• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 The problem
 Response to the problem
 Application of action-training...
 Modification of the national planning...
 Project results
 Considerations in design of future...
 Type of assistance to projects...






Group Title: Action-training in project planning & management: a review of the experience of the National Planning Project, USAID - Government of Jamaica, 1976-1979
Title: Action-training in project planning & management
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071945/00001
 Material Information
Title: Action-training in project planning & management a review of the experience of the National Planning Project, USAID - Govãernment of Jamaica, 1976-1979
Alternate Title: Action training in project planning and management
Physical Description: 21, 12 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kettering, Merlyn
United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Office of International Cooperation and Development
Publisher: Development Project Management Center, Technical Assistance Div., Office of International Cooperation and Development, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture?
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Technology transfer   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Merlyn Kettering.
General Note: "April 1980."
General Note: "USAID/Jamaica Project (532-0039)."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071945
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12131746

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Preface
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    The problem
        Page 1
    Response to the problem
        Page 1
        The action-training approach
            Page 2
        The training-consultancy team
            Page 3
            Page 4
    Application of action-training in Jamaica
        Page 5
    Modification of the national planning project
        Page 6
        Building a project system
            Page 7
        Institutionalization of project system
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        The project profile
            Page 10
        Role training for project development
            Page 11
        Diversification of training interventions
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Broadening the PDRT conception of its training role
            Page 15
        Location of PDRT and its sponsor
            Page 15
    Project results
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Considerations in design of future project management programs
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Type of assistance to projects by the project development resources team, funding and status of projects, as of August 25, 1980, under the national planning project of Jamaica
        Page A
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
        Page A 6
        Page A 7
        Page A 8
        Page A 9
        Page A 10
        Page A 11
Full Text








DPMC


'ACTION-TRAINING
in
PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT
A Review of the Experience of
The National Planning Project,
USAID Government of Jamaica,
1976 1979










An international cooperation and resource center established to sup-
port the development of effective systems and training for project
design and management in developing countries.


U.S. Department of Agriculture
Office of International Cooperation
and Development
Technical Assistance Division


IN
COOPERATION
WITH


U.S. Agency for International
Development, Bureau for Development
Support, Office of Rural Development
and Development Administration










































DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
MANAGEMENT CENTER



The Center operates under an agreement between A.I.D. and U.S.D.A. with funding from A.I.D. pro-
ject 096, Project Management Effectiveness. The Center's full-time staff provides consultant ser-
vices and technical materials to LDC institutions. The Center also maintains a skill bank of con-
sultants with expertise and prior experience in various areas of project planning and implementation
who are available for short- or long-term assignments. With its location within the Technical
Assistance Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Center is able to draw upon a wide
variety of agricultural specialists to complement its work. In addition, through the A.I.D. project, the
Center has a collaborative relationship with the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs
and Administration and can draw upon a wide range of development administration specialists.

Further information can be obtained from:

The Development Project Management Center
Technical Assistance Division
Office of International Cooperation and Development
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250
Telephone: (202) 447-5804

USAID Missions may contact:

Office of Rural Development and Development Administration
Bureau for Development Support
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
Telephone: (703) 235-8902
Telegram caption: RS/RAD
























'ACTION-TRAINING
in
PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT
A Review of the Experience of
The National Planning Project,
USAID Government of Jamaica,
1976 1979


written by

Dr. Merlyn Kettering
Project Adviser
















Project Development Resource Team
(PDRT) Division of
Projects Analysis & Monitoring Company
(PAMCO), agency of
Ministry of Finance, Government of Jamaica

USAID/Jamaica Project
(532-0039)


April 1980














PREFACE


This paper is an interim report by Dr. Merlyn Kettering on the Jamaican
experience with the National Planning Project. The National Planning
Project was made possible from a grant from USAID, Kingston. The initial
impetus of the project was to help Jamaica prepare and implement projects
that could be financed by foreign donors and lenders. The Development
Project Management Center (DPMC) was asked to help in the design of the
project. As the design of the project proceeded and high level officials
were consulted, the project scope was enlarged. In addition to helping
Jamaica plan and carry out foreign financed projects, the project was to
institutionalize a Jamaican capability to train Jamaicans to plan and
carry out projects and to consult on projects. It was contemplated
that an action-training mode would be used, i.e. trainees would be
assigned to real projects. As part of the training they would work on
their project, with the instructors serving as consultants for the life
of the project.


The present report describes how, in order to respond to Jamaican needs,
the scope of the project, including the action-training approach, was
enlarged and modified.


Dr. Merlyn Kettering, a specialist in project management.and organizational
development, has served as an adviser consultant to the National Planning
Project since its beginning.




Morris J. Solomon
Coordinator, DPMC
Washington, D.C.
March 24, 1980












Table of Contents a
page


I. The Problem 1
II.: Response to the Problem 1
: A. The Action-Training Approach 2
: B. The Training-Consultantcy Team 3
III. Application of Action-Training in Jamaica 5
IV.. Modification of The National Planning Project 6
A. Building a Project System 7
B. Institutionalization of Project System 7
C. The Project Profile 10
D. Role Training For Project Development 11
E. Diversification of Training Interventions 12
F. Broadening the PDRT Conception of its Training Role 15
G. Location of PDRT and Its Sponsor 15
V. Project Results 16
VI. Considerations in Design of Future Project Management
Programs 20


List of Illustrations


1. Action-Training Model 2
2. The training-Consultation Team and Project Work Groups 4
3. An Overview of the Project Planning System 8
4. Roles of Project Personnel In the Stages of a Live Project 12
5. PDRT Matrix of Action-Training Interventions 14
6. Growth in Various PDRT Activities 17
7. Number of Projects Directly Assisted by PDRT Training 18
and Consultation











ACTION TRAINING
IN
PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION

A Review of the Experience of
The National Planning Project
USAID-Government of Jamaica,
1976 1979

By: Dr. Merlyn Kettering


I. The Problem


Jamaica in the Mid-1970's faced the need to attract and mobilize capital
as a critical contribution to its development program. One major source
of external financing is donor and lending agencies which provide project
development assistance. Jamaica's ability to mobilize external capital
inflows from these agencies was seen largely as depending on Jamaica's
capacity to prepare and present sound and sufficiently attractive projects
to lenders and to demonstrate improved performance in the implementation of
the projects.


