• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Map - Location of representative...
 Introduction
 Overview of representative household...
 Decision making, responsibility...
 Simple linear programming model...
 Results of emperical model
 Policy implications and conclu...
 Bibliography
 Appendix I: Matrix of representative...
 Appendix II: Matrix answer...
 Appendix III: Schematic diagram...
 Appendix IV: Seasonal work calender...






Title: A model of a representative small farm in southern Trelawny, Jamaica
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071947/00001
 Material Information
Title: A model of a representative small farm in southern Trelawny, Jamaica
Physical Description: 10 leaves : map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Dalton J
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Farms, Small -- Jamaica -- Trelawny, Parish of   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica -- Cornwall -- Trelawny
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 10).
Statement of Responsibility: submitted by: Dalton L. Brown.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: "To Dr. Peter Hildebrand to fulfill requirements for AEB 5167 (Fall 1995)."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071947
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74333665

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Map - Location of representative farm
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Overview of representative household model
        Page 2
        Farm characteristics
            Page 3
        Land tenure
            Page 3
        Enterprise organisation
            Page 3
    Decision making, responsibility and control
        Page 4
    Simple linear programming model of the representative farm household system
        Page 5
        The enterprise
            Page 5
        Constraints
            Page 7
        Method of analysis
            Page 7
            Page 6
    Results of emperical model
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Policy implications and conclusion
        Page 9
    Bibliography
        Page 10
    Appendix I: Matrix of representative farm
        Page 11
    Appendix II: Matrix answer report
        Page 12
    Appendix III: Schematic diagram of farm model
        Page 13
    Appendix IV: Seasonal work calender and family participation
        Page 14
Full Text

/ 2-0 5-


A MODEL OF A REPRESENTATIVE SMALL FARM
IN SOUTHERN TRELAWNY: JAMAICA

















SUBMITTED BY: DALTON L BROWN
TO DR. PETER HILDEBRAND TO FULFILL
REQUIREMENTS FOR AEB 5167(FALL 1995)










TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


MAP LOCATION OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM



I INTRODUCTION


2

2. 1

2.2

2.3


OVERVIEW OF REPRESENTATIVE HOUSEHOLD MODEL

FARM CHARACTERISTICS

LAND TENURE

ENTERPRISE ORGANISATION


3. DECISION MAKING, RESPONSIBILITY AND CONTROL


4. SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE
REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM

4. I THE ENTERPRISE (INCLUDING TABLES)

4.2 CONSTRAINTS

4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS



5 RESULTS OF EMPERICAL MODEL


6 POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION


10 BIBLIOGRAPHY


APPENDIX I

APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 4


MATRIX OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM

MATRIX ANSWER REPORT

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF FARM MODEL

SEASONAL WORK dALENDER AND FAMILY PARTICIPATION









LOCATION OF REPRESENTATIVE FARM


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'-', .A,. LTER Y ROXCOROUGH
I-c u I "ghlandsto

c,. oT"ANN'S BAYT,


turge Ton 6 r JAMAICA H'ILTON
lalge wn I am. H all Chalky Hl


R E
1 .dH.c
i.*.^


THE COCKPIT


COUNTRY


jemhteh. fli
remen(


:A R I B


E A


105


son Vdile
Valley


'--

' AyiilrfC*.












I INTRODUCTION:


THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS PAPER IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAJOR

PRODUCTION FACTORS: LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL AS DOMINANT CONSTRAINTS IN SMALL FARM

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS OF THE SOUTHERN TRELAWNY REGION OF JAMAICA. THE SELECTION OF THIS

AREA IS BASED PRIMARILY ON THE WRITERS EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND

ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS EFFECTING THE TYPICAL SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLD OF THE REGION. IN

ADDITION, DATA IS AVAILABLE WHICH WILL ALLOW THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIMPLE EMPIRICAL MODEL

TO DEMONSTRATE THE CENTRAL OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER.

THE PAPER IS ORGANIZED INTO SIX SECTIONS. IN SECTION (2) A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE

REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL IS PROVIDED. IN SECTION (3), THE CRUCIAL ASPECTS OF

THE FARM HOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING ARE DESCRIBED. SECTION (4) DESCRIBES A SIMPLE LINEAR

PROGRAMMING MODEL DESIGNED TO CAPTURE KEY FEATURES OF THE DECISION MAKING AT THE

TYPICAL FARM HOUSEHOLD LEVEL. IN SECTION (5) THE SUBSTANTIVE RESULT OF THIS SIMPLE

EMPIRICAL MODEL IS DESCRIBED AND DISCUSSED. THE FINAL SECTION (6) FOCUSES ON SOME POLICY

IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL. IN ADDITION, SOME COMMENTS REGARDING FUTURE RESEARCH WORK

IN THIS TARGET AREA ARE PRESENTED.





