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 Introduction
 Brief description of the regio...
 Characteristics of the farm
 Linear programming analysis of...
 Conclusion
 Annexes
 Bibliography






Title: Economic analysis of small farm systems in lower Casamance, Senegal
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071954/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic analysis of small farm systems in lower Casamance, Senegal
Physical Description: 31 leaves : ill., maps ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gueye Lo, Mamadou
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Senegal   ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Economic aspects -- Senegal   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Senegal
 Notes
Summary: Casamance region.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 31).
Statement of Responsibility: by Mamadou Lo.
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071954
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74670841

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Brief description of the region
        Page 1
        Geography
            Page 1
        Climate and hydrology
            Page 2
        Soil
            Page 2
        Demography
            Page 3
        Agriculture and livestock
            Page 3
        Production systems
            Page 3
    Characteristics of the farm
        Page 4
        Localization of the farm
            Page 4
        Characteristics of the farm
            Page 5
            Schematic modeling of the farm
                Page 5
            Gender analysis
                Page 6
                Page 7
                Page 8
    Linear programming analysis of the farm
        Page 9
        Resources and minimum survival constraints
            Page 9
        Production-reproduction, consumption and marketing activities
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Maximization of the family income
            Page 11
        Influence of gender on the farm
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Maximization of the female income
            Page 13
        Maximization of the male income
            Page 14
        Proposition of an alternative technology
            Page 14
            Page 15
    Conclusion
        Page 16
    Annexes
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Bibliography
        Page 31
Full Text
/0,3(3


ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL FARM SYSTEMS IN LOWER
CASAMANCE SENEGAL

















BY MAMADOU LO



















INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND RESOURCES ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA GAINESVILLE FLORIDA











ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL FARM SYSTEMS IN LOWER
CASAMANCE SENEGAL


----++----



TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE

I INTRODUCTION -------------------------------------- 1

II BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION ------------------- 1
2-1 Geography ------------------------------------ 1
2-2 Climate and hydrology ------------------------ 2
2-3 Soil ---------------------------------------- 2
2-4 Demography ----------------------------------- 3
2-5 Agriculture and livestock -------------------- 3
2-6 Production systems -------------------------- 3

III CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FARM ----------------------- 4
3-1 Localization of the farm --------------------- 4
3-2 Characteristics of the farm ------------------ 5
3.2.1 Schematic modeling of the farm ---------- 5
3.2.2 Gender analysis ------------------------- 6

IV LINEAR PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE FARM ----------- 9
4-1 Resources and minimum survival constraints---- 9
4-2 Production-reproduction, consumption and marke-
ting activities ------------------------------ 9
4-3 Maximization of the family income ------------ 11
4-4 Influence of gender on the farm -------------- 11
4-5 Maximization of the female income ------------ 13
4-6 Maximization of the male income -------------- 14
4-7 Proposition of an alternative technology ----- 14

V CONCLUSIONS ---------------------------------------- 16

VI- ANNEXES ---------------------------------------- 17

VII BIBLIOGRAPHY -------------------------------------- 31













I INTRODUCTION


The West african country of Senegal is primarily an

agricultural country. In 1980, agriculture accounted for 28 percent

of the GNP and provided employment for 80 percent of the

economically active population.

In recent years, cereal production in Senegal has not been

sufficient to meet consumption needs and most of the production was

generated by the smallholders which represent about 60-70 percent

of the farmer population.

The overriding concerns of small scale farms to sustain the home

and the family rather than to produce for growth and profit in one

hand and the important role they play actually in the economic

development of the country have received ample attention of the

Research and Extension.

And it has been recognized and accepted by the government and the

other actors of the development that changes in the production

systems of these farms, based on the utilization of new or modified

technology, is an important strategy and a challenge for the

agricultural, economic and social development of the country.



II BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION


2-1-Geography













I INTRODUCTION


The West african country of Senegal is primarily an

agricultural country. In 1980, agriculture accounted for 28 percent

of the GNP and provided employment for 80 percent of the

economically active population.

In recent years, cereal production in Senegal has not been

sufficient to meet consumption needs and most of the production was

generated by the smallholders which represent about 60-70 percent

of the farmer population.

The overriding concerns of small scale farms to sustain the home

and the family rather than to produce for growth and profit in one

hand and the important role they play actually in the economic

development of the country have received ample attention of the

Research and Extension.

And it has been recognized and accepted by the government and the

other actors of the development that changes in the production

systems of these farms, based on the utilization of new or modified

technology, is an important strategy and a challenge for the

agricultural, economic and social development of the country.



II BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION


2-1-Geography













I INTRODUCTION


The West african country of Senegal is primarily an

agricultural country. In 1980, agriculture accounted for 28 percent

of the GNP and provided employment for 80 percent of the

economically active population.

In recent years, cereal production in Senegal has not been

sufficient to meet consumption needs and most of the production was

generated by the smallholders which represent about 60-70 percent

of the farmer population.

The overriding concerns of small scale farms to sustain the home

and the family rather than to produce for growth and profit in one

hand and the important role they play actually in the economic

development of the country have received ample attention of the

Research and Extension.

And it has been recognized and accepted by the government and the

other actors of the development that changes in the production

systems of these farms, based on the utilization of new or modified

technology, is an important strategy and a challenge for the

agricultural, economic and social development of the country.



II BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION


2-1-Geography









The studied farm is located in the Southern region of

Senegal, called : Lower Casamance. This region covers an area of

7200 km2 (Map 1) It comprises 3 districts or departments

Ziguichor, Oussouye and Bignona.



2-2-Climate and hydrology



The climate is subguinean and is characterized by two

seasons : a dry season from November to May and a rainy season from

June to October. Annual average of rainfall is 800mm -1100mm. Salt

water from the Atlantic Ocean frequently flows as far as 220 km

from the mouth of the Casamance River because of the low relief of

the region.



2-3-Soil



The nature of the soils depends on their position in the

topographical sequence. Two types of soil predominate : 1) the

upland soils (ferralitic and ferruginous soils) are argillaceous

sandstone1. They are beige or ocre color and are the domains of

upland crops groundnutss, millet/sorghum, upland rice and maize)

2) the lowland soils with a high level of clay (heavy soils).

These soils have a low permeability and are the domain of rice

production (nappe rice and aquatic rice )2



2-4-Demography









The studied farm is located in the Southern region of

Senegal, called : Lower Casamance. This region covers an area of

7200 km2 (Map 1) It comprises 3 districts or departments

Ziguichor, Oussouye and Bignona.



2-2-Climate and hydrology



The climate is subguinean and is characterized by two

seasons : a dry season from November to May and a rainy season from

June to October. Annual average of rainfall is 800mm -1100mm. Salt

water from the Atlantic Ocean frequently flows as far as 220 km

from the mouth of the Casamance River because of the low relief of

the region.



2-3-Soil



The nature of the soils depends on their position in the

topographical sequence. Two types of soil predominate : 1) the

upland soils (ferralitic and ferruginous soils) are argillaceous

sandstone1. They are beige or ocre color and are the domains of

upland crops groundnutss, millet/sorghum, upland rice and maize)

2) the lowland soils with a high level of clay (heavy soils).

These soils have a low permeability and are the domain of rice

production (nappe rice and aquatic rice )2



2-4-Demography









The rural population of the region is estimated at

261,000 with a high migration during the dry season3. The two main

ethnic groups are : the Diola, who constitute 85 percent of the

population and the Mandingues with 5 percent.



2-5-Agriculture and livestock



The region is essentially an agricultural region and

plays an important role in the economic development of the country.

Groundnuts, rice, millet/sorghum and maize are the main crops.

Different types of livestock are also found in the region, such as

N'dama cattle and guinean species of sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys,

and horses4.



2-6-Production systems in Lower Casamance



The region was divided into five zones or agricultural

situations5 following three criteria (Map 1)

1) The sexual division of labor

2) Importance of uplands compared to lowlands

3) Existence and use of animal traction.

The zones are :

a)Zone 1 : It is characterized by a social organization of labor

type "diola" with no animal traction. Transplanted rice is

dominant.

b)Zone 2 : The social organization of labor is "diola" with









The rural population of the region is estimated at

261,000 with a high migration during the dry season3. The two main

ethnic groups are : the Diola, who constitute 85 percent of the

population and the Mandingues with 5 percent.



2-5-Agriculture and livestock



The region is essentially an agricultural region and

plays an important role in the economic development of the country.

Groundnuts, rice, millet/sorghum and maize are the main crops.

Different types of livestock are also found in the region, such as

N'dama cattle and guinean species of sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys,

and horses4.



