• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Selection of farms and farmers
 Farmers' response in the field...
 Collection of physical and economic...
 Analysis of physical and economic...
 Research funds and sources
 Research papers published and utilized...
 Concluding remarks
 Appendix I: Account of 5 acres...
 Appendix II: Account of 4 dairy...
 Appendix III: Input-output coefficients...
 Appendix IV: Gross returns, return...
 Appendix V: Marginal return to...






Group Title: Staff paper ;, 307
Title: Thirty years (1955-1985) of farm management research in Greece
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071927/00001
 Material Information
Title: Thirty years (1955-1985) of farm management research in Greece
Series Title: Staff paper
Physical Description: ii, 20 leaves : 1 map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kitsopanidåes, Geåorgios I
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Farm management -- Research -- Greece   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Greece
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by George J. Kitsopanidis.
General Note: "April 1987."
Funding: Staff paper (University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Dept.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071927
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 37650440

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Selection of farms and farmers
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Farmers' response in the field of records and accounts
        Page 5
    Collection of physical and economic data
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Analysis of physical and economic data
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Research funds and sources
        Page 12
    Research papers published and utilized by farmers and farm organizations
        Page 13
    Concluding remarks
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Appendix I: Account of 5 acres of wheat
        Page 16
    Appendix II: Account of 4 dairy cows
        Page 17
    Appendix III: Input-output coefficients of annual and perennial crop and livestock enterprises
        Page 18
    Appendix IV: Gross returns, return to labor and farm income as a percentage of the total production costs
        Page 19
    Appendix V: Marginal return to opportunity cost ratios of the production factors used in various crop and livestock enterprises
        Page 20
Full Text
















THIRTY YEARS (1955-1985) OF FARM MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH IN GREECE


George J. Kitsopanidis


Staff Paper #307 April 1987





















THIRTY YEARS


(1955-1985) OF FARM MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH IN GREECE


By


George J. Kitsopanidis


Staff Paper #307


April 1987


Staff Paper are circulated without formal review
by the Food and Resource Economics Department.
Content is the sole responsibility of the author.



Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Abstract ii

Introduction 1

Selection of Farms and Farmers 2

Farmers' Response in the Field of Records and Accounts 5

Collection of Physical and Economic Data 6

Analysis of Physical and Economic Data 9

Research Funds and Sources 12

Research Papers Published and Utilized by Farmers
and Farm Organizations 13

Concluding Remarks 14

Appendices I V 16












ABSTRACT


The Farm Management research, which is based on records and

accounts, started in certain countries at the beginning of the

present century. In Greece it started at the beginning of the

second half of this century.

In Greece, the purpose of the farm management research was

to introduce records and accounts in agriculture and to estimate

through them the economics, productivity and competitiveness of

several types of farming and various crop and livestock enter-

prises.

Our research experience of thirty years showed that it can

be done by applying a simplified system of records and accounts

and by persuading Greek farmers about the usefulness of farm

accounting for the profitability of their farms. The latter is

very difficult, taking into account the low educational level of

the majority of Greek farmers, the lack of business consider-

ation, and the suspicions of the research worker's motives. All

these can be overcome if the Greek Government and the Farmers'

Cooperatives decree advantages for those keeping records and

accounts and perceive the need for organizing farm management

research on a national basis.














THIRTY YEARS (1955-1985) OF FARM MANAGEMENT RESEARCH IN GREECE

By

George J. Kiteopanidis*



Introduction



In Greece, farm management research started, as far as

Iknow, after 1950, especially that which is based on records and

accounts. Indeed, the first attempts to introduce records and

accounts for farm management purposes had been made after World

War II (1940-1945) and after the Greek Civil War (1946-1949) on

the one hand by the Ministry of Agriculture and on the other by

the Agricultural Bank, but with little success. This is true

taking into account that no research paper has ever been pub-

lished by the Ministry of Agriculture, since it has limited its

task to keeping certain records and accounts exclusively for

educational purposes, while the Agricultural Bank stopped its

endeavors within a very short period. The first serious farm

management investigations, using records and accounts, were

undertaken by the Department of Agricultural Economics of the

University of Thessaloniki in 1954. Their purpose was to esti-

mate the economics, productivity and competitiveness of several

types of farming (cereals, industrial crops, fruit, vegetables,



*Professor and Head of the Agricultural Economics Research
Department of the University of Thessaloniki, Greece and Visiting
Scholar in the Food and Resource Economics Department of the
University of Florida, Gainesville.