2. OVERVIEW OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD IS LOCATED IN THE WAIT-A-BIT DISTRICT OF TRELAWNY.

THIS IS A MOUNTAINOUS REGION CONSIDERED THE BREAD BASKET OF JAMAICA. THIS AREA IS SERVED

BY AMENITIES SUCH AS PRIMARY SCHOOL, POLICE STATION, COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER, POST

OFFICE, VARIOUS CHURCHES AND A LIBRARY. IN ADDITION, THERE ARE AN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION












I INTRODUCTION:


THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS PAPER IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAJOR

PRODUCTION FACTORS: LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL AS DOMINANT CONSTRAINTS IN SMALL FARM

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS OF THE SOUTHERN TRELAWNY REGION OF JAMAICA. THE SELECTION OF THIS

AREA IS BASED PRIMARILY ON THE WRITERS EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND

ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS EFFECTING THE TYPICAL SMALL FARM HOUSEHOLD OF THE REGION. IN

ADDITION, DATA IS AVAILABLE WHICH WILL ALLOW THE CONSTRUCTION OF SIMPLE EMPIRICAL MODEL

TO DEMONSTRATE THE CENTRAL OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER.

THE PAPER IS ORGANIZED INTO SIX SECTIONS. IN SECTION (2) A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE

REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL IS PROVIDED. IN SECTION (3), THE CRUCIAL ASPECTS OF

THE FARM HOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING ARE DESCRIBED. SECTION (4) DESCRIBES A SIMPLE LINEAR

PROGRAMMING MODEL DESIGNED TO CAPTURE KEY FEATURES OF THE DECISION MAKING AT THE

TYPICAL FARM HOUSEHOLD LEVEL. IN SECTION (5) THE SUBSTANTIVE RESULT OF THIS SIMPLE

EMPIRICAL MODEL IS DESCRIBED AND DISCUSSED. THE FINAL SECTION (6) FOCUSES ON SOME POLICY

IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL. IN ADDITION, SOME COMMENTS REGARDING FUTURE RESEARCH WORK

IN THIS TARGET AREA ARE PRESENTED.





2. OVERVIEW OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM HOUSEHOLD IS LOCATED IN THE WAIT-A-BIT DISTRICT OF TRELAWNY.

THIS IS A MOUNTAINOUS REGION CONSIDERED THE BREAD BASKET OF JAMAICA. THIS AREA IS SERVED

BY AMENITIES SUCH AS PRIMARY SCHOOL, POLICE STATION, COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER, POST

OFFICE, VARIOUS CHURCHES AND A LIBRARY. IN ADDITION, THERE ARE AN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION










OFFICE, FARM SUPPLY AND GROCERY STORES, AGRICULTURAL PACKING HOUSE AND RUM SHOPS.

MAJOR FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES, HOSPITAL, AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ARE AVAILABLE

IN LARGER ADJACENT TOWNS.




2. I FARM CHARACTERISTICS:


THE TYPICAL SMALL FARMS IN THE TARGET AREA RANGE IN SIZE FROM 0.5 TO 2.0 ACRES.

IT MAY COMPRISE SEVERAL PARCELS, LOCATED WITHIN ONE TO TWO MILE RADIUSES FROM THE FAMILY

HOME. THERE ARE OVER I 40,000 SIMILAR UNITS LOCATED IN THE COUNTRY; THEREFORE, THEIR

IMPORTANCE CANNOT BE UNDERSTATED.

THE FARM FAMILY GENERALLY CONSISTS OF A MALE AND FEMALE ADULT PARTNERS (MARRIED

OR UNMARRIED), AND THREE TO FOUR CHILDREN. UNLIKE MANY THIRD WORLD RURAL COMMUNITIES,

THESE ARE NOT EXTENDED FAMILIES. HOWEVER, CLOSE RELATIVES GENERALLY LIVE IN THE SAME

COMMUNITIES AND MAKE GIFTS AS WELL AS EXCHANGE LABOR DURING PEAK LABOR-USE PERIODS.