2-6-Production systems in Lower Casamance



The region was divided into five zones or agricultural

situations5 following three criteria (Map 1)

1) The sexual division of labor

2) Importance of uplands compared to lowlands

3) Existence and use of animal traction.

The zones are :

a)Zone 1 : It is characterized by a social organization of labor

type "diola" with no animal traction. Transplanted rice is

dominant.

b)Zone 2 : The social organization of labor is "diola" with









The rural population of the region is estimated at

261,000 with a high migration during the dry season3. The two main

ethnic groups are : the Diola, who constitute 85 percent of the

population and the Mandingues with 5 percent.



2-5-Agriculture and livestock



The region is essentially an agricultural region and

plays an important role in the economic development of the country.

Groundnuts, rice, millet/sorghum and maize are the main crops.

Different types of livestock are also found in the region, such as

N'dama cattle and guinean species of sheep, goats, pigs, donkeys,

and horses4.



2-6-Production systems in Lower Casamance



The region was divided into five zones or agricultural

situations5 following three criteria (Map 1)

1) The sexual division of labor

2) Importance of uplands compared to lowlands

3) Existence and use of animal traction.

The zones are :

a)Zone 1 : It is characterized by a social organization of labor

type "diola" with no animal traction. Transplanted rice is

dominant.

b)Zone 2 : The social organization of labor is "diola" with









animal traction. Upland crops are dominant with a direct seeding of

rice.

c)Zone 3 : The social organization of labor is "mandingue

dominant" with diola and other ethnics. The use of animal traction

is limited and direct seeding of rice is used. It is a cosmopolite

zone.

d)Zone 4 :The social organization of labor is "mandingue" with

the expanding of animal traction and expanding upland cropping

peanuts, maize and sorghum/millet).

e)Zone 5 : The organization of labor is "diola" with a

widespread animal traction and transplanted rice remains important.



III- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FARM



3-1-Localization of the farm



The studied farm is located in the village of Boukitingo

(Map 2), 45 km from the regional capital Ziguinchor, in zone 1,

which is characterized by a social organization of labor type

"traditional diola" with a dominance of transplanted rice but

without animal traction.

In this zone men and women work together in the lowland and the

upland. The heavy work is in the hands of the men and the nurseries

for rice, transplantation, weeding and harvesting are in the hands

of the women. Off-farm activities (fishing, fruit picking,

collecting palm wine/oil, and basket-making are important sources









animal traction. Upland crops are dominant with a direct seeding of

rice.

c)Zone 3 : The social organization of labor is "mandingue

dominant" with diola and other ethnics. The use of animal traction

is limited and direct seeding of rice is used. It is a cosmopolite

zone.

d)Zone 4 :The social organization of labor is "mandingue" with

the expanding of animal traction and expanding upland cropping

peanuts, maize and sorghum/millet).

e)Zone 5 : The organization of labor is "diola" with a

widespread animal traction and transplanted rice remains important.



III- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FARM



3-1-Localization of the farm



The studied farm is located in the village of Boukitingo

(Map 2), 45 km from the regional capital Ziguinchor, in zone 1,

which is characterized by a social organization of labor type

"traditional diola" with a dominance of transplanted rice but

without animal traction.

In this zone men and women work together in the lowland and the

upland. The heavy work is in the hands of the men and the nurseries

for rice, transplantation, weeding and harvesting are in the hands

of the women. Off-farm activities (fishing, fruit picking,

collecting palm wine/oil, and basket-making are important sources









of revenue in this area. The village has also 60 hectares of

community land.

The village is composed of 20 exploitations with a habitat type

"independent". The average size of exploitations in this area is 2-

2.5 hectares.



3-2-Characteristics of the farm



3-2-1-Schematic modeling of the farm



The farm (Annexe 1) has a total of 2 ha of land (1.25 ha for

rice and 0.75 ha for upland crops) and three hectares in the

community land (for fruit picking, palm wine, fuel wood, ect). In

the rice fields, only one hectare is used because of the salinity.

The family is composed of 3 people : 2 males (one adult and one

child) and one woman. The main activities of the farm are crop

production (rice, Groundnut) and off-farm activities such as

collecting palm wine/oil and fruit picking.

Groundnuts, collecting palm wine and fruit picking are the main

source of revenue for the farm. The farm has four pigs and poultry.

The family is the main source of labor for all activities in the

farm.

Rice production, which is never sold according to the tradition,

constitutes the staple food for the household and during the

ceremonies and rituals.

Animals (pigs) are essentially used for the ceremonies and









of revenue in this area. The village has also 60 hectares of

community land.

The village is composed of 20 exploitations with a habitat type

"independent". The average size of exploitations in this area is 2-

2.5 hectares.



3-2-Characteristics of the farm



3-2-1-Schematic modeling of the farm



The farm (Annexe 1) has a total of 2 ha of land (1.25 ha for

rice and 0.75 ha for upland crops) and three hectares in the

community land (for fruit picking, palm wine, fuel wood, ect). In

the rice fields, only one hectare is used because of the salinity.

The family is composed of 3 people : 2 males (one adult and one

child) and one woman. The main activities of the farm are crop

production (rice, Groundnut) and off-farm activities such as

collecting palm wine/oil and fruit picking.

Groundnuts, collecting palm wine and fruit picking are the main

source of revenue for the farm. The farm has four pigs and poultry.

The family is the main source of labor for all activities in the

farm.

Rice production, which is never sold according to the tradition,

constitutes the staple food for the household and during the

ceremonies and rituals.

Animals (pigs) are essentially used for the ceremonies and









rituals and constitute with the crop residues, the main sources of

manure for rice fields.

Fuel, drugs and complementary food (rice) are bought generally

in the market.

3-2-2-Gender analysis



In the traditional diola system, men and women work together and

both can have the same activities.

Gender analysis includes the men and women activities, access to

different resources/benefits and control of these resources.

a)The family activities : The main activities (Annexe 2) in the

farm include crop production (rice and groundnuts), management of

the livestock (pigs, poultry), household production such as

cooking, collecting fuelwood, fishing and off-farm activities.

Men and women are involved into these different activities.

b)Family resources : (Annexe 3). They include land, labor,

capital goods, inputs, credit, market/transportation ...ect. Both

men and women have access to and control of the resources.

Hiring labor is done sometimes during the harvesting. Cash

comes mainly from the sale of peanuts, palm wine and fruit picking.

The family does not have access to the purchased inputs

(fertilizers, seeds) because of the lack of credit.

Only local varieties are used for growing crops : variety called

"bourkouss" (90-100 days) for groundnuts and short and long cycle

varieties (100-120 days) of rice such as Etouhal, Ehog, Mpak

Senicoly and Diamisse.









c)Benefits and incentives analysis : The benefits of the farm

come essentially from the sale of groundnuts palm wine and fruit

picking (Annexe 4). Both man and women have access to the benefits

and incentives. Rice production, poultry, fruit picking and some

household production are managed by the woman and men control the

benefits of groundnuts and palm wine.

Sale of groundnuts brings to the family an amount of cash of

30,000 francs CFA ($60) per year. For palm wine the revenues are

more important and turn around 60,000 francs CFA ($120). From fruit

picking the amount of cash is estimated to 10,000 francs CFA

($60)6. The average yield for groundnuts is 500 kg/ha and 927 kg/ha

for rice production.

d)Seasonal calendar : (Annexe 5)

1) For crop production the activities begin in May and end in

October-September depending of the dates of seeding.

For groundnuts the cleaning period starts on May until the first

rain (June). It is done by men and takes 40 person-days/ha. The

plowing/seeding periods (30 person-days/ha) are short compared to

the weeding period which is more elastic. Plowing is done by man

and seeding is done by woman.

Weeding of groundnuts is done generally one time at the end of

August-beginning of September and takes around 20 person-days/ha.

Harvesting done also by man and woman take 30 person-days/ha.

For rice production (transplanted rice), the activities begin

with the nurseries in July after the seeding of upland crops

groundnutss). Preparation of the nurseries which include clearing,









plowing/seeding takes 3 person-days/ha of the family labor and is

done by the woman. Land preparation for rice fields (done by man)

begins in mid-August (traditional date) when the rice fields are

moist and easy to plow. It is a slow and arduous task and takes 41

person-day/ha6 (based on an 8 hour-days) with the traditional tool

called "cayendo". This sum includes two plowings. Transplanting

period can last a month and more depending on the configuration of

the rainfall pattern. Transporting and transplanting of seedling

take an average of 50 person-days/ha of woman's labor. Weeding,

when it is done takes about 2 person-/ha. Bird scaring starts with

the beginning of the maturity when birds are attracted to the first

grain crops ready for harvest. This activity is generally done by

women or the children. The range in time spent for bird scaring is

around 20 person-days/ha.