2

dairy, poultry, etc.) and various crop and livestock enterprises

(wheat, corn, cotton, tobacco, sugar-beet, tomatoes, grapes,

peaches, cows, sheep, etc.)

During the 30 year period many hundred farms and farm

enterprises were studied in various regions of Greece, especially

in northern and central Greece (see map). Particularly, the

number of regions, farms and farm enterprises studied was closely

connected with the situation in our Department of Agricultural

Economics, its permanent scientific staff and the research funds

provided. As I will show you later, during the above mentioned

period we collaborated with more than 5,000 farmers from the

whole country, by using records and accounts for investigating

their farms and farm enterprises.



Selection of Farms and Farmers

The selection of farms and farmers was made in a systematic

way rather than randomly, because the collection of detailed, re-

liable and accurate physical and economic data for a long period

needs able and willing farmers to keep records and accounts.

Indeed, under Greek conditions this could not be achieved by

farmers chosen randomly, because of low educational level, in-

ability and unwillingness of the majority of them to keep records

and accounts, combined with their suspicions of the research

worker's motives.

The number of farms and farm enterprises chosen usually re-

presented between 3 and 10 percent of the total population based








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on the degree of homogeneity and our experience. In each re-

search undertaken, an attempt was made to include in the sample

chosen farms and farm enterprises representative of all regions,

locations, sizes, yields, degrees of mechanization, technological

level and of the farm techniques used according to the type of

research.

The selection of the farmers were carried out with the help

of the local agriculturists of the Extension Service of the

Ministry of Agriculture, the Agricultural Bank, the various

Agricultural Organizations (cotton, tobacco, sugar-beet, etc.)

and the Farmers' Cooperatives. The choice of farmers by the fore

mentioned agriculturists was based on the opinion that farmers

who happen to be presidents of their villages or cooperatives, or

who have other occupations beyond farming are more appropriate

for this type of collaboration. But this choice was not always a

happy one, because our experience gained during the past 30 years

has proved that it is a wrong practice. Indeed, these farmers do

not collaborate systematically in this kind of research. The

success of each research undertaken does not depend only on the

selection of the appropriate farmers, but it is also based on the

continuous and close contact between the research worker and the

farmers during the accounting year. This is necessary because

the majority of the farmers willingly undertake at first to keep

records and accounts, but their initial interest is usually ex-


hausted during the first year.















Farmers' Response in the Field of Records and Accounts

In general, the response of the farmers in the field of re-

cords and accounts was a positive one, since 87% of the more than

5000 farmers, who collaborated with us during the 30 year period,

kept simple records and accounts for a period of one, two or even

three years. In this kind of research, farmers of various re-

gions, types of farming, farm sizes and educational levels col-

laborated with our Department. The above mentioned farmers can

be divided into four groups according to their degree of re-

sponse.

The first group included about 3 percent of all farmers.

These farmers kept simple records and accounts by themselves and

showed special interest in this kind of collaboration because

they believed that their income could be improved by so doing.

The second group represented about 30 percent of all

farmers. These farmers did not keep records and accounts by

themselves, but they were willing to collaborate with our Depart-

ment, at least for one year, because they considered the input-

output relationships and the financial results achieved to be

useful to their farms.

The third and largest group of farmers (about 40 percent)

were good natured, but they did not have any special interest in

keeping records and accounts. So they collaborated in this field

of research for a short period of time because the agriculturists

of their region persuaded them to do so.












6

Finally, to the fourth group belonged the remaining about 30

percent. These farmers showed at first a willingness to keep re-

cords and accounts, but this willingness exhausted itself before

the end of the first year.