2.2 LAND TENURE:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM FAMILY OWN THEIR LAND, HOWEVER, THE PRACTICE OF LAND


LEASING IS NOT UNCOMMON. THE HOMESTEAD IS USUALLY SEPARATE FROM THE FARM AND OWNERSHIP

DOCUMENTS ARE USUALLY AVAILABLE. SUCH DOCUMENTS, ARE USUALLY INDISPENSABLE FOR USE AS

COLLATERAL IN SECURING LOANS FOR WORKING CAPITAL OR OTHER FARM OR HOUSEHOLD USE.





2.3 ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION:


AN IMPORTANT PRACTICE ON THESE FARMS IS THE PLANTING OF GRASS ALONG THE PERIPHERY

OF THE FARM TO BE USED AS ANIMAL FEED AND FOR MULCHING CROPS IN THE DRY SEASON. THE

TYPICAL FARM OWNS A DONKEY, ONE COW, A FEW GOATS, PIGS AND POULTRY. THE DONKEY IS

3










OFFICE, FARM SUPPLY AND GROCERY STORES, AGRICULTURAL PACKING HOUSE AND RUM SHOPS.

MAJOR FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES, HOSPITAL, AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ARE AVAILABLE

IN LARGER ADJACENT TOWNS.




2. I FARM CHARACTERISTICS:


THE TYPICAL SMALL FARMS IN THE TARGET AREA RANGE IN SIZE FROM 0.5 TO 2.0 ACRES.

IT MAY COMPRISE SEVERAL PARCELS, LOCATED WITHIN ONE TO TWO MILE RADIUSES FROM THE FAMILY

HOME. THERE ARE OVER I 40,000 SIMILAR UNITS LOCATED IN THE COUNTRY; THEREFORE, THEIR

IMPORTANCE CANNOT BE UNDERSTATED.

THE FARM FAMILY GENERALLY CONSISTS OF A MALE AND FEMALE ADULT PARTNERS (MARRIED

OR UNMARRIED), AND THREE TO FOUR CHILDREN. UNLIKE MANY THIRD WORLD RURAL COMMUNITIES,

THESE ARE NOT EXTENDED FAMILIES. HOWEVER, CLOSE RELATIVES GENERALLY LIVE IN THE SAME

COMMUNITIES AND MAKE GIFTS AS WELL AS EXCHANGE LABOR DURING PEAK LABOR-USE PERIODS.




2.2 LAND TENURE:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM FAMILY OWN THEIR LAND, HOWEVER, THE PRACTICE OF LAND


LEASING IS NOT UNCOMMON. THE HOMESTEAD IS USUALLY SEPARATE FROM THE FARM AND OWNERSHIP

DOCUMENTS ARE USUALLY AVAILABLE. SUCH DOCUMENTS, ARE USUALLY INDISPENSABLE FOR USE AS

COLLATERAL IN SECURING LOANS FOR WORKING CAPITAL OR OTHER FARM OR HOUSEHOLD USE.





2.3 ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION:


AN IMPORTANT PRACTICE ON THESE FARMS IS THE PLANTING OF GRASS ALONG THE PERIPHERY

OF THE FARM TO BE USED AS ANIMAL FEED AND FOR MULCHING CROPS IN THE DRY SEASON. THE

TYPICAL FARM OWNS A DONKEY, ONE COW, A FEW GOATS, PIGS AND POULTRY. THE DONKEY IS

3










OFFICE, FARM SUPPLY AND GROCERY STORES, AGRICULTURAL PACKING HOUSE AND RUM SHOPS.

MAJOR FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES, HOSPITAL, AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ARE AVAILABLE

IN LARGER ADJACENT TOWNS.




2. I FARM CHARACTERISTICS:


THE TYPICAL SMALL FARMS IN THE TARGET AREA RANGE IN SIZE FROM 0.5 TO 2.0 ACRES.

IT MAY COMPRISE SEVERAL PARCELS, LOCATED WITHIN ONE TO TWO MILE RADIUSES FROM THE FAMILY

HOME. THERE ARE OVER I 40,000 SIMILAR UNITS LOCATED IN THE COUNTRY; THEREFORE, THEIR

IMPORTANCE CANNOT BE UNDERSTATED.

THE FARM FAMILY GENERALLY CONSISTS OF A MALE AND FEMALE ADULT PARTNERS (MARRIED

OR UNMARRIED), AND THREE TO FOUR CHILDREN. UNLIKE MANY THIRD WORLD RURAL COMMUNITIES,

THESE ARE NOT EXTENDED FAMILIES. HOWEVER, CLOSE RELATIVES GENERALLY LIVE IN THE SAME

COMMUNITIES AND MAKE GIFTS AS WELL AS EXCHANGE LABOR DURING PEAK LABOR-USE PERIODS.




