Title: Research highlights
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071929/00005
 Material Information
Title: Research highlights
Uniform Title: Research highlights (East Lansing, Mich.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Place of Publication: East Lansing
Publication Date: 1984-
Subject: Beans -- Research -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Beans -- Research -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Research -- Periodicals -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Research -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Michigan State University Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (1984)-
General Note: Title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071929
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13864898

Full Text

Michigan State University Bean/Cowpea CRSP

Vol. I No. 5 1984

Ardeshir Ghaderi, Editor

New Bean Technology for Detection and Identification
of International Seed Borne Viruses
Tanzania/Washington State University/Silbernagel

The development of new, improved bean
cultivars, carrying resistance to the major
diseases and pests, requires the ability to
utilize germ plasm which possess resistance
wherever such plant material can be found.
However, numerous biological strains of
bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) occur
worldwide which make international coop-
eration through the exchange of potentially
useful breeding stock difficult. Identification
of strains by biological methods takes many
months and requires considerable labor and
expensive greenhouse space. Supported by
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Washington State
University/Tanzania project, monoclonal an-
tibody reagents have now been developed
which can be used to identify specific BCMV
strains within 8 to 24 hours by enzyme-
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With
methods now being developed for shipping
sample-treated ELISA plates by mail, these
reagents can be used to serotype BCMV iso-
lates from plant breeders and pathologists
throughout the world under standard condi-
The monoclonal antisera to BCMV being
developed at WSU will help identify BCMV
strains present in different production areas
rapidly, inexpensively, and without sophisti-
cated training, equipment, or facilities. Hy-
bridoma lines are produced by fusing cul-
tured mouse cancer cells with mouse spleen
cells after the mouse has been infected with
the purified virus. The mouse spleen cells
produce antibodies against the virus. The
mouse cancer cells are easily cultured on ar-

tificial media; the mouse spleen cells are
not. Hybridizing cancer cells with spleen
cells gives hybridoma lines which can be
maintained indefinitely in frozen storage.
Whenever more antiserum is needed, the
line is removed from liquid nitrogen storage
and cultured on artificial medium where it
produces more antibodies. This technique
will greatly facilitate choice of correct
sources of resistance (hybrid parents) and
will improve the efficiency of screening seg-
regating populations to recover the desired
combinations of specific resistance factors
needed in new cultivars. The technology will
be especially useful for scientists in develop-
ing countries where biological testing can-
not be done due to lack of facilities or
trained personnel.
The monoclonal antisera to strains of
BCMV which are being developed through
this CRSP will be commercialized by private
industry. Returns to a WSU Research Found-
ation from this operation will help support
additional agricultural research activities at
WSU. These antisera will help all US public
and private research and production agen-
cies that monitor the presence of new
dangerous strains to assure that what they
ship to other areas is not carrying seed
borne virus. This capability is especially per-
tinent to the International Center for Tropi-
cal Agriculture (CIAT) and the USDA Plant
Introduction Service, which have approxi-
mately 30,000 and 8,000 bean accessions, re-
spectively, from all over the world. This as-
surance of freedom from virus diseases will

Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant No. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261

help protect the international reputation of
the US commercial seed production areas,
as well as assist in the reliable production of
disease-free seed stocks. These antisera
used in conjunction with the Prosser ELISA
diagnostic laboratory will also make possible
for the first time in history a rapid, inexpen-
sive means of gathering epidemiological
data on the occurrence and identity of
BCMV in any production area of the world.
Several new strains of BCMV have been
found in Europe in the past few years (NL-3,
5, 8) which overcome the dominant I gene
resistance found in most US snap bean and
some dry bean cultivars. The I gene resis-
tance alone has been effective for many
years because the BCMV strains prevalent in
the US (type, NY-15 and western) cause a
hypersensitive systemic necrosis in I gene
cultivars only at temperatures above 32C
(900F). The European isolates NL-3, 5, 8 can
induce a lethal systemic necrosis in some I
gene cultivars at temperatures as low as 18-

Plate 1: Dr. L. L. Boyd, Director of the Washington State
University Agricultural Research Center and chair
of the CRSP Board of Directors (left) reviews the
serologic technique for screening BCMV
developed by graduate student Mr. S. Wang
(right) working with his major professor, Dr. G.
Mink of the WSU Irrigated Agriculture Research
Extension Center, who are researchers on the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Tanzania project.