The unwillingness of the majority of the farmers in the

fourth group and of some farmers in the third and second groups

to continue to keep records and accounts is due to:

(a) the lack of business consideration (not limited to

small farmers), because they believe that the increase of their

farm income can be achieved only through government assistance.

For this reason, these farmers do not believe in the usefulness

of records and accounts as a means of increasing their incomes,

(b) the nature of the Greek farmers, who cannot bear to

wait for a whole year to ascertain the financial results of their

farms, but they want to know their farm income within a very

short period,

(c) the low educational level of the majority of farmers,

who cannot get down on a "handy diary" the simplest physical and

economic data of their farms, and

(d) the suspicion of the research worker's motives, namely

these farmers do not wish to reveal their true income, because

they believe it will affect financial support by the Government.



Collection of Physical and Economic Data

The collection of the physical and economic data of the

various types of farming and crop and livestock enterprises re-













7

fers both to the accounting method used and to the way the data

were kept by the farmers in their notebooks and transferred by

the research worker or fieldman to his accounting books.

Among the various accounting methods, the improved simple

bookkeeping method was used as a basis, as it seemed to be the

most appropriate for the study of small peasant farms. This

method was adjusted to Greek farm conditions and special tables

and diaries' were added so as to make possible the calculation of

input-output relationships and other financial results not only

for the farm as a whole, but also for the most important crop and

livestock enterprises separately. Later, based on the use of

records and accounts in a considerable number of farms over a

period of years and on the experience obtained, we devised a new

method in which special emphasis is given to the need for writing

down at the end of each day the physical and economic data rele-

vant to the various farm enterprises during the accounting year.1

These data include the land used (good or poor quality, irrigated

or unirriagated), the labor required per operation (plowing,

harrowing, sowing, fertilization, inter-row cultivations, plant-

ing, application of herbicides, irrigation, spraying, pruning,

picking, transportation, milking, feeding, cleaning, etc.). In

this way, accurate and detailed physical and economic data are

obtained, which may satisfy the requirements of any single method

for economic analysis and synthesis. This accounting method is



I Examples of these special diaries for one crop and one
livestock enterprise are included in the appendices I and II.













8

taught in detail to the students of Agricultural Economics and it

was presented in a brief paper many years ago.2

The meetings between research worker or trained fieldman and

farmers were arranged by correspondence, the letters being mailed

at least seven days before each visit. The letters informed

farmers of the day and the time of meeting at the village. The

investigator usually met the farmers at their homes or at the

offices of the local agriculturists. The frequency of successive

meetings between investigator and farmers depended on the kind of

records and accounts kept (a whole farm or an individual farm

enterprise only), on the number of years in which the farmer kept

records and accounts, on the type of farming, etc. The interval

usually fluctuated from two to four weeks for the investigation

of a whole farm, and from one to two months for the investigation

of a crop or livestock enterprise only. In the early years the

investigator or fieldman visited the farmers by bus or train,

usually walking from village to village, but later he visited the

farmers in his own car and sometimes used vehicles of the Agri-

cultural Services. In cases where the collection of the physical

and economic data of a large number of farms was made by under-

graduate students of Agricultural Economics, their joint trans-

portation was arranged by a bus especially hired for this pur-

pose. The main task of the fieldman in the farmer's house was to

check carefully the records for omissions and incorrect entries



= "Accounting methods for small farms" The Farm Economist,
Vol. X, No.3, Oxford 1963.













9

and to transfer the various records from the farmer's notebook to

his accounting books. The inventory and appraisal of the various

forms of capital (fixed, working, variable) was taken by the in-

vestigator in cooperation with the farmer at time convenient to

the latter. This work was carried out twice, namely at the be-

ginning and the end of the accounting year.

Our experience over the past thirty years is that Greek

farmers are not only unable to keep a complete system of farm

accounting, but not even simple records and accounts for their

farms by themselves, because this is difficult work for them in

view of their educational level. For this reason, in all inves-

tigations undertaken, the farmers were given a simple notebook to

be used as a "diary of farm records". This notebook was divided

into a number of accounts, depending on the most important crop

and livestock enterprises of each farm and the main farm enter-

prises of each region.



Analysis of Physical and Economic Data

The analysis of the physical and economic data obtained in

the various types of farming and farm enterprises refers both to

the methods used and to the required numerical work, given the

kind of calculating machines that were available.

The analysis was limited to the economics of farm production

only. This was achieved by applying: (a) methodology for the

estimation of farm production costs, returns and incomes, and

certain input-output relationships, (b) statistics, especially












10

simple (linear and curvilinear) and multiple (linear) regression

and correlation analysis, (c) production functions, especially

the Cobb-Douglas, and (d) simple and mathematical programming

(budgeting, programme planning, linear, parametric, quadratic and

integer-programming).

First of all, the collected physical and economic data were

worked out per farm or farm enterprise of each collaborating

farmer and the appropriate tables were completed. These tables

were used on the one hand to inform each farmer of the financial

results obtained in his case and on the other for the main

analysis of the research undertaken.

The initial analysis of the data of 1050 farms refers to the

farm plan, the land available, the labor available and required,

the existing capital (fixed and variable) and to the calculation

of the gross return. The contribution to gross return of each

farm enterprise, the production costs, the profits, the return to

land, labor and capital, the farm income, and the monthly and

annual degree of the farm family's employment were also calcu-

lated. The main purpose of the whole farm analysis, as dis-

tinguished by types of farming, was to estimate their economics,

productivity and competitiveness, according to farm size, gross

return achieved, and production costs involved. The comparative

analysis of the various types of farming revealed the essential

factors of competitiveness. The marginal analysis of the types

of farming showed the existing relationship between marginal

value products and opportunity costs of the various production














11

factors according to the farm size, gross return and production

costs, and it suggested one way by which the optimum combination

of resources could be achieved. The programming of the various

types of farming refers to the comparison between the actual and

optimum farm plans and the corresponding financial results which

showed the need for reorganization and possible optimum organi-

zation of the various farms.

The initial analysis of the data of 20 various crop and

livestock enterprises (a total of approximately 8,000 cases) re-

fers to the land used, the labor required per month and per farm

operation, the various forms of fixed and variable capital need-

ed, the estimation of the different input-output coefficients,"

and to the calculation of the gross return achieved and the con-

tribution to this return of both the main products and any by-

products, the production costs (total and per unit) and the role

which the various production factors played in these costs.'

Various kinds of expenses were calculated, including farm oper-

ations, fixed and variable costs, as well as the calculation of

the profits, the return to land, labor and capital, and the farm

income.4 The main analysis made of the various crop and live-

stock enterprises was presented according to yield, land area

cultivated or number of animals fed, degree of mechanization,


3 Input-output coefficients for the most important crop and
livestock enterprises in Greece are included in the Appendix III.

4 Gross Returns, Returns to Labor, Farm Incomes and Costs of
Each Production Factor Used as a Percentage in the Total Costs
for the Most Important Crop and Livestock Enterprises are
Included in the Appendix IV.












12

variety of crop grown or breeds of livestock, cooperation or

contracts with cooperatives or private companies, method of feed-

ing, length of laying or fattening period, etc. This analysis

helped to determine the economic position, productivity and com-

petitiveness of each crop and livestock enterprise and suggested

ways for a better organization. On the other hand, the various

input-output relationships, which defined the technological level

of the various crop and livestock enterprises and revealed the

strong and weak points of the existing organization and deter-

mined the future level of development, were based on the physical

and economic data analyzed in the corresponding farm enterprises.

Also, the marginal productivity analysis showed the existing

ratios between marginal value products and opportunity costs of

the production factors used and their marginal rate of substi-

tution." Finally, the minimization of the production costs of

the various crop and livestock products achieved by the use of

mathematical programming showed any improvement realizable in the

profitability and competitiveness of the corresponding farm

enterprises.



Research Funds and Sources

The research funds used during the 30 year period were

generally limited and they came mainly from public agricultural

organizations (School of Agriculture of the University of


0 Marginal returns to opportunity costs ratios of the three
production factors used for the most important crop and livestock
enterprises are included in the Appendix V.












13

Thessaloniki, Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Bank of

Greece, Hellenic Sugar Industry, Hellenic Organizations of

Tobacco and Cotton, etc.) and secondarily from farmers' cooper-

atives. It is estimated to be approximately $100,000 converted

in 1985 values or about $3,300 per year. This money was spent

for travelling expenses, mailing letters, printing tables, hiring

temporary undergraduate students and young agriculturists, etc.



Research Papers Published and Utilized by Farmers and Farm
Organizations

In the course of the 30 year period, about 60 research

papers were published relating to main types of farming and crop

and livestock enterprises in Greece, especially in Central and

Northern Greece. These papers include classical analysis, pro-

duction functions and marginal productivity analysis, and farm

planning and programming (budgeting, simplified programming and

mathematical programming, e.g., linear, parametric, quadratic,

integer, etc.). Reprints of the most important papers have been

sent to various Agricultural Economics Departments all over the

world and are available in our Department.

During the first years, in which the number of farms and

farm enterprises studied was small, the input-output relation-

ships and the financial results achieved were presented to each

farmer separately by the research worker during a special meeting

at the farmer's village. More specifically, in their meeting the

research worker explained to the farmer the meaning of the rela-

tionships obtained and the results achieved and recommended the












14

appropriate changes needed in the reorganization of his farm in

order to secure a higher farm income. Later, when the number of

farms and farm enterprises studied was considerable, a table with

the main input-output relationships and the most important fi-

nancial results compared to the average ones in his region was

mailed to each farmer. In order to achieve a better compre-

hension by the farmer of the relationships and results appearing

in this table, he was given the opportunity of a personal contact

with the local Agriculturists of the Extension service.

The papers published and especially those relating to the

most important crop and livestock enterprises were utilized by

various Agricultural Services and Farmers' Cooperatives albeit

unsystematically. More specifically, they were utilized briefly

in the case of production costs estimated in order to serve as a

basis for determining guaranteed prices of certain crop and live-

stock products both from the Greek Government and Farmers' Coop-

peratives.



Concluding Remarks

The farm management research during the past 30 years showed

that it is possible to investigate Greek farming in depth by us-

ing records and accounts. This is true taking into account the

input-output relationships and financial results estimated by

this methodology, some of which are included in the appendices of


this paper.












15

The investigation of Greek farming by keeping records and

accounts can be undertaken on a permanent basis by the existing

Departments of Agricultural Economics or by creating a special

Institute of Agricultural Economics Research covering the whole

country. The success of this investigation depends on the will-

ingness on the one hand of the Greek Government and on the other

of the various Public Organizations and the Farmers' Cooperatives

to provide the research funds needed.

It is believed that the accurate measurement of the produc-

tivity of Greek farming every year it would be useful not only

for farm management purposes but also for Government's Agricul-

tural Policy.











APPENDIX I

Account of 5 Acres of Wheat


Variety . .
Age . .
No. of Fields 3


Diary of Physical and Economic Data

Labor in Hours Including Time To and From the Field

Men and Women Machinery Seeds,
Fertilizers
Family Hired Own in Hours Pesticides, Total
etc. Production
Description of each kind Trac- Har- Fertz. Wa- Hired
Date of farm operation performed Hours $ Hours $ tor Plow row Sower Sprayer Binder Spr/den gon $ Ibs $ Bush. $


Nov., 2 Plowing 5.0 6.0 5.0 5.0

Nov., 3 Harrowing 2.5 3.0 2.5 2.5

Nov., 4 Fertilizing and sowing
(2 persons x 3 hours) 6.0 7.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.5

Seeds: 5 acres x 120 lbs 600 60

Fertilizers: 5 acres x 240 lbs 1200 64





June, 25 Combine 130.0 200 1300




70.0 84.0 18 27.0 40.0 5.0 2.5 3.0 5.0 6.0 20.0 145.0 164 200 1300









APPENDIX II

Account of 4 Dairy Cows


Breed: Holstein
Age : 6 years


Diary of Physical and Economic Data


Since .....

Until .....
(Every week
or 10 days)

Oct. 1-10




Dec. 21-30)


.abor ii HoIurs and Dollars

Men and Women Hachir

Own
Family Hired
Trac- Wa-


Hours $


16 19
I


March 11-20 17 20







Year 600 720


Hour
k ..- -


s


tor gon


S Kind and Quantity of Feed


lery




Hired


$ Hours Hours $


Corn


cotton
Bar seed
ley Bran meal


lbs '


alfal-
fa
hay


straw


Veterinary,
Heating,
Electricity.
Material of
Cleaning, etc


Total Production

Product A Product B

Milk Calves


1 1- r r


tons


Gallons


Births


Deaths


Weaning


(units) (units) Units $


i-- I I I I .II I I 4- 4- I t I I- I t


-iJ 1 4 -I-I -I I I I 1 1I


4.45d4,430 3,080 1,185 15.5


.96


4,320


3,276 4


_ I __ _I I I _ _ _ _


I 500


I -


I





APPENDIX III
Input-Output Coefficients of Annual and Perennial Crop and Livestock Enterprises


Farm Enterprises Labor Required Yield Feed Conversion Rate


A. Crops
1. Wheat (soft) cultivated in low land areas
2. Wheat (soft) cultivated in high land areas
3. Wheat (durum)
4. Barley
5. Corn (irrigated)
6. Rice
7. Tomatoes (for processing) (irrigated)
8. Tobacco (neutral) (irrigated)
9. Tobacco (aromatic)
10. Tobacco burleyy) (irrigated)
11. Cottonseed (harvested by machine) (irrigated)
12. Cottonseed (harvested by hand) (irrigated)
13. Sugar beet (irrigated)
14. Beans (dwarf) (irrigated)
15. Beans (climbing) (irrigated)
16. Potatoes (irrigated
17. Alfalfa (irrigated)
18. Peaches (irrigated)
19. Apples (irrigated)
20. Pears (irrigated)


B. Livestock
21. Broiler Production (per 1 m2 or 10 chicks and
3.4 lots per year or 34 chicks)
22. Poultry Egg Production (per layer per year)
23. Dairy Cows (per cow per year)

24. Cow-Calf production (per cow per year)
25. Calves Fattening (per calf for 300 days fattening)
26. Pig Production (per sow and 1.86 litters per year
including fattening of feeder pigs)


man equivalent
hours per acre


6.4
6.8
5.2
6.0
45.6
34.0
330.0
794.0
1,697.6
668.4
64.0
238.8
122.4
150.8
645.6
201.2
50.4
302.4
328.0
361.2


Man Equivalent Hours

2.4


0.6
135.0

58.7
30.5

96.0


27. Sheep Production (per ewe per year)


tons per
acre

1.10
1.63
0.92
1.04
3.66
2.05
18.43
0.56
0.50
1.43
1.05
1.09
26.23
0.67
1.01
8.79
5.07
6.18()
9.09(1)
7.28(1)


Yield


131.3 l.w. pounds


244 eggs
920 gallons of milk
and 0.80 calves
0.76 calves
1,084 l.w. pounds

14.7 feeder pigs or 2,726
l.w. pounds
21.9 gallons of milk
and 0.92 lambs


Feed Conversion Rate

0.42 lbs. meat per lb. feed

2.8 eggs per lb. feed
0.18 gal. milk per lb. feed


0.18 Ibs. meat per lb. feed

0.25 lbs. meat per lb. feed

0.1 gal. milk per lb. feed


(1) Acreage yield over the entire productive life e.g. 15 years for peaches, 25 years for apples and 20 years for pears.








APPENDIX IV
Gross Returns, Return to Labor and Farm Income as a Percentage of the Total Production Costs
TOTAL PRODUCTION COSTS
Annual
Expenses
Land Labor Variable of Fixed Miscella- Gross Return Farm
Rent Wages Capital Capital neous Return to Labor Income(1)
Farm Enterprises % % % % % % % %
A. Croos


1. Wheat (soft) low land
2. Wheat (soft) high land
3. Wheat (durum)
4. Barley
5. Corn (irrigated)
6. Rice
7. Tomatoes (for processing)
8. Tobacco (neutral)
9. Tobacco (aromatic)
10. Tobacco burleyy)
11. Cottonseed (harvested by
machine)
12. Cottonseed (harvested by
hand)
13. Sugar Beet
14. Beans (dwarf)
15. Beans (climbing)
16. Potatoes
17. Alfalfa
18. Peaches
19. Apples
20. Pears

B. Livestock
21. Poultry meat
22. Poultry egg
23. Dairy cows
24. Cows producing calves
25. Calves fattening
26. Pigs
27. Sheep


S4.8
- 4.7
S 15.4
S 24.2
-3.8
-7.4
22.9


50.4
45.8
48.6
50.8
33.1
42.3
27.3
19.5
12.6
25.9

35.4

21.3
31.3
31.2
17.8
47.7
37.5
24.8
31.0
28.5


88.1
57.9
63.5
43.3
84.2
79.9
44.5


8.0
6.7
8.0
8.1
8.9
8.8
7.6
6.3
3.9
8.7

8.4

7.3
9.3
8.1
7.0
8.3
6.7
12.4
17.4
17.0


6.1
35.1
20.7
30.8
9.9
10.1
32.6


114.8
128.8
123.4
113.7
105.5
114.3
101.4
131.0
112.2
168.8

103.7

100.9
101.2
102.2
111.5
125.0
112.4
123.3
176.3
215.3


101.1
111.9
101.1
104.7
105.4
100.5
103.8


20.7
34.1
29.5
20.7
20.3
22.8
42.0
98.1
90.8
118.3

18.4

42.2
19.4
29.4
71.8
50.0
30.3
60.7
112.8
154.5


5.9
16.6
16.5
28.9
9.2
7.9
26.7


56.0
75.5
67.9
54.3
62.3
59.5
68.1
109.9
99.5
140.6

58.6

71.2
60.5
63.3
83.5
68.0
66.7
85.6
128.6
170.8


10.0
23.2
27.4
48.6
17.6
16.5
41.8


(1)In this appendix farm income includes land rent, remuneration of labor used, interest on capital invested and profit achieved irrespective -
of whether all or some of the above resources belong to the farmer or to other persons.







APPENDIX V
Marginal Return to Opportunity Cost Ratios of the Production
Factors Used in Various Crop and Livestock Enterprises
PRODUCTION FACTORS

Farm Enterprises Land Labor Capital


A.


B. Livestock
21. Poultry meat
22. Poultry egg
23. Dairy cows
24. Cows producing calves
25. Calves fattening
26. Pigs
27. Sheep


Crops
1. Wheat (soft) low land
2. Wheat (soft) high land
3. Wheat (durum)
4. Barley
5. Corn
6. Rice
7. Tomatoes (for processing)
8. Tobacco (neutral)
9. Tobacco (aromatic)
10. Tobacco burleyy)
11. Cottonseed (picked by machine)
12. Cottonseed (picked by hand)
13. Sugar beet
14. Beans (dwarf)
15. Beans (climbing)
16. Potatoes
17. Alfalfa
18. Peaches
19. Apples
20. Pears


0.86
1.14
0.87
0.87
0.79
0.49
2.73
2.75
2.53
4.11
0.52
0.63
1.85
0.87
9.77
1.74
1.07
0.58(1)
0 9(1)
0.99(
-2.40



(2)
2.05(2)
2.09(2)
1.18(2)
2.08 2)
5.70(2)
2.23


0.08
-0.24
1.37
-2.60
1.34
0.01
0.92
1.03
0.87
1.36
2.43
1.89
1.42
1.20
0.41
3.17
1.34
2.41
3.14
5.54


1.39
0.83
0.24
1.79
1.91
0.23
0.60


(1)t includes both land and the value of fruit trees.
(2)It refers to the value of livestock.


1.54
1.62
1.04
1.59
1.78
2.29
0.54
1.75
0.99
0.73
0.61
0.30
1.09
0.82
0.56
0.75
1.24
0.43
1.53
0.51


1.39
1.16
1.06
1.20
1.00
1.15
0.97




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