2.2 LAND TENURE:


THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM FAMILY OWN THEIR LAND, HOWEVER, THE PRACTICE OF LAND


LEASING IS NOT UNCOMMON. THE HOMESTEAD IS USUALLY SEPARATE FROM THE FARM AND OWNERSHIP

DOCUMENTS ARE USUALLY AVAILABLE. SUCH DOCUMENTS, ARE USUALLY INDISPENSABLE FOR USE AS

COLLATERAL IN SECURING LOANS FOR WORKING CAPITAL OR OTHER FARM OR HOUSEHOLD USE.





2.3 ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION:


AN IMPORTANT PRACTICE ON THESE FARMS IS THE PLANTING OF GRASS ALONG THE PERIPHERY

OF THE FARM TO BE USED AS ANIMAL FEED AND FOR MULCHING CROPS IN THE DRY SEASON. THE

TYPICAL FARM OWNS A DONKEY, ONE COW, A FEW GOATS, PIGS AND POULTRY. THE DONKEY IS

3










CRUCIAL IN TRANSPORTING FARM INPUTS AS WELL AS OUTPUTS. ANIMALS ARE IMPORTANT IN THESE

FARMHOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS IN THAT THEY PROVIDE FARMYARD MANURE AND UTILIZE UNMARKETABLE

FARM PRODUCTS.


THE THREE MAIN CROPS GROWN IN THE AREA ARE: YAM (DIOSCOREA CAYENNENSIS, D.


ROTUNDATA) WHICH IS GROWN SEMI-INTENSIVELY ON MOUNDS AT A RATE OF ABOUT I 000 MOUNDS


PER ACRE; RED PEAS (PHAESEOLOS VULGARIS) IS PLANTED IN PURE STAND AT A RATE OF

APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 25 POUNDS PER ACRE; AND IRISH POTATOES (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) IN

PURE STAND AT I 000 POUNDS PER ACRE.





3. DECISION MAKING, RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONTROL:


DECISIONS ARE JOINTLY MADE BY THE ADULT MALE AND FEMALE, ALTHOUGH, THE MALE IS


THE ACCEPTED HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD. HOWEVER, MATTERS PERTAINING TO THE DIRECT RUNNING


OF THE HOUSEHOLD ARE THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF THE FEMALE.

ASPECTS SUCH AS MARKETING OF FARM PRODUCE, PURCHASES OF HOUSEHOLD


CONSUMABLES, AND FARM INPUTS ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ADULT FEMALE. THIS ROLE


AUTOMATICALLY GIVES HER CONTROL OVER THE FAMILY FINANCES. IN ADDITION, THE FEMALE ADULT

IS THE MAJOR CARE GIVER OF THE CHILDREN, AND TAKES THE LEADING ROLE IN THEIR EDUCATION.


FURTHERMORE, THE FEMALE ADULT AND CHILDREN TAKE CARE OF SMALL STOCK SUCH AS CHICKENS,


GOATS, AND PIGS. INCOMES FROM THE SALE OF LIVESTOCK ARE SET ASIDE AS EMERGENCY RESERVES


AND FOR OTHER UNEXPECTED EXPENDITURES.


THE ADULT FEMALE ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR PREPARING MEALS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD. THE


CHILDREN ARE ALSO AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE SYSTEM WITH RESPONSIBILITIES INCLUDING:

MAINTAINING THE YARD, FETCHING FIREWOOD AND WATER. THEY ALSO ASSIST WITH VARIOUS LIGHT


CHORES UNDERTAKEN ON THE FARM AND TEND THE SMALLER ANIMALS.










THE MALE ADULT IS THE PRIMARY OVERSEER OF FAMILY AND FARM ACTIVITIES; HOWEVER, HIS

WIFE IS ALSO FULLY INTEGRATED INTO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AND HER INPUT IS SOUGHT IN

MAJOR DECISIONS.

THE HEAVIER WORK OF LAND PREPARATION, STAKING YAM (STAKES ARE ABOUT TEN FEET TALL AND ARE

BOUGHT FROM VENDORS WHO SELL FROM TRUCKS), AND TENDING CATTLE ARE PERFORMED BY THE

MALE.




4. A SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM


HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM:


THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD PLANNING MODEL ARE: (A) THE

ENTERPRISES, AND (B) THE CONSTRAINTS.





4. I THE ENTERPRISES:


THE MAIN ENTERPRISES INCLUDED IN THE MODEL ALONG WITH THE INPUT OUTPUT

COEFFICIENTS ARE DETAILED IN TABLE I .










THE MALE ADULT IS THE PRIMARY OVERSEER OF FAMILY AND FARM ACTIVITIES; HOWEVER, HIS

WIFE IS ALSO FULLY INTEGRATED INTO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AND HER INPUT IS SOUGHT IN

MAJOR DECISIONS.

THE HEAVIER WORK OF LAND PREPARATION, STAKING YAM (STAKES ARE ABOUT TEN FEET TALL AND ARE

BOUGHT FROM VENDORS WHO SELL FROM TRUCKS), AND TENDING CATTLE ARE PERFORMED BY THE

MALE.




4. A SIMPLE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM


HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM:


THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD PLANNING MODEL ARE: (A) THE

ENTERPRISES, AND (B) THE CONSTRAINTS.





4. I THE ENTERPRISES:


THE MAIN ENTERPRISES INCLUDED IN THE MODEL ALONG WITH THE INPUT OUTPUT

COEFFICIENTS ARE DETAILED IN TABLE I .









4.2 Constraints:

THE CONSTRAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE MODEL ARE:

( I) LAND AVAILABLE = 2 ACRES

(2) FAMILY LABOR = 4 I 5 MANDAYS

(3) WORKING CAPITAL = 2000000 (JA $)




4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

THE MODEL WAS ANALYZED USING THE OPTIMIZER ROUTINE OF QUATTRO PRO ANALYSIS

PACKAGE.




5. SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL MODEL:


THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL RESULTS OF THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL ARE PRESENTED IN

TABLE 2.


TABLE 2.

A. EN


SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL.


(TERPRISES:


YAM
POTATO
POULTRY
RED PEAS
POULTRY MEAT
PIGS
PIG MEAT


PRODUCTION LEVEL


(ACRES)
(ACRES)
(NUMBERS)
(ACRES)
(LB.)
(NUMBERS)
(LBS.)


1.50
0.02
1400
0.08
4900
37
5566









4.2 Constraints:

THE CONSTRAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE MODEL ARE:

( I) LAND AVAILABLE = 2 ACRES

(2) FAMILY LABOR = 4 I 5 MANDAYS

(3) WORKING CAPITAL = 2000000 (JA $)




4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

THE MODEL WAS ANALYZED USING THE OPTIMIZER ROUTINE OF QUATTRO PRO ANALYSIS

PACKAGE.




5. SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL MODEL:


THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL RESULTS OF THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL ARE PRESENTED IN

TABLE 2.


TABLE 2.

A. EN


SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL.


(TERPRISES:


YAM
POTATO
POULTRY
RED PEAS
POULTRY MEAT
PIGS
PIG MEAT


PRODUCTION LEVEL


(ACRES)
(ACRES)
(NUMBERS)
(ACRES)
(LB.)
(NUMBERS)
(LBS.)


1.50
0.02
1400
0.08
4900
37
5566









TABLE I. ENTERPRISES AND INPUT-OUTPUT PARAMETERS IN LP

MODEL (PER ACRE BASIS)


PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
ACTIVITIES COSTS (JA $

YAM 51000

POTATO 40000

RED PEAS 87000

POULTRY 5100000

GOAT 4000

CATTLE I 5000

PIGS 414000

DONKEY 1000

[NOTE: EXCHANGE RATE: I


YIELDS
) PER UNIT

12000 (LB.)

10000 (I B.)

600 (IB.)

140000(LB.)

300 (LB.)

1000 (LB.)

15000 (LB.)

(TRANSPORT)

US $ = 40 JA $)


MARKET
PRICE

I 8 (JA $

I 8 (JA $)

20 (JA $

40 (JA $)

60 (JA $)

40 (JA $)

40 (JA $:


VALUE OF
PRODUCTION (JA $)

) 216000

I 80000

) 200

5600000

I 8000

40000

600000


THE MAIN ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THE FOLLOWING OUTPUTS QUANTITIES ARE REQUIRED FOR

FAMILY CONSUMPTION:

YAM = 300 LBS.

POTATO = 200 LBS.

RED PEAS = 50 LBS.

CHICKEN = 600 LB.


