Action-training in project planning & management

Material Information

Action-training in project planning & management a review of the experience of the National Planning Project, USAID - Govãernment of Jamaica, 1976-1979
Portion of title:
Action training in project planning and management
Kettering, Merlyn
United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Office of International Cooperation and Development
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C.?
Development Project Management Center, Technical Assistance Div., Office of International Cooperation and Development, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture?
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
21, 12 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Jamaica ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Technology transfer ( lcsh )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


General Note:
"April 1980."
General Note:
"USAID/Jamaica Project (532-0039)."
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Merlyn Kettering.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
12131746 ( OCLC )

Full Text
PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT A Review of the Experience of The National Planning Project, USAID Government of Jamaica, 1976 1979
An international cooperation and resource center established to support the development of effective systems and training for project design and management in developing countries.
U.S. Deatetof Agriculture U.S. Agency for International
DfieparItentioaoprto IN Development, Bureau for Development
Offic eopernta oprto COOPERATION Support, Office of Rural Development
Technical Assistance Division WITH and Development Administration

The Center operates under an agreement between A.ID. and U.S.D.A. with funding from A.ID. project 096, Project Management Effectiveness. The Center's full-time staff provides consultant services and technical materials to LDC institutions. The Center also maintains a skill bank of consultants with expertise and prior experience in various areas of project planning and implementation who are available for short- or long-term assignments. With its location within the Technical Assistance Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Center is able to draw upon a wide variety of agricultural specialists to complement its work. In addition, through the A.ID. project, the Center has a collaborative relationship with the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration and can draw upon a wide range of development administration specialists.
Further information can be obtained from:
The Development Project Management Center Technical Assistance Division Office of International Cooperation and Development U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 20250 Telephone: (202) 447-5804
USAID Missions may contact:
Office of Rural Development and Development Administration Bureau for Development Support Agency for International Development Washington, D.C. 20523 Telephone: (703) 235-8902 Telegram caption: RS/RAD

PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT A Review of the Experience of The National Planning Project, USAID Government of Jamaica, 1976 1979
written by
Dr. Merlyn Kettering Project Adviser
Project Development Resource Team (PDRT) Division of Projects Analysis & Monitoring Company (PAMCO), agency of Ministry of Finance, Government of Jamaica USAID/Jamaica Project (532-0039)
April 1980

This paper is an interim report by Dr. Merlyn Kettering on the Jamaican experience with the NationalPlanning Project. The National Planning Project was made possible from a grant from USAID, Kingston. The initial impetus of the project was to help Jamaica prepare and implement projects that could be financed by foreign donors and lenders. The Development Project Management Center (DPMC) was asked to help in the design of the project. As the design of the project proceeded and high level officials were consulted, the project scope was enlarged. In addition to helping Jamaica plan and carry out foreign financed projects, the project was to institutionalize a Jamaican capability to train Jamaicans to plan and carry out projects and to consult on projects. It was contemplated that an action-training modewould be used, i.e. trainees would be assigned to real projects. As part of the training they would work on their project, with the instructors serving as consultants for the life of the project.
The present report describes how, in order to respond to Jamaican needs, the scope of the project, including the action-training approach, was enlarged and modified.
Dr. Merlyn Kettering, a specialist in project management and organizational development, has served as an adviser consultant to the National Planning Project since its beginning.
Morris J. Solomon
Coordinator, DPMC
Washington, D.C.
March 24, 1980

Table of Contents page
I. The Problem 1
II., Response to the Problem 1
A. The Action-Training Approach 2
B. The Training-Consultantcy Team 3
III. Application of Action-Training in Jamaica 5
IV. Modification of The National Planning Project 6
A. Building a Project System 7
B. Institutionalization of Project System 7
C. The Project Profile 10
D. Role Training For Project Development 11
E. Diversification of Training Interventions 12
F. Broadening the PDRT Conception of its Training Role 15 G. Location of PDRT and Its Sponsor 15
V. Project Results 16
VI. Considerations in Design of Future Project Management
Programs 20
List of Illustrations
1. Action-Training Model 2
2. The training-Consultation Team and Project Work Groups 4
3. An Overview of the Project Planning System 8
4. Roles of Project Personnel In the Stages of a Live Project 12
5. PDRT Matrix of Action-Training Interventions 14
6. Growth in Various PDRT Activities 17
7. Number of Projects Directly Assisted by PDRT Training 18
and Consultation

PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION A Review of the Experience of The National Planning Project USAID-Government of Jamaica, 1976 1979
By: Dr. Merlyn Kettering
I. The Problem
Jamaica in the Mid-1970's faced the need to attract and mobilize capital as a critical contribution to its-development program. One major source of external financing is donor and lending agencies which provide project development assistance. Jamaica's ability to mobilize external capital inflows from these agencies was seen largely as depending on Jamaica's capacity to prepare and present sound and sufficiently attractive projects to lenders and to demonstrate improved performance in the implementation of the projects.
II. Response To The Problem
The National Planning Project was initiated in late 1976 by the Jamaican Government with the assistance of USAID Jamaica. The purposes were (1) to improve the capability of the Jamaican Government to plan and carry out development projects, (2) to increase the flow of development capital, and
(3) to improve capital utilization through accelerated and successful project implementation. Two innovative elements in the National Planning Project were:
a. The "action training"! approach b. The training-consultancy team

A. The Action-Training Approach
The action-training approach is characterized by an emphasis on in country, on-the-spot-training of persons actually responsible
for "live" projects. Action training is tailored to answer the
needs of people engaged in real project activities; action-training
makes use of their own project activity experiences and project
problems as focal points of the training.
It is a type of systematic, action oriented, in-service training
which, by its very nature, performs practical functions in development of projects. In practice, projects to be used in action-training are selected by a sponsoring agency or ministry and a project
work group is assigned to the development of the project. The project planning team is first given a brief initial training
during which they begin to plan the project. This is followed by
a period of consultations and workshops until a complete project
plan is developed. If a project is authorized for implementation,
a project implementation team is appointed and receives initial
training followed by consultations, workshops and progress reviews.
Figure 1 illustrates the original conception of how action-training
would work.
I I-- ----....
Live Project Termination
=-course \L .
= workshops, as necessary
= consultation
Figure 1 Action-Training Model

The Training-Consultancy Team
To carry out action-training, a central training-consultancy team, the Project Development Resource Team (PDRT) was to be set up in a key, central location in the government of Jamaica. This was to be a local, multidisciplinary team, knowledgeable and experienced in project planning and management, composed of a financial analyst, an economist, and engineer and an agriculturist. Two expatriates (an agriculturist and an engineer) were to assist in the development of the PDRT during the first two years. In addition, there were provisions for short term consultancy to work on specific aspects of planning, planning of implementation and management of projects.
Developing training materials, recruiting the services of both long term and short term consultants and other technical support were to be provided by the Development Project Management Center (DPMC) of the United States Department of Agriculture. Materials were to be developed into manual form for use by the PDRT and others.
A major goal of the National Planning Project was to establish an institutionalized Jamaican capability to carry on with an "action-training" program for projects. This was a very important element of the project because it would reduce dependency upon the lending agencies for project planning and management expertise. The costs, for the Nation and for the agencies, of external consultants would be lowered and there would be more effective use of technical assistance in projects.
The establishment of the Project Development Resource Team (PDRT) with the capabilities to promote action-training for pre-investment and implementation planning increases the realism of project plans through the combination of local expertise with foreign expertise. It integrates the project more closely to its immediate environmental setting.
The establishment of a multi-disciplinary team was difficult because of the

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Project Development Resource Team conducts N.Education
"laction-training" for Project Planning and Implementation %Project
in various Ministries for people assigned to develop real 1 Teoam
priority projects.
*PAMCO (Project Analysis and Monitoring Company) was formerly the Projects Division of the Ministry of Finance
Figure 2 t The Traininti-ICansultatian Toom and Project Work Groups,

departmentalization in the civil service. Initially the lack of established posts was resolved by temporarily assigning persons to the team. This problem affected the entire Projects Division as well as the PDRT. It was eventually solved by the creation of a statutory body from the Projects Division--The Project Analysis and Monitoring Co. Ltd., (PAM00)-which could have more flexibility in hiring so as to attract highly qualified persons from a wide range of disciplines. Although the recruitment of persons is no longer a problem, the tenure may be a continuing problem with the team.
Persons are now on contract and may terminate to go to more attractive posts or to return to the security of the civil service. There has not been enough experience to determine what the effects of this form of institutionalization will have staff turnover. However, the PDRT and PAMCO, as a whole, is now staffed with high quality personnel.
III. Applications of Action-Training in Jamaica
In summary, the mandate of the PDRT, as the unit responsible for action-training in Jamaica, was as follows:
a) to utilize "action-training" so that all training results in direct
and immediate project development;
b) to increase project planning, implementation planning and management
capabilities throughout the government, especially at implementing
levels, to support policies of government decentralization; and
c) to become an institutionalized indigenous unit capable of carrying on
training and consultation for future development of in-country
capabilities in project planning, implementation planning and management.
The PDRT was established within the Projects Division of the Ministry of Finance. The PDRT was to accelerate the movement of projects through the planning and implementation stages by training and consulting with project work teams. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship of the PDRT with the Ministry of Finance and the Sponsoring/Executives Agencies, the latter being the clients to be served by the PDRT. It should be noted that the arrows in Figure 2 point in both directions. This reflects the PDRT's awareness of its need to learn from ministry personnel. :The stance of "learner" is critical for all involved in the project including the training consultation team and the advisors as well.

At the beginning of the project the Jamaican authorities asked that the initial emphasis be on planning and on projects for the agricultural and industrial sectors. The focus on planning was consistent with the objective of attracting foreign capital. As projects were developed and approved, actiontraining was expanded to include implementation and management. Later the training was also expanded to health, education and other sectors.
IV. Modification of The National Planning Project
Projects are models of causation to produce desired change, They are based on sets of hypotheses and assumptions about how the world is, how it acts and how it can be changed. Project papers tend to convey the impression that projects, when properly planned, are like a set of blue-prints which can be handed over for execution and easily transformed into reality within a reasonable time period. Most development projects have a great deal more uncertainty than is implied by these written intentions. This tends to be particularly true of institution-building and organizational change projects, such as the National Planning Project. A high degree of uncertainty and ignorance about the project environment and the factors of causation combine to produce circumstances throughout implementation which require substantial modification in original project plans.
Major modifications in the original plan for the National Planning Project, included the following:
Building of a Project Planning System Which Training Would Support,
Institutionalization of Project System,
Introduction of a Preliminary Proposal Document-The Project Profile--as part of the Project System
Diversification of Training For Different Roles in Project Planning,
Implementation Planning and Management,
Diversification of Training Interventions For Different Situations
Broadening the PDRT Conception of Its Training Role, and.
Relocating the PDRT and Its Sponsoring Agency To Overcome Staffing

A. Building a Project System
The PDRT was seeking to introduce project management training which would serve the decision makers. There was no coordinated.system for project identification, appraisal, planning and approval to which the training could relate. Intensive study and discussions with Jamaican officials resulted in the designing of a Jamaican Project System and the subsequent adoption of this system by the Jamaican Government. The project planning system has evolved into a definite form after considerable experience with actual projects over the past three years. The system involves the development of standardized formats for project documents so that comprehensive and comparable information is forwarded on all projects to facilitate analysis and the decision making processes.
At designated points in the process, and with data submitted in given-formats, decisions are made about the project using criteria of priority and worthiness. The process and content of the project system form the basis for the PDRT training programs. Figure 3 represents an overview of the Jamaican Project Planning System. It indicates a series of project studies of successively increasing costs. Of course the system is only a model. The time,number and depth of pre-investment studies will vary depending upon the size and complexity of the project as well as other variables. The PDRT tailored action-training to support the performance of the newly established Project Planning System, rather than focusing solely upon selected projects.
B. Institutionalization of Project Systems
An important lesson from the project is that action-training must fit within coherent systems of project planning, selection and monitoring. One of the first tasks of PDRT was to design a Project Planning and Decision-Making System. This system has evolved into an accepted process for government decision-making on projects. At the Identification Stage,.an inter-ministerial Pre-Selection Committee judges the merits of

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the project idea in light of national and sectorial priorities. The PreSelection Committee is composed of representatives from all key Ministries and Agencies involved in development, such as National Planning Agency, Scientific Research Council, Project Analysis & Monitoring Company, Minister of State for Planning, etc. It can promote a project for further study (involving more extensive investigation and the expenditure of preinvestment financing for feasibility studies), recommend implementation, request clarification or reformulation regarding aspects of the project, or reject the project. The decision of the Pre-Selection Committee must be reviewed and approved by the Economic Council before it is official. This decision point permits early discussion on the desirability of pursuing further study on ideas submitted, through sponsoring ministries, on the
Project Profile. PAMCO serves as secretariat to the Pre-Selection Committee and coordinates the appraisal of the projects advanced to pre-investment study stage.
In addition to the Project Decision-Making System, project monitoring systems are being established to facilitate the expediting of project implementation. PAMCO plays a central role in project monitoring to ensure effective and efficient use of foreign exchange on capital investment projects. This has also resulted in an expansion of the training role for PDRT to include more emphasis on implementation planning and management problem-solving as opposed to an earlier focus upon project pre-investment planning.
The introduction of project planning and monitoring systems involves
significant change in organizational systems and behaviours. This is not a quick or easy process and requires that the PDRT have, expertise and experience in the approaches and techniques of organizational change and development. The project design did not recognize the importance of this aspect of the project. For example the qualifications of the PDRT and the project advisors did nbt include skills relevant to organizational development, training and consultation. While the critical role of systems

development and organizational change was not reflected in the project design, the need for these skills and activities were recognized and provided for at the early stage of implementation.
C. The Project Profile
At the core of the project planning system is the Project Profile. This document represents the first formal conceptualization of a project. It facilitates a relatively short but complete description of the project. Designed to answer the most basic and relevant questions about projects at the earliest stages of formulation (why, what, who, when, how), the project profile provides a standard format which can be used and adapted for a wide variety of projects. Its function is to ensure that adequate information is at hand when the first decisions about the desirability of a project are made. The Project Profile is relatively simple to prepare, because it is based upon existing and readily available data. From a Project Profile, the areas in which data are still required may be identified, thus the Project Profile itself should involve only a modest expenditure of time and money.
One unforeseen impact of the project has been the wide use of the Project Profile developed by the PDRT. Its use in Jamaica has increased the number of project ideas flowing into Ministries, the participation of field staff in project preparation, and the elimination of non-priority or undesirable project ideas. The Project Profile has been adopted by a number of organizations working at the community level; its simplicity permits easy and early development of project ideas which can be further formulated by communities with the assistance of specialist advisors from both government and nongovernment agencies. One agency, Community Enterprise Organization Company, is responsible for the development of community projects to increase the growth and sufficiency of small communities. This agency depends heavily upon the Project Profile for basic project development. The Project Profile has also ensured better use of pre-investment study funding for projects which have been pre-selected.

The Project Profile also facilitates more rapid development of projects. This was demonstrated for example in 1979 when Jamaica experienced extensive flooding. The emergency relief committee required an immediate flow of
project ideas to form a di~asterrelief program. The Project Profile became the major vehicle for submitting ideas for appraisal and incorporation into the larger rehabilitation program.
The Project Profile is an extremely important document. It permits the development of a relatively large inventory of project ideas from which projects may be selected for presentation to international agencies-Vith a minimal training in planning and appraisal.
D. Role Training For Project Development
The original project design considered that training would be addressed to project teams responsible for the two primary phases of actual projects, a) planning before authorization and b) planning of implementation and management after authorization. In examining actual projects, it became clear that different persons and units performed a wide variety of tasks in relation to every project. The capacity to develop projects was dependent upon everyone knowing how to perform their role well rather than one team knowing about all roles. These roles may include project identification, project profile preparation, project appraisal, feasibility study, managing consultants, etc. The PDRT adapted the action-training model so that it would be geared to narrower roles that specific working groups were being asked to perform. For, example, the Project Profile is drawn up by one set of people; its official appraisal is done by another set; the feasibility study by still another, etc. This led the PDRT to tailor the training to a larger number of specific roles 'corresponding to roles in actual projects. The major focus of action-t raining to the present, has been in five major areas: Project Profile Preparation, Project Implementation Planning, Project Management, Project Administration and Proj ect Appraisal.

From this discussion, it can be seen that "action-training" is not simply a method of training. It has been found necessary to have a capability within the PDRT for all types of interventions because of the variety of demands and opportunities to which the PDRT must respond.. Action-Training is an approach to training which is not confined to a single model, but can be determined by the needs of the trainees or the projects which are incorporated in the training. "Action-Training" can have an alternating focus upon ACTION or TRAINING as well as the integration of these complementary but competing objectives. Figure 4 illustrates the various roles that have a place in most projects in Jamaica. Training is seen as a means of giving the required skills to those-who will be carrying out these roles.
o 0 L
STAGES Iden if iat on Sele t on Plann n g Approval Des ign, a mplementa ti. on: T rinat o n
Figure 4 Stages of a Live Project and Some Different Roles of Project Personnel
E. Diversification of Training. Interventions
It was found useful to provide a broader range of training inter-: ventions than was anticipated. For example, the PDRT has given a neday overview of project management to high level government officials W12
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and members of. the political directorate; one-day consultations with a project group on specific planning or implementation problems; university lectures, etc. While the action-training approach was retained, it was found that there was scope for a varying mix of action and training.
Action and tr :aining represent the two complementary objectives in this approach:
ACTION: Developing Real Projects
TRAINING: Developing Human Skills
These objectives are complementary, but also can be competitive. The persistence of traditional perceptions of training forces the demand for a certificatet" as the end product of the course (TRAINING). In contrast, the urgency for successful projects forces the demand for moving projects, regardless of the training involved (ACTION).
In certain training activities of the PDRT, the two objectives are well integrated and complement each other so that the real projects are developed while training is conducted. In other instances, the objectives are not combined well and may compete with each other. In certain project workshops, the PDRT is given the mandate to see that the project is developed, therefore, action is the focus, not training. In some courses, training is the focus, project simulations are used, but no actual projects are developed. The expectations of the client Ministries or Agencies and the availability of real projects for certain training exercises often determine whether ACTION and TRAINING may be integrated in a single course. The PDRT has balanced the forces by differentiating the training interventions to include the variety of interventions shown in Figure 5.
The specific content of any training intervention is determined by the roles of the persons being trained with respect to real projects and the status of development of the projects used in the training. As different persons have different responsibilities toward projects at

action - - - - - - -ACTION
r action-training ACTION-training
a seminars PROJECT consultation
i lectures PROJECT workshops
n surveys PROJECT reviews
i project study I PROJECT appraisals
G ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Figure 5 PDRT Matrix of Action-Training Interventions
different points, action-training attempts to give them the specific tools and understanding necessary for the performance of their specific tasks. In addition, the training focuses on the actual problems encountered on a real project rather than on general presentations. For example, a session is given on Appraisal Criteria, only as this is relevant to the actual project being developed and the responsibility of the project team.
As discussed previously, different training interventions emphasize more strongly either action ort training. Seminars, for example, de-emphasize action but highlight content. Consultation and workshops, de-emphasize
content and emphasize action.
Seminars have played an important role. They are useful for top level officials who cannot attend workshops, but must be familiar with project planning and management. They are also useful to introduce and explain innovations such as the project profile and the project planning and monitoring systems. Seminars have helped to establish the program of PDRT by giving both visibility and credibility to the team.

Administrative courses have been important in helping to establish linkages with other training institutions and building a.traininig reputation; project profile and project implementation courses have been most important for establishing a reputation for the PDRT as a practical and useful training-consultation team. Consultation has been an important means for establishing credibility and introducing Project Profiles. Extended two to three weeks, Project Management Workshops have permitted the development of management plans for specific projects, directly involving project managers in the process.
F. Broadening The PDRT Conception of Its Training Role
As can be seen from the activities described above, the PDRT broadened its mandate to include taking an active role in the creation of a Jamaican Project System in order to facilitate training as well as project planning and management. In addition, the PDRT has provided training assistance to other training institutions in Jamaica. For example, when the Administrative Staff College was set up by the Public Service Commission, the PDRT helped design and provide lecture and consultation inputs for courses in project management. The PDRT has assisted with the development of planning and implementation units and systems in various Ministries and Agencies. The PDRT encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture to continue to give a course on project profile preparation to local extension personnel using Ministry of Agriculture Staff. The PDRT members have been guest lecturers at special programs such as one on project management at the University of West Indies. Thus, the PDRT becomes actively involved in the total training programs relevant to projects and organization development to support overall project performance of Selected Ministries and Agencies.
G. Location of the PDRT and Its Sponsor
The.PDRT was located in the Projects Division of the Ministry of

Finance. The original expectation was that..government civil service
positions for members of the PDRT would be available. This was never
accomplished. Instead, members of the PDRT were seconded or temporarily
assigned from various ministries on a short term basis. This involved
frequent staff position vacancies, uncertain career prospects and in one
case a reduced salary. The project was able to function effectively
because of the continuity provided by expatriate advisers and the enthusiasm of the Jamaican members of the PDRT despite their uncertain tenure.
In the Spring of 1979, the Project Division, including the PDRT, became
part of a public corporation (PANCO) which acts as an agency of the
Ministry of Finance. This permitted recruitment of personnel on a more
flexible and permanent basis.
Within specific Ministries, the training activities of the PDRT has increased the awareness of the need for more rational project planning,
project appraisal, and monitoring systems. The PDRT is assisting with
the development of Ministry-level systems to parallel the governmentlevel systems being established. This will facilitate the flow 6f projects and the use of financial and technical assistance on projects at
the field level. To impact favorably on both planning and implementation
of projects, it is necessary that PDRT establish an interactive relationship
with Ministries and other operating agencies.
V. Project Results
A.) Number of Participants By Type of Intervention.
In its three years of existence, the PDRT has carried out training-and
*consultation interventions in response to requests from responsible
Jamaican agencies. Figure 6 shows the number of participants (cumulative)
in the various types of training and consultation interventions. It should be noted that the implementation coursesistarted late but are
becoming a more prominent part of the workload as time goes on.

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Figure 6 Growth in Various PDRT Activities (by number of participants)
B.) Number of Projects By Type of Intervention.
The original project called for the selection of "priority"! projects
to be developed. The shift to roles, as the organizing focus for training, caused a change in characteristics of projects selected.
Also a larger number of projects were affected than originally planned in response to specific needs of the Jamaican Government and in support
of the Project System. Figure 7 shows the number of projects over
'Figure 6 -Growth in Various PDRT Activities (by number of participants)
B.) Number of Projects By Type of. Intervention.
The original project called for the selection of "priority" projects
to be developed. The shift to roles, as the organizing focus for training, caused a change in characteristics of projects selected.
Also a larger number of projects were Affected than originally planned
in response to specific needs of the Jamaican Government and, in support
of the Project System. Figure 7 shows the Lnumber of projects over

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Figure 7 -Number of ProjemtDirectly Assisted by PDRT Training
and Consultation

C.) Materials.
The original project called for the writing of a manual as a product
of the National Planning project. The PDRT/PAMCO has prepared the
Project Planning and Management Series which it is hoped will be
published in the very near future. It presently consists. of four
manuals and forty-five modules (see Appendix A). The series is
designed witha great deal of flexibility so that other manuals and
modules can be added as materials are developed. In training-workshop
situations, it is sometimes possible to use only one or several
modules without the manuals and in other instances both the manual
and some modules would be used.
D.) Training.
The action-training approach is now widely accepted with respect to
project training in Jamaica. An Administrative Staff College has been
created in the past two years which focuses upon training for highlevel government officials. A former member of the training-consultancy team was initially recruited to establish a Project Training
Course (Division) and instituted a variation of "action-training" for
the administrators who attend the course. Another former member of
the training-consultancy team has been now recruited to carry on that
program and has significantly influenced the design of the training
and the curriculum, based upon the experience of the team.
The National Planning Agency, among other institutions, have adapted the action-training approach and materials to their project training needs. Faculty members of the management programs at the University of the West Indies, have also recognized the importance of including
project planning and management; they have called upon the training consultancy team to have an input into their courses. Although the action-training model cannot be instituted there, it is possible to
conduct the courses with significant practical inputs from persons
with extensive project experience.

VI. Considerations In Design of Future Project Management Programs
Every country has special needs and circumstances which have to be reflected in a country project management training program. But the Jamaican experience has made it clear that there are substantial advantages in linking training with actual projects in a close relationship with responsible country organizations. The following considerations will influence the design:
1. The action-training approach is most appropriate when there is a
commitment, at various levels, to~ achieving greater country project
capability. Approaches that build commitment are very desirable.
2. A measure of commitment at higher levels is the willingness and
ability to provide sufficient incentives for members of the required
3. If at all possible, the PDRT type organization should be headed by
a host country national who is responsible for the total administrative effort from the very beginning.
4. Where condition 2. and 3. cannot be met, a more prolonged effort
should be planned and special efforts must be made to reduce dependency tendencies that are likely to develop.
5. There is a substantial advantage in locating the PDRT in a central
agency of the Government or in an organization that is closely linked
to such an agency, so that there is legitimacy given to the coordinating role for improvement of the project system. Under some circumstances, the PDRT might be advantageously attached to a non-civil
service unit closely aligned with a central government agency.
6. The coordinating role of the PDRT can best be carried out if it it
oriented toward offering services to clientele who have the responsibility for planning and carrying out projects.
7. The PDRT should be a small unit. As procedures become settled, it
is desirable that the PDRT work to facilitate the transfer of the
teaching and substantive procedures to other training agencies but
continue to perform a support and innovative role. In this way the
PDRT can serve as a catalyst to existing training facilities such
as institutes and universities.
8. For the first two years it is important to minimize turnover of the
PDRT personnel. At a later point, movement out of the PDRT into
other agencies can be highly beneficial.

9. The role and length of stay of expatriates should be tailored to the
availability of local skills. There should be a strong bias in favor of greater reliance on local personnel. Countries with a substantial
reservoir of technical skills may not require resident expatriate
assistance. Countries that are desperately short of technical
skills may have to postpone the use of local personnel as members
of the PDRT.
10. The action-training approach can facilitate responsible decentralization of planning and implementation of projects, provided a framework has been established centrally as part of the total effort.
11. Attachment of the PDRT to a project liaison and development office
in USAID rather than to an administrative office is advisable. The
nature of the USAID attachement is very important because there must
be continued interest in the project and knowledge about its progress or lack thereof, if the project is to reach its full potential in the
host country.
12. Key skills to be provided for are those of systems design and organizational development (OD) as well as the inter disciplinary skills
of project management.

Type of Assistance to Projects
by The Project Development Resources Team,
Funding and Status of Projects,
As of August 25, 1980
Under the National Planning Project of

Attachment 1:
MANUAL I Planning for Project Implementation MANUAL P Project Planning Manual MANUAL M Project Management Manual MANUAL PF- Pioneer Farm Implementation Planning
1. Defining Project objectives (Objective Tree)
2. The Logical Framework
3. Work Breakdown Structure
4. Activity Description Sheets
5. Project Organization
6. Linear Responsibility Charts
7. Project Scheduling Bar Charts
8. Bar Charting for Project Control/Scheduling
9. Project Scheduling Network Analysis 10. Milestones Description Charts 11. Resource Planning & Budgeting 12. (Title not yet decided) 13. Project Technology Analysis 14. Demand Analysis 15. Market Strategy Analysis 16. Project Area Analysis 17. Project Costs & Benefits 18. Project Profile

19. Financial Analysis 20. Cash Flow Analysis 21. Discounting
22. Net Present Worth Analysis 23. Cost-Benefit Analysis 24. Benefit-Cost Ratio Analysis 25. Internal Rate of Return 26. Social Analysis of a Project 27. Economic Analysis of Projects (including Border Pricing) 28. Financial Statements & Ratios 29. Project Selection & Needs Analysis 30. Brainstorming 31. Decision-making System for Projects 32. Project Institutional Environmental Analysis 33. Ecological Analysis for Projects 34. Introduction to Contracts, Jamaican Contract Documents &
Tendering Procedures
35. Selection & Use of Consultants 36. Project Documents for Planning & Implementation 37. Report Writing for Projects 38. Project Files 39. Formats for Pre-Feasibility & Feasibility Studies 40. Motivation of Employees and Personnel Evaluation 41. Design of a Project Management Control System 42. Evaluating & Forecasting Project Progress & Performance 43. Project Termination 44. Introduction to Lending Agencies 45. Organizing and Conducting Conference Meetings 46. Withdrawal of and Accounting for Loan Funds in the Financing
of Projects

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25,1980
1. Mango Top Work Profile Training Domestic Complete, members of Team
and Follow-on involved in other projects
2. Logging and RR Profile Training Local Funding Pilot Project for UNDP. The
sleeper ties and Follow-on people involved in other pro-i
Consultation jects-l went on to be ir
ter for project.
3. Seed Production Profile Training Local Funding Seeking Foreign Funding. Site
Farm and Follow-on has been provided.
4. Marginal Land Profile Training Foreign Funding In Execution on Pilot, I
Dairy Development and Follow-on significantly. People v
Consultation on other projects.
5. Sorghum, Joint Profile Training Government and Project Rejected
Venture with Alum- and Follow-on Private Funding
inum Company Consultation
6. Urban Farmer Train- Profile Training Local Funding In implementation, expanded ir
ing and Follow-on several other places.
7. Soya Farm Project Profile Training Local Funding Rejected
and Follow-on
8. Pork Processing Profile Training Local Funding Rejected-later became foundaand F611ow-on for a different project
9. Craft Profile Training Local, Foreign, In Implementation
and Follow-on and Non-Government
Consultation Funding
10. Garment Industry Profile Training Foreign Funding Completed
Upgrading and Follow-on

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
11. Women's Vocational Series of Foreign Non- In successful operation
Training Center Consultations Government
12. Land Settlement. Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
Project in Ebony Feasibility Study Park and Implementation
13. Utility Pole Profile Training Local and Foreign In Implementation
Program and.Follow-on Funding
14. Fishing Boats Consultation on Foreign Funding Approved
15. Coordinated Craft Consultation on Local Funding Attempted to get foreign
Industry Profile and Feasi- funding, reduced project for
bility Study local funding
16. Land Reclamation Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
for Rice Profile and Feasibility Study
17. Childhood Basic Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
Services Profile, Feasibilty
and Implementation
18. Childhood Nutri- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
tion Gastroentir- and Follow-on itis Project Consultation
19. Black River Upper Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
Morass Land Devel- Profile, Feasibiliopment ty and Implementation
20. Sunflower Pilot Consultation on Local Funding Present Status Unknown
Project Profile
21. Adolescent Mother Consultation on Local and Foreign Present Status Unknown
Project Profile Non-Government

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
22. Sugar Factory Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
Rehabilitation Feasibility
23. Yallahs Water Consultation on Foreign Funding Early Stages of Implemen
Project Feasibility
24. Blue Mountain Consultation on. Foreign Funding Still in Study Stage
Water Supply Profile and PreFeasibility Study
25. Agr iculture Mark- Consultation on Foreign (AID) Early Implementation, limited
eting Program Profile Funding Scale
26. Meat Processing Consultation on Foreign Funding In Study Stage (limited implePlant Feasibility mentation of of some aspects)
27. Agricultural Cre- Consultation on Foreign Funding In Process of Approval
dit Small Farm Profile and Feasibility
28. Meat Processing Profile Training Foreign Funding Rejected Locally
Project and Follow-on
29. Market Improve- Consultation on Foreign Funding Significantly revised some asment Profile and Feasi- pects in Training
30. Polyester Cotton Consultation on Ap- Foreign Funding In Implementation
Mill praisal and Design
31. Commercial Fish- Consultation on Foreign Funding Awaiting Approval
eries Feasibility
32. Solid Waste Mark- Consultation on Foreign Funding Still .in Study Stage
eting Study Feasibility
33. Coffee Expansion Consultation-on Foreign Funding Limited Implementation with
Profile and Feasi- Domestic Funding

Kind of Status of Project
- Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25. 1980
34. Second Population Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
Project Appraisal
35. Dependent Women Consultation on Foreign Non-Gov- Approved-but no progress yet
Vocational Center Profile erment Funding
36. Integrated Rural Implementation Foreign Funding In Implementation
Development Training
37. Particle Board Consultation on Foreign Funding Local Approval Pending
Factory Feasibility, Implementation and
38. Blue Mountain Implementation Seeking Foreign Some Local Implementation
Coffee Processing Training Funding awaiting Foreign Funding
39. Secondary Roads Implementation Foreign Funding In Implementation
Project Training
40. Charlemont Settle- Implementation Mostly local, but In Operation
ment Project Training some Foreign Funding
41. Land Lease Site Implementation Local Funding In Operation
42. Integrated Rural Implementation Foreign (AID) In Operation
Development Demon- Training Funding
stration Center
43. St. Mary Pioneer Implementation Local Funding In Operation
Farm Training
44. First Rural Devel- Implementation Foreign (World In Implementation
opment Project- Training Bank) Funding
Site Development
45. Lacovia Irrigation Consultation on Foreign Funding Approved
Project Profile

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25,1980
46. Piedro Plains Consultation on Foreign Funding Approved
Irrigation Project Profile
47. Pure Farm Pro- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
duction and Follow-on
48. Grape Production Profile Training Lccal Funding In Implementation
Yallah afid Follow-on
49. Cocoa Demonstra- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
tion and Follow-on
50. Potato Expansion Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
and Follow-on
51. Home Industry Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation (expanded)
Fruit Processing and Follow-on Consultation
52. Grape Production Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
St. Catherine and Follow-on
53. Vegetable Demon- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
stration and Follow-on
54. Demonstration Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
Farm and Follow-on
55. 'Tumeric Pilot Profile Training Local Funding Rejected
Project aiid Follow-on
56. Small Stock ProfileTraining Local Funding In Implementation
Feeding and Folrow-on

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
57. Pioneer Farm Profile Training, Local Funding In Operation
and Follow-on
58. Cassava Produc- Profile Training Local Funding Significantly Revised, in
tion Marketing and Follow-on Implementation
59. Pepper Processing Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
arid Follow-on
60. Fruit Juices Profile Training Local Funding Awaiting Approval
Processing and Follow-on
61. Export Vegetable Profile Training Local Funding Pilot Project in ImplementaProj ect afid Follow-on tion
62. Agriculture Train- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
ing Complex and Follow-on
62. Agriculture Train- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
ing Complex and Follow-on
63. Tropical Plants Consultation on Local Funding In Operation
for Export Profile
64. Black Coral Consultation on Local Funding Awaiting Legislation on EnProf ile vironmental Protection
65. Crown College Profile Training Foreign Funding Approved-Awaiting Site SelecProj ect and Follow-on tion
66. Community Health Profile Training Non-Government In Implementation
Clinic in Junc- and Follow-on' Funding
tion Consultation

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
67. Correspondence Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
Education Project and Follow-on Consultation
68. Health, Nutrition Consultation on Foreign (AID) Awaiting Approval
Profile and Feasi- Funding bility
69. Family Planning Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
Education and Follow on
70. 12 Pioneer Farm Implementation Local Funding In Implementation
Sites Training
71. Fish Farming Implementation Local Funding In Implementation
Extension Training
72. Production Edu- Consultation on Foreign Funding In Authorization Stage
cation Project Profile
73. Agricultural Plan- Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
ing/Training Profile and Feasibility
74. World Bank Rural Implementation World Bank In Implementation
Integrated (cluster Training
of 9 sites) Land Sites Development
75. 20 Commercial En- Profile Training Local Funding In Implementation
terprise Projects* and Follow on Consultation
76. Duhaney Clinic Consultation on Foreign Funding In Implementation
77. Maternal Health Implementation Local Funding. In Implementation
Clinic Expansion Training
at Jubillee Hospital
*Small industry, craft and Agriculture Projects (Furniture, dairy farmsi tourism).

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
78. Secondary School Implementation Local Funding In Implementation
Family Planning Training
79. Family Planning Implementation Local Funding In Implementation
Consulting Services Training
Follow-up for College Students
80. Health Records Implementation Local Funding In Implementation
Project Training
81. Fort Antonio Consultation on Foreign Funding Awaiting Approval
Development Project Feasibility
82. Solid Waste Man- Consultation on Foreign Funding Awaiting Approval
agement Kings- Feasibility and
ton Appraisal
83. Grain Storage Consultation on Foreign Funding Awaiting Decision
Profits Feasibility and Appraisal
84. Water Reclama- Consultation on Foreign Funding. Awaiting Decision
tion and Reuse- Feasibility
85. Goats and Sheep Consultation on Foreign Funding Approved
Multiplication Feasibilty
86. Community Health Consultation on Foreign Non-Govern- Awaiting Decision
Aids Effectiveness Profilew ment Funding
87. Sanitation Mul- Consultation on Foreign Funding Still in Preparation
* ching Profile-'
88. Small Fisherman Consultation on Foreign Non-Govern- In Implementation
Implementation ment Funding

Kind of Status of Project
Name of Project Assistance Funding As of August 25, 1980
89. Fruit Juice Consultation on Foreign Non- Pending Decision
Processing Feasibility and Government Funding