250C (65-700F). There is reason to suspect
these isolates found their way to Europe via
snap bean seed multiplications by the Euro-
peans in East Africa. Personal communica-
tion by this project's US Principal Inves-
tigator with a University of Nairobi graduate
student, Mr. Michael Omunyin, revealed that
9 out of 14 BCMV isolates he identified from
Kenya bean collections (Thesis study) had
the same pathogenic range on recessive I
gene differential hosts as the NL-3 and NL-5
strains. None of the Kenyan isolates were
exactly identical in necrosis reactions, how-
ever, to the European strains NL-3 or 5.
In November 1982, a seed borne BCMV
isolate was found in a Prosser greenhouse
increase of a bean accession obtained from
Tanzania. Initial greenhouse differential host
tests and serologic index tests indicate this
strain is similar to a field isolate from the cul-
tivar Sanilac recently found in Michigan, and
currently being investigated by Dr. A. Saet-
tier at Michigan State University. Both of

Plate 2: Dr. M. Silbernagel, USDA researcher and US
Principal Investigator of the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP Tanzania project.

these isolates attack the same host range as
NL-3 and NL-5. These new strains are a
threat to US bean production. Most US cul-
tivars with dominant I resistance would be
severely affected by a lethal systemic ne-
crosis if infected by these strains. Many sus-
ceptible old dry bean cultivars such as
Sanilac, Pinto U of I III, or Sutter Pink could
serve as reservoir hosts for these new
strains, because they only develop a typical
systemic mosaic mottle when infected. It is
highly probable these new strains are seed
transmitted in many dry bean cultivars pro-
duced in the US. In 1977 Hampton and Sil-
bernagel found an isolate similar to this in
Idaho, but it has not been found in a com-
mercial production area until now.
The cooperative bean breeding programs
at Prosser IAREC have been in operation for
about 25 years. The dry beans and snap
beans developed there are uniquely resis-
tant to a range of important virus diseases
and root rots. Through the years USDA

breeders have worked closely with WSU
cooperators to improve nutritional quality
(McGinnis, Koehler, Swanson), biological
nitrogen fixation (Bezdicek), cold tolerance
and halo blight resistance (Anderson-Mt
Vernon), and virus resistance (Mink). Most
of these objectives are in line with the global
goals of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Therefore
the USDA/WSU bean program is able to
make a significant contribution to the bean
research needs of East Africa and the bean
production global objectives of the CRSP.
Use of sample-treated plates being de-
veloped under this project will reduce the
custom and quarantine problems associated
with international exchange of infectious
viruses, reduce much of the costly duplica-
tion of testing done at many locations, and
accelerate development of BCMV-resistant
bean cultivars. Tests will be available to pub-
lic and private breeders, pathologists, etc. at
a nominal cost.

Pae4D- :.B:un Ndngu Hea ofw the

Deate- of Crop Sicience atIthe Universit
4- -;
'*;-* i- n? "B ^ ^ ^ -e
Ilk It IK*
'* *. ....... . .. I

-of Dr ..-,. L Mroo an Hs
L rI

immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The dark color indicates presence of the virus.

Department of Crop Science at the University

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Tanzania project.

a1ill "
PPlate 4: Dr. Bruno Ndlunguru, Head of the
i mmu '..'bt /y ,E).,;,Department of Crop Science at the University

For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035

Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810-251-0737

An international community of persons, institutions,
agencies and governments committed to collectively
strengthening health and nutrition in developing
countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas

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