FARM

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)









4.2 Constraints:

THE CONSTRAINTS REPRESENTED IN THE MODEL ARE:

( I) LAND AVAILABLE = 2 ACRES

(2) FAMILY LABOR = 4 I 5 MANDAYS

(3) WORKING CAPITAL = 2000000 (JA $)




4.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

THE MODEL WAS ANALYZED USING THE OPTIMIZER ROUTINE OF QUATTRO PRO ANALYSIS

PACKAGE.




5. SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL MODEL:


THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL RESULTS OF THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL ARE PRESENTED IN

TABLE 2.


TABLE 2.

A. EN


SUBSTANTIVE RESULTS OF THE FARM HOUSEHOLD MODEL.


(TERPRISES:


YAM
POTATO
POULTRY
RED PEAS
POULTRY MEAT
PIGS
PIG MEAT


PRODUCTION LEVEL


(ACRES)
(ACRES)
(NUMBERS)
(ACRES)
(LB.)
(NUMBERS)
(LBS.)


1.50
0.02
1400
0.08
4900
37
5566









B RESOURCES UTILIZED: AVAILABLE UTILIZED UNUSED SOLD

LAND (ACRES) 2.0 2.0 0 0
LABOR (MDAYS) 415 415 0 0
WORKING CAPITAL (M JA $) 2.0 2.0 0 0


C. CONSTRAINTS:

YAM CONSUMED (LB.) I789 I 300 I7591 I 759 I
POTATO CONSUMED (LB.) 200 200 0 0
RED PEAS (LB.) 50 50 0 0
POULTRY MEAT (LBS.) 4900 600 4300 4300

D. NET INCOME (000, JA $) 708,499




8 TABLE 2 DEPICTS A NUMBER OF INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE REPRESENTATIVE FARM

HOUSEHOLD. FIRST, PANEL A SHOWS THE ENTERPRISE COMBINATIONS THAT MAXIMIZE NET FAMILY

INCOME. SECONDLY, PANEL B CONFIRMS THE INITIAL PROPOSITION THAT LAND, FAMILY LABOR, AND

WORKING CAPITAL IS SEVERELY CONSTRAINING THE INCOME GENERATING CAPACITY OF THE FARM

FAMILY. IN PARTICULAR, ALL THE LAND, LABOR AND WORKING CAPITAL WERE EXHAUSTED. IF AN EXTRA

ACRE OF LAND WERE AVAILABLE THIS WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY JA $ I 22,432.

FURTHER, AN EXTRA MAN DAY OF LABOR WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY LABOR BY JA $ 722.38.

FINALLY, AN EXTRA UNIT OF WORKING CAPITAL WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY JA $ 0. I I .

THE RESULTS FURTHER SHOWS (PANEL C), THAT HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION REQUIREMENTS

ALSO ACTED AS EFFECTIVE CONSTRAINTS TO DECISION MAKING AND FARM ORGANIZATION. FOR

EXAMPLE, RELAXING THE YAM, POTATO AND POULTRY CONSUMPTION CONSTRAINTS BY ONE POUND

WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY INCOME BY THEIR RESPECTIVE MARKET PRICES (JA $ I 8.0, I 8.02

AND 40.0, RESPECTIVELY). THE MOST SURPRISING CONSUMPTION CONSTRAINT, HOWEVER WAS RED

PEAS CONSUMPTION. RELAXING THIS CONSTRAINT BY ONE POUND WOULD INCREASE NET FAMILY

INCOME BY JA $ 307.94 (OVER I 5 TIMES ITS MARKET PRICE). FINALLY, PANEL D INDICATES THAT










NET FAMILY INCOME IS MAXIMIZED AT JA $ 709,499. THIS IS EQUIVALENT TO AN ANNUAL INCOME


OF ABOUT US $ I 7,739. THIS IS NOT AN UNUSUALLY HIGH INCOME FOR FARMERS IN THIS TARGET


AREA.








6. POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS:


THE EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THE OVERLY SIMPLISTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE FARM


HOUSEHOLD MODEL HAVE SOME VERY IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY. FIRST, GIVEN THE


IMPORTANCE OF THE CONSTRAINTS OF LAND, LABOR AND CAPITAL, ANY POLICY THAT EFFECTIVELY


REDUCES THESE CONSTRAINTS IS LIKELY TO PRODUCE HIGH PRIVATE RETURNS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE


PROVISION OF IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OR MORE PROFITABLE PRODUCTION


ENTERPRISES. IN ADDITION, THE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE AND TIMELY CREDIT COULD POTENTIALLY

IMPROVE FAMILY INCOME.


THE ANALYSIS ABOVE WAS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY TO DESCRIBE THE EXTENT OF THE LAND,


LABOR AND CAPITAL CONSTRAINTS. HOWEVER, IN RETROSPECT, THE RESULTS COULD BE MORE


ENLIGHTENING IF THE BASIC MODEL WAS PARAMETERIZED TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF CHANGES


IN FARM SIZE, LABOR AVAILABILITY (THROUGH HIRING) AND INCREASES IN WORKING CAPITAL ON FARM


ORGANIZATION AND FAMILY INCOME. IT IS NOT UNREASONABLE, THEREFORE, TO SUGGEST THAT SUCH


SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE MODEL COULD CONSTITUTE FURTHER STUDY.








BIBLIOGRAPHY

I .AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. VOLUME 7, I986. CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES,

1986

2.PEARSON, C.J. I 992. FIELD CROPS ECOSYSTEMS: SCHOOL OF CROP SCIENCES,

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.







APPENDIX 1
PROFILE OF A JAMAICAN SMALL FARM
YAM YAM YAM POTATO POTATO POTATO PEAS PEAS PEAS CHICK CHIC
PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFER SOLD PROD TFEI
Unit Income 0 0 18 0 0 18 0 0 20 0


Res/const
LAND
YAM ACCT
YAM CONS
POTATO CONS
POTATO ACCT
CHICKEN ACCT
CHICKEN CONS
PEAS ACCT
PEAS CONS
GOAT ACCT
PIG ACCT
DONKEY ACCT
CATTLE ACCT
LABOR
CAPITAL
FAMILY INCOME


0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -140000
0 0 0 0 0
0 -600 1 1 0
0 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 85 0 0 55
0 8700 0 0 51000000
-18 0 0 -20 0


K CHICK PIGS PIG GOAT GOAT DONK DONK CATTLE CATTLE
R SOLD PROD SOLD PROD SOLD TFER PROD SOLD RHS USE
0 40 0 40 0 60 30 0 0 20
RESICON
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 <= 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 1.968203E-12
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -300 -300
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -200 -200
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -1.145195E-13
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 1.77236E-12
-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -600 -600
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 -6.77236E-15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= -50 -50
0 0 0 0 -300 1 0 0 0 0 <= 0 5.034177E-14
0 0 -15000 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 <= 0 7.780443E-13
0 0 0 0 0 0 800 1 0 0 <= 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1000 1 <= 0 0
0 0 600 0 50 0 64 0 74 0 <= 415 415
0 0 414000 0 4000 0 1000 0 15000 0 <= 2E+06 2000000
0 -40 0 -40 0 -60 -30 0 0 -20 <= 0 -709499.12422


INCOME OBJECTIVES V VARIABLES
709499.12 1.4909 300 17591 0.02


200 0 0.0833 50


0 0034683 600 4255.6 0.3711 5566 0 5E-14 0 0


0 0 0 0


0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
-1 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1
0 0 -10000 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 74 0
0 0 40000 0
0 -18 0 0


1
-12000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
122
51000
0








Answer Report
Soluti Startin Final
A:A25 0 709499.1


Variab Startin
A:C25. 0
A:D25. 0
A:E25. 0
A:F25. 0
A:G25. 0
A:H25. 0
A:125..I 0
A:J25.. 0
A:K25. 0
A:L25.. 0
A:M25. 0
A:N25 0
A:025. 0
A:P25. 0
A:025. 0
A:R25. 0
A:S25 0
A:T25.. 0
A:U25. 0
A:V25. 0
4W25 0
A:X25. 0


Final
1.490923
300
17591.08
0.02
200
0
0.083333
50
0
0.034683
600
4255.581
0.371061
5565.912
0
5.03E-14
0
0
0
0
0
0


Gradient Increment Decrement
0 348120.51 139.22
0 18 Infinite
18 29.010042 0.0116
0 153.11858 Infinite
0 18.015312 Infinite
18 0.0153119 Infinite
0 172761.91 Infinite
0 307.93651 Infinite
20 287.93651 Infinite
0 48512463 1E+08
0 40 Infinite
40 346.51759 2.1915
0 1525.8688 345640
40 0.1017246 23.043
0 140977.64 Infinite
60 469.92546 60
30 168741.02 Infinite
0 0 Infinite
0 157487.51 Infinite
20 157.48751 20
0 Infinite 0
0 Infinite 0