Harvesting is a very slow and difficult work due to the

traditional method used (knives). And the great difficulty in

measuring harvest time is that the work is staggered as different

fields mature at different times and because labor is not always

available when needed. This activity done only by woman takes 42

person-days/ha.

2) The domestic activities such as collecting fuelwood,

carrying water, cooking, fishing are conducted all year.

3) Off-farm activities include collecting palm oil and palm

wine and fruit picking. These activities begin in September after

the installation of crops and become intensive from November to

April during the dry season. Collecting palm nuts and palm wine









take around 150 person-days/year and fruit picking/preparation of

palm oil around 48 person-days.





IV LINEAR PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE FARM



4-1 Resources and minimum survival constraints



The main activities of the farm involve crop production

groundnutss, rice) and non-agricultural activities such as

collecting palm wine and fruit picking during the dry season.

For resources, the farm possesses two hectares of family land for

crop production and three hectares of community land for fruit

picking, collecting palm wine, fuelwood, ect. The labor for all

activities of the farm comes from the family.

The main constraints are essentially, constraints of seeds during

the rainfall season. And the farm satisfies its needs of seeds each

year from the previous harvests. The farm doesn't use any

fertilizers or improved varieties.



4-2 Production, consumption and marketing activities



Among the crop productions, rice remains the most important

crop for the farm. It constitutes the staple food of the family and

is never sale (according to the tradition). For 1 hectare, rice

production takes about 158 person-days of the family labor. The









take around 150 person-days/year and fruit picking/preparation of

palm oil around 48 person-days.





IV LINEAR PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE FARM



4-1 Resources and minimum survival constraints



The main activities of the farm involve crop production

groundnutss, rice) and non-agricultural activities such as

collecting palm wine and fruit picking during the dry season.

For resources, the farm possesses two hectares of family land for

crop production and three hectares of community land for fruit

picking, collecting palm wine, fuelwood, ect. The labor for all

activities of the farm comes from the family.

The main constraints are essentially, constraints of seeds during

the rainfall season. And the farm satisfies its needs of seeds each

year from the previous harvests. The farm doesn't use any

fertilizers or improved varieties.



4-2 Production, consumption and marketing activities



Among the crop productions, rice remains the most important

crop for the farm. It constitutes the staple food of the family and

is never sale (according to the tradition). For 1 hectare, rice

production takes about 158 person-days of the family labor. The









take around 150 person-days/year and fruit picking/preparation of

palm oil around 48 person-days.





IV LINEAR PROGRAMMING ANALYSIS OF THE FARM



4-1 Resources and minimum survival constraints



The main activities of the farm involve crop production

groundnutss, rice) and non-agricultural activities such as

collecting palm wine and fruit picking during the dry season.

For resources, the farm possesses two hectares of family land for

crop production and three hectares of community land for fruit

picking, collecting palm wine, fuelwood, ect. The labor for all

activities of the farm comes from the family.

The main constraints are essentially, constraints of seeds during

the rainfall season. And the farm satisfies its needs of seeds each

year from the previous harvests. The farm doesn't use any

fertilizers or improved varieties.



4-2 Production, consumption and marketing activities



Among the crop productions, rice remains the most important

crop for the farm. It constitutes the staple food of the family and

is never sale (according to the tradition). For 1 hectare, rice

production takes about 158 person-days of the family labor. The









second crop produced in the farm is peanut which is allowed to sale

and constitutes an important source of revenue for the farm. It

takes 120 person-days/ha of the family labor and can bring to the

family 30,000 francs CFA each year.

The two other activities of the farm are collecting palm wine and

fruit picking. All these two activities are mainly done during the

dry season. They take a total of 196 person-days of the family

labor and brings also every year 70,000 francs CFA to the family

(60,000 francs from palm wine and 10,000 francs from fruit

picking). The results of analysis (Annexe 6) shows that each year,

the sale of peanut, palm wine and fruit picking gives to the family

a revenue of 158,273 francs CFA, which satisfies widely the needs

of the family (to purchase extra food, drugs or other needs).

The solution in Annexe 1 shows that 0.88 ha of rice and 2.64 ha of

palm wine are produced using 0.88 ha of thge family land and 2.64

ha of the community land and all the labor. The answer report shows

also that groundnuts would have to be increase in 18,648 francs CFA

before a different value would result. For palm wine, a decrease of

23,000 francs CFA will change the results of this activity.

For the resources (land, labor and seeds), 1.11 ha of the land

family and 0.36 ha of the community land were not used.

For labor, one additional day of labor would add 405.40 francs CFA

to income. A decrease of 390 days would change the activity mix.

For rice consumption, all the production is used and one

additional unit would add 69 kg to the consumption and a decrease

of 417 kg would change the activity mix.









For seed rice, only 13.25 kg were used and change will appear if

the quantity of seed is decreased in 6.74 kg.





4-3 Maximization of the family income



By maximizing the family income, the sales of peanuts, palm

wine and fruit picking bring to the family a total income of

107,116 francs CFA. The family can produce 552.25 kg of peanuts in

1.25 ha; 923 litres of palm wine in 1.31 ha; 819 kg in 0.88 ha and

exploit 0.14 of fruit picking (Annexe 7).

The results of the answer report annexee 7) shows that the

production of peanuts can be increase infinitely but change will

appear in this activity if the income is decreased by 30,000 francs

CFA. For palm wine, change will appear if the income is decreased

to 60,080 francs.

For the resources, land family is binding and a decrease by 1.10

ha will bring change in the use of land. For the community land, it

can be increased infinitely but change will appear if we decrease

it in 1.55 ha.

Labor wet is not binding, but labor dry is binding and an

additional day of labor dry will add 405.94 francs CFA to income.

Labor dry can be increased by 430 (200+230), but a decrease by 182

will change the results.



4-4 Influence of tender on the farm









For seed rice, only 13.25 kg were used and change will appear if

the quantity of seed is decreased in 6.74 kg.





4-3 Maximization of the family income



By maximizing the family income, the sales of peanuts, palm

wine and fruit picking bring to the family a total income of

107,116 francs CFA. The family can produce 552.25 kg of peanuts in

1.25 ha; 923 litres of palm wine in 1.31 ha; 819 kg in 0.88 ha and

exploit 0.14 of fruit picking (Annexe 7).

The results of the answer report annexee 7) shows that the

production of peanuts can be increase infinitely but change will

appear in this activity if the income is decreased by 30,000 francs

CFA. For palm wine, change will appear if the income is decreased

to 60,080 francs.

For the resources, land family is binding and a decrease by 1.10

ha will bring change in the use of land. For the community land, it

can be increased infinitely but change will appear if we decrease

it in 1.55 ha.

Labor wet is not binding, but labor dry is binding and an

additional day of labor dry will add 405.94 francs CFA to income.

Labor dry can be increased by 430 (200+230), but a decrease by 182

will change the results.



4-4 Influence of tender on the farm









The particularity of this zone (zone diola) is the sexual

division of labor. Men and women in this zone work together in the

same fields of crop productions. Meanwhile the labor time remains

different for each sex during the wet season and dry season (Annexe

8). This division depends on the roles and functions that each

member of the family plays in the household.

During the dry season, each member of the family can have non-

agricultural activities (collecting palm wine for the male and

fruit picking activity for the female) but the revenues remained

common revenues.

For land family, all the surface area available is used for

production of peanuts (for sale) and rice (for the family

consumption). Land community is also used by the male and the

female for production palm wine and fruit picking.

During the wet season, male spends 85 person-days/ha in the peanut

field for cleaning, plowing, seeding, weeding and harvesting; 19

person-days for collecting palm wine; 41 person-days/ha for plowing

(2 plows) rice fields. And during the dry season he spends 131

person-days for collecting palm wine.

The production of peanuts (seeding, weeding and harvesting) takes

35 person-days/ha of the female labor. The female spends also 115

person-days/ha in rice production (nursery, transplanting and

harvesting/transportation) during the wet season and 48 person-days

in fruit picking during the dry season (Annexe 8).

Gender analysis of the farm shows that 1.12 ha of peanuts and 0.88

ha of rice are produced during the wet season using almost the









labor time of the male and female. And during the dry season, all

labor for both male and female are used for collecting palm wine

and fruit picking. These activities bring to the family an income

of 126,077 francs CFA.