II. Response To The Problem


The National Planning Project was initiated in late 1976 by the Jamaican
Government with the assistance of USAID Jamaica. The purposes were (1)
to improve the capability of the Jamaican Government to plan and carry out
development projects, (2) to increase the flow of development capital, and
(3) to improve capital utilization through accelerated and successful
project implementation. Two innovative elements in the National Planning
Project were:

a. The "action training" approach

b. The training-consultancy team











ACTION TRAINING
IN
PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION

A Review of the Experience of
The National Planning Project
USAID-Government of Jamaica,
1976 1979

By: Dr. Merlyn Kettering


I. The Problem


Jamaica in the Mid-1970's faced the need to attract and mobilize capital
as a critical contribution to its development program. One major source
of external financing is donor and lending agencies which provide project
development assistance. Jamaica's ability to mobilize external capital
inflows from these agencies was seen largely as depending on Jamaica's
capacity to prepare and present sound and sufficiently attractive projects
to lenders and to demonstrate improved performance in the implementation of
the projects.


II. Response To The Problem


The National Planning Project was initiated in late 1976 by the Jamaican
Government with the assistance of USAID Jamaica. The purposes were (1)
to improve the capability of the Jamaican Government to plan and carry out
development projects, (2) to increase the flow of development capital, and
(3) to improve capital utilization through accelerated and successful
project implementation. Two innovative elements in the National Planning
Project were:

a. The "action training" approach

b. The training-consultancy team










A. The Action-Training Approach


The action-training approach is characterized by an emphasis on
in country, on-the-spot-training of persons actually responsible
for "live" projects. Action training is tailored to answer the
needs of people engaged in real project activities; action-training
makes use of their own project activity experiences and project
problems as focal points of the training.


It is a type of systematic, action oriented, in-service training
which, by its very nature, performs practical functions in develop-
ment of projects. In practice, projects to be used in action-train-
ing are selected by a sponsoring agency or ministry and a project
work group is assigned to the development of the project. The
project planning team is first given a brief initial training
during which they begin to plan the project. This is followed by
a period of consultations and workshops until a complete project
plan is developed. If a project is authorized for implementation,
a project implementation team is appointed and receives initial
training followed by consultations, workshops and progress reviews.
Figure 1 illustrates the original conception of how action-training
would work.




.PlL Authorization
Planning


Live Project '
Live r Termination


I =-course \
Implementation
A = workshops, as necessary
-- = consultation


Figure 1 Action-Training Model










The Training-Consultancy Team


To carry out action-training, a central training-consultancy team, the Project
Development Resource Team (PDRT) was to be set up in a key, central location
in the government of Jamaica. This was to be a local, multidisciplinary team,
knowledgeable and experienced in project planning and management, composed of
a financial analyst, an economist, and engineer and an agriculturist. Two
expatriates (an agriculturist and an engineer) were to assist in the develop-
ment of the PDRT during the first two years. In addition, there were provi-
sions for short term consultancy to work on specific aspects of planning,
planning of implementation and management of projects.


Developing training materials, recruiting the services of both long term and
short term consultants and other technical support were to be provided by the
Development Project Management Center (DPMC) of the United States Department
of Agriculture. Materials were to be developed into manual form for use by
the PDRT and others.


A major goal of the National Planning Project was to establish an institution-
alized Jamaican capability to carry on with an "action-training" program for
projects. This was a very important element of the project because it would
reduce dependency upon the lending agencies for project planning and manage-
ment expertise. The costs, for the Nation and for the agencies, of external
consultants would be lowered and there would be more effective use of tech-
nical assistance in projects.


The establishment of the Project Development Resource Team (PDRT) with the
capabilities to promote action-training for pre-investment and implementation
planning increases the realism of project plans through the combination of
local expertise with foreign expertise. It integrates the project more closely
to its immediate environmental setting.


The establishment of a multi-disciplinary team was difficult because of the










Sponsoring/Exocit inq Mini Int ins


Ministry of Finance


Project Development Resource Team cc
"action-training" for Project Plann
in various Ministries for people as!
priority projects.


lur icul Li'ro
"action-training" Projnct Projict
--' Toam Tomn
S-- -.-----

-,.-.-' '"' 1 Inten r-Min i:intry
-- ---- Pro j
---
-C


--:









onducts
ing and Implementation
signed to develop real


Health


Project
Toam


Education

SProject
Team


* PAMCO (Project Analysis and Monitoring Company) was
formerly the Projects Division of the Ministry of Finance


The Traininriq-onnultation Toam and Project Work Groups,


PAMCO*


I I


... [ 1 j I I


Figure 2 t









departmentalization in the civil service. Initially the lack of established
posts was resolved by temporarily assigning persons to the team. This problem
affected the entire Projects Division as well as the PDRT. It was eventually
solved by the creation of a statutory body from the Projects Division--The
Project Analysis and Monitoring Co. Ltd., (PAMOD)-which could have more
flexibility in hiring so as to attract highly qualified persons from a wide
range of disciplines. Although the recruitment of persons is no longer a
problem, the tenure may be a continuing problem with the team.


Persons are now on contract and may terminate to go to more attractive posts
or to return to the security of the civil service. There has not been enough
experience to determine what the effects of this form of institutionalization
will have staff turnover. However, the PDRT and PAMCO, as a whole, is now
staffed with high quality personnel.


III. Applications of Action-Training in Jamaica


In summary, the mandate of the PDRT, as the unit responsible for action-train-
ing in Jamaica, was as follows:
a) to utilize "action-training" so that all training results in direct
and immediate project development;

b) to increase project planning, implementation planning and management
capabilities throughout the government, especially at implementing
levels, to support policies of government decentralization; and

c) to become an institutionalized indigenous unit capable of carrying on
training and consultation for future development of in-country
capabilities in project planning, implementation planning and manage-
ment.


The PDRT was established within the Projects Division of the Ministry of
Finance. The PDRT was to accelerate the movement of projects through the
planning and implementation stages by training and consulting with project
work teams. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship of the PDRT with the
Ministry of Finance and the Sponsoring/Executives Agencies, the latter being
the clients to be served by the PDRT. It should be noted that the arrows
in Figure 2 point in both directions. This reflects the PDRT's awareness of
its need to learn from ministry personnel. The stance of "learner" is critical
for all involved in the project including the training consultation team
and the advisors as well.









At the beginning of the project the Jamaican authorities asked that the
initial emphasis be on planning and on projects for the agricultural and
industrial sectors. The focus on planning was consistent with the objective
of attracting foreign capital. As projects were developed and approved, action-
training was expanded to include implementation and management. Later the
training was also expanded to health, education and other sectors.


IV. Modification of The National Planning Project


Projects are models of causation to produce desired change. They are based on
sets of hypotheses and assumptions about how the world is, how it acts and how
it can be changed. Project papers tend to convey the impression that projects,
when properly planned, are like a set of blue-prints which can be handed over
for execution and easily transformed into reality within a reasonable time
period. Most development projects have a great deal more uncertainty than is
implied by these written intentions. This tends to be particularly true of
institution-building and organizational change projects, such as the
National Planning Project. A high degree of uncertainty and ignorance about
the project environment and the factors of causation combine to produce
circumstances throughout implementation which require substantial modification
in.original project plans.


Major modifications in the original plan for the National Planning Project,
included the following:
Building of a Project Planning System Which Training Would Support,
Institutionalization of Project System,
SIntroduction of a Preliminary Proposal Document--
The Project Profile--as part of the Project System

SDiversification of Training For Different Roles in Project Planning,
Implementation Planning and Management,
Diversification of Training Interventions For Different Situations
Broadening the PDRT Conception of Its Training Role, and
SRelocating the PDRT and Its Sponsoring Agency To Overcome Staffing
Difficulties.









A. Building a Project System


The PDRT was seeking to introduce project management training which
would serve the decision makers. There was no coordinated.system for
project identification, appraisal, planning and approval to which the
training could relate. Intensive study and discussions with Jamaican
officials resulted in the designing of a Jamaican Project System and the
subsequent adoption of this system by the Jamaican Government. The project
planning system has evolved into a definite form after considerable ex-
perience with actual projects over the past three years. The system in-
volves the development of standardized formats for project documents so
that comprehensive and comparable information is forwarded on all projects
to facilitate analysis and the decision making processes.


At designated points in the process, and with data submitted in given formats,
decisions are made about the project using criteria of priority and worthi-
ness. The process and content of the project system form the basis for
the PDRT training programs. Figure 3 represents an overview of the
Jamaican Project Planning System. It indicates a series of project
studies of successively increasing costs. Of course the system is only
a model. The time,number and depth of pre-investment studies will vary
depending upon the size and complexity of the project as well as other
variables. The PDRT tailored action-training to support the performance
of the newly established Project Planning System, rather than focusing
solely upon selected projects.


B. Institutionalization of Project Systems


An important lesson from the project is that action-training must fit
within coherent systems of project planning, selection and monitoring.
One of the first tasks of PDRT was to design a Project Planning and De-
cision-Making System. This system has evolved into an accepted process
for government decision-making on projects. At the Identification
Stage, an inter-ministerial Pre-Selection Committee judges the merits of









A. Building a Project System


The PDRT was seeking to introduce project management training which
would serve the decision makers. There was no coordinated.system for
project identification, appraisal, planning and approval to which the
training could relate. Intensive study and discussions with Jamaican
officials resulted in the designing of a Jamaican Project System and the
subsequent adoption of this system by the Jamaican Government. The project
planning system has evolved into a definite form after considerable ex-
perience with actual projects over the past three years. The system in-
volves the development of standardized formats for project documents so
that comprehensive and comparable information is forwarded on all projects
to facilitate analysis and the decision making processes.


At designated points in the process, and with data submitted in given formats,
decisions are made about the project using criteria of priority and worthi-
ness. The process and content of the project system form the basis for
the PDRT training programs. Figure 3 represents an overview of the
Jamaican Project Planning System. It indicates a series of project
studies of successively increasing costs. Of course the system is only
a model. The time,number and depth of pre-investment studies will vary
depending upon the size and complexity of the project as well as other
variables. The PDRT tailored action-training to support the performance
of the newly established Project Planning System, rather than focusing
solely upon selected projects.


B. Institutionalization of Project Systems


An important lesson from the project is that action-training must fit
within coherent systems of project planning, selection and monitoring.
One of the first tasks of PDRT was to design a Project Planning and De-
cision-Making System. This system has evolved into an accepted process
for government decision-making on projects. At the Identification
Stage, an inter-ministerial Pre-Selection Committee judges the merits of


































Itch Piujact alteMociaS
tarn ma.t project objectiw.?