Cell Value Constrain Binding? Slack Dual V Right Increm Decrement
A:C25. 1.4909 >=0 No 1.4909231 0 0 1.4909 Infinite YAM PROD
A:D25. 300 >=0 No 300 0 0 300 Infinite YAM TFER
A:E25. 17591 >=0 No 17591.077 0 0 17591 Infinite YAM SOLD
A:F25. 0.02 >=0 No 0.02 0 0 0.02 Infinite POTAT PROD
A:G25. 200 >=0 No 200 0 0 200 Infinite POTAT TFER
A:H25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 ** 0 13328 200 POTAT SOLD
A:125..I 0.0833 >=0 No 0.0833333 0 0 0.0833 Infinite PEAS PROD
A:J25.. 50 >=0 No 50 0 0 50 Infinite PEAS TFER
A:K25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 0 816.12 50 PEAS SOLD
A:L25.. 0.0347 >=0 No 0.0346827 0 0 0.0347 Infinite CHICK PROD
A:M25. 600 >=0 No 600 0 0 600 Infinite CHICK TFER
A:N25. 4255.6 >=0 No 4255.5809 0 0 4255.6 Infinite CHICK SOLD
A:025. 0.3711 >=0 No 0.3710608 0 0 0.3711 Infinite PIGS PROD
A:P25. 5565.9 >=0 No 5565.9124 0 0 5565.9 Infinite PIG SOLD
A:Q25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -1E+05 0 1.2742 1.68E-16 GOAT PROD
A:R25. 5E-14 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 5E-14 Infinite GOAT SOLD
A:S25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -2E*05 0 0 3.057641 DONK
A:T25.. 0 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 0 Infinite DONK TFER
A:U25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 -2E+05 0 0 3.695193 CATTL PROD
A:V25. 0 >=0 Yes 0 0 0 0 Infinite CATTL SOLD
A:Y6.. 2 <=2 Yes 0 122432 2 1.4545 1.168719 LAND
A:Y7.. 2E-12 <=0 Yes 0 18 0 Infinite 17591.08 YAM ACCT
A:Y8.. -300 <=-300 Yes 0 18 -300 300 17591.08 YAM CONS
A:Y9.. -200 <=-200 Yes 0 18.015 -200 200 13328.4 POTATO CONS
A:Y10. <=0 Yes 0 18015 0 200 13328.4 POTATO ACCT
A:Y11. 2E-12 <=0 Yes 0 40 0 Infinite 4255.581 CHICKEN ACCT
A:Y12. -600 <=-600 Yes 0 40 -600 600 4255.581 CHICKEN CONS
A:Y13. *** <=0 Yes 0 307.94 0 50 816.1221 PEAS ACCT
A:Y14. -50 <=-50 Yes 0 307.94 -50 50 816.1221 PEASCONNS
A:Y15. 5E-14 <=0 Yes 0 60 0 Infinite 5.03E-14 GOAT ACCT
A:Y16. 8E-13 <=0 Yes 0 40 0 Infinite 5565.912 PIG ACCT
A:Y17. 0 <=0 Yes 0 0 0 Infinite 0 DONKEY ACCT
A:Y18. 0 <=0 Yes 0 20 0 Infinite 0 CATTLE ACCT
A:Y19. 415 <=415 Yes 0 72238 415 706.44 177.5442 LABOR
A:Y20. 2E+06 <=200000 Yes 0 0.1066 2E+06 **- 1550244 CAPITAL


APPENDIX 2


























chicken
cattle
goats
pigs


APPENDIX 3


SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF JAMAICAN SMALL FARM MODEL









Appendix 4. Seasonal work calendar, schedule, and family participation.


Activity Jan Feb Mar
FARM ACTIVITIES
YAM
Land prep *m----->
planting
stake
fertilize
weed con
harvest --------------->
market. -------------- >


Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec



*mw---------->


*mwbg>
*mw--->


POTATO
plant
maint
harvest
market
PEAS
plant
maint
harvest

PIGS
GOATS
CATTLE
DONKEY
POULTRY

NON FARM
EMP/MENT
F. F.WOOD
HOUSE WK.
YARD WK.
F. WATER


*mwb>
*mbw------------>
*wmbg>


*mw---


*wb>


*bgw----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*bg------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------>
*mb----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*mb----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
*wgb------------------------------------------------------------ ->

ACTIVITIES
*mw--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
*bg ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
*w --..------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------- >


*mb
*bg


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->


------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs