN OTHER DATA
BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YPAPS OF AlE /AT UT)NDRT
(continued)


Number of grove records
Total acres of records
AvfrPOag eRP TPc e p rn Trov


1941-42 19L2-143
21 20
571 385
97 10


1943-44 1944-45 1945-0L
22 22 15
518 567 319
9) 9/, 91


196-47
16
506
32


1947-48 198-49 1949-50 1950-51
21 23 24 27
726 714 647 871
S3C 1 2


Average age 9 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7
Number of trees per acre 68 73 78 78 76 68 68 67 68 67
Percent trees grapefruit 45.2 12.3 8.5 7.6 6.7 18.1 13.2 14.7 7.2 8.6
Boxes harvested per acre 117 119 108 92 74 109 108 105 92 96
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


vo s per acre:
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
IMiscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision


$ 26.64
20.19
6.36
3.71
1.53
58.43
23.75
82.18


$ 20.31
20.50
4.39
2.68
2.98
50.86
23.13
74.04


$ 22.22
22.37
3.20
2.58
5.20
55.57
21.29
76.86


$ 29.49
22.22
3.10
2.38
3.06
60.25
24.46
84.71


$ 29.99
22.18
3.28
1.74
4.15
61.34
19.81
81.18


$ 57.83
33.79
4.53
2.02
9.46
107.63
25.80
133.43


$ 57.04 $ 45.36
27.17 20.58
4.67 4.78
3.00 2.82
3.17 8.86
95.05 82.40
26.30 23.10
121.35 105.50


$ 44.76
22.91
4.39
3.51
3.70
79.27
23.15
102.42


$ 57.82
28.03
5.37
3.95
9.10
104.27
26.91
131.18


Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 111.92 198.54 212.76 186.51 143.77 126.99 99.70 135.19 177.10 134.55
Net returns 29.74 124.50 135.90 101.80 62.59 -6.14 -21.65 29.69 74.68 3.37
Returns above operating costs 53.49 147.68 157.19 126.26 82.43 19.36 4.65 52.79 97.83 30.28


Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation @ 6%
Total cost without owner supervision
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit
Net returns


Returns above operating costs


.23
.17
.06
.03
.01
.50
.20
.70


.17
.17
.04
.02
.02
.42
.20
.62

1.66
1.0o4
1.24


.21
.21
.03
.02
.05
.52
.20
.72

1.98
1.26
1.46


.32
.24
.03
.03
.03
.665
.27
.92

2.02
1.10
1.37


.41
.30
.04
.02
.06
.83
.27
1.10

1.95
.85
1.12


.53
.31
.04
.02
.09
.99
.24
1.23

1.17
-.06
.18


.53
.25
.04
.03
.03
.88
.24
1.12

.92
-.20
.04


.43
.20
.05
.03
.08
.79
.22
1,01

1.29
.28
.50


.48
.25
.05
.04
.04
.86
.25
1.11


.60
.29
.06
.04
.09
1.08
.28
1.36


1.92 1.40
.81 .o4
1.06 .32


- ----- --- --' -----~`-'--- c-"-~-I-~--'----~'-~L~'~I-'-`-~~---~- -- --


.





Table 5. -- PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER DATA
BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING 10 YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER
(concluded) i.
21-Year "
Average 5-Year Averages
1952-53* 1951-52 1931-52 1931-36 1936-41 1941-46 1946-51 Q
Number of grove records 22 24 32 55 34 20 22
Total acres of records 1973 1763 1142 2387 890 472 693
Average acres per grove 90 73 34 43 26 24 32
Average age 6 5 7 8 8 7 6
Number of trees per acre 62 62 68 62 70 75 68 .
Percent trees grapefruit 11.3 12.7 20.6 24.7 30.7 16.1 12.4
Boxes harvested per acre 77 95 62 119 102 102
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --
Costs Der acre:
Labor, power, and equipment $ 61.93 $ 47.90 $ 30.72 $ 17.98 $ 23.18 $ 25.73 $ 52.56 E
Fertilizer materials 20.59 22.05 20.18 14.97 17.39 21.49 26.50 "
Spray and dust materials 8.78 6.11 3.76 2.07 3.68 4.07 4.75 8
State and county taxes 2.13 1.98 3.11 3.96 3.03 2.62 3.06 P
Miscellaneous 5.98 20.23 4.23 1.48 1.98 3.38 6.86 '
Total operating costs 99.41 98.27 62.00 40.46 49.26 57.29 93.73
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% 29.19 29.55 25.17 25.32 26.94 22.50 25.05
Total cost without owner supervision 128.60 127.82 87.17 65.78 76.20 79.79 118.78 c
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 66.97 107.92 50.11 84.36 170.70 134.71
Net returns -60.85 20.75 -15.67 8.16 90.91 15.93
Returns above operating costs -31.30 45.92 9.65 35.10 113.41 40.98
---------------------------------------------;--------------------- ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment .62 .32 .29 .19 .25 .51
Fertilizer materials .29 .21 .24 .15 .21 .26
Spray and dust materials .08 .04 .04 .03 .04 .05
State and county taxes .03 .03 .06 .02 .03 .03
Miscellaneous .26 05 .02 .02 .03 .07
Total operating costs 1.28 .65 .65 .41 .56 .92
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% .38 .27 .41 .23 .22 .25
Total cost without owner supervision 1.66 .92 1.06 .64 .78 1.17
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit .87 1.14 .81 .71 1.67 1.32
Net returns -.79 .22 -.25 .07 .89 .15
Returns above operating costs -.41 .49 .16 .30 1.11 .40
* Returns not vet available









STwenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Returns above operating costs averaged $45.92 per acre annually for the
period. This was 32 percent of the corresponding figure of the older group.
There were two seasons, 1932-33 and 1951-52, when returns from fruit failed to
pay operating costs. Per-box returns above operating costs averaged 49 cents
for the 21-year-period. Upon dividing the first 15 years of this period into
three 5-year periods, the per-box returns above operating costs were 16, 30,
and 111 cents, respectively, for the three periods. High fruit prices during
the latter period accounted for the good showing of the period when prices by
seasons ranged from 96 cents to $2.02 per box. The five seasons of 1946-51
averaged 40 cents in returns above operating costs.

Interest on investment in grove land and trees was calculated from the grove
operator's estimate of the valuation. The estimate requested was for the invest-
ment in land and trees from the point of view of a long-time, fruit-growing
enterprise. Such valuations are often less than prices of grove sales during
periodpsof high prices, and are usually higher than grove sale prices during
periods of depressed fruit prices.

Interest on estimated grove valuation at six percent averaged $25.17 per acre
for the 21 seasons. This figure was 69 percent of the interest on the older
group of groves.

Total cost without owner supervision includes operating costs and interest
on the grove investment. Interest on the grove investment is a production cost,
although many growers do not so consider it. Uhen interest is not considered as
a cost, the operating costs figure is the one desired. But for those who consider
interest on the grove investment as a production cost, additional calculations
are here shown in order to determine the total cost without owner supervision,
and the net returns after considering interest as a cost.

Total cost without owner supervision averaged $87.17 per acre, or 92 cents
per box. This per-acre figure was 67 percent of the corresponding figure for
the older group of groves. The per-box figure of 92 cents was 56 percent higher
than that of the older groves.

Net returns, after considering interest on the grove investment as a pro-
duction cost, averaged $20.75 per acre annually, or 22 cents per box. There were
10 of the 21 seasons when returns from fruit were less than the total cost with-
out owner supervision.

GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE

The number of groves of these records over 10 years of age varied from S4 to
272 per season and averaged 214 (Table 7, pages 10 12). The first tio seasons,
1931-32 and 1932-33, had considerably less than the average number of groves
included. The grove acreage varied from 583 acres in 1931-32 to 9,853 acres in
1940-41, and averaged 7,398 acres per season. The latter figure was 2.6 percent
of the average acreage in Florida bearing groves over this period.

The acreage per grove included in these records has not varied violently
since the second season. The average acreage per grove was 13 acres for the


Page 9






Table 7. -- PER ACRE AID PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER
DATA BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGIIIG OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE


(continued)


Number of grove records
Total acres of records
Average acres per grove
Average age
Number of trees per acre
Percent trees grapefruit
Boxes harvested per acre


1931-32
45
583
13
17
63
28.2
169


1932-33
101
3632
36
18
58
31.5
133


1933-34
182
6269
34
17
58
31.7
92


1934-35 1935-36
211 254
6499 8221
31 32
18 18
58 59
35.0 32.5
121 11L


1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939140
272 270 261 262
8766 8869 9381 9303
32 33 36 36
18 19 19 20
60 59 60 60
29.7 29.8 31.6 32.0
138 158 205 179


----------------------------------------------------


Costs per acret
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Iliscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation 0 6@
Total cost without owner supervision


$ 31.71
37.92
3.98
11.76
.89
86.26
46,69
132.95


$ 25.26
22.92
3.39
4.90
1.44
57.91
37.29
95.20


$ 19.66
17.74
3.13
5.10
1.61
47,24
36.33
83.57


0 17.33
18.94
3.14
4.96
.53
44.90
36.13
81.03


$ 19.54
19.22
2.99
5.66
2.49
49.90
33.12
83.02


$ 21.72
21.80
3.81
5.75
1.79
54.87
32.73
87.60


$ 23.08
26.95
4.85
5.04
1.71
61.63
32.30
93.93


$ 22.47
26.70
4.85
4.40
2.05
60.47
29.28
89.75


$ 22.25
19.90
4.67
4.57
2.06
53.15
29.46
82.91


$ 26.42
20.73
5.55
4.41
2.96
60.07
28.87
88.94


Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 164.82 50.10 68.22 68.99 115.13 1L4.10 87.77 81.2) 85.39 111.57
Net returns 31.87 -45.10 -15.35 -12.04 32.11 56.50 -6.16 -8.46 2.48 22.63
Returns above operating costs 78.56 -7.81 20.98 24.09 65.23 89.23 26.14 20.82 31.94 51.50


Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
miscellaneous
Total operating costs
Interest on grove valuation a 6%
Total cost without owner supervision


Returns per box:
Returns fro-mfruit
Het returns
Returns above operating costs


.19
.22
.02
.07
.01
.51
.27
.78

.97
.19
.46


.19
.17
.03
.04
.01
. 44
.28
.72

.38
-.34
-.06


.21
.19
.03
.06
.02
.51
.4o
.91

.74
-.17
.23


.14
.16
.03
.04

.37
.30
".67

'.57
-.10
.20


.17
.17
.03
.05
.02
.44
.29
.73

1.01
.28
.57


.16
.16
.03
.04
.01
*40
.23
.63

1.o4
.141
.64


.15
.17
.03
.03
.01
.39
.21
.60

.56.
-.04
.17


.11
.14
.02
.02
.01
.30
.14
.44


.1o
-.o0
.10


.12
.11
.03
.03
.01
.30
.16
.46

.47
.01
.17


.13
.11
.03
.02
.01
.30
.15
.45

.56
.11
.26


1940-41
266
9853
37
20
61
32.4
197


i~L_ _r


_ __





Table 7. -- PER ACRE AiD PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER
DATA BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE
(continued)
1941-42 1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51
Number of grove records 262 240 222 221 205 219 215 200 199 192
Total acres of records 9372 8463 7913 7730 7221 7768 7654 7169 6977 6890
Average acres per grove 36 35 36 35 35 35 36 36 35 36 C
Average age 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 27 28
Number of trees per acre 61 61 62 62 62 62 61 62 61 62
Percent trees grapefruit 31.7 32.0 31.4 31.5 31.2 30.9 30,4 31.4 30.6 30.2 4
Boxes harvested per acre 187 257 305 225 277 293 321 342 252 360 C
-- ----- ----------------------- --- --- -- --------- -- -- -- --.
Costs per acre: 4
Labor, power, and equipment $ 28.23 $ 29.31 $ 37.27 lt8.28 $ 63.89 $ 76.42 $ 75.50 $ 65.73 $ 66.38 $ 79.31 "
Fertilizer materials 21.50 32.42 41.16 48.73 52.58 57.33 56.63 39.18 36.98 50.48 c
Spray and dust materials 6.07 7.40 6.53 9.55 8.16 12.47 10.06 10.91 9.52 14.38 0
State and county taxes 4.39 4.07 4.73 4.18 4.74 6.03 8.86 9.05 9.55 9.64 "
Miscellaneous 2.40 4.70 4.92 7.53 8.24 7.64 7.33 11.85 3.85 6.86 0
Total operating costs 62.59 77.90 94.61 118.27 137.61 159.89 158.38 136.72 126.28 160.67 0
Interest on grove valuation 0 6% 29.41 29.79 29.89 31.94 31.72 39.12 39,79 37.62 37.84 57.17
Total cost without owner supervision 92.00 107.69 124.50 150.21 169.33 199.01 198.17 174.34 164.12 217.84
Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 190.93 393.24 519.68 454.69 544.94 215.98' 136.41 391.03 493.02 408.32
Net returns 98.93 285.55 395.18 304.h8 375.61 16.97 -61.76 216.69 328.90 190.48
Returns above operating costs 128.34 315.34 425.07 336.42 407.33 56.09 -21.97 254.31 366.74 247.65
------- --- ---------- ---- --- --- ---- --- -------------
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment .15 .11 .12 .21 .23 .27 .24 .19 .26 .22
Fertilizer materials .12 .13 .13 .21 .19 .20 .18 .12 .15 .14
Spray and dust materials .03 .03 .02 .04 .03 .04 .03 .03 .04 .04
State and county taxes .02 .01 .02 .02 .02 .02 .03 .03 .04 .03
Miscellaneous .01 .02 .02 .04 .03 .02 .02 .03 .01 .02
Total operating costs .33 .30 .31 .52 .50 .55 .50 .40 .50 .45
Interest on grove valuation 0 6% .16 .12 .10 .14 .11 .13 .12 .11 .15 .16
Total cost without owner supervision .49 .42 .41 .66 .61 .68 .62 .51 .65 .61
Returns per box:
Returns fro-mfruit 1.02 1.53 1.71 2.02 1.97 .74 '.43 1.14 1.96 1.14 "
Net returns .53 1.11 1.30 1.36 1.36 .06 -.19 .63 1.31 .53
Returns above operating costs .69 1.23 1.40 1.50 1.47 .19 -.07 .74 1.46 .69 p






Table 7. -- PER ACRE AND PER BOX COSTS, RETURNS, AND OTHER
DATA BY SEASONS FOR GROVES AVERAGING OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE
(concluded) C
21-Year a
Average 5-Year Averages
1952-53* 1951-52 1931-52 1931-36 1936-41 1941-46 1946-51 1
Number of grove records 203 195 214 159 266 230 205
Total acres of records 7159 6819 7398 5041 9234 8140 7292
Average acres per grove 35 35 34 32 35 35 36 o
Average age 29 29 22 18 19 23 26
Number of trees per acre 61 61 61 59 60 62 62
Percent trees grapefruit 29,8 30.0 31.2 31.8 31.1 31.6 30.7 4
Boxes harvested per acre 355 223 126 175 250 314 m
-----------------------------I~---lr---- -
Costs per acre: o
Labor, power, and equipment $ 81.49 $ 80.16 $ 41.90 $ 22.70 $ 23.19 $ 41.40 $ 72.67
Fertilizer materials 55.51 61.65 34.83 23.35 23.22 39.28 48.12
Spray and dust materials 17.62 18.34 7.32 3.33 4.75 7.54 11.47
State and county taxes 10,92 10.11 6.28 6.47 4.83 4.42 8.62
Miscellaneous 4.78 7.12 4.29 1.39 2.11 5.56 7.51 ?
Total operating costs 170,32 177.38 94.62 57.24 58.10 98.20 148.39
Interest on grove valuation 0 6% 61.08 61.45 36.57 37.91 30.53 30.55 42.31
Total cost without owner supervision 231.40 238,83 131.19 95.15 88.63 128.75 190.70
Returns per acre:
Returns fr7om- ruit 238.83 236.40 93.45 102.02 420.70 328.95
Net returns .00 105.21 -1.70 13.39 291.95 138.25
Returns above operating costs 61.45 141.78 36.21 43.92 322.50 180.56
-------------------------~------------------~-----------
Costs per box:
Labor, power, and equipment .23 .19 .18 .13 .16 .23
Fertilizer materials .17 .16 .19 .13 .16 .15
Spray and dust materials .05 .03 .03 .03 .03 .04
State and county taxes .03 .03 .05 .03 .02 .03
Miscellaneous .02 .02 .01 .01 .02 .02
Total operating costs .50 .43 .46 .33 .39 .47
Interest on grove valuation 0.6% .17 .16 .30 .17 .12 .14
Total cost without ouner supervision .67 .59 .76 .50 .51 ..61
Returns per box:
Returns from fruit .67 1.06 .75 .58 1.68 1.05
Net returns .00 .47 -.01 .08 1.17 44
Returns above operating costs .17 .63 .29 .25 1.29 .58








Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


1931-32 season. Since that time the seasonal average has varied from 31 to 37
acres per grove, and the average for the 21 seasons was 34 acres. The acreage
per individual grove varied from slightly over one acre to 537.5 acres, with 62.5
percent with less than 20 acres in the 1951-52 season and 82.5 percent with less
than 40 acres.

The average age of groves from time of setting the nursery stock varied by
seasons from 17 to 29 years and averaged 22 years for the 21-year period. The
average age of the 195 groves included in the 1951-52 season was 29 years (Table
7, pages 12). The age of grove should be kept in mind when comparing data, as
it is-accountable for a sizable portion of the variations between groves or
groups of groves of different ages. Over the 21-year period the average increase
per acre of 29-year-old groves over the 17-year-old groves was:

Number of boxes harvested 38 percent
Total operating costs 36 percent
Returns from fruit 38 percent
Returns above operating costs 38 percent

The number of trees set per acre remained rather static.around 60 trees for
..the older group of groves throughout the record period. Such is not true of the
younger group. This group increased from 60 in 1931-32 to 65 trees per acre in
the 1935-36 season, and subsequent seasons were higher than the latter figure,
except 195-1-2. The two seasons with the largest number of trees per acre were
1943-h4--and 19b1-4-5 with 78 each. The average for this- group during the entire
period was--68 (Table 5, page 8). The average for the older group was 61.

It should be.pointed out that these data include records for some groves for
-.only one season. Other groves were included for varying numbers of seasons up to
the entire 21 seasons. There were 15 groves included in these data for the 21
successive seasons. This turnover of the groves making.up the records materially
affected the number of trees per acre from season to season. The 5-year averages
for the younger group were 62 during 1931-36, 70 during 1936-41, 75 during 1941-h6,
and 68 during 1946-51. Thus during recent seasons in the groves of these records,
trees have been set with a larger number per acre. The sample of younger groves
has been-rather small of recent seasons, so much so that upon the groves-attaining
-the age of eleven years and transfer into the older group, there have not been
sufficient acreages to increase materially the average number of trees per acre
-of the older group.

The percent of trees grapefruit is another important consideration when com-
paring the fruit harvested, costs, returns, and net returns. Grapefruit groves
usually have higher yields, higher costs per acre, lower returns and net returns
per acre than orange groves of comparable ages. The cost per box is usually lower
for grapefruit due to the higher yields. The lower price usually received for
grapefruit results in lower returns per acre, and lower net returns per acre and
per box. The distribution of all the groves according to the percent of trees
grapefruit for the 1951-52 season is shown in Table 4, page 5.

The percentage of trees grapefruit averaged 31 for the 21 seasons for groves
over 10 years of age. Individual seasons varied from 28 to 35 percent grapefruit
trees.


P e 11
Z2


PawA 7n











Boxes harvested per acre averaged less than 200 each season prior to 1942-4h3
with the exception of the 1938-39 season when the average was 205 boxes. Average
fruit harvested since that time, 1942-52, ranged from 225 boxes in 1944-45 --
which was materially lowered by hurricane damage -- to 360 bo::es in 1950-51. The
1950-51 figure was the highest of the 21 seasons and was one percent higher than
the second highest, 355 boxes in 1951-52, and 291 percent higher than the 92-box
average in 1933-34. The average age of groves in 1950-51 was 28 years, which was
one year younger than in 1951-52 and eleven years older than in 1933-34. There
were 10 of the 21 seasons, 47 percent, when less than 200 boxes were harvested
per acre (Table 8).


Table 8. -- DISTRIBUTION OF SEASOIIAL AVERAGES
OF BOXES FAIVESTED PER ACRE, 1931-52

Number Cumulative
Boxes per acre Seasons Percent Percent
Less than 100 1 5 5
100 to 149 4 19 24
150 to 199 5 23 47
200 to 249 2 10 57
250 to 299 4 19 76
300 to 349 3 14 90
350 .to 399 2 10 100

92 to 360 21 100 100


The average number of boxes harvested per acre .for each of the five-year
periods were: 1931-36 -- 126; 1936-41 -- 175; 1941-46 -- 250; and 1946-51 --
314 boxes. Yield for the third period was double that of the first and the
fourth period was 249 percent of the first. Some of the reasons for these
increases in the number of boxes harvested per acre were increases in average age
of trees, better fertilizer practices, larger proportion of fruit harvested due
to good prices and the development in fruit processing: and the increasing pro-
portion of grove acreage irrigated may have been a factor. Fruit prices were low
for some seasons of the first two 5-year periods, resulting in some of the fruit
remaining unharvested. Less damage from low temperatures and better grove care
in general during the last two periods contributed to higher yields for these
periods, and higher prices together with the development of fruit processing
facilities, contributed to higher proportions of the fruit being harvested.

There were considerable variations in fruit harvested per acre between differ-
ent groves for the same season as well as seasonal average variations. The number
of boxes harvested per acre varied from 2 to 790 on 195 groves over 10 years of
.age in the 1951-52 season (Table 9, page 15). Fifty-one percent of these groves
had less than 350 boxes harvested per acre that season and 88 percent had less
than 550 boxes. From 17 percent of these groves less than 250 boxes were harvested
per acre.


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 14









Table 9. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING TO
FRUIT HARVESTED PER ACRE, 1951-52 SEASON
Number Cumulative
Boxes per acre Groves Percent Percent
Under 100 3 1.5 1.5
100 to 149 5 2.6 4.1
150 to 199 12 6.2 10.3
200 to 249 14 7.2 17.5
250 to 299 40 20.5 38.0
300 to 349 25 12.8 50.8
350 to 399 16 8.2 59.0
hoo to 449 30 15.4 74.4
450 to 499 18 9.2 83.6
500 to 549 9 4.6 88.2
550 to 599 7 3.6 91.8
600 to 649 9 4.6 96.4
650 to 699 5 2.6 99.0
700 to 749 0 0.0 99.0
750 to 799 2 1.0 100.0
2 to 790 195 100.0 100.0

Operating costs were made up of five itmes: (1) labor, power, and equipment,
(2) fertilizer materials, (3) spray and dust materials,- (4) state and county taxes,
and (5) miscellaneous costs. The distribution of the 21-year averages of these
costs is shorm in Table 6, page 5. Operating costs for the first eight years of
this study, 1931-39, averaged $57.90 per acre. The following season, 1939-40, such
costs were$53.h$. There was an increase in operating costs each year from 1939-40
to 1946-47, which means an increase each season for seven successive seasons.
During part of this time the increase was rather rapid, and these costs were
$159.89-per acre in 1946-47. Operating costs in 1947-48 were only $1.51, or one
percent, less than for the previous season. Such costs in 1949-50 were 21 percent
less than in 1946-47, and eight percent less than in 1948-49. The 1950-51 operat-
ing costs 1ere $160.67, or 27 percent more than 1949-50, and 78 cents more than
the next highest season of 1946-47. The 1951-52 costs were 10 percent higher than
1950-51 and 395 percent of the lowest cost season of 1934-35. Operating costs
per acre in 1952-53 were slightly lower than in 1951-52.
Operating costs in 1951-52 were three and one-fourth times the average for
the nine seasons from 1932-41. Furthermore, these 1951-52 costs exceeded the
fruit receipts for each of these nine seasons, 1932-41, and exceeded the average
by $85.66, or 95 percent. In other words, if the costs for these nine seasons
had been the same as the costs for 1951-52, there would not have been one of the
nine when the fruit receipts would have equaled or exceeded operating costs.
There would have been a loss in each season and the average loss would have been
$85.66 per acre.
Operating costs exceeded 50 cents per box four times in the 21 seasons,
1931-32, 1933-34, 19h4-45, and 1946-47. The average for all seasons was 43 cents.


Page 15


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns







Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


During the 1939-h4 period, when operating costs were increasing on the per-acre
basis, the per-box costs fluctuated from 30 to 33 cents. Such costs were 52 cents
in the 194U-45 season. Hurricane winds materially reduced the fruit harvested in
19L44-4, which increased the costs per box. Also, an increase of 25 percent over
the previous season in operating costs per acre further increased the per-box
costs. Sight of the 21 seasons had operating costs of less than 40 cents per box,
and seven of these seasons were in the 1937-44 period.

Operating costs per. box averaged 50 cents during the 1951-52 season, and the
range was from 17 cents to $2.25. See Table 10. Fifty-four percent of the groves
had such costs of less than 50 cents. Another 28 percent had costs from 50 to 79
cents and 18 percent had costs of 80 cents or more per box.

Table 10. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING
TO OPERATING COST PER BOX, 1951-52 SEASON
lumber Cumulative
Cost per box Groves Percent Percent
$ .10 to $ .19 3 1.5 1.5
.20 to .29 29 14.9 16.4
.30 to .39 42 21.5 37.9
.4h to .49 32 16.4 54.3
.50 to .59 26 13.3 67.6
.60 to .69 15 7.7 75.3
.70 to .79 13 6.7 82.0
.80 to .89 6 3.1 85.1
.90 to .99 5 2.6 87.7
1.00 to 1.79 19 9.7 97.4
1.80 and over 5 2.6 100.0

.17 to 2.25 195 100.0 100.0

Operating costs per acre by individual groves ranged from $67.54 to $370.25
in the 1951-52 season and averaged $177.38 (Table 11, page 17). On 31 percent of
the groves $200 or more per acre was spent for operating costs that season. Aver-
age operating costs by seasons ranged from $U4.90 to $177.38 per acre and from 30
to 55 cents per box (Table 12, page 17).
More money was spent for labor, power, and equipment than any other cost item.
The average was $41.90 per acre per season and ranged from $17.33 to $80.16. This
cost exceeded the cost of fertilizer materials in 14 of the 22 seasons shown in
Table 7, pages 10 12. The spread between the costs of the two items increased
during recent seasons with the cost of labor, power, and equipment increasing
faster. There were 10 seasons, 1932-42, when the operating costs did not amount
to as much as the cost of the one item of labor, power, and equipment for any one
of the past eight seasons, 1945-53. Ioney spent for this item was 081.49 per
acre in 1952-53, the highest of the 22 seasons. The increases in the number of
boxes harvested as this period progressed lessened very materially the increases
in the costs on a per-box basis. Labor, power, and equipment costs per box were
27 cents in 1946-47, an increase of four cents over the previous season. Such


Page 16










costs were three cents less in 1947-48 than in 1946-47, and decreased to 19 cents
in 1948-49 which was five cents less than 1947-48. The average for the 21 seasons
was 19 cents.

Table 11. -- DISTRI3TUION OF 195 GROVES ACCOPDIITG TO
OPERATING COSTS PER ACIE. 1951-52 SEASON


Cost per acre
$50 to $ 74
75 to 99
100 to 124
125 to 149
150 to 174
175 to 199
200 to 224
225 to 249
250 to 274
275 to 299
300 and over

67.54 to 370.25


Number
Groves
1
12
28
48
25
21
15
13
6
8
18

195


Percent
0.5
6.2
14.3
24.6
12.8
10.8
7.7
6.7
3.1
4.1
9.2

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
6.7
21.0
.5.6
58.4
69.2
76.9
83.6
86.7
90.8
100.0

100.0


Table
OPERATING


Cost Items


Labor, power, and equipment
Fertilizer materials
Spray and dust materials
State and county taxes
Miscellaneous

Operating costs
SLess than $O.O05.


12. -- AVERAGE AMID PIdIGE OF
COST ITEIS PER SEASON, 1931-52

Per Acre
Average Range


$41.90
34.83
7.32
6.28
4..29

94.62


$17.33
17.74
2.99
4.07
.53


$ 80.16
61.65
18.3L
11.76
11.85


44.90 to 177.38


Per Box
Average Range
Cents Cents
19 11 to 27
16 11 to 22
3 2 to 5
3 1 to 7
2 -:* to 4

43 30 to 55


Table 13, page 18, shows the distribution of the amount of money spent per
acre for labor, power, and equipment on the 195 groves over 10 years of age in
1951-52. The amount spent varied from $17.96 to $222.07 per acre. Ten percent-
of these groves had less than $30 per acre cost for labor, power, and equipment,
57 percent had less than $70, and 74 percent had less than $90. Fifteen percent
of these groves had more than $130 per acre spent for this item.

The cost item of second importance was fertilizer materials. This item was
37 percent of the average operating costs andm mounted to $34.83 per acre. The
range in the seasonal cost per acre for fertilizer materials was from $17.74 to
$61.65, and decreased to $55.51 in 1952-53. During 48 percent of the seasons
this item averaged less than $30 per acre. Fertilizer cost was $37.92 per acre
in 1931-32 but was not that high again until the 1943-44 season. These costs


Page 17


4 9 to -177, -3... .


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns










increased for the following three seasons when the high up to that time of $57.33
was reached in 1946-47. There was a reduction of 32 percent in such costs in
1948-49 as compared to 1947-48, and a further reduction of 5.6 percent in 1949-50
under 1948-49. A major contributing factor was low fruit prices. Fertilizer
material costs increased to $61.65 in 1951-52 which was the highest of the 22
seasons.


Table 13. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GLOVES ACCORDING TO IDNEY SPE!T
FOR LABOR, POI-ER, AND EQUIPiFNT PER ACIEM, 1951-52 SEASON


Cost per acre
$ 10 to $ 29
30 to 49
50 to 69
70 to 89
90 to 109
110 to 129
130 to 149
150 to 169
170 to 189
190 and above

17.96 to 222.07


Number
Groves
20
47
45
33
14
7
7
7
6
9

195


Percent
10.2
24.1
23.1
16.9
7.2
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.1
4.6

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
10.2
34.3
57.4
74.3
81.5
85.1
88.7
92.3
95.4
100.0

ICO.O


Table 14 shows the distribution of the amount of money spent for fertilizer
materials per acre for the 195 groves over 10 years of age in the 1951-52 season.
The amount spent varied from $26.80 to $150.76 per acre, and averaged $61.65.
Twenty-two percent of these groves had less than $50 per acre cost for fertilizer,
and 25 percent had such cost of $80 or more. On 53 percent of these groves, the
money spent for fertilizer ranged from $50 to $79.


Table 14, -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195
SPENT FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS


Cost per acre
5 20 to $ 29
30 to 39
40 to 49
50 to 59
60 to 69
70 to 79
80 to 89
90 to 99
100 and above

26.80 to 150.76


Number
Groves
1
11
31
38
43
23
26
9
13


GROVES ACCORDING TO MONET
PER ACRE. 1951-52 SEASON


Percent
0.5
5.6
15.9
19.5
22.1
11.8
13.3
4.6
6.7


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
6.1
22,0
41.5
63.6
75.4
88.7
93.3
100.0


195 100.0 100.0


195 100.0


100.0


V


Twhenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 18










Fertilizer costs per box varied from 22 cents in 1931-32 to 11 cents in
1939-40 and 1940-41. There were 15 seasons with such costs less than 18 cents.
Fertilizer cost was 18 cents in 1947-48, t-hich was a decrease of two cents from
the previous season: and 1948-L9 showed a fertilizer cost of 12 cents, a de-
crease of 6 cents under the previous year. Such cost for 1951-52 ranged from
8 to 105 cents per box and averaged 17 cents. Sixty percent of the groves had
a fertilizer cost of less than 20 cents per box and 78 percent less than 25 cents.
See Table 15.

Table 15. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY
SPENT PER BOX FOR FERTILIZER MATERIALS, 1951-52 SEASON
Number Cumulative
Cents per box Groves Percent Percent
5 to 9 9 4.6 .6
10 to 14 47 24.1 28.7
15 to 19 61 31.3 60.0
20 to 24 35 18.0 78.0
25 to 29 14 7.2 85.2
30 to 34 11 5.6 90.8
35 to 39 8 4.1 94.9
ho to 59 7 3.6 98.5
60 & above 3 1.5 100.0

8 to 105 195 100.0 100.0

Nitrogen is an important element in fertilizers added in citrus production.
The distribution of the groves in the 1951-52 season according to the amount of
nitrogen in fertilizers applied per box of fruit harvested is shown in Table'16,
page 20. The range was from 0.17 to 5.42 pounds of nitrogen applied per box,and
the average was 0.46 pounds. There were 57 percent of the groves that had less
than 0.50 pounds applied per box, and 85 percent had less than 0.80 pounds. There
were 29 percent of the groves that received 0.60 pounds or more. The usual recom-
mendation as to the amount of nitrogen to apply is 0.40 pounds per box of fruit
anticipated. There were 50 percent of these groves that received amounts of
nitrogen within the range of 0.30 to 0.50. An additional 7 percent received less
than 0.40, making 57 percent that received less than 0.50 pounds of nitrogen per
box harvested. The remainder, 43 percent of the groves, received more than 0.50
pounds of nitrogen per box. More than 0.80 pounds per box were added on 15 per-
cent of these groves. Nitrogen added per box of fruit harvested for the 11 sea-
sons of 191-52 averaged 0.53 pounds.

Spray and dust material costs averaged $7.32 per acre for the 21 seasons and
constituted 7.7 percent of the operating costs. There were 13 seasons, 65 percent,
with spray and dust material costs of less than 08.00. The range of the seasonal
averages was from $2.99 in 1935-36 to $18.34 in 1951-52. The range in such costs
per box was from two to five cents, and the average was three cents. Sixteen sea-
sons, or 80 percent, had such costs of three cents per box or less.

Spray and dust materials cost $18.34 per acre, or five cents per box, in
1951-52. This cost per acre varied from nothing to $65.30 (Table 17, page 20).
There were 10 groves that received no spray or dust. Sixty-four percent of the


Page 19


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns












groves had such costs of less than $20 per acre, and 33 percent had such costs
ranging from $4.00 to $11.99. These costs averaged $17.62 per acre in 1952-53.

Table 16. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT
OF NITROGEN APPLIED PER BOX OF FRUIT HARVESTED, 1951-52 SEASON


Lbs. N per box
.10 to .19
.20 to .29
.30 to .39
.4o to .49
.50 to .59
.60 to .69
.70 to .79
.80 to .89
.90 to ..99
1.00 & over

.17 to 5.42


Number
Groves
1
13
48
49
27
16
11
9
3
18

195


Percent
0.5
6.7
24.6
25.1
13.9
8.2
5.7
4.6
1.5
9.2

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
7.2
31.8
56.9
70,8
79.0
84.7
89.3
90.8
100.0

100.0


Table 17. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING TO MONEY SPENT
FOR SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS PER ACRE, 1951-52 SEASON


Cost per acre
No spray or dust
$ 0.01 to $ 1.99
2.00 to 3.99
4.00 to 5.99
6.00 to 7.99
8.00 to 9.99
10.00 to 11.99
12.00 to 13.99
14.00 to 15.99
16.00 to 17.99
18.00 to 19.99
20.00 to 21.99
22.00 to 23.99
24.00 to 25.99
26.00 to 27.99
28.00 to 29.99
30.00 to 39.99
40.00 to 49.99
50.00 oo 59.99
60.00 to ,69.99

0.00 to 65.30


Number
Groves
10
1
4
9
16
10
30
15
7
14
9
10
7
6
2
2
17
16
6
4

195


Percent
5.1
0.5
2.1
4.6
8.2
5.1
15.4
7.7
3.6
7.2
4.6
5.1
3.6
3.1
1.0
1.0
8.7
8.2
3.1
2.1

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
5.1
5.6
7.7
12.3
20.5
25.6
41.0
48.7
52.3
59.5
64.1
69.2
72.8
75.9
76.9
77.9
86.6
94.8
97.9
100.0

100.0


State and county taxes averaged $6.28 per acre for the 21-year period, or
three cents per box. The range in such costs per season was from $4.07 per acre


Page 20


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns










in 1942-43 to $11.76 in 1931-32. The seasonal average was less than $6.00 in
14 seasons, or 67 percent of the seasons. The second highest season was 1951-52
at $10.11 per acre. Such costs for the 1952-53 season were $10.92.

l.iscellaneous costs averaged five percent of operating costs for the 21-year
period, or $4.29 per acre. This amounted to two cents per box. Variations in
seasonal averages were from $0.53 per acre in 1934-35 to $11.85 in 1948-49. The
average for 1951-52 was $7.12. Such costs for 1952-53 were $4.78 per acre.
Miscellaneous costs include such items as overhead, trees for replacement, city
taxes, drainage district assessments, and fuel for grove heating.

Returns from fruit averaged $236.h0 per acre for the entire period, or $1.06
per box. Seasonal averages per acre varied from $50.10 in 1932-33 to $544.94 in
1945-46. The per-box averages varied from 38 cents in 1932-33 to $2.02 in 1944-45.
Returns from fruit amounted to $136.1 per acre in 1947-L8, the lowest since
1940-41. However, there were eight of the 21 seasons with lower returns per acre.
The price received for fruit in 1947-48 was 43 cents per box, the third lowest of
these seasons. There were 13 seasons in which the per-acre returns were less
than the average for the period and in these same 13 seasons the per-box returns
were less than the average. Fruit returns were $391.03 per acre in 1948-49, an
increase of 187 percent over the previous season. Another increase of 26 percent
in 1949-50 brought fruit returns to $l93.02 per acre, which was the fourth highest
of the 21 seasons. Likewise the returns per box showed an increase and was 43
cents in 1947-48, $1.1 in 1948-49, and $1.96 in 1949-50. The latter price is
4.6 times that for 1947-48. The price dropped to $l.1 in 1950-$1 and 67 cents
in 1951-52.

Yield and price determine the per-acre returns from fruit. High yields and
high fruit prices resulted in pyramided returns per acre during the eight seasons
of 1942-46 and 1948-52, so much so, that the average of the 21 seasons was above
any of the other 13 seasons, Average returns per acre for these eight seasons
were 4.4 times the average for the first 10 years of these records.

There were two of the 21 seasons when operating costs were higher than the
returns from fruit. The operating cost figure for 1951-52 was larger than the
returns from fruit for any one of 11 seasons, 1931-41 and 1947-48. Twelve sea-
sons, 57 percent, had less than $200 in returns from fruit. The remaining nine
seasons, 43 percent, were chiefly during the war period. There were seven sea-
sons, 35 percent, when returns from fruit were less than 60 cents per box, and 14
seasons, 67 percent, when less than $1.10 per box.

There were 15 groves in 1951-52, eight percent, that had returns from fruit
less than $100 per acre, and 68 groves, 35 percent with returns from fruit less
than $200 per acre. See Table 18, page 22. Forty-eight percent of the groves
had from $200 to $399 returns from fruit per acre. The range was from $1.32 to
$885.59 per acre, and the average was $238.83.

The average on-tree price received in 1951-52 was 67 cents per box, the
eighth lowest of the 21 seasons. The range in price was from 16 cents to $1.63
per box (Table 19, page 22). One out of three of the groves had an average
fruit price of less than 60 cents and four out of five received less than $1.00
per box. The price received varied with a number of factors including kind and


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 21













Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns Page 22


variety of fruit, whether processed or sold fresh, managerial salesmanship,
internal and external fruit quality, fruit size, total volume produced, and grovi
location with reference to market outlets.

Table 18. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORPIING TO
RETURNS FROM FRUIT PER ACRE, 1951-52 SEASON


Returns per-acre
$ 1 to $ 99
100 to 199
200 to 299
300 to 399
o00 to 499
500 to 599
600 to 699
700 to 799
800 to 899

1.32 to 885.59


Number
Groves
15-
53
56
37
16
4
6
5
3

195


Percent
7.7
27.2
28.7
19.0
8.2
2.0
3.1
2.6
1.5

100.0


Table 19. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES
TO PRICE RECEIVED FOR FRUIT, 1951-52


Price per box
Under $ .20
$ .20 to .39
.4o to .59
.60 to .79
.80 to .99
1.00 to 1.19
1.20 to 1.39
1.40 to 1.59
1.60 to 1.79

.16 to 1.63


Number
Groves
3
12
48
58
39
19
8
7
1

195


Percent
1.5
6.2
24.6
29.8
20.0
9.7
4.1
3.6
0.5

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
7.7
34.9
63.6
82.6
90.8
92.8
95.9
98.5
100.0

100.0


ACCORDING
SEASON

Cumulative
Percent
1.5
7.7
32.3
62.1
82.1
91.8
95.9
99.5
100.0

100.0


Returns above operating costs dropped from $407.33 per acre in 1945-46 to
$56.09 the following season, a drop of 86 percent. Yet there tere eight of the
21 seasons of these records that averaged lower returns above operating costs
than in 1946-47. There were seven seasons, 19h2-46 and 1943-51, with income
above nPerating costs exceeding the average for all seasons.. These same seven
seasons and one additional, 19rl-42, had income above operating costs per box
higher than the 63-cent average. There were two seasons, 1932-33 and 1947-l8,
when operating costs exceeded returns from fruit. The returns above operating
costs per acre ranged from -$21.97 in 1947-48 to $425.07 in 19h3-44, and averaged
$141.78. There were 13 seasons, 62 percent, when returns above operating costs
were less than $100 per acre, and 10 seasons, 48 percent, when they were less
than 40 cents per box.


I I I I I I I I II I


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 22











There was considerable difference between the average returns above'operat-
ing costs per acre for the first 10 seasons, $40.07, and for the remaining 11
seasons, $234.25. The latter figure is 5.8 times the former. Average returns
above operating costs per box for the latter period were 319 percent of the
former period (86 and 27 cents, respectively). There was one season in each
period with negative returns above operating costs.

Returns above operating costs were the lowest in 1947-48 of the 21 seasons,
when the returns from fruit lacked $21.97 of paying operating costs. On a per-
box basis the loss was seven cents. During this season there were 141 gorves,
65 percent, on which the fruit did not return operating costs. However, the
following season, 1948-49, only five groves, 2.5 percent, failed to return operat-
ing costs. In 1951-52, 59 groves, 30 percent, failed to return operating costs
(Table 20). Fifty-six percent of these groves returned less than $100 per acre
above operating costs and 88 percent less than $300.


Table 20. -- DISTRIBUTION OF
RETURIrS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS


Net returns
-4400 to -$301
- 300 to 201
- 200 to 101
- 100 to 1
0 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 299
300 to 399
400 to 499
500 to 599
600 to 699
700 to 799

- 368.93 to 729.74


Number
Groves
1
2
14
42
51
43
19
9
5
5
1
3

195


195 GROVES ACCORDING TO
PER ACRE, 1951-52 SEASON


Percent
0.5
1.0
7.2
21.5
26.2
22.1
9.7
4.6
2.6
2.6
0.5
1.5

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
0.5
1.5
8.7
30.2
56.4
78.5
88.2
92.8
95.4
98.0
98.5
100.0

100.0


In the 1951-52 season 82
per box above operating costs
The variation was from a loss
17 cents per box..


percent of these groves returned less than 50 cents
and 96 percent less than $1.00 (Table 21, page 24).
of $1.54 per box to a net of $1.18 and averaged


At the rate of returns above operating costs in 1946-47, 65 acres of grove
would be necessary to return $3,600 to the owner for interest on the grove invest-
ment, interest on borrowed money, his own supervision, and profit, if any. How-
ever, at the 1918-49 rate of returns above operating costs, only 15 acres would
be required for a return of $3,600; in 1949-50, 10 acres; in 1950-51, 15 acres;
and in 1951-52, 59 acres. There were eight of these 21 seasons when returns
above operating costs were lower than in 1916-47 and 14 when they were lower than
1948-49. The averagesfor these two groups were $18.21 and $57.71 per acre,
respectively. At $18.21 per acre returns above operating costs, 198 acres would
be necessary to net $3,600 while 63 acres would be necessary at the rate of $57.71
per acre, and 26 acres at the 21-year average of $141.78.


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns


Page 23







Twny-n Yer fCtuossadRtrs_ Pae 1


Table 21. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING TO
RETURNS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PER BOX, 1951-52 SEASON


Net per box
Less than -.i25
-$ .25 to .01
0 to .24
.25 to .49
.50 to .74
.75 to .99
1.00 to 1.214

- 1.54 to 1.18


Number
Groves
28
31
42
59
18
9
8

195


Percent
14.7
15.9
21.5
30.3
9.2
4.6
4.1

100.0


Cumulative
Percent

30.3
51.8
82.1
91.3
95.9
100.0

100.0


Interest on grove valuation has been figured at six percent since the
inception of this project. Each cooperator was asked for his estimate of the
valuation of each grove when considered as a long-time fruit-growing enter-
prise. The results were that conservative figures were given and there has
been a reluctance on the part of the cooperator to change his valuation even
after a substantial change in fruit prices and grove sale prices. Interest
on grove valuation by seasons varied from $28.87 per acre in 1940-41 to $61.45
in 1951-52. The average was $36.57 for the 21 seasons. Interest per box
varied from 10 c6nts in 1943-44 to 40 cents in 1933-34, and averaged 16 cents.
Interest in 1951-52 was $61.45 per acre, the highest of the 22 seasons.

Interest in 1951-52 averaged 17 cents per box (Table 7, page 12). The
distribution of groves according to interest per acre is shown in Table 22.
One out of ten groves had interest charged at less than $54 per acre and seven
out of ten groves at less than $66.

Table 22. -- DISTRIBUTION OF 195 GROVES ACCORDING
TO INTEREST ON GROVE VALUATION, 1951-52 SEASON


Interest per acre
Less than$ 42
$42 to 47
48 to 53
54 to 59
60 to 65
66 to 71
72 to 77
78 to 83
84 and over

S 0.00 to 123.08


Lumber
Groves
2
4
14
11
108
13
26
8
9

195


Percent
1.0
2,1
7.2
5.6
55.4
6.7
13.3
4.1
4.6

100.0


Cumulative
Percent
1.0
3.1
10.3
15.9
71.3
78.0
91.3
95.4
100.0

100.0


Total cost without owner supervision is made up of five items included as
operating costs plus the item of interest on estimated grove valuation. This
item of interest added 39 percent to the operating costs on the average. Another
way of stating the same thing is that on the average the total cost without. owner


Page 24


- --


F


Twenty-One Years of Citrus Costs and Returns




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