The results of the answer report shows that for resources, male

labor during the dry season is binding and an additional day of

labor would add 458 francs to the family income. But if more than

59 extra days were available, male labor dry would no longer be

limiting and a decrease by 130 days will change.

The female labor dry is also binding and an additional day of

female would add 625 francs to the family. If more than 32.7 extra

days were available, female labor dry would no longer be limiting

and a decrease by 53 days will bring change in female labor.



4-5 Maximization of the female income



By maximizing the female income, the results in Annexe 9 shows

that the family produces only 0.01 ha of peanuts and 0.88 ha of

rice (for consumption), and can exploit 1.25 ha for fruit picking

and sale 666 kg of fruit which brings 33,300 francs CFA of female

income. Fruit picking activity uses all the female labor during the

dry season. The answer report shows that an additional day of

female labor during the dry season will add 625 francs to the

female income. If more than 80 extra days were available, female

labor dry would no longer be limiting and a decrease by 53 days of

female labor dry (60-53) will bring change.











4-6 Maximization of the male income


The results of analysis in Annexe 10 shows that by maximizing

the male income, the family can produce 552.25 kg of peanut for

sale (in 1.25 ha), 819 kg of rice in 0.88 ha for the family

consumption and collect 745 litres of palm wine for sale. The

marketing activities (peanuts and palm wine) bring 92,777 francs

CFA for the male using all the male labor during the dry season and

94% of male wet labor.

The results of the answer report (Annexe 10) that land family is

binding (used for peanut and rice production). Male labor dry is

also binding and an additional day of male dry labor will add 458

francs to the male income. If more than 59 days were available,

male dry labor would no longer be limiting (140+59 = 199 days). A

decrease by 130 days of male dry labor will bring change in labor.



4-7 Proposition of an alternative technology



From the linear programming analysis of the farm, we have seen

that the farm has limited resources (land and labor) but earns

important revenues from the non-agricultural activities such as

collecting palm wine and fruit picking.

Extension of crop productions is limited due to the lack of land

and labor constitutes also a constraint to increase the production

of palm wine or fruit picking during the dry season.











4-6 Maximization of the male income


The results of analysis in Annexe 10 shows that by maximizing

the male income, the family can produce 552.25 kg of peanut for

sale (in 1.25 ha), 819 kg of rice in 0.88 ha for the family

consumption and collect 745 litres of palm wine for sale. The

marketing activities (peanuts and palm wine) bring 92,777 francs

CFA for the male using all the male labor during the dry season and

94% of male wet labor.

The results of the answer report (Annexe 10) that land family is

binding (used for peanut and rice production). Male labor dry is

also binding and an additional day of male dry labor will add 458

francs to the male income. If more than 59 days were available,

male dry labor would no longer be limiting (140+59 = 199 days). A

decrease by 130 days of male dry labor will bring change in labor.



4-7 Proposition of an alternative technology



From the linear programming analysis of the farm, we have seen

that the farm has limited resources (land and labor) but earns

important revenues from the non-agricultural activities such as

collecting palm wine and fruit picking.

Extension of crop productions is limited due to the lack of land

and labor constitutes also a constraint to increase the production

of palm wine or fruit picking during the dry season.









As an alternative solution, basket making activity during the dry

season can be a good alternative for the farm because of the

facilities to collect the row material and the price offered in the

market (250-300 francs CFA). The introduction of basket making can

ameliorate sensitively the family income. Meanwhile this activity

requires labor for collecting the row material and making baskets.

This means that the farm needs a little amount of cash to start

this activity for hiring labor.

The acceptability of the improved technology by the farm depends

essentially on the availability of cash which can be easily found

from the sales of peanuts, palm wine and fruit picking.

If the farm starts the dry season with 20,000 francs CFA and the

female has 16,000 francs at her disposer, she can hire labor for

basket making paying 150 francs/one person-day.

The results in Annexe 11 shows that with 16,000 francs CFA, the

female can hire 107 person-days for basket making and produce with

this labor 389 baskets for sale (300 francs CFA/basket). This

amount of basket sold bring to the family 116,700 francs, a net

cash of 100,700 francs CFA which increases the total annual income

of the farm (226,744 francs CFA).

The analysis of the answer report (Annexe 11) shows that an

additional franc of female cash would add 5.6 francs to the family

income. This amount of cash can be increased infinitely but a

decrease by 16,000 francs or less will bring change to the

activity. Basket making activity increases sensitively the family

income (226,744 francs CFA) and constitutes a good alternative for









the farm.


V CONCLUSIONS



The main activities of the farm are crop production (rice for

consumption and groundnuts for sale) and non-agricultural

activities such as collecting palm wine and fruit picking.

The main source of labor for the farm comes from the family and is

not sufficient for extended activities.

The limits in land for the family make impossible long fallows and

extension in the upland. The lack of credit and low access to

inputs (fertilizers, seeds..ect) and some other social

considerations influence negatively the family activities.

Linear programming analysis of the farm activities shows that the

main incomes of the farm come from the sales of peanuts, palm wine

and fruit picking. From these marketing activities, the farm earns

each year a total revenue of 126,077 francs CFA.

The introduction of basket making as an alternative solution can

increase sensitively the farm revenue (100,700 francs CFA) without

any changes in the other activities. The main constraint for this

activity is the needs of cash for hiring labor which is easily

found from the sales of palm wine, peanuts and fruit picking.
































ANNEXES






Legend


I: Social organize of labor Diola: no animal
traction; transplanted rice dominant

II: Social organize. of labor Diola no animal
traction: upland crops impt, direct seeding of rice

m: Social organize. of labor Mandinka
dominant with Diolas & others; limited animal
traction; direct seeding of rice

IV: Social organize. of labor Mandinka:
expanding use of animals, expanding upland
cropping

V: Social organize. of labor Diol:a widespread
animal traction: transplanted rice remains impt.


Map


MAP OF SENEGAL AND FARMING SYSTEMS ZONES IN LOWER CASAMANCE


_



















4D ti


I


-Z~ eOU


V;lHct o( BLulAgo
C2egucJwrir. SfHEGA.)


~iap ~Z ",














ANNEXE 1 : SCHEMATIC MODELING OF THE FARM


- plowing
-transportation
-nurseries
-col.palm wine
-col.palm oil













ANNEXE 2 : ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS



MALE FEMALE

CROP PRODUCTION

1-GROUNDNUTS
-preparation M
-plowing M
-seeding M F
-weeding M F
-harvest/transp/storage M F

2-RICE
-nurseries F
-cleaning F
-plowing M
-seeding F
-Weeding F
-bird scaring F
-harvest/transp/storage F

LIVESTOCK ACTIVITIES

-feeding pigs/poultry M F

HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTION

-cooking M F
-collect of fuelwood F
-fishing M F
-palm oil preparation F

OFF-FARM ACTIVITIES

-collecting palm wine M
-collecting palm nuts M
-fruit picking F

M=male ; F=female











ANNEXE 3 : RESOURCES ANALYSIS


ACCESS CONTROL NOTES IMPLICAT.forFSR/E

LAND
who use M-F M-F trad.syst limited land,short
fallows. Exten.lim
how use M-F M-F trad.syst

WATER
who use M-F M-F trad.syst good management
of water in low
land
how to use M-F M-F


LABOR
family M-F M-F work to good management
gether no compet.low
land/upland crop
limited labor
hiring M-F M-F if cash allows to resol
availab ve lack of labo

CAPITAL GOODS M-F M-F come from Off-farm activ.

off-farm are the main
sources revenue
(diversification

INPUTS
seeds M-F M-F local seed no access to new
varieties
fertilizers F F manure used for rice


CREDITS high cond low access to
editions innovations

EDUCATION M-F M-F extension

MARKETS/TRANS M-F M-F information(in
formal network


M=male ; F=female











ANNEXE 4 : BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS


ACCESS CONTROL USES IMPLICAT.FSR/E

CROP PRODUCTION
-rice M-F M a-b-d-f Trad.system ma-
nagement resource
Limit for extens.
-groundnuts M-F M e Source of cash

LIVESTOCK
-poultry M-F F a-b Manure is used for
lowland crops
-pigs M-F M-F a-g

HOUSEHOLD PROD
-oil palm M-F F a-b nuts are used for
manure, to feed
pigs(rainseason)
-fishing M-F F a Ameliorate health
-fuelwood M-F F c
-build.mat. M M a nurseries of rice
-car.water M-F F a

OFF-FARM
-col.palm wine M M a-b-f Important source
-col.palm nuts M F a-b of revenue
-fruit picking F F a-e



M=male ; F=female ; a=comsumption ; b=storage for consumption
exchange or sale ; c=fuel-building ; d=exchange ; e=sale ; b=manure
; g=ceremonies-rituals










ANNEXE 5 :SEASONAL CALENDAR OF THE FARM


RAINFALL PATTERN <-------DRY SEASON --------><---WET SEASON--- >

Nov Dec Jan Fev Mar Apr Mayl J JnJul Aug Sep Oct

ACTIVITIES

GROUNDNUTS
-cleaning M--->
-plow/seeding MF--->
-weeding MF-->
-harvesting MF-->

LOWLAND RICE
-nurseries F--->
-plowing M-->
-transplant. F-->
-harvesting F-->

DOMESTIC ACTIV.
-col.fuelwood F-------------------------->
-car.water MF-------------------------------------------->
-feed livestok MF----------------->
-cooking MF-------------------------------------------->
-h.care.rep. MF------------------------->
-fishing MF-------------------------------------------->

OFF-FARM
-col.palm wine M-------------------------> M-->
-col.palm nuts M-------------------------> M-->
-prep.palm oil F------------------------->
-fruit picking F------------------------->


M=male ; F=female









ANNEXE 6 : Basic matrix and production activities


UNIT INCOME (CFA)


GROUNDNUTS RICETRANS. RICE Product PALM WINE FRUIT PICK RHS RES.USE


30000


0 60000


10000


LAND family (ha)
LAND community (ha)
LABOR (pers-days/ha)
SEED PEANUTS (KG)
RICE CONS.
RICE ACCTG
SEED RICE (KG)

OBJECTIVES INCOMES vs VARIABLES
158273.42


GROUNDNUTS
RICE TRANS.
RICE Product
PALM WINE
FRUIT PICK


0
0
0
0
-1
1
0


819.00




Answer Report
Solution Cell
LIN1:A16

Variable Cells
LIN1:B16..B16
LIN1:C16..C16
LIN1:D16..D16
LIN1:E16..E16
LIN1:F16..F16


1
0
158
0
0
-927
15


0.88


0
1
148
0
0
0
0


2.64


2
3
530
60
-819
0
20


0.883495
2.63789
530
0
-819
-4.8E-14
13.25243


LAND family
Land community
LABOR
SEED PEANUTS (KG)
RICE CONS.
RICE ACCTG
SEED RICE (KG)


Starting Final
158273.419050118 158273.4191


Starting
0
819
0.883495145631068
2.63789031750197
0


Final
0
819
0.883495146
2.637890318
0


Gradient Increment
30000 18648.65
0 69.09822
0 64054.05
60000 Infinite
10000 9459.459


Decrement
Infinite
Infinite
Infinite
23000
Infinite


Cell
LAND family (ha) LIN1:17..17
LAND community (ha) LIN1:18..18
LABOR (pers-days/ha) LIN1:19..19
SEED PEANUTS (KG) LIN1:I10..I10
RICE CONS. LIN1:I11..I11
RICE ACCTG LIN1:112..112
SEED RICE (KG) LIN1:I13..I13
LIN1:B16..B16
LIN1:C16..C16
LIN1:D16..D16
LIN1:E16..E16
LIN1:F16..F16


Value Constraint
0.883495145631068 <=2
2.63789031750197 <=3
530 <=530
0 <=60
-819 <=-819
-4.7961634664E-14 <=0
13.252427184466 <=20
0 >=0
819 >=0
0.883495145631068 >=0
2.63789031750197 >=0
0 >=0


Binding?
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes


Slack
1.116505
0.36211
0
60
0
0
6.747573
0
819
0.883495
2.63789
0


Dual Valu
0
0
405.4054
0
69.09822
69.09822
0
-18648.6
0
0
0
-9459.46


Right Val
2
3
530
60
-819
0
20
0
0
0
0
0


Increment Decremen
Infinite 1.116505
Infinite 0.36211
53.5922330097501 390.4078
Infinite 60
314.430379744988 417
314.430379744988 417
Infinite 6.747573
1.11650485437401 0.446602
819 Infinite
0.883495145631068 Infinite
2.63789031750197 Infinite
0.535922330112417 Infinite










ANNEXE 7: Maximization of the family income


Peanut product Peanut transf. Peanut sale Rice product Rice transf P. wine prod P. wine transit P. wine sale F. pick. prod F. pick.trans F. pick. sale RHS Res.use


Unit income (CFA)

Land family
Land community
Labor wet
Labor dry
Seed pean.
Peanut Acctg
Peanut cons.
Rice cons.
Rice acctg
Seed rice
Palm wine acctg
Palm wine cons.
Fruit p. acctg
Fruit pick. cons.
family income

Objectives incomes VS variables
107116.38


0 0 80


0 50


2 Land
1 Land community
274 Labor wet
200 Labor dry
50 Seed pean.
-0 Peanut Acctg
-6 Peanut cons.
-819 Rice cons.
-0 Rice acctg
13 Seed rice
0 Palm wine acctg
-56 Palm wine cons
0 Fruit p. acctg
-84 Fruit pick. cons.
-107116 family Income


6.00 552.25


0.88 819.00 1.31 56.00 923.46 0.14 84.00 0.00


Answer Report
Solution Cell Starting Final
LINEAR2:A26 107116.3781 107116.3781


Variable Cells
LINEAR2:B26..B26
LINEAR2:C26..C26
LINEAR2:D26..D26
LINEAR2:E26..E26
LINEAR2:F26..F26
LINEAR2:G26..G26
LINEAR2:H26..H26
LINEAR2:126..126
LINEAR2:J26..J26
LINEAR2:K26..K26
LINEAR2:L26..L26


Starting Final
1.116504854 1.116504854
6 6.00
552.2524272 552.25
0.883495146 0.88
819 819
1.305945946 1.305945946
56 56
923.4594595 923.46
0.14 0.14
84 84
0 0


Gradient
0
0
60
0
0
79.99999995
0
80
0
0
0


Increment
Infinite
60
Infinite
30000
32.36245955
Infinite
80
Infinite
19485.40541
32.47567568
0


Cell Value Constraint
LINEAR2:09..09 2 <=2
LINEAR2:010..010 1.445945946 <=3
LINEAR2:O11..011 273.5728155 <=330
LINEAR2:012..012 200 <=200
LINEAR2:013..013 50.24271845 <=60
LINEAR2:014..014 -1.0658E-13 <=0
LINEAR2:015..015 -6 <=-6
LINEAR2:016..016 -819 <=-819
LINEAR2:017..017 -4.7962E-14 <=0
LINEAR2:018..018 13.25242718 <=20
LINEAR2:019..019 1.4744E-13 <=0
LINEAR2:020..020 -56 <=-56
LINEAR2:021..021 8.6597E-15 <=0
LINEAR2:022..022 -84 <=-84
LINEAR2:023..023 -107116.378 <=0
LINEAR2:B26..B26 1.116504854 >=0
LINEAR2:C26..C26 6 >=0
LINEAR2:D26..D26 552.2524272 >=0
LINEAR2:E26..E26 0.883495146 >=0
LINEAR2:F26..F26 819 >=0
LINEAR2:G26..G26 1.305945946 >=0
LINEAR2:H26..H26 56 >=0
LINEAR2:126..126 923.4594595 >=0
LINEAR2:J26..J26 0.14 >=0
LINEAR2:K26..K26 84 >=0
LINEAR2:L26..L26 0 >=0


Binding?
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes


Slack Dual Value Right Value Increment Decrement
0 30000 2 0.216828479 1.104505
1.554054054 0 3 Infinite 1.554054
56.42718447 0 330 Infinite 56.42718
0 405.9459459 200 230 182.2293
9.757281553 0 60 Infinite 9.757282
0 60 0 Infinite 552.2524
0 60 -6 6 552.2524
0 32.36245955 -819 201 417
0 32.36245955 0 201 417
6.747572816 0 20 Infinite 6.747573
0 80 0 Infinite 923.4595
0 80 -56 56 923.4595
0 32.47567568 0 84 1380
0 32.47567568 -84 84 1380
107116.3781 0 0 Infinite 107116.4
1.116504854 0 0 1.116504854 Infinite
6 0 0 6 Infinite
552.2524272 0 0 552.2524272 Infinite
0.883495146 0 0 0.883495146 Infinite
819 0 0 819 Infinite
1.305945946 0 0 1.305945946 Infinite
56 0 0 56 Infinite
923.4594595 0 0 923.4594595 Infinite
0.14 0 0 0.14 Infinite
84 0 0 84 Infinite
0 0 0 Infinite Infinite


Peanut product
Peanut transf.
Peanut sale
Rice product
Rice transf
P. wine prod
P. wine transf
P. wine sale
F. pick. prod
F. picktrans
F. pick. sale


Decrement
30000
Infinite
60
Infinite
Infinite
60080
Infinite
80
Infinite
Infinite
Infinite


Peanut product
Land community
Labor wet
Labor dry
Seed pean.
PeanutAcctg
Peanut cons.
Rice cons.
Rice acctg
Seed rice
Palm wine acctg
Palm wine cons.
Fruit p. acctg
Fruit pick. cons.
family income










ANNEXE 8: Gender analysis


Peanut product Peanut transit. Peanut sale Rice transf. Rice prod. P.wine prod. P.winetranst P.wine sale F. pick.prod. F.pick.tan F.pick.sale RHS Res.use

Unit income (CFA 0 0 60 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 50

Landfamily 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 2 21
Land community 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 < 3 21
Male labor wet 85 0 0 0 41 19 0 0 0 0 0 < 160 151
Male labor dry 0 0 0 0 0 131 0 0 0 0 0 <= 140 140
Female labor wet 35 0 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 170 141
Female labor dry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 <= 60 60
Seed pean. 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 60 50
Peanut Acctg -500 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 0 -0
Peanut cons. 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < -6 -6
Ricecons. 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -819 -819
Rice acctg 0 0 0 1 -927 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -0
Seed rice 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 20 13
Palm wine acctg 0 0 0 0 0 -750 1 1 0 0 0 <= 0 -0
Palm wine cons. 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 <= -56 -56
Fruitp. acctg 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -600 1 1 < 0 -0
Frt pick. cons. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 < -84 -84
family income 0 0 -60 0 0 0 0 -80 0 0 -50 < 0 -126077


Land
Land community
Male labor wet
Male labor dry
Female labor wet
Female labor dry
Seed pean.
Peanut Acctg
Peanut cons.
Rice cons.
Rice acctg
Seed rice
Palm wine acctg
Palm wine cons.
Fruit p. acctg
Frut pick. cons.
family income


6.00 552.25 819.00 0.88 1.07 56.00 745.53 1.25 84.00 666.00


Answer Report
Solution Cel Starling Final
Near 3A27 126077283 126077.283

Variable Cels Starling Final
Peanut product near 3:B27..B27 1.116504854 1.116504854
Peanut transf. Near 3:C27..C27 6 6
Peanut sale lnear3:D27..D27 552.2524272 552.2524272
Ricetransf. Near 3:E27..E27 819 819
Rice prod. Near 3:F27..F27 0.883495146 0.883495146
P.wne prod. near 3:G27..G27 1.06870229 1.06870229
P. wine transf near 3:H27..H27 56 56
P.wine sale near 3:127..127 745.5267176 745.5267176
F. pick.prod. near 3:J27..J27 1.25 1.25
F.plck.transf Inear 3:K27..K27 84 84
F.plck.sale Inear 3:L27..L27 666 666


Cel Value Constraint
Land family Inear 3:08.08 2 <=2
Landcommunity lnear3:09..09 2.31870229 <=3
Male labor wet Inear3:010..010 151.4315571 <=160
Male labordry Inear 3:011..011 140 <=140
Female labor wet near 3:012..012 140.6796117 <=170
Female labor dry near 3:013..013 60 <=60
Seedpean. Inear3:014..014 50.24271845 <=60
PeanutAcctg inear3:015..015 -1.06581E-13 <=0
Peanut cons. Near 3:016..016 -6 <=-6
Rice cons. near 3:017..017 -819 <=-819
Rice acctg inear3:018..018 -1.50879E-13 <=0
Seedrice lnear3:019..019 13.25242718 <=20
Palm wine acctg linear3:020..020 -1.03029E-13 <=0
Palmwinecons. lnear3:021..021 -56 <-56
Fruit p. acctg linear 3:022..022 -2.84217E-14 <=0
Fruit pick. cons. linear 3:023.023 -84 <=84
family income inear3:024..024 -126077283 <=0
Inear3:B27..B27 1.116504854 >=0
near 3:C27..C27 6 >=0
near 3:D27..D27 552.2524272 >=0
near 3:E27..E27 819 >=0
near 3:F27..F27 0.883495146 >=0
near 3:G27..G27 1.06870229 >=0
Near 3:H27..H27 56 >=0
near 3:127..127 745.5267176 >=0
lnear3:J27.J27 1.25 >=0
near 3:K27..K27 84 >=0
near 3:L27..L27 666 >=0


Gradient Increment Decrement
0 Infinite 30000
0 60 Infinite
60 Infinite 60
0 32.36245955 Infinite
0 30000 Infinite
0 Infinite 60000.0000001
0 80 Infinite
80 Infinite 80
0 Infinite 30000
0 50 Infinite
50 Infinite 50


Binding? Slack Dual Value Right Value Increment Decrement
Yes 0 30000.0000001 2 0.10080521 1.10450485
No 0.68129771 0 3 Infinite 0.68129771
No 8.568442896 0 160 Infinite 8.5684429
Yes 0 458.015267176 140 59.0771589 130.218667
No 29.32038835 0 170 infinite 29.3203883
Yes 0 625 60 32.7022901 53.28
No 9.757281553 0 60 Infinite 9.75728155
Yes 0 60.0000000001 0 Infinite 552.252427
Yes 0 60.0000000001 -6 6 552.252427
Yes 0 32.362459547 -819 180.521513 339.75
Yes 0 32.362459547 0 180.521513 339.75
No 6.747572816 0 20 Infinite 6.74757282
Yes 0 80.0000000001 0 Infinite 745.526718
Yes 0 80.0000000001 -56 56 745.526718
Yes 0 50 0 Infinite 666
Yes 0 50 -84 84 666
No 126077.283 0 0 Infinite 126077.283
No 1.116504854 0 0 1.11650485 Infinite
No 6 0 0 6 Infinite
No 552.2524272 0 0 552.252427 Infinite
No 819 0 0 819 Infinite
No 0.883495146 0 0 0.88349515 Infinite
No 1.06870229 0 0 1.06870229 Infinite
No 56 0 0 56 Infinite
No 745.5267176 0 0 745.526718 Infinite
No 1.25 0 0 1.25 Infinite
No 84 0 0 84 Infinite
No 666 0 0 666 Infinite


Objectives Incomes VS variables
126077.28 1.12










ANNEXE 9: Madimization of the female income


Peanut product Peanut ransf. Peanut sa Rice trans Rice prod. P.wine prod. P.winetransf P. wine sale F. pick.prod. F.pick.ransf F.pick.sale RHS Res.use

Unit income (CFA) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50

Land family 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 2 1 Land
Land community 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 <= 3 1 Land community
Male laborwet 85 0 0 0 41 19 0 0 0 0 0 < 160 39 Male laborwet
Male labordry 0 0 0 0 0 131 0 0 0 0 0 <= 140 10 Male labor dry
Female labor wet 35 0 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 0 <170 102 Female labor wet
Female labor dry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 <= 60 60 Female labor dry
Seed pean. 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0<= 60 1 Seed pean.
PeanutAcctg -500 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -0 PeanutAcctg
Peanutcons. O -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -6 -6 Peanut cons.
Rice cons. 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -819 -819 Rice cons.
Rice acctg 0 0 0 1 -927 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -0 Rice acctg
Seed rice 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 20 13 Seed rice
Palm wine acctg 0 0 0 0 0 -750 1 1 0 0 0 <= 0 0 Palm wine acctg
Palm wine cons. 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 = -56 -56 Panm wine cons.
Frit p. acctg 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -600 1 1 <= 0 -0 Fnit p. acctg
Fnit pick cons. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 < -84 -84 Fruit pick. cons.
family income 0 0 -60 0 0 0 0 -80 0 0 -50 <= 0 -33300 family income

Objectives incomes VS variables
33300 0.01 6.00 0.00 819.00 0.88 0.07 56.00 0.00 1.25 84.00 666.00




Answer Report
Solution Cel Starting Final
In4:A27 33300 33300

Variable Cels Starting Final Gradient Increment Decrement
Peanut product In4:B27..B27 1.018921 0.012 0 0.00 infinite
Peanut transf. n4:C27..C27 509.4604 6 0 0.00 Infinite
Peanut sale in4:D27..D27 0 0 0 0.00 Infinite
Rice transf. ln4:E27..E27 909.4604 819 0 0 Infinite
Rice prod. ln4:F27..F27 0.981079 0.883495 0 0 Infinite
P.wine prod. ln4:G27..G27 0.866153 0.074667 0 0 Infinite
P. wine transf ln4:H27..H27 649.6146 56 0 0.00 infinite
P. wine sale kn4:127..127 0 0 0 1.42109E-14 Infinite
F. pick.prod. In4:J27..J27 1.25 1.25 0 Infiite 30000
F.pick.transf in4:K27..K27 84 84 0 50 Infinite
F.pick.sale ln4:L27..L27 666 666 50 Infinite 50


Cel Value Constraint Binding? Slack Dual Value RightValue Increment Decrement
Land family In4:08..08 0.895495 <=2 No 1.104504854 0 2 Infinite 1.10450485
Land community ln4:O9..09 1.324667 <=3 No 1.675333333 0 3 Infinite 1.67533333
Malelaborwet ln4O010..010 38.66197 <=160 No 121.3380324 0 160 Infinite 121.338032
Male labor dry ln4:011..011 9.781333 <=140 No 130.2186667 0 140 Infinite 130.218667
Female labor wet In4:012..012 102.0219 <=170 No 67.97805825 0 170 Infinite 67.9780583
Female labordry ln4:013..013 60 <=60 Yes 0 625 60 80.416 53.28
Seed pean. ln4:014..014 0.54 <=60 No 59.46 0 60 Infinite 59.46
PeanutAcctg n4:015..015 -2.6E-11 <=0 Yes 0 0 0 6 552.252427
Peanutcons. In4:016..016 -6 <=-6 Yes 0 0 -6 6 552.252427
Rice cons. 1n4:017..017 -819 <=-819 Yes 0 0 -819 819 417
Rice acctg in4:018..018 -2.8E-11 <=0 Yes 0.00 0 0 819 417
Seedrice In4:019..019 13.25243 <=20 No 6.747572816 0 20 Infinite 6.74757282
Palm wine acctg In4:020..020 -7.7E-10 <=0 Yes 0 0 0 56 745.526718
Palm wine cons. In4:021..021 -56 <=-56 Yes 0 0 -56 56 745.526718
Fruit p. acctg ln4:022..022 -2.BE-14 <=0 Yes 0 50 0 Infinite 666
Fruit pick cons. In4:023..023 -84 <=-84 Yes 0 50 -84 84 666
family Income in4:O24..024 -33300 <=0 No 33300 0 0 Infinite 33300
ln4:B27..B27 0.012 >=0 No 0.012 0 0 0.012 Infinite
In4:C27..C27 6 >=0 No 6 0 0 6 Infinite
ln4:D27..D27 0 >0= Yes 0 -1.42109E-14 0 552.252427 6
In4:E27..E27 819 >=0 No 819 0 0 819 Infinite
ln4:F27..F27 0.883495 >=0 No 0.883495146 0 0 0.88349515 Infinite
ln4:G27..G27 0.074667 >=0 No 0.0747 0 0 0.07466667 Infinite
In4:H27. H27 56 >=0 No 56.0000 0 0 56 Infinite
n4:127..127 0 >=0 Yes 0 -1.42109E-14 0 745.526718 56
ln4:J27..J27 1.25 >=0 No 1.25 0 0 1.25 Infinite
in4:K27..K27 84 >=0 No 84 0 0 84 Infinite
ln4:L27..L27 666 >=0 No 666 0 0 666 Infinite










ANNEXE 10: Maximization of the male Income


Peanutproduct Peanut ransf. Peanut sale Ricetransf. Rice prod. P.wineprod. P.winelranst P. wine sale F. pick.prod. F.pick.transf F.pick.sale RHS Res.use

Unit income (CFA 0 0 60 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 0

Land family 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 2 2 Land family
Land community 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 < 3 1 Land community
Malelaborwet 85 0 0 0 41 19 0 0 0 0 0 <= 160 151 Male laborwet
Malelabordry 0 0 0 0 0 131 0 0 0 0 0 < 1140 40 Malelabor dry
Female laborwet 35 0 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 170 141 Female labor wet
Female labor dry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 <= 60 7 Female labor dry
Seed pean. 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 60 50 Seedpean.
Peanut Acctg -500 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0< 0 -0 PeanutAcctg
Peanut cons. -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < -6 -6 Peanutcons.
Rice cons. O 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -819 -819 Rice cons.
Rice acctg 0 0 0 1 -927 0 0 0 0 0 0 < 0 Rice accg
Seedrice 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 20 13 Seed rice
Palmwineacctg 0 0 0 0 0 -750 1 1 0 0 0 0 -0 Palm ineacctg
Palmwinecons. 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0< -56 -56 Pam winecons.
Fruitp. acctg 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -600 1 1 < 0 -0 Fruitp.acctg
Frut pick. cons. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 <= -84 -84 Fnit pick cons.
family income 0 0 -60 0 0 0 0 -80 0 -50 <= 0 -92777 familyincome

Objectives Incomes VS variables
92777.28 1.12 6.00 552.25 819.00 0.88 1.07 56.00 745.53 0.14 84.00 0.00




Answer Report
Solution Cel Starting Final
In5A27 92777.283 92777.283

Variable Cel Starting Final Gradient Increment Decrement
Peanut product ln5:B27..B2 1.1165049 1.11650485 0 Infinite 30000
Peanut transf. In5:C27..C2 6 6 0 60 Infinite
Peanut sale In5:D27..D2 55225243 552.252427 60 Infinite 60
Rice tansf. 1n5:E27..E2 819 819 0 32.36245955 Infinite
Rice prod. ln5:F27..F27 0.8834951 0.88349515 0 30000 Infinite
P.wine prod. ln5:G27..G2 1.0687023 1.06870229 0 Infinite 60000
P. wine transf In5:H27..H2 56 56 0 80 Infinite
P.wine sale ln5:127..127 745.52672 745.526718 80 Infinite 80
F. pick.prod. ln5:J27..J27 1.082691 0.14 0 0 Infinite
F.pick.transf ln5:K27..K2 649.61458 84 0 0 Infinite
F.pick.sale In5:L27..L27 0 0 0 0 Infinite


Cel Value Constraint Binding? Slack DualValue RightValue Increment Decrement
Landfamily ln5:08..08 2 <=2 Yes 0 30000 2 0.10080521 1.104505
Land community In5:09..09 1.2087023 <=3 No 1.79129771 0 3 Infinite 1.791298
Male labor wet In5:010..01 151.43156 <=160 No 8.568442896 0 160 Infinite 8.568443
Male labor dry ln5:011..O1 140 <=140 Yes 0 458.015267 140 59.0771589 130.2187
Femalelaborwet In5:012..01 140.67961 <=170 No 29.32038835 0 170 Infinite 29.32039
Female labor dry ln5:013..01 6.72 <=60 No 53.28 0 60 Infinite 53.28
Seedpean. In5:014..01 50.242718 <=60 No 9.757281553 0 60 Infinite 9.757282
PeanutAcctg ln5:015..01 -1.01E-13 <=0 Yes 0 60 0 Infinite 552.2524
Peanutcons. ln5:016..O1 -6 <-6 Yes 0 60 -6 6 5522524
Rice cons. In5:017..01 -819 <=-819 Yes 0 32.3624595 -819 180.521513 339.75
Rice acctg In5:018..O1 5.496E-14 <=0 Yes 0 32.3624595 0 180.521513 339.75
Seedrice in5:019..01 13.252427 <=20 No 6.747572816 0 20 Infinite 6.747573
Palm wine acctg in5:020..02 -1.64E-13 <=0 Yes 0 80 0 Infinite 745.5267
Palnwinecons. n5:021..02 -56 <-56 Yes 0 80 -56 56 745.5267
Fruitp. acctg in5:022..02 -8.82E-10 <=0 Yes 0 0 0 84 666
Fruitpick cons. In5:023..02 -84 <---84 Yes 0 0 -84 84 666
family income ln5:024..02 -92777.283 <=0 No 92777.28304 0 0 Infinite 92777.28
ln5:B27..B2 1.1165049 >=0 No 1.116504854 0 0 1.11650485 Infinite
ln5:C27..C2 6 >=0 No 6 0 0 6 Infinite
in5:D27..D2 552.25243 >=0 No 552.2524272 0 0 552.252427 Infinite
ln5:E27..E2 819 >=0 No 819 0 0 819 Infinite
ln5:F27..F27 0.8834951 >=0 No 0.883495146 0 0 0.88349515 Infinite
ln5:G27..G2 1.0687023 >=0 No 1.06870229 0 0 1.06870229 Infinite
In5:H27..H2 56 >=0 No 56 0 0 56 Infinite
In5:127..127 745.52672 >=0 No 745.5267176 0 0 745.526718 Infinite
1n5:J27..J27 0.14 >=0 No 0.14 0 0 0.14 Infinite
in5:K27..K2 84 >=0 No 84 0 0 84 Infinite
in5:L27..L27 0 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 666 84










ANNEXE 11 : Proposition of alternative solution (basket making)


Peanut product Peanut tansf. Peanut sale Rice transf. Rice prod. P.wine prod. P. wine transf P. wine sale F. pick.prod. F.pick.transf F.pick.sale re labor bask making Bask.Transf Bask.sale RHS Res.use


Unit income (CFA

Land family
Land community
Male labor wet
Male labor dry
Female labor wet
Female labor dry
Seed pean.
Peanut Acct -
Peanut cons.
Rice cons.
Rice acctg
Seed rice
Palm wine acctg
Palm wine cons.
Fruit p. acctg
Fruit pick. cons.
Basket acctg
Basket labor
Female cash
family income

Objectives incomes VS variables
228744


0 0 60 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
65 0 0 0 41 19
0 0 0 0 0 131
35 0 0 0 115 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
45 0 0 0 0 0
00 1 1 0 0 0
0 -1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 1 -927 0
0 0 0 0 15 0
0 0 0 0 0 -750
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 -60 0 0 0


1.12 6 552.25 819


0.88 1.07


0 80 0

0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 48
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
-1 0 0
0 0 -600
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -80 0


56 745.53 1.25


0 50 -150 0 0 300

0 0 0 0 0 0 < 2 2 Landfamly
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 Land community
0 0 0 0 0 0< 160 151 Malelaborwet
0 0 0 0 0 0 140 140 Male labor dry
0 0 0 0 0 0 170 141 Female laborwet
0 0 0 0 0 0 60 60 Female labor dry
0 0 0 0 0 0 < 60 50 Seed pn.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Panut Acctg
0 0 0 0 0 0 -8 P-6 anut cons.
0 0 0 0 0 0 -81 -819 Rice cos.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0 Rice acctg
0 0 0 0 0 0 20 13 Seed rice
S0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 Palm ne acctg
0 0 0 0 0 0 -56 -5 Palmwine cons.
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fruit p. acctg
-1 0 0 0 0 0 -84 -84 Fnit pkk. cons.
0 0 0 -50 1 1 0 0 Basket acctg
0 0 -1 15 0 0 < 10 10 Basket labor
0 0 150 0 0 0 16000 18000 Female cash
0 -50 0 0 0 -300 -20000 -242744 family Income


84 666 107


0 389


Answer Report
Solution Cel Starting Final
1n6.A30 226743.9497 226743.9497

Variable Cels Starting Final Greadiet increment Decrement
Peanut product ln:B30..B30 1.116504854 1.116504654 0 Ininite 30000
Peanut transf. 6:C30..C30 6 0 60 Infinite
Peanut sale n6:D30..D30 552.2524272 552.2524272 60 Infinte 60
Rice transf. I6:E30..E30 810 819 0 32.362459547 Infinite
Rice prod. ln6:F30..F30 0.883495140 0.883495146 0 30000 Infnite
P.wlne prod. lin:G30..G30 1.06870229 1.06870229 0 Infinite 0000
P. wine transf In6;H30..H30 56 56 0 80 Infinte
P. wine sale in6;130..130 745.5267176 745.5267176 80 Infinite 80
F. pick.prod. In8:J30..J30 1.25 1.25 0 Infite 30000
F.plck.transf in:K30..K30 84 84 0 50 Iinite
F.pick.sale I:..L30..L30 66 666 50.0000000002 Infinite 50
ire labor ln6:M30..M30 106.6666667 106.608667 -150 Infinite 850
bask.making InHN30..N30 7.777777778 7.777777778 0 Infinite 12750
Bask.Transf In6:030..030 0 0 0 300 Infite
Bask.sal Mn6:P30..P30 388.8886889 388.8888889 300 Infinite 255


Cel Value Constraint Binding? Slack Dual Value Right Value Increment Decrement
Land family In6:S8..S8 2 -2 Yes 0 30000 2 0.100805211 1.10450485
Land community In6:SO..SO 2.31870229 o-3 No 0.6812977099 0 3 Infiite 0.88129771
Male laborwet n6:S10..S10 151.4315571 -180 No 8.5684428963 0 160 Ininite 8.5684429
Male labor dry n6:S11..S11 140 -<140 Yes 0 458.01526718 140 59.07715892 130.218667
Female labor wet n6:S12..S12 140.679117 <=170 No 29.32038835 0 170 Infinite 29.3203883
Female labor dry nn6:S13..S13 60 '60 Yes 0 625 60 32.70229008 53.28
Seed pan. In6:S14..S14 50.24271845 '-60 No 9.7572815534 0 60 Infiite 9.75726155
PeanutAcctg in6:S15..S15 1.7764E-15 -0 Yes 0 0 0 Infinite 552.252427
Peanut cons. In6:S1..S16 -68 -6 Yes 0 60 -6 6 552.252427
Rice cons. In0:S17..S17 -819 o-819 Yes 0 32.362459547 -819 180.5215128 339.75
Rice acctg in6:S18..S18 -1.5088E-13 <0 Yes 0 32.382459547 0 180.5215128 339.75
Seed rice l6:S19..S19 13.25242718 -<20 No 6.7475728155 0 20 Inlnite 6.74757282
Palm wine acctg In:S20..S20 6.3505E-14 -=0 Yes 0 8 0 Ininte 745.526718
Palm wine cons. ln6:S21..S21 -56 <-56 Yes 0 80 -56 56 745.526718
Fruit p. acctg ln6:S22..S22 2.8422E-14 -=0 Yes 0 50 0 Infinte 666
Fruit pick. con. ln6:S23..S23 -84 -04 Yes 0 50 -84 84 666
Basket acctg in6:S24..S24 1.7764E-14 -0 Yes 0 300 0 Ininite 388.888889
Basket labor Bn6:S25..S25 10 <-10 Yes 0 1000 10 Infinite 116.666667
Female cash in6:526..S26 16000 -<16000 Yes 0 5.88666666667 16000 Inlinite 1000
family hicome in6:S27..S27 -242743.95 n6:B30..B30 1.116504854 -0 No 1.1165048544 0 0 1.116504854 infinite
in6:C30..C30 6 >-0 No 6 0 0 Infinite
In6:D30..D30 552.2524272 >=0 No 552.25242718 0 0 552.2524272 Infinite
i60:E30..E30 819 >-0 No 819 0 0 819 Ininite
hi:F30..F30 0.883495146 >-0 No 0.8834951456 0 0 0.883495146 Infinte
in6:G30..G30 1.06870229 >-0 No 1.0687022901 0 0 1.06870229 Infinite
lin:H30..H30 56 >-0 No 56 0 0 56 nfincte
nB:130..130 745.5267176 >-0 No 745.52671756 0 0 745.5267176 Infinite
n6:J30..J30 1.25 >-0 No 1.25 0 0 1.25 Infinite
ln6:K30..K30 84 >0 No 84 0 0 84 Infinite
lin6:L30..L30 666 >-0 No 666 0 0 666 Infinite
lin6:M30..M30 106.6666667 >-0 No 106.66666667 0 0 106.6666667 Infinite
n6:N30..N30 7.777777778 >-0 No 7.7777777778 0 0 7.777777778 Infinite
n6:030..030 0 >-0 Yes 0 -300 0 388.8888889 Infinite
In6:P30..P30 388.8888889 -0 No 388.88888889 0 0 388.88889 Infinte















VI- BIBLIOGRAPHY


--------**_----



1- Bertrand, R. 1973. Contribution for 1'etude hydrologique

pedologique et agronomique des sols gris-sableux de Casamance

". Agronomie tropical 28(12)1145-1192

2- Beye, G. 1972a. Etude des sols tropicaux : acidification,

toxicite et amendment ". IRAT/Senegal.

3- Farming Systems Team/Djibelor. 1985. Demographic census

of the Lower Casamance ". ISRA/Djibelor 1985.

4- Sonko, M.L and al. 1985. Les systems d'elevage en Basse Ca

samance. ISRA/Djibelor.

5- LO, M and Al. 1984 : Zonage et Systemes de production en

Basse Casamance. Rapport d'Equipe. ISRA/Djibelor.

6- Sail, Samba and al. 1985 : Le suivi agrosocio-economique

des exploitations agricoles en Basse Casamance (1983-1985).

Rapport d'Equipe. ISRA/Djibelor.




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