S(Appraai) project practical
aasagU ble, and beeafieial?


no!
SI DHCIS : Hld or
r R fta) for d reject -teasiuttsa ject



















Figure 3 An Overview of the Project Planning System
Highlighting Decision Points, Project









Preparation Documents, and Decision Flows
in the System.:




Highlighting Decision Points, Project










the project idea in light of national and sectorial priorities. The Pre-
Selection Committee is composed of representatives from all key Ministries
and Agencies involved in development, such as National Planning Agency,
Scientific Research Council, Project Analysis & Monitoring Company, Mi-
nister of State for Planning, etc. It can promote a project for further
study (involving more extensive investigation and the expenditure of pre-
investment financing for feasibility studies), recommend implementation,
request clarification or reformulation regarding aspects of the project,
or reject the project. The decision of the Pre-Selection Committee
must be reviewed and approved by the Economic Council before it is official.
This decision point permits early discussion on the desirability of pursuing
further study on ideas submitted, through sponsoring ministries, on the
Project Profile. PAMCO serves as secretariat to the Pre-Selection Committee
and coordinates the appraisal of the projects advanced to pre-investment
study stage.


In addition to the Project Decision-Making System, project monitoring
systems are being established to facilitate the expediting of project
implementation. PAMCO plays a central role in project monitoring to
ensure effective and efficient use of foreign exchange on capital invest-
ment projects. This has also resulted in an expansion of the training
role for PDRT to include more emphasis on implementation planning and
management problem-solving as opposed to an earlier focus upon project
pre-investment planning.


The introduction of project planning and monitoring systems involves
significant change in organizational systems and behaviours. This is not
a quick or easy process and requires that the PDRT have.expertise and
experience in the approaches and techniques of organizational change
and development. The project design did not recognize the importance of
this aspect of the project. For example the qualifications of the PDRT
and the project advisors did n6t include skills relevant to organizational
development, training and consultation. While the critical role of systems









development and organizational change was not reflected in the project
design, the need for these skills and activities were recognized and
provided for at the early stage of implementation.


C. The Project Profile


At the core of the project planning system is the Project Profile. This
document represents the first formal conceptualization of a project. It
facilitates a relatively short but complete description of the project.
Designed to answer the most basic and relevant questions about projects at
the earliest stages of formulation (why, what, who, when, how), the project
profile provides a standard format which can be used and adapted for a wide
variety of projects. Its function is to ensure that adequate information is
at hand when the first decisions about the desirability of a project are made.
The Project Profile is relatively simple to prepare, because it is based upon
existing and readily available data. From a Project Profile, the areas in
which data are still required may be identified, thus the Project Profile
itself should involve only a modest expenditure of time and money.


One unforeseen impact of the project has been the wide use of the Project
Profile developed by the PDRT. Its use in Jamaica has increased the number
of project ideas flowing into Ministries, the participation of field staff
in project preparation, and the elimination of non-priority or undesirable
project ideas. The Project Profile has been adopted by a number of organi-
zations working at the community level; its simplicity permits easy and
early development of project ideas which can be further formulated by
communities with the assistance of specialist advisors from both government
and nongovernment agencies. One agency, Community Enterprise Organization
Company, is responsible for the development of community projects to
increase the growth and sufficiency of small communities. This agency
depends heavily upon the Project Profile for basic project development.
The Project Profile has also ensured better use of pre-investment study
funding for projects which have been pre-selected.










The Project Profile also facilitates more rapid development of projects.
This was demonstrated for example in 1979 when Jamaica experienced extensive
flooding. The emergency relief committee required an immediate flow of
project ideas to form a disasterrelief program. The Project Profile
became the major vehicle for submitting ideas for appraisal and incor-
poration into the larger rehabilitation program.


The Project Profile is an extremely important document. It permits the
development of a relatively large inventory of project ideas from which
projects may be selected for presentation to international agencies--
with a minimal training in planning and appraisal.


D. Role Training For Project Development


The original project design considered that training would be addressed
to project teams responsible for the two primary phases of actual projects,
a) planning before authorization and b) planning of implementation and
management after authorization. In examining actual projects, it became
clear that different persons and units performed a wide variety of tasks
in relation to every project. The capacity to develop projects was de-
pendent upon everyone knowing how to perform their role well rather than
one team knowing about all roles. These roles may include project iden-
tification, project profile preparation, project appraisal, feasibility
study, managing consultants, etc. The PDRT adapted the action-training
model so that it would be geared to narrower roles that specific working
groups were being asked to perform. For, example, the Project Profile is
drawn up by one set of people; its official appraisal is done by another
set; the feasibility study by still another, etc. This led the PDRT to
tailor the training to a larger number of specific roles corresponding
to roles in actual projects. The major focus of action-training to the
present, has been in five major areas: Project Profile Preparation, Project
Implementation Planning, Project Management, Project Administration and
Project Appraisal.











From this discussion, it can be seen that "action-training" is not simply

a method of training. It has been found necessary to have a capability

within the PDRT for all types of interventions because of the variety of

demands and opportunities to-which the PDRT must respond.. Action-Training

is an approach to training which is not confined to a single model, but

can be determined by the needs of the trainees or the projects which are

incorporated in the training. "Action-Training" can have an alternating

focus upon ACTION or TRAINING as well as the integration of these comple-

mentary but competing objectives. Figure 4 illustrates the various

roles that have a place in most projects in Jamaica. Training is seen

as a means of giving the required skills to those-who will be carrying

out these roles.






00-
M C F3




CL


S
a. ." ^
0 Li. 0 >

F g r 4s S -a



Project Personnel
ROLES 0 a C C 3


STAGES Identification c. Selection Plnnning ^ Approval DPscl,,, Tmplemrinta^lon c Termination



Figure 4 Stages of a Live Project and Some Different Roles of
Project Personnel




E. Diversification of Training Interventions


It was found useful to provide a broader range of training inter-

ventions than was anticipated. For example, the PDRT has given a one-

day overview of project management to high level government officials










and members of. the political directorate; one-day consultations with a
project group on specific planning or implementation problems; universi-
ty lectures, etc. While the action-training approach was retained, it
was found that there was scope for a varying mix of action and training.


Action and training represent the two complementary objectives in this
approach:
ACTION: Developing Real Projects
TRAINING: Developing Human Skills

These objectives are complementary, but also can be competitive. The
persistence of traditional perceptions of training forces the demand for
a "certificate" as the end product of the course (TRAINING). In contrast,
the urgency for successful projects forces the demand for moving projects,
regardless of the training involved (ACTION).


In certain training activities of the PDRT, the two objectives are well
integrated and complement each other so that the real projects are developed
while training is conducted. In other instances, the objectives are not
combined well and may compete with each other. In certain project work-
shops, the PDRT is given the mandate to see that the project is developed,
therefore, action is the focus, not training. In some courses, training
is the focus, project simulations are used, but no actual projects are
developed. The expectations of the client Ministries or Agencies and
the availability of real projects for certain training exercises often
determine whether ACTION and TRAINING may be integrated in a single course.
The PDRT has balanced the forces by differentiating the training inter-
ventions to include the variety of interventions shown in Figure 5.


The specific content of any training intervention is determined by the
roles of the persons being trained with respect to real projects and
the status of development of the projects used in the training. As
different persons have different responsibilities toward projects at











action - - ACTION
t
r action-training ACTION-training
a seminars PROJECT consultation
i lectures PROJECT workshops
n surveys PROJECT reviews
i project study I PROJECT appraisals
n
g _

action-TRAINING ACTION-TRAINING
T administration COURSE PROJECT PROFILE COURSE
R planning SEMINARS IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING COURSE
A analysis SEMINARS PROJECT MANAGEMENT COURSE
I "in-country COURSES" PROJECT WORKSHOPS
N
I
N
G __

Figure 5 PDRT Matrix of Action-Training Interventions

different points, action-training attempts to give them the specific
tools and understanding necessary for the performance of their specific
tasks. In addition, the training focuses on the actual problems encountered
on a real project rather than on general presentations. For example, a
session is given on Appraisal Criteria, only as this is relevant to the
actual project being developed and the responsibility of the project team.


As discussed previously, different training interventions emphasize more
strongly either action or training. Seminars, for example, de-emphasize
action but highlight content. Consultation and workshops, de-emphasize
content and emphasize action.


Seminars have played an important role. They are useful for top level
officials who cannot attend workshops, but must be familiar with project
planning and management. They are also useful to introduce and explain
innovations such as the project profile and the project planning and
monitoring systems. Seminars have helped to establish the program of
PDRT by giving both visibility and credibility to the team.










Administrative courses have been important in helping to establish linkages
with other training institutions and building a training reputation;
project profile and project implementation courses have been most im-
portant for establishing a reputation for the PDRT as a practical and
useful training-consultation team. Consultation has been an important
means for establishing credibility and introducing Project Profiles.
Extended two to three weeks, Project Management Workshops have permitted
the development of management plans for specific projects, directly
involving project managers in the process.


F. Broadening The PDRT Conception of Its Training Role


As can be seen from the activities described above, the PDRT broadened
its mandate to include taking an active role in the creation of a Jamaican
Project System in order to facilitate training as well as project planning
and management. In addition, the PDRT has provided training assistance to
other training institutions in Jamaica. For example, when the Adminis-
trative Staff College was set up by the Public Service Commission, the
PDRT helped design and provide lecture and consultation inputs for courses
in project management. The PDRT has assisted with the development of
planning and implementation units and systems in various Ministries and
Agencies. The PDRT encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture to continue
to give a course on project profile preparation to local extension person-
nel using Ministry of Agriculture Staff. The PDRT members have been
guest lecturers at special programs such as one on project management at
the University of West Indies. Thus, the PDRT becomes actively involved in
the total training programs relevant to projects and organization develop-
ment to support overall project performance of Selected Ministries and
Agencies.


G. Location of the PDRT and Its Sponsor


The PDRT was located in the Projects Division of the Ministry of










Administrative courses have been important in helping to establish linkages
with other training institutions and building a training reputation;
project profile and project implementation courses have been most im-
portant for establishing a reputation for the PDRT as a practical and
useful training-consultation team. Consultation has been an important
means for establishing credibility and introducing Project Profiles.
Extended two to three weeks, Project Management Workshops have permitted
the development of management plans for specific projects, directly
involving project managers in the process.


F. Broadening The PDRT Conception of Its Training Role


As can be seen from the activities described above, the PDRT broadened
its mandate to include taking an active role in the creation of a Jamaican
Project System in order to facilitate training as well as project planning
and management. In addition, the PDRT has provided training assistance to
other training institutions in Jamaica. For example, when the Adminis-
trative Staff College was set up by the Public Service Commission, the
PDRT helped design and provide lecture and consultation inputs for courses
in project management. The PDRT has assisted with the development of
planning and implementation units and systems in various Ministries and
Agencies. The PDRT encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture to continue
to give a course on project profile preparation to local extension person-
nel using Ministry of Agriculture Staff. The PDRT members have been
guest lecturers at special programs such as one on project management at
the University of West Indies. Thus, the PDRT becomes actively involved in
the total training programs relevant to projects and organization develop-
ment to support overall project performance of Selected Ministries and
Agencies.


G. Location of the PDRT and Its Sponsor


The PDRT was located in the Projects Division of the Ministry of










Finance. The original expectation was that government civil service
positions for members of the PDRT would be available. This was never
accomplished. Instead, members of the PDRT were seconded or temporarily
assigned from various ministries on a short term basis. This involved
frequent staff position vacancies, uncertain career prospects and in one
case a reduced salary. The project was able to function effectively
because of the continuity provided by expatriate advisers and the enthu-
siasm of the Jamaican members of the PDRT despite their uncertain tenure.
In the Spring of 1979, the Project Division, including the PDRT, became
part of a public corporation (PAMCO) which acts as an agency of the
Ministry of Finance. This permitted recruitment of personnel on a more
flexible and permanent basis.


Within specific Ministries, the training activities of the PDRT has in-
creased the awareness of the need for more rational project planning,
project appraisal, and monitoring systems. The PDRT is assisting with
the development of Ministry-level systems to parallel the government-
level systems being established. This will facilitate the flow df proj-
ects and the use of financial and technical assistance on projects at
the field level. To impact favorably on both planning and implementation
of projects, it is necessary that PDRT establish an interactive relationship
with Ministries and other operating agencies.


V. Project Results


A.) Number of Participants By Type of Intervention.
In its three years of existence, the PDRT has carried out training and
consultation interventions in response to requests from responsible
Jamaican agencies. Figure 6 shows the number of participants (cumulative)
in the various types of training and consultation interventions. It
should be noted that the implementation courses started late but are
becoming a more prominent part of the workload as time goes on.














cOde:
-1 0-


pho-.nnig ros,60s: f I (127)
Implenelleon u rl l: / r46
120. o Cous--- -300

,*: /5 /
o. / r / "27





I *





0
S80 2110


0 *2 I
I 0-" ""I "





.
20" S "




o. S
i ,,



10. 25


manhs ? Is I 21 27 30 1





Figure 6 Growth in Various PDRT Activities (by number of
participants)






B.) Number of Projects By Type of Intervention.

The original project called for the selection of "priority" projects

to be developed. The shift to roles, as the organizing focus for

training, caused a change in characteristics of projects selected.

Also a larger number of projects were affected than originally planned

in response to specific needs of the JamaicanGovernment and in support

of the Project System. Figure 7 shows the number of projects over

time.


,- 1135



















S40- (9
36- c e

32-
SCC
S28- (29)
c
24-

S20- 2O c0-

S16- /

2 C
182- / / >"



4-I c
Ci



months 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 31



Figure 7 Number of ProjeetssDirectly Assisted by PDRT Training
and Consultation










C.) Materials.
The original project called for the writing of a manual as a product
of the National Planning project. The PDRT/PAMCO has prepared the
Project Planning and Management Series which it is hoped will be
published in the very near future. It presently consists of four
manuals and forty-five modules (see Appendix A). The series is
designed with a great deal of flexibility so that other manuals and
modules can be added as materials are developed. In training-workshop
situations, it is sometimes possible to use only one or several
modules without the manuals and in other instances both the manual
and some modules would be used.


D.) Training.
The action-training approach is now widely accepted with respect to
project training in Jamaica. An Administrative Staff College has been
created in the past two years which focuses upon training for high-
level government officials. A former member of the training-consul-
tancy team was initially recruited to establish a Project Training
Course (Division) and instituted a variation of "action-training" for
the administrators who attend the course. Another former member of
the training-consultancy team has been now recruited to carry on that
program and has significantly influenced the design of the training
and the curriculum, based upon the experience of the team.


The National Planning Agency, among other institutions, have adapted
the action-training approach and materials to their project training
needs.: Faculty members of the management programs at the University
of the West Indies, have also recognized the importance of including
project planning and management; they have called upon the training
consultancy:team to have an input into their courses. Although the
action-training model cannot be instituted there, it is possible to
conduct the courses with significant practical inputs from persons
with extensive project experience.









VI. Considerations In Design of Future Project Management Programs


Every country has special needs and circumstances which have to be re-
flected in a country project management training program. But the Jamaican
experience has made it clear that there are substantial advantages in linking
training with actual projects in a close relationship with responsible country
organizations. The following considerations will influence the design:


1. The action-training approach is most appropriate when there is a
commitment, at various levels, to achieving greater country project
capability. Approaches that build commitment are very desirable.

2. A measure of commitment at higher levels is the willingness and
ability to provide sufficient incentives for members of the required
staff.

3. If at all possible, the PDRT type organization should be headed by
a host country national who is responsible for the total adminis-
trative effort from the very beginning.

4. Where condition 2. and 3. cannot be met, a more prolonged effort
should be planned and special efforts must be made to reduce de-
pendency tendencies that are likely to develop.

5. There is a substantial advantage in locating the PDRT in a central
agency of the Government or in an organization that is closely linked
to such an agency, so that there is legitimacy given to the coordi-
nating role for improvement of the project system. Under some cir-
cumstances, the PDRT might be advantageously attached to a non-civil
service unit closely aligned with a central government agency.

6. The coordinating role of the PDRT can best be carried out if it it
oriented toward offering services to clientele who have the res-
ponsibility for planning and carrying out projects.

7. The PDRT should be a small unit. As procedures become settled, it
is desirable that the PDRT work to facilitate the transfer of the
teaching and substantive procedures to other training agencies but
continue to perform a support and innovative role. In this way the
PDRT can serve as a catalyst to existing training facilities such
as institutes and universities.

8. For the first two years it is important to minimize turnover of the
PDRT personnel. At a later point, movement out of the PDRT into
other agencies can be highly beneficial.










9. The role and length of stay of expatriates should be tailored to the
availability of local skills. There should be a strong bias in favor
of greater reliance on local personnel. Countries with a substantial
reservoir of technical skills may not require resident expatriate
assistance. Countries that are desperately short of technical
skills may have to postpone the use of local personnel as members
of the PDRT.

10. The action-training approach can facilitate responsible decentrali-
zation of planning and implementation of projects, provided a fra-
mework has been established centrally as part of the total effort.

11. Attachment of the PDRT to a project liaison and development office
in USAID rather than to an administrative office is advisable. The
nature of the USAID attachment is very important because there must
be continued interest in the project and knowledge about its progress
or lack thereof, if the project is to reach its full potential in the
host country.

12. Key skills to be provided for are those of systems design and orga-
nizational development (OD) as well as the inter disciplinary skills
of project management.
































Type of Assistance to Projects

by The Project Development Resources Team,

Funding and Status of Projects,

As of August 25, 1980

Under the National Planning Project of

Jamaica









Attachment 1:


PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT SERIES



MANUAL I Planning for Project Implementation

MANUAL P Project Planning Manual

MANUAL M Project Management Manual

MANUAL PF- Pioneer Farm Implementation Planning



MODULES

1. Defining Project Objectives (Objective Tree)

2. The Logical Framework

3. Work Breakdown Structure

4. Activity Description Sheets

5. Project Organization

6. Linear Responsibility Charts

7. Project Scheduling Bar Charts

8. Bar Charting for Project Control/Scheduling

9. Project Scheduling Network Analysis

10. Milestones Description Charts

11. Resource Planning & Budgeting

12. (Title not yet decided)

13. Project Technology Analysis

14. Demand Analysis

15. Market Strategy Analysis

16. Project Area Analysis

17. Project Costs & Benefits

18. Project Profile





-2-


19. Financial Analysis

20. Cash Flow Analysis

21. Discounting

22. Net Present Worth Analysis

23. Cost-Benefit Analysis

24. Benefit-Cost Ratio Analysis

25. Internal Rate of Return

26. Social Analysis of a Project

27. Economic Analysis of Projects (including Border Pricing)

28. Financial Statements & Ratios

29. Project Selection & Needs Analysis

30. Brainstorming

31. Decision-making System for Projects

32. Project Institutional Environmental Analysis

33. Ecological Analysis for Projects

34. Introduction to Contracts, Jamaican Contract Documents &
Tendering Procedures

35. Selection & Use of Consultants

36. Project Documents for Planning & Implementation

37. Report Writing for Projects

38. Project Files

39. Formats for Pre-Feasibility & Feasibility Studies

40. Motivation of Employees and Personnel Evaluation

41. Design of a Project Management Control System

42. Evaluating & Forecasting Project Progress & Performance

43. Project Termination

44. Introduction to Lending Agencies

45. Organizing and Conducting Conference Meetings

46. Withdrawal of and Accounting for Loan Funds in the Financing
of Projects









Name of Project


1. Mango Top Work


2. Logging and RR
sleeper ties




3. Seed Production
Farm



4. Marginal Land
Dairy Development


5. Sorghum, Joint
Venture with Alum-
inum Company


6. Urban Farmer Train-
ing


7. Soya Farm Project


8. Pork Processing


Kind of
Assistance


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation



Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and F6llow-on
Consultation


Funding


Domestic


Local Funding






Local Funding




Foreign Funding


Government and
Private Funding



Local Funding


Local Funding


Local Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25,1980


Complete, members of Team
involved in other projects


Pilot Project for UNDP.
people involved in other
jects-1 went on to be in
ter for project.


The
pro-


Seeking Foreign Funding. Site
has been provided.



In Execution on Pilot, I
significantly. People v
on other projects.


Project Rejected




In implementation, expanded it
several other places.


Rejected


Rejected-later became.founda-
for a different project.


9. Craft Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


10. Garment Industry
Upgrading


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Local, Foreign,
and Non-Government
Funding


Foreign Funding


In Implementation


Completed










Name of Project


11. Women's Vocational
Training Center


12. Land Settlement
Project in Ebony
Park


13. Utility Pole
Program


14. Fishing Boats


15. Coordinated Craft
Industry



16. Land Reclamation
for Rice



17. Childhood Basic
Services



18. Childhood Nutri-
tion Gastroentir-
itis Project


19. Black River Upper
Morass Land Devel-
opment



20. Sunflower Pilot
Project


21. Adolescent Mother
Project


Kind of
Assistance


Series of
Consultations


Consultation on
Feasibility Study
and Implementation
Planning

Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility Study


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility Study


Consultation on
Profile, Feasibilty
and Implementation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Consultation on
Profile, Feasibili-
ty and Implementa-
tion


Consultation on
Profile


Consultation on
Profile


Funding


Foreign Non-
Government


Foreign Funding




Local and Foreign
Funding


Foreign Funding


Local Funding




Foreign Funding




Foreign Funding




Local Funding




Foreign Funding






Local Funding



Local and Foreign
Non-Government
Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25, 1980


In successful operation



In Implementation




In Implementation


Approved


Attempted to get foreign
funding, reduced project for
local funding


In Implementation




In Implementation




In Implementation




In Implementation






Present Status Unknown

Present Status Unknown

Present Status Unknown









Name of Project


Kind of
Assistance


Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25, 1980


22. Sugar Factory
Rehabilitation


23. Yallahs Water
Project


24. Blue Mountain
Water Supply



25. Agriculture Mark-
eting Program


26. Meat Processing
Plant


27. Agricultural Cre-
dit Small Farm



28. Meat Processing
Project


29. Market Improve-
ment



30. Polyester Cotton
Mill


31. Commercial Fish-
eries


32. Solid Waste Mark-
eting Study


33. Coffee Expansion


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation on.
Profile and Pre-
Feasibility Study


Consultation on
Profile


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility


Consultation on Ap-
praisal and Design


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation on
Feasibility


Consultation Dn
Profile and Feasi-
bility


Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding




Foreign (AID)
Funding


Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding




Foreign Funding


Foreign Funding




Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding


In Implementation



Early Stages of Implemen -,



Still in Study Stage




Early Implementation, limited
Scale


In Study Stage (limited imple-
mentation of of some aspects)


In Process of Approval




Rejected Locally


Significantly revised some as-
pects in Training



In Implementation



Awaiting Approval



Still in Study Stage



Limited Implementation with
Domestic Funding










Name of Project


Kind of
Assistance


Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25. 1980


34. Second Population
Project


35. Dependent Women
Vocational Center


36. Integrated Rural
Development


37. Particle Board
Factory




38. Blue Mountain
Coffee Processing


39. Secondary Roads
Project


40. Charlemont Settle-
ment Project


41. Land Lease Site



42. Integrated Rural
Development Demon-
stration Center


43. St. Mary Pioneer
Farm


44. First Rural Devel-
opment Project-
Site Development


45. Lacovia Irrigation
Project


Consultation on
Appraisal


Consultation on
Profile


Implementation
Training


Consultation on
Feasibility, Im-
plementation and
Training


Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training



Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training


Consultation on
Profile


Foreign Funding



Foreign Non-Gov-
ernment Funding


Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding






Seeking Foreign
Funding


Foreign Funding



Mostly local, but
some Foreign Fund-
ing

Local Funding



Foreign (AID)
Funding



Local Funding



Foreign (World
Bank) Funding


Foreign Funding


In Implementation



Approved-but no progress yet



In Implementation



Local Approval Pending






Some Local Implementation
awaiting Foreign Funding


In Implementation



In Operation



In Operation



In Operation




In Operation



In Implementation


Approved










Name of Project


Kind of
Assistance


Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25,1980


46. Piedro Plains
Irrigation Project


47. Pure Farm Pro-
duction



48. Grape Production
Yallah



49. Cocoa Demonstra-
tion



50. Potato Expansion




51. Home Industry
Fruit Processing



52. Grape Production
St. Catherine



53. Vegetable Demon-
stration


54. Demonstration
Farm


55. Tumeric Pilot
Project


56. Small Stock
Feeding


Consultation on
Profile


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
aid Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation

Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
arid Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Foreign Funding


Local Funding




Lccal Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding



Local Funding


Local Funding


Local Funding


Approved


In Implementation




In Implementation




In Implementation




In Implementation




In Implementation (expanded)




In Implementation




In Implementation



In Implementation


Rejected


In Implementation










Name of Project


Kind of
Assistance


Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25,1980


57. Pioneer Farm




58. Cassava Produc-
tion Marketing



59. Pepper Processing




60. Fruit Juices
Processing



61. Export Vegetable
Project



62. Agriculture Train-
ing Complex



62. Agriculture Train-
ing Complex



63. Tropical Plants
for Export


64. Black Coral



65. Crown College
Project



66. Community Health
Clinic in Junc-
tion


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
arid Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
add Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Consultation on
Profile


Consultation on
Profile


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding




Local Funding



Local Funding



Foreign Funding




Non-Government
Funding


In Operation




Significantly Revised, in
Implementation



In Implementation




Awaiting Approval




Pilot Project in Implementa-
tion



In Implementation




In Implementation




In Operation



Awaiting Legislation on En-
vironmental Protection


Approved-Awaiting Site Selec-
tion



In Implementation










Name of Project


67. Correspondence
Education Project



68. Health, Nutrition




69. Family Planning
Education


70. 12 Pioneer Farm
Sites


71. Fish Farming
Extension


72. Production Edu-
cation


73. Agricultural Plan-
ing/Training



74. World Bank Rural
Integrated (cluster
of 9 sites) Land
Sites Development


75. 20 Commercial En-
terprise Projects*


76. Duhaney Clinic



77. Maternal Health
Clinic Expansion
at Jubillee Hosp-
ital


Kind of
Assistance


Profile Training
and Follow-on
Consultation


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility


Profile Training
and Follow on
Consultation


Implementation
Training


Implementation
Training


Consultation on
Project Profile


Consultation on
Profile and Feasi-
bility


Implementation
Training




Profile Training
and Follow on
Consultation

Consultation on
Feasibility


Implementation
Training


Funding


Local Funding




Foreign (AID)
Funding



Local Funding


Local Funding



Local Funding



Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding




World Bank






Local Funding



Foreign Funding



Local Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25.1980


In Implementation




Awaiting Approval




In Implementation


In Implementation



In Implementation



In Authorization Stage



In Implementation




In Implementation





In Implementation



In Implementation



In Implementation


*Small industry, craft and Agriculture Projects (Furniture, dairy farms, tourism).









Kind of
Assistance


78. Secondary School Implementation
Family Planning Training


79. Family Planning Implementation
Consulting Services Training
Follow-up for Col-
lege Students


80. Health Records Implementation
Project Training


81. Fort Antonio Consultation on
Development Project Feasibility


82. Solid Waste Man- Consultation on
agement Kings- Feasibility and
ton Appraisal


83. Grain Storage Consultation on
Profits Feasi-
bility and Ap-
praisal


84. Water Reclama- Consultation on
tion and Reuse- Feasibility
Kingston


Funding


Local Funding



Local Funding






Local Funding



Foreign Funding



Foreign Funding




Foreign Funding





Foreign Funding.


Name of Project


85. Goats and Sheep
Multiplication


86. Community Health
Aids Effectiveness


87. Sanitation Mul-
ching


88. Small Fisherman


Consultation on
Feasibilty


Consultation on
Profile.


Consultation on
Profile


Consultation on
Implementation


Foreign Funding


Foreign Non-Govern-
ment Funding


Foreign Funding



Foreign Non-Govern-
ment Funding


Approved


Awaiting Decision



Still in Preparation



In Implementation


Status of Project
As of August 25, 1980


In Implementation



In Implementation





In Implementation



Awaiting Approval



Awaiting Approval




Awaiting Decision





Awaiting Decision









Name of Project


Kind of
Assistance


Funding


Status of Project
As of August 25, 1980


89. Fruit Juice
Processing


Consultation on
Feasibility and
Appraisal


Foreign Non-
Government Funding


Pending Decision




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs