• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Curricula in sustainable agric...
 National curriculum for sustainable...
 Reshaping undergraduate and graduate...
 Sustainable agriculture education:...
 Impact of sustainable agriculture...
 Education and sustainable agriculture:...
 Sustainable agricultural systems:...
 Appendix






Title: Extension and education materials for sustainable agriculture
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071923/00002
 Material Information
Title: Extension and education materials for sustainable agriculture a project of the North Central Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education and Agriculture in Concert with the Environment
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: King, James W
Francis, Charles A
University of Nebraska--Lincoln -- Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment (Program)
North Central Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program
Publisher: Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Place of Publication: Lincoln NE
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Sustainable agriculture -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: James W. King and Charles A. Francis, editors.
General Note: "January 1994."
General Note: "This material was prepared with the support of USDA Agreement no. 92-COOP-1-7266."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071923
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31201852

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Curricula in sustainable agriculture
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Introduction to curricula in sustainable agriculture
            Page 215
        Sustainable agriculture, agronomy 493/593 course outline
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
        Sustainable agriculture, agronomy 493/AG*SAT
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
        Principles and practices of sustainable agriculture
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
        Agricultural ecosystems
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
        Agricultural ecology
            Page 243
            Page 244
        Agroecology
            Page 245
            Page 246
        Agricultural ecology and sustainability
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
        Alternative agriculture curriculum
            Page 256
            Page 257
        Sustainable agriculture (B.S.)
            Page 258
            Page 259
        Environment and world food production
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
        Issues (advanced) in sustainable agriculture
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
        Crops, soil, and civilization, agronomy 440
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
        Master of science in sustainable systems
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
        Agricultural ecology
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
    National curriculum for sustainable agriculture
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
    Reshaping undergraduate and graduate education to include a whole systems emphasis
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
    Sustainable agriculture education: A panel
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Impact of sustainable agriculture programs on U.S. land grant universities
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
    Education and sustainable agriculture: An overview bibliography
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
    Sustainable agricultural systems: A bibliography focused on IPM, weed control, and systems
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
    Appendix
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
Full Text




q-7-


EXTENSION AND EDUCATION

MATERIALS FOR

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:

Volume 2


A Project of the North Central Region
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education and
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment












This material was prepared with the support of USDA Agreement no. 92-COOP-1-7266.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendation expressed herein are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or
the University of Nebraska.


o6~8
lbs
/6&











EXTENSION AND EDUCATION

MATERIALS FOR

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:

Volume 2


A Project of the North Central Region
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education and
Agriculture in Concert with the Environment


James W. King and Charles A. Francis
Editors

University of Nebraska Lincoln
Lincoln, Nebraska


For copies of this publication, send a check for ten dollars made to the
University of Nebraska to cover handling and shipping to:
Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems
University of Nebraksa Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68583-0940
January 1994
This material was prepared with the support of USDA Agreement no. 92-COOP-1-7266.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendation expressed herein are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or
the University of Nebraska.










Table of Contents
Volume 2

Extension and Education Materials for Sustainable Agriculture


Curricula in Sustainable Agriculture . . . .... ............ 213
Introduction to Curricula in Sustainable Agriculture .................. 215
Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 493/593 Course Outline ............. .216
Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 493/AG*SAT . . . ..... 223
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture . . . ..... 229
Agricultural Ecosystems ........ ........................... 239
Agricultural Ecology ..................................... 243
Agroecology .......................................... 245
Agricultural Ecology & Sustainability .......................... 247
Alternative Agriculture Curriculum ............ ................ .256
Sustainable Agriculture (B.S.) ............................... 258
Environment and World Food Production ................... ... .260
Issues (Advanced) in Sustainable Agriculture ...................... 266
Crops, Soil, and Civilization, Agronomy 440 ...... ................ 273
Master of Science in Sustainable Systems ........................ 279
Agricultural Ecology ..................................... 332


National Curriculum for Sustainable Agriculture ................


339


Reshaping Undergraduate and Graduate Education to Include a
Whole Systems Emphasis ....................


.............. 347


Sustainable Agriculture Education: A Panel ........................

Impact of Sustainable Agriculture Programs on U.S. Land Grant Universities ....


Education and Sustainable Agriculture: An Overview Bibliography ......

Sustainable Agricultural Systems: A bibliography Focused on IPM,
Weed Control, and Systems ............................


Appendix ............................................


. .. 371


..... 377


.... 383


. 353

. 359








CURRICULA IN SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE








Developed by:
Charles A. Francis and James W. King


Audience:


Objective:


University faculty interested in curriculum for
sustainable agriculture

To review actual curricula outlines in
sustainable agriculture


This material was prepared with the support ofUSDA Agreement No. 92-COOP-1-7266. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or
recommendations expressed herein are those ofthe authors and do not necessarily reflect the views ofthe U.S. Department of
Agriculture orthe University ofNebraska.









CURRICULA IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Workshop on Curricula for Sustainable Agriculture
SARE Project, Lincoln, NE & Ames, IA


1. Introduction to-Curricula in Sustainable Agriculture

2. Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 493/593 Course Outline, Ricardo Salvador
(Iowa State University)

3. Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 493/AG*SAT, Ricardo Salvador (Iowa State
University)

4. Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture, PSE 105, Matt Liebman
(University of Maine)

5. Agricultural Ecosystems, F&ES507a, Ricardo Russo, (Yale University)

6. Agricultural Ecology, CRS 102, (University of California, Berkeley)

7. Agroecology, ES130, Stephen Gliessman, (University of California, Santa Cruz)

8. Agricultural Ecology & Sustainability, AGRI344, James O'Rourke (Chadron
State College, Nebraska)

9. Alternative Agriculture Curriculum, (University of Vermont)

10. Sustainable Agriculture (B.S.), Bachelor of Science degree requirements and list
of available courses, Matt Liebman (University of Maine); Faculty List from
Maine.

11. Environment and World Food Production, AnPI 3010, Steve Simmons,
(University of Minnesota)

12. Issues (Advanced) in Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 445/545, Ricardo
Salvador, (Iowa State University)

13. Crops, Soil, and Civilization, Agronomy 440, Bruce James and David
Sammons, (University of Maryland)

14. Masters of Science in Sustainable Systems, Tom DeLuca, (Slippery Rock
University)

15. Agricultural Ecology, PSE 445, Matt Liebman and Stewart Smith, (University
of Maine)


214









1. Introduction to Curricula in Sustainable Agriculture


A spectrum of involvement:


PRINCIPLES & EXAMPLES

Specific examples can be brought into classes as part of the conventional topics
included in a course; eg. crop improvement course: in breeding crops for sustainable
systems, an important consideration is the genotype by environment interaction; for
example, are the optimum rice varieties for intensive cultivation under irrigation the
same ones that will do well under intermittent flooding and no fertilizer?


MODULES IN COURSES

One topic or module can be introduced into a conventional course; eg. introductory
agronomy course: an agroecology module was introduced into the lab part of the
course for the last three weeks it emphasized the connectedness of systems and the
potential non-sustainability of current Nebraska systems.


COURSES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

A course can be introduced as part of the curriculum, and even broadcast to other
locations and states; eg. Sustainable Agriculture, Agronomy 493 from Iowa State
University was broadcast twice each week to 17 sites in 1991 (Dr. Ricardo Salvador);
a number of such courses in sustainable agriculture and agroecology are included in
the packet


SERIES OF COURSES

A series of courses within a department or across departments can be included in the
conventional curriculum; eg. proposal from UNL for Introductory Course, Biology of
Agroecosystems Course, Crop Components Course, Seminar Course, and Capstone
senior level Course.


COMPLETE CURRICULA/DEGREES

University of Maine and Slippery Rock University (Pennsylvania) offer degrees; the
Maine program has both B.S. and M.S. in Sustainable Agriculture, and a detailed
description of the program and faculty is included.






Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus I'
8/7/89 Page 1 1


SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Agronomy 493/593


Ricardo Salvador
Professor in Charge

Course Outline

"A sustainable agriculture is one that, over the long term, enhances environmental quality and
the resource base on which agriculture depends; provides for basic human food and fiber needs,
is economically viable, and enhances the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."
-American Society of Agronomy, January 1989


November 8. 1989

The Notion of a Sustainable Agriculture Agricultural innovations
have allowed the production of large quantities of food and fiber of high
quality and with high labor efficiency. However, in some cases this has
been accomplished by practices that erode soils, deplete water tables,
contaminate foodstuffs and the environment, and require large energy
inputs. Sustainable agriculture embodies old and new ideas that address
some of these problems while providing for a dependable food supply.


216







F/ Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus
8/7/89 Page 2


November 15. 1989

Appropriate Tillage Systems --Over 40% -of energy inputs for
agricultural production worldwide are for tractor power. Tractors greatly
enhance labor productivity, but only in certain instances does
mechanization enhance land productivity. In fact, mechanization of
agriculture on erodible land might temporarily contribute to increased
food output, but in the long range will decrease the land base available for
food production. Since fossil energy shortfalls are projected for the
future, a highly energy-dependent strategy of farm mechanization as we
know it today may not be sustainable. What are the alternatives?

November 22. 1989

Resource Conservation Irrigation has allowed expansion of the
agricultural land base and has created a more dependable food supply.
However, in numerous cases fossil water is mined for irrigation or
aquifers are drained at greater than recharge rates. In addition, much
agricultural land has been taken out of production because of salinization
of poorly drained irrigated land. There are also serious non-agricultural
sources of competition for groundwater reserves (industry, urbanization).
How can the efficiency of water use for agriculture be improved? One of
the consequences of machine operations on agricultural land is the
heightened erosion of soil at rates far greater than the natural rate of soil
formation. This leads to loss of productive land and to contamination of
waterways. How can this primordial agricultural resource be better
managed?

November 29. 1989

Fertilizer Use and Groundwater Quality Chemical fertilizers
increase productivity of the land and are responsible for a major portion
of the boom in world agricultural output since 1950. But it is expensive
to manufacture fertilizers, a fact that is mirrored in the trend for
fertilizer sales to parallel grain prices. In developing countries, chemical
fertilizers contribute to make agriculture energy-dependent and less
labor-dependent. There is evidence of groundwater contamination with
fertilizer salts and of eutrophication of lakes and streams. This is
damaging to the environment and to organisms. How can fertilizer use
strategies be improved?


217






Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus
8/7/89 Page 3


December 6. 1989


The Issue of Food Security Supply of food for the future is
threatened by various sources. For several decades the amount of land
devoted to agriculture has decreased, while the demand for food has
increased in accordance with growing population. This has put pressure on
efforts to elevate land productivity. In turn, this has led to economic and
ecologic problems which only now are being understood. Some such
practices have ruined agricultural land due to salinization or erosion, and
have drastically lowered water tables, limiting the viability of such areas
for future agriculture. In addition, it is feared that certain industrial
processes that are now affecting the earth's chemistry may lead to global
warming and a resulting decrease of land that can be farmed with natural
rainfall. This would increase the need for irrigation schemes, which are
difficult to sustain ecologically, and expensive to sustain economically.
Globally, output from farm land is showing signs of slowing
in third world countries, and has actually reverted to sixties' levels on the
African continent. This trend is driven by the flow of people fleeing rural
poverty and relocating to urban centers. Because this pressures
governments to spend more on cities by reallocating resources previously
directed to rural areas, this weakens long-term food security since this
can only be ensured by stable and productive farm economies.


218






Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus
8/7/89 Page 4


December 13. 1989


Policy Concerns Individual farm economies must function within the
national economy, wherein private agriculture is manipulated by policy
mechanisms such as commodity subsidies and trade restrictions.
Economic power in the agricultural sector is increasingly concentrated in
industrial enterprises. As a result, important economic decisions at the
farm level are dictated by factors external to the farm. Are these the
characteristics of a sustainable agricultural economy?


December 20. 1989


Farming Systems Fossil fuel consumption of world agriculture
increased sevenfold'over the past 40 years. Cheap energy prices enabled a
boom of agricultural productivity as energy was substituted for land in
order to boost output. Whereas farms at one time were self-sufficient in
terms of energy requirements (draft animals, livestock manures), the
modern farm depends on external sources of energy to manufacture and
power tractors, manufacture and apply fertilizers and pesticides, and to
pump water for irrigation. Coal, natural gas, and oil provide most of this
external energy. As fossil fuels are depleted, and as food requirements
demand more energy-intensive inputs to produce greater yields,
agriculture will become more vulnerable to this dependance on external
energy sources, and increasingly unsustainable. Are there any
alternatives to enable farmers to produce at world-demand levels without
requiring more energy as input than is produced on the farm itself?


219






8/79 Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus P
8/7/89 Page 5


January 10. 1990

Sustainable Agricultural Economies Distinct economic decisions
can be made depending on the number of generations the decision is
intended to benefit. Traditional farm planning tends to be for the short-
range, leading to decisions that may neglect the impact of certain
practices on the viability of farmland and farming for future generations.
The concept of 'production efficiency' (maximizing output/minimizing
input) needs to be rethought keeping this in mind.



January 17. 1990

Agroecology A major premise is that an agricultural system is made
sustainable by incorporating the recycling of resources into management
strategies. This minimizes reliance on external resources that often
increase energy-dependence and indebtedness. Major internal nutrient
cycles that can be closed are: nitrogen and other nutrients in organic
matter and livestock waste, rainwater, the energy in a feed and livestock
cycle, and the labor provided by a family living on the farm.


220







Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus
8/7/89 Page 6


January 24. 1990

Public Health Concerns Great effort and capital are expended in
designing, developing, and regulating the use of chemicals applied to crops
and foodstuffs. In spite of this, various government agencies and public
interest groups disagree on whether public health is sufficiently guarded.
Tolerances for pesticides in food products are specified at a particular
level, whereas the amount and proportions of the various food groups
ingested, and the ability to metabolize substances, differs among age
groups. Aside from minimizing the need of agriculture to depend on
synthetic chemicals, can the safety of food be improved or
better monitored?



January 31. 1990

Role of Pesticides and Biotechnology Pesticide application has
helped control crop pests, increase the quality of foodstuffs, and make
producers more labor-efficient. Nonetheless, many of these synthetic
substances have altered the earth's chemical cycles, introducing harmful
byproducts into food and affecting the reproductive success of various
animal species. This has occurred even though farm chemicals are
extensively scrutinized before commercialization. The risks associated
with use of manufactured chemicals are associated more with what is
unknown about their effects on health than on what is known. Pesticide
strategies have been developed that seek to minimize pesticide reliance
while maintaining adequate control of pests. It is possible that new
biotechnologies may enable production of more robust agricultural
species; however, this will require time and large capital outlays.






I Sustainable Agriculture Course Prospectus
8/7/89 Page 7


February 7. 1990


Progressing Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Converting from
traditional farming methods to more sustainable practices entails shifts
in many factors internal and external to the farm. Farm policy, industrial
practice, resource and land-use thinking must change. How can the
individual farmer begin to make this change on his/her own land?


222





fi.^ IFXh: S-'29Lf-2o2Lo



SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Agronomy 493
(2 Credit!)
ACGSAT Sprirg 1991

Instructor: Ricardo J. Salvador
Agronomy Department
1126 Agronomy Hall B
Iowa State University of Science and Technology INTERNET
Ames, Iowa 50011


Ai~~~P


)FA-t3 Sc

Phone: (515) 294-9595
FAX: (515) 294.3163
ITNET: al.rjs@ISUMV'S.HITNET
: l.rjs@ISUMVIS.IASTA TE.EDU
,~.


Session ToIic


22 Jan

24 Jan


"Conventional" and "Sustainable" Agriculture: What is the difference?

Historical survey of agricultural origins.


9 J The concept of the "Agroecoystem." Problem-solving via the "bigger hammer" approach.
2 as "Soft" systems methodologies.

TRANSITION FROM ANIMAL-TRACTION TO MECHANIZED
AGRICULTURE

Jan Subsistence agriculture and production agriculture. A difference of scale or world-view?
Environmental carrying capacity.

5 Feb Objectives of tillage. Cropping systems ensuing from animal-traction. Impetus for
mechanization.

7 Feb Environmental impact of tillage.

12 Feb Consequences of livestock in the agroecosystem: Energy cycles in the crop/livestock
system, manure management.

14 Feb Soil conservation. Reduced tillage. Cover crops. Rotations. Terraces. Contours.
^-- .. Drainage practices. The primacy of the ecosystem.

S CHEMICAL AGRICULTURE

19 Feb Demographics, Green Revolution, the "greater yields" syndrome, and the stimulus for
production agriculture.


223


"...small farmers are experimental and adaptive--they cannot afford not
to be. They need it is now realized, not messages but methods, not
precepts but principles, not a package of practices but a basket of
choice, not a fixed menu--table d'hote, but a choice--a la carte, not
instruction on what to adopt, but ideas about what to try, with support
for their own trials and experimentation."
-Robert Chambers, University of Sussex, 1988







Page 2


Agronomy 493 Sustainable Agriculture
AG*SAT Spring 1991


Session

21 Feb

26 Feb

28 Feb

5 Mar

_-7.Mar

19 Mar

21 Mar

26 Mar

28 Mar


2 Apr

4 Apr






11 Apr

16 Apr

18 Apr

23 Apr



25 Apr

30 Apr


Tolic

Reductionist science and the scientific basis of fertilizer application: crop plant mineral
nutrition.

Fertility rites: Tull, Liebig, Blackman. Fertilizer response curves. The black art of
fertilizer recommendations.

Fate of applied fertilizing substances. Nitrogen interconversions.

Nitrate and phosphorus pollution of groundwater. The point-source controversy.
Eutrophication of natural waterways.

Case history: Herman Warsaw and 370 bu. of corn/acre. Agriculture gone amuck or hope
for the future?

Weed management strategies. Evolving philosophies: management versus elimination.
Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical/cultural control of weeds.

Crop physiological ecology: the place of weeds in a cropping system.

The scientific basis of chemical weed control. Plant metabolism. The principle of chemical
selectivity.

World War II and chemical opportunism. The Vietnam War, 2,4,5-T, dioxin, Silent
Spring and the home front. How the "successful" herbicide has changed: 2,4-D, atrazine,
glyphosate.

Herbicides and the environment. Effects on non-target people, plants, and places.

The lesser of two evils: The fungus or the fungicide? Case study: Seedling diseases and
Captan.
Insecticides, continuous cropping, insecticides, continuous cropping, insecticides,
continuous cropping,...

TOWARD A MORE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Early technological revisionism: Conservation Farming, Reduced Tillage, Integrated Pest
Management.

Biotechnology: A sustainable technology or a bigger hammer?

The deception of alternative crops: using "new" species in old ways.

Lessons from the third world: 1000 years of agriculture in China, Peru, Mexico. Genetic
diversity, intercropping, crop rotation, terracing.

PHILOSOPHY AND AGRICULTURE

Water management. Irrigation and ( miracle I fnllv in the desert.

Rediscovering the wheel: the concept of Farming Systems Research.





Aft 9% Ro.
Agronomy 493 Sustainable Agriculture Page 3
AG*SAT Spring 1991


Session ToIic
) i---ft, ,The ecosystem: ally or object of conquest? Ecofeminism.
a-y hy and agriculture.

9 May Economics, human equality, global sustainability.


EVALUATION: Weekly study questions will be provided. Students will be evaluated by site
coordinators at each participating institution.

INTERACTION: An electronic bulletin board will be available for students to post and discuss ideas
related to the course. To utilize this bulletin board, students must have an account
on a computer with access to INTERNET.

TEXTBOOK: Carroll, C. R., J. H. Vandermeer, and P. M. Rosset. 1990. Agroecology. McGraw
Hill ($90). Because of cost, the textbook is n9.t required.


SUPPLE L NTARY REFERENCES:

ax > Aiken, W. and J. La Follette (Eds.) 1977. World Hunger and Moral Obligation.
;K Prentice Hall
Altieri, M. A. 1987. Agroecology. The Scientific Basis of Alternative
Agriculture. Westview Press.
Altieri, M. A. and S. B. Hecht. 1989. Agroecology and Small Farm
Development. CRC Press.

American Society of Agronomy. Quarterly, 1988 to present. Journal of Production
Agriculture. Madison, Wisconsin.

Ashton, F. M. and A S. Crafts. 1981. Mode of Action of Herbicides. Second
Ed. Wiley.

Balfour, E. B., Lady. 1943. The Living Soil. Faber and Faber.

SBerry, W. 1977. The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture. Sierra
Club Books.

Brown, L. R. 1987. State of the World. A Report on Progress Toward a
Sustainable Society. Worldwatch Institute.

Chambers, R., A. Pacey and L. A. Thrupp. 1989. Farmer First : Farmer
Innovation and Agricultural Research. Bootstrap Press.







Agronomy 493 Sustainable Agriculture Page 4-
AG*SAT Spring 1991

Clay, J. W. 1988. Indigenous Peoples and Tropical Forests. Models of
Land Use and Management from Latin America. Report 27. Cultural Survival,
Inc.

Cohen, M. N. and G. J. Armelagos. 1984. Paleopathology at the Origins of
Agriculture. Academic Press. New York.

Croxall, H. E., and L. P. Smith. 1984. The Fight for Food. Factors Limiting
Agricultural Production. George Allen and Unwin.

Daly, M. 1978. Gyn/ecology, the Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon
Press. Toronto.

Dickson, A. 1788. The Husbandry of the Ancients. Dickson & Creeca.

Dietrich, G. 1988. Development, Ecology and Women's Struggles. Social
Action 38:1-14.

Ehrenberg, M. 1989. Women in Prehistory. Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

Faulkner, E. H. 1943. Plowman's Folly. Grossett and Dunlap.

Francis, C.A., C. B. Flora and L. D. King (Eds.) 1990. Sustainable Agriculture
in Temperate Zones. Wiley. -

Fukuoka, M. 1985. The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice
of Green Philosophy. Tokyo, Japan Publications. Translated from the Japanese.

Gliessman, S. R. 1990. Agroecology. Researching the Ecological Basis for
Sustainable Agriculture. Springer-Verlag.

Harding, S. G. 1986. The science question in feminism. Ithaca : Cornell
University Press.

Haworth Press. Quarterly. 1990 to present. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture.
Binghampton, New York.

Harlan, J. R. 1975. Crops and Man. ASA.

Harris, M. 1989. Our Kind. HarperCollins.

Hightower, J. 1978. Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times. Schenkman.

Howard, A., Sir. 1940. An Agricultural Testament. Oxford Univ. Press.

Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Quarterly, 1976 to present. American Journal
of Alternative Agriculture. Greenbelt, Maryland.

Jacks, G. V. and R. O. White. 1939. The Rape of the Earth: A World Survey
of Soil Erosion. Faber and Faber.

Jackson, W. 1987. Altars of Unhewn Stone: Science and the Earth. North
Point Press.


226






Agronomy 493 Sustainable Agriculture Page 5
AG*SAT Spring 1991


Jackson, W., B. Colman and W. Berry. 1984. Meeting the Expectations of the
Land. North Point Press.

Janick, J. and J. E. Simon. 1990. Advances in New Crops. Timber Press.

Leopold, A. 1949. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There.
Oxford Univ. Press.

Lovelock, J. E. 1979. Gaia, A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University
Press.

Moore Lappi, F. Diet for a Small Planet. How to Enjoy a Rich Protein
Harvest by Getting off the Top of the Food Chain. Ballantine.

National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Lost Crops of the Incas. National Academy
Press.

National Academy of Sciences. 1979. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the
Future. NAS.

National Academy of Sciences. 1975. Underexploited Tropical Plants with
Promising Economic Value. NAS.

National Research Council. 1989. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy
Press.

Poincelot, R. P. 1986. Toward a More Sustainable Agriculture. AVI Press.

Poirot, E. M. 1964. Our Margin of Life. Acres USA.

Reganold, J. P., R. I. Papendick and J. F. Parr. 1990. Sustainable Agriculture.
Scientific American 262(6):112-120.

Rindos, D. 1984. The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Approach.
Academic Press.

Rodale, J. I. 1948. The Organic Front. Rodale Press.

Schumacher, E. F. 1973. Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if
People Mattered. Blond and Briggs.

Schusky, E. L. 1989. Culture and Agriculture. An Ecological Introduction
to Traditional and Modern Farming Systems. Bergin and Garvey Publishers.

Scientific American. 1976. Food and Agriculture. W. H. Freeman and Company.

Soil and Water Conservation Society. Bimonthly, 1946 to present. Journal of Soil
and Water Conservation. Ankeny, Iowa.

Steiner. R. 1924. Agriculture. A Course of Eight Lectures. n.p.


227







Agronomy 493 Sustainable Agriculture Page 6
AG*SAT Spring 1991

Tull, Jethro. 1736. The new horse-hoeing husbandry: or, An essay on the
principles of tillage and vegetation. Wherein is shewn a method of
introducing a sort of vineyard-culture into the corn-fields, in order to
increase their product, and diminish ihe common expence... London:
Printed for the author.

Tusser. T. 1580. Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry. n.p.

USDA, SCS, ESCS. 1980. Soil Depletion Study. Reference Report:
Southern Iowa Rivers Basin.

USDA. 1980. Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming.

Wenke, R. J. Patterns in Prehistory. Humankind's First Three Million
Years. Oxford University Press.

Wilson, K. and G. E. B. Morren, Jr. 1990. Systems Approaches for
'Improvement in Agriculture and Resource Management. Macmillan.


228









COURSE OUTLINE
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture
PSE 105
Spring 1991
Instructor: Dr. Matt Liebman

Topic and Required Reading (# on reading list)

Introduction
Sustainable agriculture: definitions and approaches (1, 2,3)
Agroecosystems: concepts and examples (4,5)
Crop production as a means of capturing and converting solar energy
Sustainable livestock production (6)
Social impacts of agriculture (7,8)
Water resources for agriculture and impacts of irrigation (9)
Energy costs of agriculture (10)
Sources of nutrients for crop production I. (11,12)
Sources of nutrients for crop production II.
EXAM
Soil erosion and crop productivity (13)
Soil conservation practices
Crop rotations I. (14)
SPRING BREAK
Crop rotations IL
Polyculture cropping systems L (15)
Polyculture cropping systems IL
Genetic diversity of crops and livestock L (16)
Genetic diversity of crops and livestock IL
Pest ecology and management I. (17,18,19,20,21)
Pest ecology and management IL
Pest ecology and management II.
Pest ecology and management IV.
EXAM
Organic farming (22)
Transitions from conventional to,more sustainable farming systems
Hunger and the Green Revolution in developing nations (23,24)
Sustainable agriculture in developing nations (25,26,27)


229


Date


Jan 15
Jan 17
Jan 22
Jan 24
Jan 29
Jan 31
Feb 5
Feb 7
Feb 12
Feb 14
Feb 19
Feb 21
Feb 26
Feb 28
Mar4- 18
Mar 19
Mar 21
Mar 26
Mar 28
Apr 2
Apr 4
Apr 9
Apr 11
Apr 16
Apr 18
Apr 23
Apr 25
Apr 30
May 2











Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture
PSE105
Spring 1991
Instructor: Dr. Mat Liebman
1. There are no prerequisites for this course but students are expected to do the reading
thoroughly. A large amount of information and many data sets will be presented. If you
find yourself getting behind, talk to me as soon as possible.

2. Lectures and discussions will be based on 27 readings culled from a variety of sources.
Bound volumes of the text materials will be at the reserve desk in Fogler Library. Be sure
to do the reading as the course proceeds. When working with the material, allow enough
time to be sure you understand it. Supplementary references will be provided during
lectures so that you can look in more detail at subjects that interest you.

3. There will be two in-class mid-term exams (100 points each) and a take-home final
exam (200 points). There will also be two homework assignments (50 points each).
Homework assignments and the final exam must be typed or they will not
be accepted. Students are expected to attend class and to be ready to be called upon.

4. Grades:

A+: 484-500 A: 467-483 A-: 450-466
B+: 434-449 B: 417-433 B-: 400-416
C+: 384-399 C: 367-383 C-: 350-366
D+: 334-349 D: 317-333 D-: 300-316
E: <300 points


230









PSE 105
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

REQUIRED READINGS

1. Douglass, G.K. 1985.
When is agriculture sustainable? Pp. 10-21 in: Edens, T.C., Fridgen, C., and Butterfield, S.L.
Sustainable Agriculture and Integrated Farming Systems. Michigan State University Press, East
Lansing, Michigan.

2. Jarrell, W.M. 1987.
Sustainable agriculture. Drviander (Newsletter of the Dry Lands Research Institute, University of
California, Riverside) 1(2):1.

3. Reganold, J.P., Papendick, R.I. and Parr, J.F. 1990.
Sustainable agriculture. Scientific American 262(6):112-120.

4. Cox, G.W. and Atkins, M.D. 1979.
The ecosystem concept. Pp. 37-58, Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis of World Food Production
Systems. WH. Freeman & Co., New York.

5. Altieri, MA. 1987.
Traditional agriculture. Pp. 69-91, Agroecology The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture.
Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

6. Murphy, B. 1990.
Pasture management. Pp. 231-262, C. Francis, L. King and C. Flora (Eds.), Sustainable Agriculture
in Temperate Zones. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

7. Strange, M. 1988.
Industrializing American agriculture. Pp. 31-42, Family Farming: A New Economic Vision. Univ. of
Nebraska, Lincoln.

8. Vogeler, I. 198L
The decline of agriculturally dependent small towns. Pp.251-264, The Myth of the Family Farm:
Agribusiness Dominance of U.S. Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

9. Cox, G.W. and Atkins, M.D. 1979.
Impacts of irrigation and fertilization. Pp.297-327, Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis of World Food
Production Systems. W.H. Freeman & Co., New'York.

10. Cox, G.W. and Atkins, M.D. 1979.
Energy costs of agriculture. Pp.597-629, Agricultural Ecology; An Analysis of World Food
Production Systems. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York.

1L Cox, G.W. and Atkins, M.D. 1979.
Soil and plant microbiology. Pp328-355, Agricultural Ecologyv An Analysis of World Food
Production Systems. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York.

12. King, L.D. 1990.
Sustainable soil fertility practices. Pp. 144-177, C. Francis, L. King and C. Flora (Eds.), Sustainable
Agriculture in Temperate Zones. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

13. Pimentel, D., ct aL 1987.
World agriculture and soil erosion. Bioscience 37(4):277-283.

14. Power, J.F. 1990.
Legumes and crop rotations. Pp. 178-204, C. Francis, L. King and C. Flora (Eds.), Sustainable
Agriculture in Temoerate Zones. John Wiley and Sons, New York.









15. Liebman, M. 1987.
Polyculture cropping systems. Pp.115-125, Altieri, M.A.(ed.). Agroccolog: The Scientific Basis of
Alternative Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

16. Harlan, J.R. 1976.
The plants and animals that nourish man. Scientific American 235(3):88-97.

17. Prokopy, RJ. 1986.
Toward a World of Less Pesticide. Research Bulletin #710, Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment
Station. University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

18. Bottrell, D.R. 1979.
Integrated Pest Management: definitions, features and scope. Pp. 19-26, Integrated Pest
Management. Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C.

19. Fry, W.E. and Thurston, H.D. 1980.
The relationship of plant pathology to integrated pest management. BioScience 30(10):665-669.

20. Cook, RJ. 1986.
Interrelationships of plant health and the sustainability of agriculture with special reference to plant
diseases. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 1(2):19-24.

21. Liebman, M. and Janke, R. 1990.
Sustainable weed management practices. Pp.111-143, C. Francis, L. King, C. Flora (Eds.),
Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate Zones. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

22. Sinclair, W. 1985.
"Organic farmers still harvesting profits." The Washington Post. Sept. 1, 1985.

23. Wade, N. 1974.
Green Revolution (1): A just technology, often unjust in use. Science 186:1093-1096.

24. Wade, N. 1974.
Green Revolution (II): Problems of adapting a western technology. Science 186:1186-1192.

25. Tangley, L 1987.
Beyond the green revolution. Bioscience 37(3):176-180.

26. Altieri, MA. 1986.
The grass roots approach to rural development inLatin America. Alternatives 13(4):22-27.

27. Winterbottom, R. and P.T. Hazlewood. 1987.
Agroforestry and sustainable development: making the connection. Ambio 16(2/3):100-110.


232









Course Outline
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
PSE 105
Spring 1992
Instructor: Dr. Matt Liebman

1. There are no prerequisites for this course but students are expected to do the
reading thoroughly. A large amount of information and many data sets will be
presented. If you find yourself getting behind, talk to me as soon as possible.

2. Lectures and discussions will be based on 27 readings culled from a variety of
sources. Bound volumes of the text materials will be at the reserve desk in
Fogler Library. Be sure to do the reading as the course proceeds. When
working with the material, allow enough time to be sure you understand it.

3. There will be two in-class mid-term exams worth 100 points each and a final
exam worth 200 points. There will also be two homework assignments worth 50
points each. Homework assignments and the final exam must be typed or
they will not be accepted. Students are expected to attend class and to be
ready to be called upon.

4. Grades:

A+: 484-500 A: 467-483 A-: 450-466
B+: 434-449 B: 417-433 B-: 400-416
C+: 384-399 C: 367-383 C-: 350-366
D+: 334-349 D: 317-333 D-: 300-316
E: <300 points










SCHEDULE


Date Topic and Required Reading


Tu Jan 12 Introduction


Th Jan 14 Sustainable agriculture: definitions and approaches.

Video: "The Price of Bounty"

Douglass, G.K. 1985. When is agriculture sustainable?
Pp. 10-21 in: T. C. Edens., C. Fridgen, and S. L. Butterfield.
Sustainable Agriculture and Integrated Farming Systems.
Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Michigan.

Jarrell, W. M. 1987. Sustainable agriculture. Drylander
1(2): 1.

Reganold, J. P., R. 1. Papendick, and J. F. Parr. 1990.
Sustainable agriculture. Scientific American 262(6): 112-120.


Tu Jan 19 Agroecosystems: concepts and examples.

Cox, G. W. and M. D. Atkins. 1979. The ecosystem concept.
Pp. 37-58 in: Agricultural Ecoloy: An Analysis of World Food
Production Systems. W. H. Freeman & Co., NY.

Altieri, M. A. 1987. Traditional agriculture. Pp. 69-91 in: M.
A. Altieri (ed.), Agroecoloav-The Scientific Basis of Alternative
Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.


Th Jan 21 Agroecosystems. Livestock production systems.


Tu Jan 26 Sustainable livestock production. Rotational intensive grazing
systems.

Video: "Rotational grazing"

Murphy, B. 1990. Pasture management. Pp. 231-262 in: C.
Francis, L. King, and C. Flora (eds.), Sustainable Agriculture in
Temperate Zones. John Wiley, NY.


234









Social impacts of agriculture.


Video: "Potatoes"

Strange, M. 1988. Industrializing American agriculture. Pp.
31-42 in: Family Farming: A New Economic Vision. Univ. of
Nebraska Press, Lncoln, NE.

Vogeler, I. 1981. The decline of agriculturally dependent small
towns. Pp. 251-264 in: The Myth of the Family Farm:
Agribusiness Dominance of U.S. Agriculture. Westview Press,
Boulder, CO.

Tu Feb 2 Energy costs of agriculture.

Cox, G. W. and M. D. Atkins. 1979. Energy costs of
agriculture. Pp. 597-629 in: Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis
of World Food Production Systems. W. H. Freeman & Co.,
NY.


Th Feb 4 Water resources for agriculture and impacts of irrigation.

Video: "The Desert Doesn't Bloom Here Anymore"

Cox, G. W. and M. D. Atkins. 1979. Impacts of irrigation and
fertilization. Pp. 297-327 in: Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis
of World Food Production Systems. W. H. Freeman & Co.,
NY.

Tu Feb 9 Sources of nutrients for crop production.

Cox, G. W. and M. D. Atkins. 1979. Soil and plant
microbiology. Pp. 328-355 in: Agricultural Ecology: An
Analysis of World Food Production Systems. W. H. Freeman &
Co., NY.

Th Feb 11 Sources of nutrients for crop production.

King, L. 1990. Sustainable soil fertility practices. Pp. 144-177
in: C. Francis, L. King, and C. Flora (eds.), Sustainable
Agriculture in Temperate Zones. John Wiley, NY.


Tu Feb 16 EXAM


Th Jan 28









Soil erosion and crop productivity.


Video: "Will the World Starve?"

Pimentel, D. et al. 1987. World agriculture and soil erosion.
BioScience 37:277-283.

Tu Feb 23 Soil conservation practices.


Th Feb 25 Crop rotation.

SPower, J. F. 1990. Legumes and crop rotations. Pp. 178-204
in: C. Francis, L. King, and C. Flora (eds.), Sustainable
Agriculture in Temperate Zones. John Wiley, NY.

Tu Mar 2 Crop rotation.


Th Mar 4 Genetic diversity of crops and livestock.

Video: "Seeds of Tomorrow"

Harlan, J. R. 1976. The plants and animals that nourish man.
Scientific American 235(3): 88-97.


Spring Recess


Tu Mar 23 Polyculture cropping systems.

Liebman, M. 1987. Polyculture cropping systems. Pp. 115-
125 in: M. A. Altieri (ed.), Agroecoloav-The Scientific Basis of
Alternative Agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.


Th Mar 25 Polyculture cropping systems.


Tu Mar 30 Pest ecology and management.

Prokopy, R. J. 1986. Toward a World of Less Pesticide.
Research Bulletin #710, Mass. Ag. Expt. Stn., Univ. of MA.,
Amherst.


236


Th Feb 18










.Pest ecology and management.


Video: "IPM for Apples"

Bottrell, D. R. 1979. Integrated Pest Management:
definitions, features, and scope. Pp. 19-26, Integrated Pest
Management. Council on Environmental Quality, Washington,
D.C.

Tu Apr 6 Pest ecology and management.

Fry, W. E. and H. D. Thurston. 1980. The relationship of plant
pathology to integrated pest management. BioScience 30: 665-
669.

Cook, R. J. 1986. Interrelationships of plant health and the
sustainability of agriculture with special reference to plant
diseases. American Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 1: 19-
24.

Th Apr 8 Pest ecology and management.

Liebman, M. and R. Janke. 1990. Sustainable weed
management practices. Pp. 111-143 in: C. Francis, L. King,
and C. Flora (eds.), Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate
Zones. John Wiley, NY.

Tu Apr 13 EXAM

Th Apr 15 Organic farming.

Sinclair, W. 1985. Organic farmers still harvesting profits. The
Washington Post, Sept. 1, 1985.

Tu Apr 20 Transitions to sustainable farming systems.

Video: "Field Crops"

Th Apr 22 Hunger and the Green Revolution in developing nations.

Wade, N. 1974. Green Revolution (1): A just technology,
often unjust in use. Science 186:1093-1096.

Wade, N. 1974. Green Revolution (2): Problems of adapting a
western technology. Science 186:1186-1192.


237


Th Apr 1










Sustainable agriculture in developing nations.


Tangley, L. 1987. Beyond the Green Revolution. BioScien
37:176-180.

Altieri, M. A. 1986. The grass roots approach to rural
development in Latin America. Alternatives 13(4): 22-27.

Winterbottom, R. and P. T. H-azlewood. 1987. Agroforestry
and sustainable development: making the connection. Ambio
16(2/3): 100-110.

Th Apr 29 Closing remarks, review, and discussion.


238


Tu Apr 27









COURSE OF AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS

1. Name of the course: Agricultural Ecosystems (F&ES 507a)

2. Semester: Fall, 1991.

3. To be taught by: Ricardo Russo

4. Credits: 2 (two).

5. Need of the course: Recent public concern over the
dramatic depletion and pollution of invaluable soil and water
resources resulting from intensive application of mineral
fertilizer and pesticides has raised serious reconsideration
of knowing more about agricultural practices in general.

The concern is that agriculture as practiced today, may
not be environmentally, socially, or economically
sustainable.

In many third world countries crop agriculture and
forestry must coexist and be integrated and students of
natural resources need to consider ways to optimize both
forest and food production.

In order to protect the natural resources from further
degradation caused by agriculture, it is necessary that the
professionals dealing with natural resources management
better understand the basic concepts of agricultural
ecosystems (AE), their structure and function, and the ways
to manage them in an appropriate manner trying to minimize
the negative environmental impacts.

6. Fundamentals: In this course it is intended to introduce
the students at YSF&ES into an agricultural perspective with
the purpose of contributing to the formation of a
professional able to participate in the socio-productive
processes with an environment-protecting point of view.

The course will consider how a natural system works in terms
of energy flow, nutrient cycling hydrology, and how a
terrestrial system is connected to a hydrologic system
(streams, lakes, groundwater). Understanding a theoretical
natural system will allow to show the students how
agriculture changes the natural system, and how costs arise
from poor agricultural practices. A major part of the course
will be that agriculture should be as close to nature as
reasonable productivity of crops permits.

7. Objectives:

7.1 To better understand AE, to analyze them and to
provide management concepts within an agroecological


239









framework. It is especially relevant to those M.S.
students whose background has not been related to
agriculture.

7.2 To identify the main ecological problems related
to the use of natural resources and primary production.

7.3 To apply basic .ecological concepts to the
agricultural and forestry productive processes.

7.4 To use ecological methodologies to study
agricultural ecosystems.



8. Teaching goals

After the course the students will be able :

8.1 To recognize and analyze any AE with their
components and their relationships.

8.2 To evaluate and to diagnose deficiencies from an
agroecological point of view.

8.3 To intervene, to manage, and to improve AE.

9. Methodology: Basically, the course format will have twenty
four hours of lectures, in which theoretical material will be
presented. Application of this material it is intended to be
done in field practices. Readings will be signed every
week. In addition each student must prepare a term paper on
a topic related to the course. Course evaluation will be
done by two exams (50%), a term paper (30 %) and field
practices (20%).

10. Syllabus: The first half of the course will build upon
understanding of system ecology and environmental factors as
they affect agriculture. The second half of the course will
function on understanding the role of vegetation and soils as
natural resources, the crops as ecological systems, and the
manipulation of the ecosystemas by and for humans.

First week: Course introduction and organization. Problems
related to the environmental changes in different scales and
the conflicts between natural resources and the way of using
them. The Hubbard Brook model as a natural system.
Agriculture in a perspective view, and how it changes the
natural system.

Second week: Components of the agricultural ecosystem; its
structure and function, and the relationships among its


240










components, and with the environmental factor. Annuals and
perennials

Third week: Properties and dynamics of the agroecosystem
populations and the characteristics and processes that make
possible its evolution and its adaptation. Organization of
components.

Fourth week: The agroecosystem community, its structure and
its ecological behavior. Hierarchical relationships among
agroecosystems, plant systems, and crop systems.

Fifth week: The crops as agroecological systems and the
interactions between the crop with the atmosphere and the
soil: the microclime, the rhizosphere and the processes
related to the soil and its biota.

Sixth week: Midterm exam.

Seventh week: Need of knowing the vegetation to make a
rational use of the resource. The different approaches in
the study of vegetation. Structural and floristic.
Introduction to the Holdridge Life .Zone System.

Eigth week: The main land use production systems:
agricultural, husbandry, and forestry. Boundary systems.
The concepts of plant production (food, fiber, timber,
medicines, recreation), horticulture and related areas,
agronomy, biotechnology applied to agriculture.
Conservation.

Ninth week: Modern agriculture in both developed and
developing countries. The use and misuse of chemical inputs
and their environmental impacts. Fertilizers, pesticides,
herbicides.

Tenth week: The use of models in the management of
agricultural systems. Modelling as a way of understanding
agroecosystem componenents, inputs, outputs, boundaries, and
internal interactions.


Eleventh week: The concept of sustainable agriculture and
sustainable forestry in terms of practicality. How costs
arise from poor agricultural practices. The concept of
alternative agriculture as close to nature as reasonable
productivity of crops permits.



Twelfth week: General discussion and analysis of the course
situation.

Final Exam: in exam week












9. Bibliography:


Altieri, M. 1987. Agroecology: the scientific basis of alternative
agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. 227 p. (TEXTBOOK)

Bormann, F.H. and G.E. Likens. 1981. Pattern and process in a forested
ecosystem. Springer-Verlag,- New York.- 253 p.

Etherington, J.R. 1982. Environment and plant ecology. 2 ed. J. Wiley,
New York, 487 p.

Francis, C.A. ed. 1986. Multiple cropping systems. Macmillan Publishing
Company, New York. 383 p.

Gliessmann, S.R. (ed.) 1990. Agroecology: researching the ecological
basis for sustainable agriculture. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Gold, H.J. 1977. Mathematical modeling of biological systems: an
introductory guidebook. J. Wiley-Inter-Science, New York. 357 p.

Harper, J.L. 1977. Population biology of plants. Academic Press, London.
892 p.

Hart, R.D. 1980. A natural ecosystem analog approach to the design of a
successional crop system for tropical forest environments. Biotropica
12(Suppl.):73-82.

Hart, R.D. 1986. Ecological framework for multiple cropping research. In
Multiple cropping systems. C.A. Francis (ed.), Macmillan Publishing
Company, New York. pp. 40-56

Lowrance, R., B.R. Stinner and G.J. House. 1984. Agricultural
ecosystems: unifying concepts. J. Wiley, New York, 257 p.

Newman, E. 1982. The plant community as working mechanism. Blackwell,
Oxford. 128 p.

Poincelot, R.P. 1986. Toward a more sustainable agriculture. AVI
Publishing Company, Inc. Westport, Connecticut. 241 p.

Shanner, W.W., P.F. Philipp and W.R. Schmehl (eds.). 1982. Readings in
farming systems, research and development. Westview Press, Boulder,
Colorado. 175 p.

Spedding, C.R.W., J.M. Walsingham, and A.M. Hoxey. 1981. Biological
efficiency in agriculture. Academic Press, London. 383 p.

Vandermeer, J. 1989. The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge. 237 p.

Whittaker, R.H. 1975. Communities and ecosystems. 2 ed. Macmillan, New
York. 385 p.









AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY
CRS 102
LECTURE TOPICS

January
24 Examining key issues. Videos: "Hunger for Profit" and "Fields of
Fear." Reading assignments.

26 Discussion of papers "Feeding the Earth" and "The Evolution of
Agroecological Thought"

31 The scope of agroecology

February
2 Agroecosystem dynamics

7 Agroecosystem dynamics

9 Land, energy and the resource base for agriculture

14 Land, energy and the resource base for agriculture

16 Environmental impacts of agricultural technology

21 Social impacts of agricultural expansion: U. S.

23 Social impacts of agricultural expansion: Third World

28 Agricultural development: nutritional consequences, public health links
March
2 Gender issues: women in agriculture

7 Ecological and socio-economic impacts of biotechnology

9 The crop-seed germplasm controversy. Video: "Seeds of
Tomorrow"
14 Traditional agriculture: Video: 'The Chinampas"

16 Traditional agriculture

21 Recess

23 Recess

28 Traditional knowledge systems of resource use. Mid-term papers due.

30 Multiple cropping systems
April
4 Multiple cropping systems

6 Agroforestry systems. Video: "Keepers of the Forest"


243









April
11

13

15-16

18

20

25

27


2 Agroecology and rural development.
integrated farms"
4 Agroecology and rural development

9 Sustainable agriculture

11 Sustainable agriculture

18 Final Exam 8:00-11:00 a.m.


Video: "Mexico's


244


Agroforestry systems

Organic farming in the United States. Video: "Looking for
Organic America"

Field Trip

Rotations, cover crops

Minimum tillage systems

Methodologies to study agroecosystems. Field trip reports due.

Methodologies to study agroecosystems


May









674AI -r/-? C pe4)

Environmental Studies 130 Fall 1989
Agroecology UCSC
Stephen Gliessman T.A. Francisco Espinosa


SYLLABUS

INTRODUCTION

Agroecology is the application of ecological concepts and principles to the
design and management of sustainable agroecosystems. The course will develop a
theoretical and conceptual framework for the study and analysis of
agroecosystems. The first half of the course will build upon the understanding
of autecology and factors of the environment cs they affect agriculture. The
second half of the course will function more at the ecosystem level, exploring
the integration and interrelationships of interactions in agroecosystems. Case
studies will be used to demonstrate how ecology can be applied to agriculture.
The concept of agricultural sustainability is presented as a means of unifying
thought about agroecology.

Course Format: Theoretical material will be presented in three weekly lectures,
with direct application of this material to field or laboratory situations in a
weekly laboratory section.

Schedule:

Week of: Lecture Area

Sep. 29 Course introduction and organization

Oct. 2 Ecology and agriculture within the concept of the agroecosystem.
The autecological focus.
Environmental factors: soil

Oct. 9 Environmental factors: vater in the soil and in the atmosphere, and
temperature.

Oct. 16 Environmental factors: light, wind, and fire.

Oct. 23 Environmental factor: biotic. Irnterferrncs and the environmental
complex.

Oct. 30 MIDTERM EXAM

Adaptation, evolution, domestic3tion, and managing gen~ic resource:

Nov. 6 Dispersal and establishment, and the ecological niche; island
biogeography theory: applications in agriculture.

Nov. 13 Mutualisms and coexistence; interference and biological control;
diversity and stability in relation to system productivity.

Nov. 20 Disturbance and succession; structure and function; productivity,
production, and yield.


245










Nov. 27 Agroecosystem management and alternatives for the future.

Dec. 4 Review and conclusions.


Reader: A reader with weekly assignments is required. Readings are designed to
present basic background information in.ecology as well as case-studies where
ecology is applied to agriculture. It is very strongly recommended and
emphasized that it is important to read the assigned readings early in the week
that they are required.

Course Evaluation: Final evaluation is based on the student's performance on
the midterm and final examination, periodic written assignments or papers,
laboratory performance and participation, and preparation of laboratory reports.
Lecture and laboratory have approximately equal weight in the final evaluation.


246


















SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND APPLIED SCIENCES

AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

CHADRON STATE COLLEGE













COURSE OUTLINE

AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY

AGRI 344

4 HOURS















DR. JAMES T. O'ROURKE

1993


247








Date: January 11, 1993
Instructor: Dr. James T. O'Rourke
Office Number: Burkhiser 144
Telephone Number: 432-6274

COURSE TITLE: Agricultural Ecology and Sustainability

COURSE NUMBER: AGRI 344

COURSE CREDIT: 4 Hours: 2:00-3:00 T; 2:00-5:00 R

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

Analyzes the relationship between crops, livestock and the
bio-physical environment and the extent to which man has
managed and modified the products and the environment to
suit his own needs. Explores the alternatives, options and
future of agricultural systems for the production of food,
feed grains, fiber and other human needs in temperate
climates. Prerequisite: AGRI 141.

TEXT:

Francis, Charles A., Cornelia Butler Flora and Larry D.
King. 1990. Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate Zones.
John Wiley and Sons. 487 pp.

ADDITIONAL READING ASSIGNMENTS:

On reserve in Reta King Library.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

To acquaint students with the thinking among many
agricultural and environmental leaders toward making
agriculture more sustainable. This requires a delineation
of its concepts, components and terminology as viewed by
various.interest groups. This will enable the student to
communicate on the issues both within and outside of his/her
familiar setting.

COURSE METHOD OF INSTRUCTION:

Lecture (both in person and by satellite) and group
discussion

ATTENDANCE POLICY:

Attendance is necessary to enable participation in group
discussions, which makes up a large percentage of the
grading structure.

GRADING:
Class and field trip participation 200 points
Class presentation 100 points
Exams (2 @ 100 each) Essay, take-home exams 200 points
Total 500 points


248








DISCLAIMER:


Information contained in this syllabus was,' to the best
knowledge of the instructor, considered correct and complete
when distributed for use at the beginning of the semester.
However, this syllabus should not be considered a contract
between Chadron State College and any student. The
instructor reserves the right, acting within the policies
and procedures of CSC, to make changes in course content or
instructional technique without notice or obligation.

COURSE CONTENT:

1. Conventional versus Sustainable
Agriculture/Agroecology/Farming Systems Research

2. Sustainability as the underpinning in agricultural and
natural resource sciences.

3. Anthropological views of agriculture.

4. Economics and sustainability.

5. International examples of sustainability

6. Pest Management

7. Private and Public Soil Testing Recommendations

8. Minimum tillage/Soil management

9. Irrigation Systems

10. Alternative crops/Plant breeding

11. Grazing practices

12. Nebraska Center for Sustainable Agriculture

13. Case Studies

14. Future of and converting to sustainable agriculture


249









SPRING SEMESTER 1993

Ag Calendar


January 11 12 13 14 15
Introduction HRM Sustainability as
M. meeting muderpinning in
Short science
Duration
Graing -
Chadron
18 19 20 21 22
Video The Conventional vs.
New Farmer Sustainable
and the New Dr. Chuck
Agriculture Francis
25 26 27 28 29
No Class Crop Day in NSAS
Crawford WORKSHOP
OGALLAIA
8:30 5:00
TOMORROW
February 1 2 3 4 5
Anthropological Anthropological
Views of Views of
Agriculture Agriculture
8 9 10 11 12
Economics and Economics and
Sustainability Sustainability
15 16 17 18 19
SRM Meetings Albuquerque New Mexico -- >


22 23 24 25 26
International International
Examples Examples
March 1 2 3 4 5
Pest Pest
Management Management
8 9 10 11 12
Spring Break No Classes -- >


250











15 16 17 18 19
Private vs. Minimum
Public Soil Tillage Sol
Testing Managment


22 23 24 25 26
Irrigation All Day Field
Systems Trip to Sidney -
Alternative
Crops
29 30 31 1 2
Grazing Grazing No
Practices Practices Classes


April 5 6 7 8 9
Nebraska Nebraska No
Sustainable Sustainable Classes
Agriculture Agriculture
Society Society
12 13 14 15 16
Case Studies Case Studies

19 20 21 22 23
Future of and. Future of and
Converting to Converting to
Sustainable Ag Sustainable Ag
26 27 28 29 30
Take Home Take Home
Exam Exam
May 3 4 5 6 7
Finals Week >
10:00 12:00
Exams Due


AG344.CAL








POSITION PAPER DRAFT For Conment Only

Long-Term, Integrated Education in Agroecology

Background

Growing concern about the importance of interactions and systems is leading
many academics in agriculture to consider new and integrative directions in
teaching. Without minimizing the continuing value of improved components of
systems, there is an emerging awareness of environmental, resource, and social
dimensions of current systems. In a world of increasingly scarce resources and
growing demand for food, it is time to analyze the efficiency and impact of crop
and crop/livestock systems. We have responded at UNL with formation of a Center
for Sustainable Agricultural Systems. In Latin America there are new programs
in Agroecology, from Mexico to Argentina, and from Chile to Cuba. Agronomists
and others throughout the Americas have captured the broad context of
agricultural systems, and have begun to incorporate this concept into their
Colleges of Agriculture. What follows is a proposal to begin the integration of
greater emphasis on systems into the curriculum in Agronomy and the CASNR in
Nebraska.

Proposal

A series of five courses is proposed to introduce, provide an overview, and
bring together concepts on Agroecology within the CASNR curriculum; three of
these courses already exist in the curriculum and two are new courses.

Specific Courses in Secuence

Agriculture 100: Agroecological Systems (2 units)

This course is currently taught by Don Edwards, assisted by Jim King and
Chuck Francis, and introduces first year students to systems methodology,
to departments and activities in CASNR, and to the importance of
components as parts of agricultural systems.

Agronomy 100: Biology of Agroecosystems (proposed, 3 units)

A team-taught course is proposed for first year students that will
introduce concepts of renewable and non-renewable resources, inputs and
outputs of systems, biological interactions among system components,
environmental inputs of alternative systems, and the economic and social
consequences of agricultural and livestock systems. A list of topics is
attached (tentative Appendix A).

Agronomy 101: Crop Components of Agricultural Systems (3 units)

This course is currently taught by Rick Waldren, assisted by Patti
Boehner, and deals with the most important components of Nebraska cropping
systems. Under continuous revision, the course is growing to reflect
several dimensions of international agriculture and sustainable systems.


V. A/ CLc.S C









Agriculture 389: Agroecological Concerns Seminar (1 unit)


This would be a course with name change from "Agricultural Concerns
Seminar" run by the FACTS organization, could be taken two times for
credit in the second, third -r fourth years, and would be coordinated by
Chuck Francis and others. It would continue to pull together topics of
general interest such as research and extension paradigms, alternative
agricultural groups in-Nebraska,-outside speakers and panels on a range of
topics, and envisioning the future in agriculture.

Agronomy 410: Advanced Agroecology (proposed 3 units)

A new senior level course, this "capstone" activity would be team-taught
by faculty associated with the Center for Sustainable Agricultural
Systems, and would pull together ideas gleaned by students from their
prior experience and courses over the first three years. Highly
participatory in nature, the course would deal with philosophy of
agriculture; world systems, resources and climate; connections between
agriculture and rural development; and the role of food and agricultural
systems in future human endeavors. A list of topics is attached
(tentative Appendix B).

Summary

Comments are invited on this proposal, and any suggestions on how it might
be implemented as UNL in the CASNR.









APPENDIX A


Agronomy 100: Biology of Agroecosvstems (tentative topics)

1. Inventory of renewable and non-renewable resources within a watershed,
inputs and outputs, human and other needs in area.

2. Evolution of agroecological -systems, world population, human migrations
and resource use.

3. Structure of agroecosystems, including components, principle interactions,
trophic levels, products of systems.

4. Physiological and ecological processes in agroecosystems such as energy
flow, nutrient cycles, diversity, competition and mutualism.

5. Development and production of alternative agroecosystems, changes over
space and time, effects of climate and inputs, system stability.

6. Optimum use and conservation of natural resources, use of ecological
principles, homeostasis, and maintaining long-term production and balance
with the environment.

7. Conceptualizing agroecosystems and measuring system performance, including
yields, income, resource and environmental dimensions, and social
consequences and quality of life associated with alternative systems.


254










APPENDIX B


Agronomy 410: Advanced Agroecology
(primary ideas from Altieri, 1991)

1. Agroecological systems in different regions of the world, including their
history, resource use, profitability, and sustainability.

2. Resources available for agriculture, relationships among human
populations, land, water, energy, and other resources, demand for and
distribution of food.

3. Environmental impacts of modern agriculture, pesticide and nitrate
accumulations, erosion, multiple demands of society for resources.

4. Concepts and dynamics of agroecosystems, climate and agriculture, nutrient
cycling, energy flow, water cycles, biological control.

5. Biology and management of soils, role of legumes, soil organic matter and
compaction, fertilizer versus fertility.

6. Ecological management of weeds, insects, pathogens and nematodes,
interactions among biotic agents, interactions with water, nutrients and
cultural management.

7. Ecology and management intensity of farms and ranches of different sizes,
locations and resource endowments.

8. Alternative agroecosystems such as polyculture, agroforestry, rotations,
cover crops, living mulches and permaculture.

9. Organic agriculture, theory and practice in Nebraska and elsewhere,
biodynamic systems, French intensive and others.

10. Impact of alternative agricultural systems on rural income,
infrastructure, quality of life, and stability.

11. Methods for analysis of agroecosystems, including yields, net income,
resource dimensions, ecological/environmental costs, and sustainable
product and income.

12. Political dimensions of agroecosystems, government programs, world
markets.

13. Future agricultural systems and their impact on human and other species'
populations, resource dimensions, global environmental impacts.

Ref: Altieri, M.A. 1991. Incorporando la agroecologiz al curriculo agronomico.
Presented in meeting of CLADES, Santiago de Chile, September 2.









ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM
THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT

A. Fine Arts and Humanities: 6 credits (Art, Classics, Theater, Music, Philosophy, Religion)

B. Communication skills: 6 credits (English, Communications and Public Address, Foreign Languages)

C. Social Sciences: 6 credits (Anthropology, Geography, History, Political Science, Psychology,
Sociology)

D. Analytical skills: 6 credits

1. One course in mathematics (MATH 9) or Statistics 111
2. One course in computers (CS 3 or VOTC 85)

'E. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences "Beginnings" course

F. "Race and Culture" course

G. Physical Education: 2 credits (1 recommended: PEAC 052 Hatha Yoga)

H. Chemistry: one course inorganic (CHEM 1, 3, or 11), one course organic (CHEM 4,42, or 141)

I. Soil: three required courses (*), two recommended

1. PSS 161 Introductory Soil Science*
2. PSS 162 Soil Fertility and Management*
3. PSS 210 Soil Erosion and Conservation*
4. PSS 261 Soil Conservation and Land Use
5. PSS 197 Environmental Soils

J. Plant: four required courses ('), choice of any other three

1. PSS 11 Principles of Plant Science'
2. FOR 73 Small Woodland Management*
3. BOT 104 Physiology of the Plant Body*
4. PSS 122 Small Fruit Crops
5. PSS 124 Ecological Vegetable Production
6. PSS 138 Commercial Plant Propagation
7. PSS 141 Forage Crops
8. PSS 197 Farming Internship* (12 weeks in 1 summer)
9. PSS 197 Agroecology
10. PSS 217 Pasture Production and Management
11. PSS 221 'Tee Fruit Culture


256








K. Animal: any two courses
1. ASCI 1 Introductory Animal Science
2. ASC 43 Fundamentals of Nutrition
3. ASCI 110 Principles of Animal Feeding
4. ASCI 113 Livestock Production

L. Pests: four required courses

1. BOT 117 Plant Pathology or
FOR 134 Forest Pathology
2. PSS 106 Insect Pest Management or
PSS 107 Forest Entomology
3. FOR 231 Integrated Forest Protection or
PSS 232 Biological Control of Insect Pests
4. PSS 215 Weed/Crop Ecology

M. Agricultural Economics: any two courses

1. AREC 61 Agricultural and Resource Economics
2. AREC 166 Small Business Management
3. AREC 177 Alternatives for Vermont Agriculture
4. AREC 196 Economics of Sustainable Agriculture
5. AREC 201 Farm Business Management
6. AREC 207 Markets, Food, and Consumers
7. ENVS 195 Environmental Economics

N. Ecology: any two courses

1. ENVS 1 Introduction to Environmental Studies I
2. FOR 120 Forest Ecology
3. BOT 160 Plant Ecology
4. PSS 197 Holistic Resource Management/Permaculture

O. Vocational Education and Technology: any two courses

1. VOTC 2 General Shop and Small Engine Repair
2. VOTC 6 Energy Alternatives
3. VOTC 20 Metalworking Technology
4. VOTC 30 Woodworking Technology
5. VOTC 35 Welding and Metal Fabrication
6. VOTC 131 Light Frame Buildings
7. VOTC 132 Building Construction Laboratory
8. VOTC 162 Building Utility Systems

P. Sociopolitical: any two courses

1. AREC 002 World Food, Population, and Development
2. AREC 171 Agriculture in Economic Development
3. PSS 197 Agriculture in the Third World


257





UNIVERSITY OF MAINE
Land Grant Universty & Sea Grant College of Maine
College of Applied Sciences & Agriculture


Sustainable Agriculture


Bachelor of Science Contact: Matt Liebman. Coordinator & Asst Professor
Department of Plant. Soil, and Environmental Sciences
University of Maine
5722 Deering Hall
Orono, Maine 04469-5722
Phone: (207) 581-2926


Program
The Sustainable Agriculture curriculum is an interdisciplinary
program that combines courses in engineering, applied econom-
ics, animal science, plant protection, and plant and soil science
to face the challenges of agriculture. There are six concentrations.
Sustainable Agriculture, Agribusiness and Resource Economics,
Animal Veterinary, and Aquatic Sciences, Plant Protection, Plant
Science, and Soil Science.

Post-Graduate Study
Related Master of Science Degrees and-Ph.D. programs are
offered.


Entrance Requirements
English
Algebra (I&II)
Plane Geometry
Science (chemistry or physics preferred)
History
Year-long Academic Electives


4 years
2
1
2
1
5.5-6


Career Opportunities
The Sustainable Agriculture Program offers students sound
training in scientific principles and access to careers as farmers,
educators, extension agents, soil conservationists, researchers,
consultants, planners or policy analysts.

Core Curriculum (76-83)
The B.S. in Sustainable Agriculture requires satisfactory comple-
tion of at least 120 degree hours at a cumulative grade point
average of not less than 2.0 in a course of study that conforms to
the following curriculum:


Concentration Requirements
Free Electives
Total hes required to graduate


17-37
up to 24
120


Basic Sciences and Mathematics
Computer Sdence 3
BIO 100 Basic Biology 4
Choose 1:
BCH 207/208 Fundamentals of Chemistry 8
CHY 11/112 General Chem 1/1 8
CHY 113/114 Chemical Principles 1/11 8
Choose 1:
BIO 451 Biometry 3
FTY 204 Star Infer in Forest Res 3
MAT 232 Principles of Star Inference 3
Communications
ENG 101 College Composition (C grade required)3
ENG 317 Technical Writing 3
SPC 103 Fund of Public Communications 3


Sustainable Agriculture: Overview
PSE 105 Principles of Sustainable Ag
PSE445 Agricultural Ecology


Pest Ecology & Management
(NOTE: students electing the Sust Ag, Plant Protection, Plant
Sdence or Soil Sdence concentrations must take INT450 and 482.)
Choose I or both:
INT 450 Agricultural Pest Ecology 3
INT 482 Pesticides & The Environment 3


Choose 1:
MAT 114
MAT 126
MAT 151


Calculus for Business & Economics
Analytical Geometry & Calculus I
Calculus for Life Sciences I


3
4
4
20-21


258


The Main Diffrmce







Core Curriculum continued

Plant and Soil Sciences
PSE 100 Plant Science
PSE 101 Cropping Systems
PSE 140/141 Soil Scienc/Lab


Animal Sciences
AVA 145 Animal Sciences
Agricultural & Resource Economics
Choose 1:
INT 110 Modem Economic Problems
ECO 120/121 Principles of Micro/Macro Econ
Choose 1:
ARE 371 Intro to Nat Res Econ & Policy
ARE 454 Production Economics
ARE 458 Resource Business Management
ARE 459 Resource-based Business Finance
ARE 471 Resource Economics
ARE 486 Government Policies Affecting Rural America
Other Approved Course


Bio-Resource Engineering
BRE 248 Engineering for Sust Agric
Thematic Minor Electives


Orientation
ASA 117


Issues & Opportunities


Choose 1:
AVA 346
AVA 348'
Choose 1:
AVA 461
AVA 480


Dairy Cattle Technology
Livestock Management

Animal Breeding
Physiology of Reproduction


28-29


CONCENTRATION 4: PLANT PROTECTION
4 Students electing this concentration must take BCH207/208 (or
equivalent) and both INT450 and 482.
BOT 201/202 Plant Biology/Lab
BOT457 Plant Pathology
3 ENT328 Intro to Applied Entomology
6 INT 319 General Ecology
ORWLM 200
ZOL 204 Animal Biology
3 Choos 1:
3 BOT 445 Plant Genetics
3 ZOL 462 Principles of Genetics
3 Chosem4:
3 BOT 452 Plant Physiology
3 BOT 464 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
3 BOT 530 Biology of the Fungi
- ENT 449 Insect Pest Management
ENT 460 Insect Biology and Taxonomy
ENT 461 Insect Biology, Taxonomy & Systematics
2 ENT511 Insect Ecology
12 INT 555 Pest-Plant Interactions
PHY 111/112 General PhysicsII
1 Other Approved Course


4
4
4
3

4

3
3

3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
8
4-37


Total Core Curriculum Hours


CONCENTRATION 1: SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Students electing concentration must take INT 450 & INT 482
AVA 445 Sustainable Animal Prod Systems
BOT 457 Plant Pathology
ENT 328 Introduction Applied Entomology
PSE449 Soil Organic Matter & Fertility
Ecology credits

CONCENTRATION 2: AGRICULTURAL & RESOURCE
ECONOMICS
BUA 201/202 Accounting III
ARE 371 Intro to Nat Res Econ Policy
ARE 454 Intro to Production Economics
ARE 458 Agribusiness Management
ARE 459 Agricultural Business Finance
ARE 465 Food & Fiber Marketing
Business and Economics Electives


CONCENTRATION 3: ANIMAL, VET & AQUATIC SCIENCES
AVA 236 Physiology of Domestic Animals 3
AVA 260 Animal Genetics & Breeding 3
AVA 351 Animal Science Techniques 2
AVA 445 Sust Animal Production Systems 3
AVA 455 Animal Nutrition 3
AVA 462 Feed and Feeding Animals 2
ZOL 204 Animal Biology 4
Choose:
AVA 464 Feeding Swine & Poultry 1
AVA 465 Feeding Beef & Sheep 1
AVA 466 Feeding Dairy Cattle 1
AVA 467 Feeding Fish 2


76-83 CONCENTRATION 5: PLANT SCIENCE
Students electing this concentration must take both
INT450 and INT482.


AVA 445
BOT 452/453
BOT 457
ENT328
PHY 111/112
PSE 449
PSE 479
Choose :
BOT 435
BOT 445
BOT 464
PSE 410
ZOL 462


Sustain Animal Prod Systems
Plant Physiology/Lab
Plant Pathology
Intro Applied Entomology
General Physics I/II
Soil Organic Matter & Fertility
Crop Physiology

Plant Anatomy
Plant Genetics
Taxonomy of Vascular Plants
Plant Propagation
Principles of Genetics


33-34
CONCENTRATION 6: SOIL SCIENCE
Students electing this concentration must take both INT450 and INT


482.
AVA 445
BOT 457
ENT 328
PHY 111/112
PSE 146
PSE 440
PSE 442
PSE 449
Choose 1:
GES 541
PSE 444


Sust Animal Prod Systems
Plant Pathology
Intro Applied Entomology
General Physics IIII
Land Use Planning-Soil Aspects
Soil Chemistry & Plant Nutrition
Soil Taxonomy
Soil Organic Matter & Fertility

Glacial Geology
Soil Morphology & Mapping


1992-93 O










DRAFT 12/18/92


AnPI 3010
ENVIRONMENT AND WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION
Winter 1993

Introduction
The future of humankind depends on the earth's capacity to produce sufficient food,
feed and fiber. Rising population and declining natural resources cause some to question
whether contemporary agricultural systems can continue to sustain our planet.
Understanding ways in which the environment forms and constrains agroecosystems in the
production of food, feed and fiber, as well as ways these systems impact the environment
is important for any citizen. This course provides students with an introductory knowledge
of major agricultural systems of the world and their ecology as well as with the opportunity
to engage contemporary environmental dilemmas involving agriculture.

Course description
Introduction to agricultural systems of the world and their relation to the environment;
ecology of plant/animal domestication; agroecosystem form and function in relation to
environment; biodiversity within agroecosystems; macro- and microenvironmental
influences on agricultural plants and animals; interdependence of natural resources and
agricultural systems; agriculture and contemporary environmental dilemmas.

Objectives
Upon completion of this course students will:
1. Understand how plants and animals change as a consequence of domestication.
2. Understand the process of agricultural system development in relation to environmental
and cultural factors.
3. Be familiar with major agricultural systems of the world and their ecological
characteristics.
4. Be able to define biodiversity within the context of agroecosystems.
5. Be able to describe how macro- and microenvironmental factors influence agricultural
plants and animals, as well as the form and management of agroecosystems.
6. Be able to describe options for resolving contemporary environmental and natural
resource dilemmas involving agroecosystems.

Course outline
Unit 1 Agriculture, Food and Environment: an Overview
Unit 2 Ecology of Domestication/Agricultural System Development


260










Unit 3 Agroecosystems of the World
Unit 4 Interrelationships ofAgricultural Plants and Animals with the Microenvironment
Unit 5 Interrelationships of Agroecosystems with the Macroenvironment
Unit 6 Biodiversity and Agroecosystems
Unit 7 Agroecosystems and Natural Resources

Evaluation
Two mid-term exams and final = 350 points (no make-up exams given)
Decision case response analyses (5) = 250 points
Interact assignments = 100
Total = 700 points

Grade standards:
A = 92%+ of total points
B = 84 -91%
C = 70-83%
D = 60 -69%
F = < 60%
S = > 69%

Instructor: Dr. Steve Simmons
204 Borlaug Hall
St. Paul Campus
625-3763











TENTATIVE SCHEDULE
January 5 Orientation to course
Unit 1 lecture: Agriculture, Food and Environment
Readings Crossan, 1992, Sustainable Agriculture
Reganoldet al, 1990, Sustainable Agriculture
Rhodes, 1991, World's Food Supply at Risk
Assignment Environmental impacts of food

7 Unit 1 lecture: Agriculture, Food and Environment
Interact: Environmental impacts of food

12 Unit 2 lecture: Ecology of Domestication
Readings Cox/Atkins, 1979, (Chapts 2,3,4)
Ecosystem Concept
Evolution ofAgricultural Systems
Ecology of Domestication
Goodman, 1988, Evolution of Maize
Maloney, 1991, Origin of Rice
Smith, 1989, Origins ofAgriculture in E. North America
Tivy, 1990, The Agroecosystem (Chapt 1)
Unit 2 guest lecture: The Domestication of Wild Rice
(Dr. Erv Oelke)
Reading Oelke, 1991, WildRice

14 Unit 2 guest lecture: The Domestication of Animals
(Dr. Mike White)
Readings Cox/Atkins, 1979, Ecology ofDomestication (Chapt 4)
Tivy,1990, Chapt 7 Domestic Livestock
Video: Wolf in the Fold
Assignment: Polecat Bench decision case
Reading Chechile, 1991, Intro to Environmental Decision Making
Assignment The Mystery of Chaco Canyon

19 Unit 2 lecture: Agricultural System Development
Readings Jackson, 1990, Agriculture with Nature as Analogy
Scarisbrick, 1989, Rapeseed
Wagoner, 1990, Perennial Grains
Interact: The Mystery of Chaco Canyon
Reading Lekson, 1988, Chaco Canyon Community


262












21 Discussion: Polecat Bench case
Unit 3 lecture: Agroecosystems of the World
Readings Cox/Atkins, 1979, Chapt 5 Subsistence Agriculture
Kirkby, 1990, Ecology of Traditional Agroecosystems
Marten, 1990, Agriculture in S.. Asia
Assignment: Agricultural landscapes-out of the ordinary

26 Unit 3 lecture: Agroecosystems of the World
Readings Buttel, 1989, Soc. Relations and Growth of Modern Agric.
Geisler, 1991, Impact of Dairy Restructuring
Interact: Agricultural landscapes-out of the ordinary
Reading Gaskell, 1991, Agricultural change and environmentally
sensitive areas

28 Exam 1
Assignment: Agriculture and Global Climate Change
Readings CAST, 1992, Preparing US. Agric.for Global Climate
Change
Maunder, 1989, Climate Var. and Agric. Prod. in
Temperate Regions
Parry, 1990, Climate Change and its Implicationsfor
Agriculture
Assignment: Gustavson Farm decision case

February 2 Unit 4 lecture: Agric. Plant-Microenvironment
Interrelationships
Readings Cox/Atkins, 1979, Chapt. 15, The Nature ofAgric. Pest
Problems
Gould, 1991, Evolutionary Potential of Crop Pests
Hall, 1989, Physiological Ecology of Crops in Relation
to Light, Water and Temperature

Discussion: Gustavson Farm case
Assignment: Heavy Metal Veggies decision case
Section #1 only: Overview of mentoring project
(guest resources: Dr. Ann Duin and Liz Lammers)










4 Unit 4 guest lecture: Agric. Animal-Microenvironment
Interrelationships (Dr. Mike White)
Reading Robertshaw, 1981, Environmental Physiology ofAnimal
Production
Discussion: Heav Metal Veggies case
Section #1 only: Coordination of mentoring project


Unit 5 lecture: Interrelationships of Agroecosystems and the
Macro-environment
Reading Rice/Vandenneer, 1989, Climate and the Geography of
Agriculture
Interact Agriculture and global climate change


11 Unit 6 lecture: Biodiversity and Agroecosystems
Reading Myers, 1989, Loss of Biological Diversity and its
Potential Impact on Agriculture and Food Production
Pimentel et al, 1989, Risks of Genetic Engineering in
Agriculture
Prescott-Allen, 1990, How many plants feed the world?
Assignment: Jai decision case
Reading Cook, 1990, Global effects of Tropical Deforestation
Repetto, 1990, Deforestation of the Tropics

18 Unit 6 guest lecture: Genetic diversity in soybean (Dr. Jim Orf)
Video: Seeds for Tomorrow
Assignment: The Trees of Sogolonbougou decision case

23 Unit 6 lecture: Biodiversity and Agroecosystems
Reading Oldfield/Alcom, 1987, Conservation of Traditional
Agroecosystems
Nair, 1990, Agroforestry: An Approach to Sustainable
Land Use in the Tropics (Chapt 14)
Discussion: Ja case
Assignment: Kangaroos. Suckers. Grass and Water: Conflicting Values

25 Discussion: The Trees of Sogolonbougou case
(guest resource: Georgia McPeak)
Interact Kangaroos. Suckers. Grass and Water: Conflicting Values
Section #1 only: Coordination of mentoring project


264


February 9










Assignment: Selenium and the San Joaquin Valley decision case
Reading Ellis, 1991, Harvest of Change
Exam 2


4 Unit 7 lecture:
Reading


Agricultural Systems and Natural Resources
* Buringh, 1989, Availability of Agricultural Land for Crop
and Livestock Production
* Hillel, 1991, (Chapts 11, 19,20)
Silt and Salt in Mesopotamia
The Promise and Peril ofIrrigation
Accelerating Erosion


Interact: Water and agriculture
Reading Carrier, 1991, The Colorado: A River Drained Dry

9 Unit 7 lecture: Agricultural Systems and Natural Resources
Discussion: Selenium and the San Joaquin Valley
Assignment: Agricultural systems and the soil

11 Unit 7 lecture: Agricultural Systems and Natural Resources
Interact Agricultural systems and the soil
(resource: Dr. Deborah Allan)
Course evaluation
Section #1 only: Mentoring project evaluation


Final exam:


Section 1: 1600-1800 Thursday, June 10
Section 2: 1600-1800 Friday, June 11


March 2









ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Agronomy 445
Environmental Studies 445
(2 Credits)

ADVANCED ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Agronomy 545
(3 Credits)

Fall Term 1993

Instructor: Ricardo J. Salvador Phone: (515) 294-9595
1126 Agronomy Hall FAX: (515) 294-3163
Office Hours: Friday 9:30-11:30 am INTERNET: rjsalvad@lASTATE.EDU

WEEK TOPIC
CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

24 Aug Conventional and Sustainable Agriculture: What is the difference? The political economies
of subsistence systems.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 14 "Intensive Agriculture," pp. 224-242; Ch. 15 "Agriculture and the
Environment," pp. 243-260; Soule et al. IN Carroll et al. Ch. 6 "Ecological Impact of
Modern Agriculture," pp. 165-188.

31 Aug The concept of the Agroecosystem. Problem-solving via the "bigger hammer" approach.
"Systems" methodologies. Rediscovering the wheel: the concept of Farming Systems
Research.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 1 "The Agro-ecosystem," pp.1-6; Wilson and Morren Ch. 1 "Managing
Complexity and Change in Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources," pp. 1-19.

TRANSITION FROM ANIMAL-TRACTION
TO MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

7 Sep Subsistence agriculture and production agriculture. A difference of scale or world-view?
Environmental carrying capacity.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 8 "Land Capability for Agriculture," pp. 134-145; Ch. 9 "Pastoral
Farming," pp. 146-162; Toledo IN Alticri and Hlecht, Ch. 7 "The Ecological Rationality of
Peasant Production," pp. 53-60.

14 Sep Objectives of tillage. Cropping systems ensuing from animal-traction. Industrial
Revolution and the impetus for mechanization. Environmental impact of tillage. Soil
conservation. Reduced tillage. Cover crops. Rotations. Terraces. Contours. Drainage
practices.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 4 "The Cultivated Soil," pp. 42-62; Jenny IN Jackson et al. ch: 4 "The
Making and Unmaking of a Fertile Soil," pp. 42-55; Browse Tull (available in the Special
Collections Room of the Parks Library).
AGRON 545: Dr. Richard Cruse

21 Sep Consequences of livestock in the agroecosystem: Energy cycles in the crop/livestock
system, manure management. The primacy of the ecosystem.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 7 "Domestic Livestock," pp. 115-133; Pimentel and Dazhong IN Carroll
et al. Ch. 5 "Technological Changes in Energy Use in U.S. Agricultural Production," pp.
147-164; Levins and Vandermeer IN Carroll et al. Ch. 12 "The Agroecosystem Embedded in
a Complex Ecological Community," pp. 341-362.
AGRON 445: INQUIRY 1.


266






AGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues in Sustainable Agriculture
Fall 1993


25 Sep
(Saturday)


28 Sep


Field trip to Richard and Sharon Thompson farm, Boone Co. Guide:
Mr. Rick Exner, Agronomy Extension/Practical Farmers of Iowa.
Reading: Thompson et al. IN Francis et al. Ch. 9 "Case Study: A Resource-Efficient Farm
with Livestock," pp. 263-280; National Research Council Ch. 5 "Crop-Livestock Farming
in Iowa: The Thompson Farm," pp. 308-323.

CHEMICAL AGRICULTURE

Demographics, Green Revolution, the "greater yields" syndrome, and the stimulus for
production agriculture. Reductionist science and the scientific basis of fertilizer application:
crop plant mineral nutrition.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 6 "Agricultural Productivity," pp. 90-114; Wright IN Jackson et al. Ch.
11 "Innocents Abroad: American Agricultural Research in Mexico," pp. 135-152. National
Research Council Ch. 3 "Research and Science," pp. 141-164; Black IN CAST Ch. 6 "Crop
and Soil Sciences," pp. 68-78.


Fertility rites: Tull, Liebig, Blackman. Fertilizer response curves.
fertilizer recommendations. Fate of applied fertilizing substances.
Eutrophication of natural waterways.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 5 "Nutrient Cycling," pp. 63-89.
AGRON 545: Dr. Alfred Blackmer


The black art of
Nitrogen cycle.


Nitrate and phosphorus pollution of groundwater. The point-source controversy. Case
history: Herman Warsaw and 370 bu. of corn/acre. Agriculture gone amuck or hope for
the future?
Reading: Jarrell IN Carroll et al. Ch. 14 "Nitrogen in Agroecosystems," pp. 385-412.

Weed management strategies. Evolving philosophies: management versus elimination.
Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical/cultural control of weeds. Crop physiological
ecology: the place of weeds in a cropping system. How the "successful" herbicide has
changed: 2,4-D, atrazine, glyphosate. Herbicides and the environment. Effects on non-
target people, plants, and places.
Reading:Vandermeer Ch. 3 "The Competitive Production Principle," pp. 29-45; Ch. 4
"Facilitation," pp. 47-67; Ch. 8 "Weeds and Intercrops," pp. 127-140; Harlan Ch. 4 "What
is a Weed?" pp. 83-104; Liebman and Janke IN Francis et al. Ch. 4 "Sustainable Weed
Management Practices," pp. 111-143.
AGRON 545: Dr. Robert Hartzler

TOWARD A MORE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Early technological revisionism: Conservation Farming, Reduced Tillage, Integrated Pest
Management. Biotechnology: A sustainable technology or a bigger hammer? Genetic
-diversity. The deception of alternative crops: using "new" species in old ways.
Reading: Andow and Rosset IN Carroll et al. Ch. 15 "Integrated Pest Management," pp.
413-440; Salick and Merrick IN Carroll et al. Ch. 19 "Use and Maintenance of Genetic
Resources: Crops and their Wild Relatives," pp. 517-548; Trenbath et al. IN Gliessman
Ch. 20 "Threats to Sustainability in Intensified Agricultural Systems: Analysis and
Implications for Management," pp. 337-365.
AGRON 445: INQUIRY 2.


Water management. Irrigation and (miracle I folly) in the desert.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 12 "Dryland Agriculture," pp. 196-208;
Agriculture," pp. 209-223.


Ch. 13 irrigationn


No Class


267


Page 2


5 Oct





12 Oct




19 Oct


26 Oct


2 Nov


9 Nov







SAGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues in Sustainable Agriculture Page 3
Fall 1993

16 Nov Lessons from the third world: 1000 years of agriculture in China, Peru, Mexico.
Intercropping, crop rotation, terracing.
Reading: Tivy Ch. 10 "The Humid Tropical Lowlands," pp. 163-183; Ch. 11 "Rice," pp.
184-195; Marten IN Altieri and Hecht Ch. 19 "Small-Scale Agriculture in Southeast Asia,"
pp. 183-202; Brush IN Altieri and Hecht Ch. 17 "Crop Development In Centers er-
Domestication: A Case Study of Andean Potato Agriculture," pp. 161-172.
AGRON 445: Research Project Due
AGRON 545: Dr. Jon Sandor

30 Nov Farmers who are putting their livelyhoods on the line to practice sustainable agriculture:
convictions, experiences and lessons.
Reading: Logsdon IN Jackson et al. Ch. I "The Importance of Traditional Farming
Practices for a Sustainable Modern Agriculture," pp. 3-18; Andrews et al. IN Francis et al.
Ch. 10 "Converting to Sustainable Farming Systems," pp. 281-314; Butler Flora IN
Francis et al. Ch. 12 "Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Communities," pp. 343-360.
AGRON 445: Doug Alert, Ron and Maria Rossman, Tom Frantzen

PHILOSOPHY AND AGRICULTURE

7 Dec Economics, human equality, global sustainability.
Reading: Lockeretz IN Francis et al. Ch. 15 "Major Issues Confrdnting Sustainable
Agriculture," pp. 423-438; Francis IN Francis et al. Ch. 16 "Future Dimensions of
Sustainable Agriculture," pp. 440-466; Buttel IN Carroll et a. Ch. 4 "Social Relations and
the Growth of Modern Agriculture," pp. 113-146; Berry IN Jackson et al. Ch. 2 "Whose
Head is the Farmer Using? Whose Head is Using the Farmer?" pp. 19-30.
AGRON 545: Drs. Gordon Bultena and Eric Hoiberg

14 Dec AGRON 445: FINAL INQUIRY


EVALUATION


(445): Attendance/Participation: 60%
"Take-home" inquiries (3): 30%
Research Project: 10%

(545): Discussion Leadership: 25%
Discussion participation: 25%
Written summaries: 50%


COURSE RESOURCES

TEXTBOOK: Tivy, Joy. 1990. Agricultural Ecology. Longman Scientific and Technical,
Wiley, New York.

COURSE PACKETS: One for 445 (discussion outlines)
Two for 545 (discussion outlines, journal articles)
Available from: Kinko's, 114 Welch Ave., Ames.

ELECTRONIC NEWSGROUPS: On Usenet (available through Vincent. VAX & HDS):
ALT.SUSTAINABLE.AGRICULTURE
BIT.LISTSERV.ECOLOG-L
SCI.ENVIRONMENT
TALK.ENVIRONMENT


268






AGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues In Sustainable Agriculture Page 4
Fall 1993


SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES:

Aiken, W. and J. La Follette (Eds.) 1977. World Hunger and Moral Obligation. Prentice Hall.

Altieri, M. A. 1987. Agroecology. The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture.
Westview Press.

Altieri, M. A. and S. B. Hecht. 1989. Agroecology and Small Farm Development. CRC Press.

American Society of Agronomy. Quarterly, 1988 to present. Journal of Production Agriculture.
Madison, Wisconsin.

Ashton, F. M. and A S. Crafts. 1981. Mode of Action of Herbicides. Second Ed. Wiley.

Balfour, E. B., Lady. 1943. The Living Soil. Faber and Faber.

Berry, W. 1977. The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture. Sierra Club Books.

Blatz, C. V. 1991. Ethics and Agriculture: An Anthology on Current Issues in World
Context. Univ. of Idaho Press, Moscow.

Brown, L. R. 1987. State of the World. A Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable
Society. Worldwatch Institute.

Carroll, C. R., J. H. Vandermeer, and P. M. Rosset. (Eds.) 1990. Agroecology. McGraw Hill

CAST. 1990. Alternative Agriculture: Scientists' Review. Special Report No. 16. CAST,
Ames.

Chambers, R., A. Pacey and L. A. Thrupp. 1989. Farmer First : Farmer Innovation and
Agricultural Research. Bootstrap Press.

Clay, J. W. 1988. Indigenous Peoples and Tropical Forests. Models of Land Use and
Management from Latin America. Report 27. Cultural Survival, Inc.
Cohen, M. N. and G. J. Armelagos. 1984. Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture.
Academic Press. New York.

Croxall, H. E., and L. P. Smith. 1984. The Fight for Food. Factors Limiting Agricultural
Production. George Allen and Unwin.

Dickson, A. 1788. The Husbandry of the Ancients. Dickson & Creeca.

Duke, James A. 1992. Edible Weeds. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Ehrenberg, M. 1989. Women in Prehistory. Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

Faulkner, E. H. 1943. Plowman's Folly. Grossett and Dunlap.

Francis, C.A., C. B. Flora and L. D. King (Eds.) 1990. Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate
Zones. Wiley.






SAGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues in Sustainable Agriculture Page 5
Fall 1993

Fukuoka, M. 1985. The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice of Green
Philosophy. Tokyo, Japan Publications. Translated from the Japanese.

Gliessman, S. R. (Ed.) 1990. Agroecology. Researching the Ecological Basis for
Sustainable Agriculture. Springer-Verlag.

Harding, S. G. 1986. The science question in feminism. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.
Haworth Press. Quarterly, 1990 to present. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. Binghampton,
New York.

Harlan, J. R. 1975. Crops and Man. ASA.

Harris, M. 1989. Our Kind. HarperCollins.

Hightower, J. 1978. Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times. Schenkman.

Hildebrand, P. E. 1986. Perspectives on Farming Systems Research and Extension. Lynne
Rienners, Boulder.

Howard, A., Sir. 1940. An Agricultural Testament. Oxford Univ. Press.

Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Quarterly, 1976 to present. American Journal of Alternative
Agriculture. Greenbelt, Maryland.
Jacks, G. V. and R. O. White. 1939. The Rape of the Earth: A World Survey of Soil
Erosion. Faber and Faber.

Jackson, W. 1987. Altars of Unhewn Stone: Science and the Earth. North Point Press.

Jackson, W., Wendell Berry and B. Colman. 1984. Meeting the Expectations of the Land.
North Point Press.

Janick, J. and J. E. Simon. 1990. Advances in New Crops. Timber Press.

Johnson, A. 1991. Factory Farming. Basil Blackwell, Cambridge MA.

Leopold, A. 1949. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Oxford Univ.
Press.

Loomis, R.S. and D. J. Connor. 1992. Crop Ecology: Productivity and Management in
Agricultural Systems. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England.

Lovelock, J. E. 1979. Gaia, A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press.

Moore Lapp6, F. 1971. Diet for a Small Planet. How to Enjoy a Rich Protein Harvest by
Getting off the Top of the Food Chain. Ballantine.
Montmarquet, J. A. 1989. The Idea of Agrarianism: From Hunter-Gatherer to Agrarian
Radical in Western Culture. Univ. of Idaho Press, Moscow.

National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Lost Crops of the Incas. National Academy Press.


270






AGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues in Sustainable Agriculture Page 6
Fall 1993

National Academy of Sciences. 1979. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. NAS.

National Academy of Sciences. 1975. Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising
Economic Value. NAS.

National Research Council. 1989. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington
D.C.

Peters, W. J. and Neuenschwander, L. F. 1988. Slash and Burn: Farming in the Third World
Forest. Univ. of Idaho Press, Moscow.

Poincelot, R. P. 1986. Toward a More Sustainable Agriculture. AVI Press.

Poirot, E. M. 1964. Our Margin of Life. Acres USA.

Postel, S. 1992. Last Oasis. Facing Water Scarcity. W.W. Norton & Co., New York.

Rifkin, J. 1992. Beyond Beef. The Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture. Dutton, New York.

Rindos, D. 1984. The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Approach. Academic Press.

Rodale, J. I. 1948. The Organic Front. Rodale Press.

Schumacher, E. F. 1973. Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered.
Blond and Briggs.

Schusky, E. L. 1989. Culture and Agriculture. An Ecological Introduction to Traditional
and Modern Farming Systems. Bergin and Garvey Publishers.

Soil and Water Conservation Society. Bimonthly, 1946 to present. Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation. Ankeny, Iowa.

Steiner. R. 1924. Agriculture. A Course of Eight Lectures. n.p.

Thompson, P. B. and B. A. Stout. 1991. Beyond the large farm: ethics and research goals for
agriculture. Westview, Boulder.

Tripp, R. (Ed.) 1991. Planned Change in Farming Systems: Progress in On-Farm
Research. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England.

Tull, Jethro. 1736. The new horse-hoeing husbandry: or, An essay on the principles of
tillage and vegetation. Wherein is shewn a method of introducing a sort of vineyard-
culture into the corn-fields, in order to increase their product, and diminish the
common expence... London: Printed for the author.

Tusser. T. 1580. Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry. n.p.

USDA, SCS, ESCS. 1980. Soil Depletion Study. Reference Report: Southern Iowa
Rivers Basin.

USDA. 1980. Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming.

Vandermeer. 1992. The Ecology of Intercropping. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England.


271






SAGRON/ENV ST 445 Agron 545 Issues in Sustainable Agriculture Page 7
Fall 1993


Wenke, R. J. 1990. Patterns in Prehistory. Humankind's First Three Million Years.
Oxford University Press.

Wilson, K. and G. E. B. Morren, Jr. 1990. Systems Approaches for Improvement in
Agriculture and Resource Management. Macmillan.


272









AGRO 440
Crops, Soils, and Civilization

Summary Activity

Our task today is to "design" a perfect agriculturally-based civilization. This should be
done by reflecting on the principal attributes, both physical/biological and human, of the cultures
which we have studied this semester. As you design this civilization, consider these sorts of
questions: What attributes most favored the success of these cultures? What characteristics
imposed significant restrictions on the cultures? What attributes contributed to the rise and later
decline of the cultures? What attributes are required for long-term agricultural sustainability? In
short, what can we say about the future of agriculturally-based civilizations such as our own
based on what we have learned from the past? Based on your group's discussion, outline the
attributes that you as a group view as essential for a "perfect" and sustainable agriculturally-
based civilization. Be prepared to defend your conclusions about the required characteristics for
a perfect agriculturally-based civilization.

Physical/Biological Attributes:

Climate
Topography
Water
Climax community
Crop diversity
Soil quality and characteristics
Crop rotational systems
Crop origins



Human Attributes:

Governmental form
Community structure
Farm size
Land ownership patterns
Contact with foreign cultures
Trading relationships
Social organization
Class structure
Military affairs
Individual rights
Religious life
Intellectual development

Note: Feel free to add any other attributes to the above lists that are appropriate.


273










SYLLABUS


Crops. Soils, and Civilization

AGRO 440 (3 credits)
1:45-3:00 TTh, 1104 H.J. Patterson Hall

Instructors: Bruce R. James, Soil Science, 0206 HJP, X 5-1345
David J. Sammons, Crop Science, 1124 HJP, X 5-1340

Course Description:

Readings, lectures, and discussions will engage students in an
in-depth, interdisciplinary study of the role and importance of
crop and soil resources in the development and persistence of human
civilizations. Agriculture is an integral part of human
activities, using plants and soils for food, feed, and fiber
production. Although of fundamental importance today, agriculture
is a relatively recent human innovation; it began 10,000 to 12,000
years ago. Since that time, civilization as we know it has arisen,
and human cultures have developed to the point' that we cannot
conceive of survival without agriculture. Nevertheless,
agricultural activities are fundamentally disruptive of natural
ecosystems. Does agriculture lead to its own destruction and that
of the civilization it supports? Or can agricultural systems
continue to change and improve so that indefinite productivity and
human welfare are maintained? This course will explore these sorts
of questions from the perspectives of the crop and soil sciences,
and in historical contexts through a series of case studies.

Course Requirements and Grading System:

Each student will be expected to participate in class
discussions of the four case studies that will be presented by the
instructors during the semester. Two hour examinations, a term
paper, and a final will also be required.

Students will have the opportunity to earn up to 1000 points
during the semester, and a numerical average will be calculated and
used to determine letter grades. The following points will be
assigned:

Requirement Number Points Total Points

Hour Exams 2 200 400
Final Exam 1 300 300
Paper 1 300 300


Readings for the course have been compiled from various
sources by the instructors, and they may be purchased as a prepared
booklet at Bel-Jean Copy Print Center. The address is. 7415
Baltimore Blvd in College Park.


274









Lecture Schedule


Instructor


Pre-agricultural Human Societies
Historical Origins of Agriculture
Crop Evolution and Domestication

Conversion of Grassland to Cropland
Irrigation and Water Relations of Soils
Soil Erosion and Conservation

The Nature of "Civilization" -
Discussion of Lowdermilk paper


Sammons



James



James/Sammons


Hour Exam #1


1/22
to
2/5

2/7
to
2/21

2/26


2/28

3/2"
3/7
3/12

3/14
3/19
3/21


Overview
Crops
Soils

Overview
Crops
Soils


James
Sammons
James

James
Sammons
James


Synthesis and Review

Hour Exam #2

Mayan Culture:



Anasazi'Culture:


Synthesis and Review


James/Sammons


Overview
Crops
Soils

Overview
Crops
Soils


Sammons
Sammons
James

Sammons
Sammons
James


James/Sammons


Future Perspectives :d'7 -- /Crops Sammons
<4 oils James

Review C , (C'\\ James/Sammons

Final Examination, 10:30-12:30, 1104 HJP


275


Date


Topic


Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia:



Greek and Roman Period:


4/2

4/4


4/9
4/11
4/16 4- \V

4/X2t.3
4/p 23
4 / 24, o0



.&2 7

5/9

5/16











AGRONOMY 440


Crops. Soils, and Civilization

Term Paper


The following guidelines are provided to help you select a suitable and manageable
topic for the term paper which is required in this course. Please spend some time reading
outside materials before deciding on your topic, and please clear the topic with Drs. James
and Sammons before you begin to research and write it. An outline of your paper with a title
and at least five references (with an abstract of each) is due on February 19. This will be
reviewed and approved by Drs. James and Sammons, and returned to you with our thoughts
and suggestions. The term paper is due on April 25, and will count 30% of your semester
grade.

A good place to begin to think about your topic is with material in the collected
readings which you have. You should also browse through related materials in the University
libraries to acquaint yourself with the available material on a topic which you are considering.
Be imaginative in your choice of topic, and be careful to choose one that interests you
sufficiently to hold your interests through the semester. Please make a particular effort to
focus your topic as specifically as possible so that you can build depth into the content. The
paper should not be simply a restatement of material already discussed in class. Both Dr.
James and Dr. Sammons will be available to review your topic with you to help you sharpen
the focus if you are having difficulty.



As you start to select a topic, please review the following guidelines:

1) The topic should be clearly connected to the themes and ideas discussed in this course.

2) The topic may be comparative in nature; that is, it may compare/contrast a particular
feature of two historical cultures with reference to cropping systems, soil management, or
social attributes relative to agriculture.

3) The topic may be analytical in nature; that is, it may focus on a particular problem (e.g.,
soil salinity, water management, crop evolution, cropping systems) within a culture, and
analyze in depth the causes of, reasons for or attributes of that problem.

4) The topic may explore the social institutions associated with the agriculture of a particular
historical group, relating those institutions to the characteristics of the agricultural economy
of the group.

5) The topic may be specifically related to one of the four cultures with which this course is
concerned, or it may discuss another historical culture.

6) An appropriate length for the paper is 10-12 typed pages (double-spaced), excluding the
bibliography.


276









AGRONOMY 440

Crops. Soils, and Civilization

Reading List

Pre-agricultural Human Societies

S- Lo 1. Price and Brown, Chap. 1. Aspects of hunter-gatherer
complexity (Cs -Zlo)
IL -5o 2. Henry, Chap. 14. Preagricultural sedentism
1- YL 3. Harlan, The Golden Age
Historical Origins of Agriculture

VI-55 4. Cohen, The Problem of Agricultural Origins
S#-b 5. Heiser, The Origin of Agriculture
I5 77 6. Harlan, Views on Agricultural Origins
Crop Evolution and Domestication

9Q- 8 7. Darlington, The Coming of Agriculture
g1-1oo 8. Harlan, The Dynamics of Domestication
Conversion of Grassland to Cropland

lo-12.5 9. Odum, Development and Evolution of the Ecosystem
Irrigation and Water Relations of Soils

127-17 10. Russell, The Management of Irrigated Saline and Alkali
Soils

Soil Erosion and Conservation

\q -%.5 11. Russell, General Principles of Soil Management

Nature of "Civilization"

IS7-zoz 12. Lowdermilk, Conquest of the Land Through 7000 Years

Mesopotamia

So -2LS 13. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia. Portrait of a Dead
Civilization
267- ,7 14. Harlan, Near Eastern Center
15. Harlan and Zohary, Distribution of Wild Wheats and Barley
I L -t 16. Dale and Carter, Mesopotamia
2a1L &^7


277









-2-


Greek-Roman Period


29 -35 17.

395-2o 18.
4:t-HY919.


Cary and Haarhoff. Life and Thought in the Greek and
Roman World
White, Roman Farming
Dale and Carter, Greece; Italy and Sicily


Mayan Culture


4Sl-SoY 20.
505--7 21.
Si- 550 22.
551-61 23.


Thompson, Prologue to Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization
Willey and Shimkin, Maya Collapse
Simmons, Evolution of Crop Plants: Maize, Cacao, Beans,
and.Cucurbits-'
Flannery, Chaps. 6-8. Maya Subsistence 7-1.3)


Anasazi Culture


19- 633 24.
6&S 9 25.
6. & 26.
6& 5 g27.


Hurt, Indian Agriculture in America
Ambler, Anasazi Prehistoric People ("IS-7J5)
Berry, Age of Maize in Greater Southwest
Rohn, Prehistoric Soil and Water Conservation


278









Slippery Rock University SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS
Parks and Recreation/
FACT SHEET Environmental Education
Graduate Coordinator
101 Eisenberg Building
(412)738-2068


MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS


The Master of Science in Sustainable Systems is a thirty-five
hour program. It is available under a thesis or non-thesis program.

Admission to the program is open to anyone who meets the
general admission requirements for graduate study at Slippery Rock
University with an undergraduate cumulative grade point average of at
least 3.0 (on a 4 point scale). In addition, each applicant must
submit a portfolio outlining involvement in relevant prior
study/activities and at least two letters of recommendation
describing the applicant's competence and effectiveness in a
professional setting.

Students who lack sufficient undergraduate preparation may be
required to complete a non-credit reading program or meet other
requirements prior to admission to degree candidacy.

DEGREE OBJECTIVES

Slippery Rock's Master of Science in Sustainable Systems is the
only one of its kind in the United States. It was conceived by the
late Dr. Robert Macoskey, Professor of Philosophy at Slippery Rock
University. Through the Alternative Living and Energy Research
Project (ALTER), Dr. Macoskey created an educational program for all
persons interested- in the relationship of human ecology to the
environment and the natural systems found there.
Nature now exhibits warnings that the systems we have
established based on anthropocentric thinking are not sustainable.
As we recognize this we are obliged to seek ways to bring our human
made systems into harmony with nature. This degree provides an
unprecedented opportunity for students to respond to this challenge.
Building sustainable societies may be the most pressing, yet
rewarding task we now face.

The four tracks of this degree program Agroecology, Built
Environment and Energy Management, Permaculture, and Resource
Management collectively focus on designs which draw their
inspiration from the diversity, stability and resilience inherent in
nature. The integration and human ecology fuses the many course
offerings and practical experiences offered n the MS3 program.
Students develop an understanding of this integration through
creative problem solving exercises, laboratory and field experience.
They interact with a highly skilled and motivated faculty dedicated
to the spirit of inquiry, research and imaginative approaches to
education. Our goal is to develop problem solving and communication
skills needed to share with others our vision of a sustainable
society.

HARMONY HOMESTEAD

An on-campus homestead serves as host to a variety of


279










activities associated with the MS3 program and ALTER. Harmony House
has been renovated for energy conservation, utilizing alternative
energy technologies, allergy-free/non-toxic design techniques and
material recycling. The larger homestead combines the elements of
shelter, energy, and landscape in a harmonious and sustainable
permaculture design. All aspects of this design are intended to
foster appropriate interrelations and interactions between all
systems in an ever-evolving method of human scale development.
Permaculture, as a core component of the MS3 program, offers the
student an ethical background in the principles and techniques for
creating the integration of landscape and people. Through the
conscious design of agrosystems which mimic the diversity, stability
and resilience of natural ecosystems we demonstrate the provision for
food, energy, shelter and other material and non-material human needs
in a sustainable way.


COURSEWORK

The Master of Science in Sustainable Systems is a 35 credit
hour interdisciplinary program involving permaculture design and
applied ecology in addition to the graduate level emphasis on
research methods, analysis of literature, and the option of a thesis
or a six credit internship. Each student is required to take 20
credit hours of core courses and 15 hours of coursework specific to a
chosen track.


















3


280









THE CURRICULUM

Professional Core (Required of all MS3 majors) Credits

BIOL 555 Field Ecology or FREE 550 Applied Ecology 3
FREE 640 Principles and Techniques of Permaculture
Design
FREE 613 Analysis of Professional Literature 3
PREE 799 Research Methods 3
PREE 740 Sustainable-Systems Seminar 2
FREE 699 Internship (Non-Thesis)
OR
FREE 800 Thesis 6
20


Acroecoloov (Sustainable Agriculture)

FREE 642 Sustainable Agriculture Techniques 3
FREE 643 Sustainable Agriculture Processes 3
in Plant and Animal Husbandry
FREE 644 Fertility Considerations 3
Electives 6
15


Built Environment/Eneryv Management (Ecoarchitecture)

FREE 661 Design and Resource Development for 3
Energy Conservation
FREE 662 Allergy-free/Non-toxic Design 3
FREE 663 Alternative Energy & Engineering for 3
Sustainable Systems
FREE 676 Site and Building Feasibility Studies 3
Elective 3
15


Permaculture

Complete any 5 Agroecology, Built Environment/Energy
Management, Resources Management, or Elective courses
relevant to the student's career goals. 15


Resources Management

Currently under.revision.


Elective Courses

FREE 541 Design Graphics & Problem Solving
FREE 612 Open Space Planning
PREE 646 The Quest for Permaculture
FREE 647 Cultural models in Permaculture
ECON 610 Economics of Sustainable Systems
GEOL 630 Man and His Physical Environment


281










Graduate Assistantships are available and include a tuition waiver
and stipend ($4,000 in 1992-93). Unconditional admission to graduate
studies is a prerequisite for assistantship eligibility.
Assistantships may be awarded for up to two academic years with
recipients working 20 hours per week and scheduling at least nine
semester hours. Application forms may be obtained through the Office
of Graduate Studies and Extended Programs and are to be submitted to
the departmental graduate coordinator in the field where the
prospective graduate student intends to major or to the
administrative head of the unit in which a position is sought.


GRADUATE FACULTY IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

Paul Baroutsis, PhD. Economics. Economics of sustainable systems

Thomas DeLuca, Ph.D. Soils and agroecology

Paulette Johnson, MS. Environmental Education. Ecology

Robert Kobet, IA, MS. Alternative Energy and Engineering. Allergy-
free/non-toxic design, design and development for energy
conservation

Larry Patrick, PhD. Permaculture and animal husbandry, certified
organic farmer

W.G. Sayre, PhD. Chemistry. Fertility considerations of sustainable
agriculture

William Shiner, PhD. Resources management

Dale Stewart, PhD. Site design for energy conservation, open space
planning


282









Slippery Rock University 1/93
Department of Parks and Recreation/
Environmental Education

COURSE OUTLINE

Course Title: Design and Resource Development for Energy Conservation

Course Code: 71 661

Course Hours: 3.Semester Hours

Course Description: Site and detail scale facility and landscape
design for energy conservation from a natural resourcesinventory,
through programming for design, concept evolution and preparation of
conceptual site and structure plane, profiles and construction details,
including project supervision.

Course Competencies: Upon completion of the course, students will be
able to:

1. Define terms and recall major facts associated with limited scale
facilities planning and development for energy conservation.

2. Identify the process and sequence of project design and
development.

3. Develop manual graphic skills necessary to produce simple design
schemes for various facility planning projects.

4. Analyze relationships of natural and man-made site elements and
activities programming to the design and development of energy
conserving facilities.

5. Synthesize information from site and program analyses to develop
conceptual plans, sections and details for selected facilities.

Evaluation: Site Analysis and Concept projects, coneptual structure
and site plans, profiles and details projects, graphic and oral
presentations.

Course Activities: Lectures, class discussions, design assignments,
lab exercises.

Course Outline:

1. Week 1. Overview of course objectives, content, materials,
references and evaluation. Foundations of design for energy
conservation. The design cycle.

2. Week 2. Research and regional influences. Graphic presentations
techniques. Site selection and base sheet construction.

3. Week 3. Microclimate, existing features, slope aspect and
inclination analysis.










4. Week 6. Soils, vegetation, hydrography analysis. Assignment of
first project: Site Inventory and Analysis.

5. Week 5. Inventory and Analysis graphics and site visits.
Student critiques.

6. Week 6. Presentation and jury for first project. Introduction
to programming for energy conserving design. Site and
structural enlargements.

7. Week 7. Sensory and spatial relationships. Program resource
requirements. Energy input and energy output. Assignment of
second project: The Concept and Relationship Diagrams.

8. Week 8. Development of relationship diagrams and energy loops.
Student critiques.


9. Week 9. Presentation and jury for second project. Conceptual
site and structure planning. Plan view symbolism.

10. Week 10. Cross section and profile construction. Assignment of
third project: Conceptual plans, sections profiles and project
detailing and cost estimate.

11. Week 11. Professional resources and contract development.

12. Week 12. Project supervision.

13. Week 13. Plan, section, profile, and detail graphic presentation
technique, computer aided design. Student critiques.

14. Week 14. Presentation and jury for third project.

15. Week 15. Submit cost estimate.,


284









Bibliography:

* 1. Building Design and Construction, Periodical 1/9/51 to Present,
Chicago

* 2. Buildings, Energy Conservation Congress, International PLEA
Conference, Rethimnon, Crete. Passive and low Energy
Architecture. Laboratory for Architectural Science and
Environmental Research, Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1983

* 3. Cheny, Robin, L.A. Fill 89, American Society of Landscape
Architects Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1989

* 4. Coen, Duane, Nassauer, .Joan, Tuttle, Ron, Latis X: Landscape
Architecture in the Rural Landscape, American Society of
Landscape Architects, Washington., D.C., 1987

5. Conway, Gordon, Resource Development in Southeast Asia, New York,
Ford Foundation, 1973

* 6. Davis, Shelton and Nartsy, Jeremy, Resource Development and
Indigenous Peoples, A Comparative Bibliography, Boston,
Massachusetts, Anthropology Resource Center, 1983

* 7. Dietrich, Norman, Cost Data for Landscape Construction, 10th Ed.,
Kerr Associates, Minneapolis, MN 1989

* 8. Doyle, Michael E., Color Drawing, NY, Van Nos Reinhold, 1981

* 9. Dubin, Fred S. and Long, Chalmers C., Building Energy
Conservation, New York, McGraw Hill, 1978

*10. Energy and Development. International Conference on the
Economics of Energy and Development. Boulder, Colorado, 1974

*11. Energy Conservation A National Forum Cel-n Energy Research
Institute, University of Miami, Coral Galnes, Florida, 1976

12. Farnque, Oman, Graphic Communication as a Design Tool, NY,
Van Nos Reinhold, 1984

*13. Ferguson, Bruce K., Index to Landscape Architecture Magazine,
Mesa, AZ, PDA Publishers, 1988

*14. Former, Penney, Buildings, Energy Conservation Bibliography,
Turvey, England, Scholium International, 1983

*15. Glasstone, Samuel, Energy Deskbook, Oak Ridge, Tennessee,
Technical Information Centers U.S. DOE, 1982

*16. Harris, Charles, and Dines, Nicholas, Time-Savers Standards for
Landscape Architects, NY, McGraw, 1988









*17. Landphair, Ilarlowe, and Klatt, Fred, Landscape Architecture
Construction, Elsevier, NY, NY, 1979

*19. Lee, Kaimen, Buildings Energy Conservation Case Studies,
Environmental Design and Research Center, 1977

20. Lynch, Kevin and Ilack, Gary, Site Planning, 3rd Ed., Cambridge,
MA, MIT Press, 1984

21. Mcllarg, Ian, Design with Nature, 2nd Ed., Garden City, NY,
Doubleday, 1971

*22. McPherson, Gregory, Energy Conserving Site Design

*23. Pollack, Franklin S., Resources Development Frontiers for
Research, Western Resources Conference,.University of Colorado
Press, 1960

*24. Reiter, Sydney, Buildings, Energy Conservation Costs, New York.
Van Nostran, Reinhold, 1985

*25. Resource Development and Engineering Conference, National
Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 1987

26. Rubinstein, Harvey, A Guide to Site and Environmental Planning,
3rd Ed., NY, Wiley, 1987

27. Simonds, John 0., Earthscape, NY, Van Nos Reinhold, 1986

28. Simonds, John 0., Landscape Architecture, NY, McGraw, 1983

*29. Walker, Theodore, Plan Graphics, Mesa, AZ, PDA Publishers, 1985


286









SLIPPERY ROCK UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, RECREATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS


COURSE: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND ENGINEERING FOR
SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

INSTRUCTOR: MR. KOBET


COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course will present a variety of energy and building
engineering systems which are environmentally sound, ecologically
sensitive and appropriate for allergy-free/nontoxic living. The
issue of environmental sustainability will be discussed in con-
cert with the engineering and application of building energy sys-
tems. Emphasis will be placed on renewable energy sources,
natural energy flows, climatology and human ecology as system
design determinants.


COURSE OBJECTIVES:

To understand building energy consumption, natural energy
flows in structures, the impact of microclimates on building
energy system selection and sizing, the importance of energy con-
servation, renewable energy systems and environmental sus-
tainability. Equal emphasis will be placed on research,
analysis, calculations and hands-on application of energy related
systems at Harmony House. The use of equipment to measure energy
flows and daylighting will be included.


COURSE TEXTS:

Solar Design Manuals (by instructor)
L.O.F. Daylighting Handout (by instructor)
Solarizing Your Present Home
The Passive Solar Design Book


COURSE EVALUATION:

Evaluation will be a combination of tests, quizzes, report
and research papers. Equal emphasis will be placed on written
assignments, verbal presentations and seminar participation.
Type and frequency of evaluation method is the discretion of the
instructor. Quizzes may be unannounced. The student is respon-
sible for all aspects of the evaluation procedure.


287










SLIPPERY ROCK UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, RECREATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND ENGINEERING FOR
SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS PAGE TWO


COURSE CHRONOLOGY:


Week One:

Two:
Three:
Four:
Five:
Six:
Seven:
Eight:
Nine:
Ten:
Eleven:
Twelve:
Thirteen:
Fourteen:
Fifteen:


Course discussion and introduction to natural
light
Solar geometry and natural light
Natural light calculations and measurements
Building energy consumption
Building energy consumption and conservation
Passive solar design direct gain
Passive solar design sunspaces
Passive solar design indirect gain
Passive solar design project
Active solar systems
Active solar systems
Photovoltaic systems


Photovoltaic and wind
Hydroelectric
Final project/seminar


systems


and review


COURSE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES:

Notebook and/or binder for handouts
24" wide roll of tracing paper
18x24 sheets of vellum


COURSE POLICY:

Attendance is mandatory.
The professor retains the right to reject late work.
If late work is accepted, the student forfeits the right to
prompt return of the same.
The student must submit copies of the work and retain
originals.
Participation in Harmony House projects, if any, is man-
datory.


288








SLIPPERY ROCK UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, RECREATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS (MS3)

COURSE: ALLERGY-FREE/NONTOXIC DESIGN 11--

INSTRUCTOR: MR. KOBET


COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course will acquaint the student with the concept of
human ecology as a design determinant and the relationships of
man to the built environment. Emphasis is placed on understand-
ing the influence of the built environment on our mental and
physical well being and the ethic of sustainability as it relates
to human habitat and evolution. Participants will learn to
assess existing structures and planned new construction for
potentially harmful incitants of environmental illness. Benign
material substitutes and alternative building methods for con-
structing healthy environments is included.


COURSE OBJECTIVES:

To gain an understanding and appreciation of our physiologi-
cal relationship to the built environment, the nature and causes
of environmental illness, human ecology as a design determinant
and the creation of an awareness of what constitutes healthy
human habitat. The student will learn how to scrutinize struc-
tures for the sick building syndrome and identify incitants of
chronic illness. The relationship of building enclosures and
mechanical systems will be examined to establish their synergis-
tic relationship to building function.


COURSE TEXTS:

Your House, Your Health and Well Being
Rea and Rousseau
Healthy House
John Bower
Selected readings and class handouts


COURSE EVALUATION:

Evaluation will be by combination of tests, quizzes, written
assignments, research papers, seminar presentations and par-
ticipation in projects at the Harmony House. The type and
frequency of evaluation device is the discretion of the profes-
sor. Quizzes may be unannounced. The student is responsible for
all aspects of the evaluation procedures.


289









SLIPPERY ROCK UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, RECREATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS (MS3)


ALLERGY-FREE/NONTOXIC DESIGN


COURSE CHRONOLOGY:


Week One:

Two:
Three:
Four:
Five:

Six:
Seven:

Eight:
Nine:
Ten:
Eleven:
Twelve:
Thirteen:
Fourteen:
Fifteen:


Course introduction, human ecology and the
: built environment
Human ecology and environmental illness
The sick building syndrome causes and cures
Seminar research and presentations
Allergy-free/nontoxic design, site planning
issues
Site planning, foundation design
Building enclosures, thermal and moisture
protection
Interior finishes and plants
Building systems
Occupancy and maintenance
Residential evaluation and critique
Residential evaluation and critique
Commercial evaluation and critique
Commercial evaluation and critique
Final projects and presentation


COURSE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES:

Notebook and/or binder for handouts
35 mm camera and/or video camera for VHS videotape format


COURSE POLICY:

Attendance is mandatory.
The professor retains the right to reject late work.
If late work is accepted, the student forfeits the right to
a prompt return of the same.
The student must submit copies of the work and retain
originals.
Participation in Harmony House Projects, if any, is man-
datory.


290


PAGE TWO










Slippery Rock University P. Johnson
Department of Parks & Recreation/ 9\9;
Environmental Education

APPLIED ECOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS
COURSE SYLLABUS


COURSE TITLE: Applied Ecology for Sustainable Systems

COURSE CODE: 71-550 CREDIT: 3 semester hours

COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course is an integration of ecology,
resource.management and environmental education
to promote an understanding of ecological
principles as they relates to sustainability.
Emphasis is placed on the application of
ecological principles based on social value
orientations as they apply to resource management
practices.

COURSE COMPETENCIES:
1. Examine personal and societal values as they relate to land
stewardship and sustainability.
2. Express basic ecological principles verbally and in writing
3 Ask clarifying and extending questions related to site specific
environmental problems.
4. Recognize the complexity of natural systems.
5. Integrate ecological principles into a holistic approach to
land use management.
6. Incorporate conservation practices for resource management.
7. Apply higher order thinking skills to solve environmental
problems.
8. Recognize the importance of environmental education as a tool
for sustainable living.
9. Predict ecological consequences to ecosystem disturbance in an
effort to avoiding environmental conflict and degradation of
resource structure.
10. Analyse statistical data and communicate the outcomes.
11. Justify solutions to site specific environmental problems by
using models, known facts, and application of ecological
principles.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:
1. Class participation. An unexcused abscenses will result in
the drop of one letter grade.
2. Completion of all assignments, including but not limited to:
a. laboratory reports
b. research paper
3. Completion of all quizzes and the mid-term and final tests.
4. Attend all field trips.
5. Complete all supplemental readings










COURSE TEXT:
1. Smith, R.-(1990). Ecology and Field Biology. New York:
Harper and Row.
2. Naess, A. (1990). Ecology, Community and Lifestyle. New
York: Cambridge University Press.

II. CLASS POLICIES

A. Attendance: See department policy (accompanies syllabus)

B. Measurement, Evaluation and Grading:
1. Grading System


Assignment
Lab reports
Mid-term test
Research paper
Final test


2. Grading Scale:


Percent
25%
25%
25%
100%
100%


Points
100 pts.
100 pts.
100 pts.
100 pts.
500 pts.


A= 500-450 pts.
B= 449-400 pts.
C= 399-350 pts.
D= 349-300 pts.
F= 299- pts.


3. Quizzes may be announced in advance or unannouced.
4. Assignments MUST BE typed using high quality drawings or
sketches to illustrate, as appropriate. The format and
specific instructions will be provided when the assignment
is discussed in class.
5. Make up quizzes and tests, based on excusable absence, are oral
and given at the convenience of the instructor.
6. Field trips will be announced in advance. Attendance is
mandatory.
7. Submission of unexcused-late-assignments-will result in a 5%
reduction of grade per day (including weekend days), not to
exceed 20%. No late assignments will be accepted after
November 24.


TENTATIVE SCHEDULE:
September 1

3
8
10
15
17
22
24
29


October


Expectations of the Class
Preparation for wetlands field trip
Lentic and Lotic Ecosystems
Water Quaility Analysis
Wetlands field trip
Pond Ecosystem Management
Watershed Analysis
Watershed Analysis (legislative breakfast)
Forest Ecosystems
Deciduous and Conifierous Forest Types

Population Ecology


292



















November







December


Population Lab: Sampling and Density
Estimation
Integrated Pest Management
NO CLASSES, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT DAY
Lcb reviews
Mid-term test (ECO-ED CONFERENCE IN TORONTO)
Soil Ecology and Sustainability
Soil Lab
Introduction to Ecological Principles

Microclimate lab
Flow and Sustainable Cycles
Trophic Ecology of Humans Lab
Test (PAEE conference)
Sustainability and the Community Concept
Behavior Patterning
Sustainable systems
NO SCHOOL, THANKSGIVING BREAK

Philosophy of Sustainability and Ecology
Gaia hypothesis
Deep Ecology
Environmental Ethics and land stewardship


293









Slippery Rock University July 1993
Department of Parks and Recreation/
Environmental Education


Course Title: Soils as a Resource

Course Code: 71590 Credit: 3 Semester Hours

Course Description: (1) Develop an understanding of the soil
resource as an integral and pivotal component of
agroecosystems and the living environment. (2) Develop a
working knowledge of soils as a complex ecosystem and as
part of a greater ecosystem.

Course Competencies:

1. Identify human relation to soils and historic patterns of soil
abuse.

2. Describe and discuss soils as a complex system requiring a
holistic approach to its proper management.

3. Describe basic processes that underline soil formation.

4. Use and interpretation of soil maps.

5. Identify basic aspects of soil chemistry, physics, biology,
and biochemistry.

6. Outline soil management practices that sustain and enhance the
soil resource.


Evaluation: Class participation, class assignments, quizzes,
final exam.

Course Activities: Lectures, class discussions, field trips,
media presentations, demonstrations.

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to course

2. Human relation to soils

3. Historic account of natures response to soil abuse

4. Overview of soils as a complex system and need for holistic
management

5. Soil genesis and morphology

6. Interpretation of soil maps


294








7. Soil physical properties
a. Water
b. Structure

8. Soil chemistry
a. Clay mineralogy
b. Chemical equilibria

9. Soil biology
a. Microbiology
b. Macrofauna

10. Soil biochemistry

11. Effects of management
a. Soil erosion
b. Soil physical properties
c. Soil biology

12. Course overview and summary


Required Text: Brady, M. C. 1990. Nature and properties of soils.
McMillian, NY.

Biblioaraphy:

1. Brady, M. C. 1990. Nature and properties of soils. McMillian,
NY. 922 pp.

2. Foth, H. 1987. Fundamentals of soil science. John Wiley and
Sons, NY. 436 pp.

3. Hillel, D. 1991. Out of the Earth. University of California
Press. Berkeley, CA. 321 pp.

4. Paul, E.A. and F.E. Clark. 1989. Soil biology and
Biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 273 pp.

5. Savory, A. 1988. Holistic Resource Management. Island Press,
Cavelo, CA. 536 pp.

6. Tompkins, P. and C. Bird. 1989. Secrets of Soil. Harper &
Row, NY. 444 pp.







td/SRU590


295












COURSE SYLLABUS


FERTILITY CONSIDERATIONS IN REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE

PREE 644S FALL 1992
TR: 2:30-5:15 ECB 011


INSTRUCTOR: Mr.'Ronald Gargasz OFFICE: ECB 006D
OFFICE HOURS: As posted and by appointment. PHONE: 738-2958


REQUIRED TEXTS:

McLeod, Edwin. Feed the Soil. Oak Park, MI: McLeod, 1982.

Fryer, Lee. The Bio Gardener's Bible. Radnor, PA: Chilton,
1982.


NATURE OF THE COURSE:

Soil Fertility in Sustainable Agriculture is the study of
mechanical, biological, and stewardship methodologies employed to
attain safe, cost-effective soil fertility. Soils are composed
to two parts: inert minerals and soil life. The primary emphasis
of the course will investigate how soil life, which processes,
accumulates, and returns (decomposes) organic matter, can
effectively lead to increased soil fertility.


COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

--Class attendance and participation
--Mastery of texts and lecture material
--Research paper must be soil fertility related. (Topic
approval by instructor by 9/15/92).


EVALUATION:

--Quizzes and class participation (25% of final grade)
--Midterm Exam 10/15/92 (25% of final grade)
--Research paper due 12/3/92 (25% of final grade)
--Final Exam 12/17/92 (25% of final grade)


COURSE OUTLINE (By Topic):*

--Introduction to Biological Soil Fertility
--Hands-on Tours/Biological Fertility Procedures
--Soll Types/Textures Influencing Soil Fertility


296











COURSE OUTLINE (CONTINUED)


--Macro/Micro Nutrients
--Cover Crops/Green Manures
--Crop Rotations
--Compost ng
--Measuring Soil Fertility
--Forage Analyses as an Indication of Soil Health
--IPM Techniques/Considerations In Soil Health/Fertility
--Fertility 'Considerations in Horticultural/Agronomic
Cropping Systems



*Some topics may be covered more quickly (or slowly)-depending
upon the progress of class members and weather patterns. Lecture
days/farm investigation days may be switched contingent on
weather. The Instructor reserves the right to modify (add or
delete) material. Any and all material covered in texts, hand-
outs, farm tours, etc. will be the basis for exam questions.


297













Plant and Animal Husbandry
PREE 643


Spring Semester, 1993


Instructor: L. Patrick


Required Readings:
Coleman, Eliot (1992). Four-Season Harvest. Port Mills, VT.:Chelsea
Green Publishing Co.
Steiner, Rudolf (1974). Agriculture. London:Bio-Dynamic Agriculture
Association.
Small Wright, Machaelle (1987). Behaving As If The God in All Life
Mattered. Jeffersonton, VA: Pirelandra.
Jeavons, John (1991). How to Grow More Vegetables. Berkeley: Ten Speed
Press.
Plus selected handouts.


13 Introductory comments.
20 Concept of Husbandry and Oneness
27 Oneness and Husbandry: ecology of biogas digesters
3 Ken Hendrix visit from AgWay: the retail connection to plant and
animal husbandry
[8] Field trip to New Wilmington Livestock Auction
10 Machaelle Small Wright Discussion
Traci Lynn Darin visit from Pgh. G.C.F.B. on internship.
17 Rotational fensing with Doug, Baeley (Pioneer fensing).
Concept of rotational fensing with Kurt Achenback (Kencove Farm)
24 John Dawes from Huntingdon farm on AMBC
Steiner, Agriculture
3 Steiner, Agriculture


(8]
10
17
24

31
Apr. 7
14
21
28
May 5
12


Spring Break
Spring Break
Intensive Rotational Grazing field trip to Kencove Farms
(plus calveing)
Coleman, from Season Harvest
Coleman
Field trip, heavy horse breeder
(23-24) Field trip to-Moore farm/Stolfus farm
Jeavon, How to Grow More Vegetables
Jeavon, How to Grow More Vegetables
Open


Student Evaluation:

Each student shall complete an independent project/paper to be
determined in consultation with the instructor. The quality of this paper
shall determine the student's final grade, although class
attendance/participation and field trip participation shall be considered if
need be.


Jan.


Feb.










Slippery Rock University Spring 1993
Department of Parks and Recreation/
Environmental Education
Course Syllabus 71-642S

Course Title: Sustainable Agriculture Techniques

Course Code: 71-642S

Course Description: Study of the application of low-impact sustainable
agriculture practices which employ methodologies that are less harmful to our
health, the health of'farm workers and the environment.

Course Outline:

1. Course Intro/Orientation
a. Precepts/concepts of sustainable agriculture

2. Course Emphasis:

a. Review of ecological principles fundamental to
sustainability

b. Introduction of agricultural practices utilized in
sustainable food production systems including but not
limited to:

Practical alternatives to conventional tillage

Crop rotation and soil building techniques

Weed/insect control practices in sustainable
agriculture

Soil amendments permissible in organic food
production

Planting, cultivation, harvest and storage of
organic products

Meeting organic certification standards

3. Low-input, sustainable concents will be demonstrated with a hands-
on basis utilizing an already designed organic production farm
where each student will be actively involved in an independent
research project.

Course Competencies:

The student will be able to:

1. Define terms related to sustainable agricultural practices

2. Demonstrate their ability to identify and apply sustainable
agricultural practices (lower input) which optimizes yield and
reduces adverse consequences to the environment.

3. Demonstrate an ability to utilize practical cultivation/tillage
practices resulting in soil building applications.

4. Demonstrate the ability to understand and apply concepts relating
to planting, cultivation, harvest and storage of organic products.


299










5. Ascertain practical alternatives to chemical spray for weed/insect
control/soil fertility.

6. Understand and practice principles fundamental to organic
certification

Evaluation: Research paper, tests, mid-term and final exam

Course Activities: Lecture, hands-on field observation, classroom exchange,
practical field exercise and the joy of discovery.

Seminars: (MANDATORY PARTICIPATION)

2/5-6/93 Sustainable Agriculture Conference: Farming for
the Future

3/10/93 Gargasz Farms Calving Organic Beef Herd

3/15/93 Don Kretchman Farm/Bud Glendenning Farm Greenhouse Starts

March ? Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association

4/14/93 Roman Stolfus Organic Chicken/Turkey Farm -
Lancaster County


Bibliography:

Aoroecologv: The Scientific Basis of Alternative Acriculture, Altiere, Miguel
A.; The Guilford Press, New York, 1987

Dirt Rich. Dirt Poor: America's Food and Farm Crisis, Belden Joseph N., et al;
Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York, 1986

People. Food and Resources, Blaxter, Kenneth; Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1986

Land Degradation: Problems and Policies, Chisholm, Anthony and Dumsday,
Robert, Editors; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987

Groundwater Contamination in the United States' Patrick Ruth, et al;
University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1987

Soil and Survival: Land Stewardship and the Future of Amerca, Paddock, Joe, et
al; Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1986

Journals:

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
American Journal of Agricultural Economcis
Outlook on Agriculture
The International Journal of Environmental Studics.


300










Slippery Rock University Spring 1992
Department of Parks and Recreation/
Environmental Education

Course Syllabus 71643

Course Title: Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Plant Horticulture/Animal
Husbandry

Course Code: 71-643 Credit: 3 credit hours

Course DescriDtion: The application of sustainable principles germane to
organic plant production and animal rearing.

Course Outline:

1. Course orientation

2. Review precepts/concepts necessary for healthy plant/animal growth.

3. Techniques for enhancing soil nutrients pre-requisite to healthy
plant/animal life.

a. Organic nutrients derived from composting

b. Green manure/cover crop, smother crops

c. Management of crop residues for mineral revitalization

d. Crop rotation practices/sequences

4. Permissible soil amendments in sustainable agricultural systems

a. Natural mined products

b. Foliar feeding

c. Low-input nutrient management

5. Pest management in sustainable agricultural systems

a. Natural controls

b. Bilogicals

c. Importance of rotations in pest management

6. Environmental considerations for general herd health

a. Nutritional considerations of feed/supplements

b. Living conditions

c. Breeding conditions

7. Marketing and promotion of organic plant/animal production

a. Specialty crops

b. Organic beef, poultry, sheep, hogs

c. Audit trailing for organic authenticity

d. Promotion of certified organic meat



a











1. To explore methods/materials appropriate for sustainable
plant/animal production.

2. Demonstrate precepts/concepts of healthy plant/animal production
without the use of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and
insecticides.

3. Demonstrate abilities to .implement techniques resulting in
increased organic matter/nutrient levels through the use of
sustainable soil management practices.

4. Demonstrate abilities to identify and utilize natural soil
amendments which have no harmful effects on either the soil system
or ground water supply.

5. Demonstrate the ability to utilize natural plant/animal pest
control.

6. Demonstrate the ability to utilize growing practices approved by
organic certification programs to provide ready market access.

Evaluation: Independent study, testing, mid-term and final exam


Course Activities: Lecture, field discussions, assigned readings, independent
studies and many hands-on associations with actual growing conditions.


Biblioaraohy:

Agriculture and the Environment in a Changing World Economy, Conservation
Foundation, the Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC, 1986

State of the Environment: A View Toward the Nineties, Conservation Foundation,
The Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC, 1987

Pests and Parasites as Migrants, Gibbs, A. J. and Meischke, H. R. C.;
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985

The New Environmental Ace, Nicholson, Max; Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1987

Comparative Farming Systems, Turner, B. L. and Brush, Stephen B.; The
Guilford Press, New York, 1987

Towards Holistic Agriculture: A Scientific Approach, Widdowson, R.W.; Pergamon
Press, 1987

Journals:

American Journal of Agricultural Economics
Farm Chemicals
New Farm










Plant and Animal Husbandry
PREE 71

Spring Semester, 1992 Instructor: L. Patrick

Required Texts:

Coleman, Eliot (1989). The New Oroanic Grower. Chelsea Green, Chelsea, VT.

Fukuoka, Masanobu (1985). The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and
Practice of Green Philosophy. Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo.

Gliessman, Stephen, ed. (1990). Aaroecoloty: Researching the Ecological
Basis for Sustainable Aqriculture. Springer-Veilag, New York.

Skow, Dan (1991). Mainline Farming for Century 21. Acres, U.S.A., Kansas
City, MO.

.Small Wright, Maehaelle (1987). Behaving as of the God in All Life
Mattered. Perelandra, Jeffersonton, VA.

Walters Jr., Charles and C.J. Fenzau (1979). An Acres U.S.A. Primer. Acres
U.S.A., Kansas City, Mo.


Course Objective: To explore various schools of Thought on sustainable
agriculture, to determine specifically the various perspectives held on
plant and animal husbandry.


Course Content

Theme
I. Composting, via the Lubkes, leading to the Chambersburg conference on
"Composting for the 21st Century". Readings on Pfieffer BD starters
and the history of these starters.

II. Scientific clarity to Plant and Animal Husbandry
1. Astral clarity : Bio-dynamic farming -- lecture format.
Premise: The universe streams through the creative farmer; plants
and animals have intrinsic value.

2. Cartesian clarity: Gliessman, read sequentially
Premise: Farmers are avoided; plants and animals are givens.

III. Non-Scientific clarity to Plant and.Animal Husbandry
1. Existential clarity: Coleman, read sequentially
Premise: Farmers need themselves and their insights.

2. Value-based clarity: Fukuoka, read sequentially
Premise: No cause or effect exists.

3. Trans-species partnership clarity: Small Wright, read sequentially
Premise: Form is intelligent energy.

IV. Revisiting Scientific Clarity to Plant & Animal Husbandry
1. Religious clarity: Acres Primer & Skow (see below).
Premise: Farmers are conduits for absolute truth.


303










Readings:
Prier
Lessons 1-5 Chs. 4, 13
6 1 & 2
7-8
9 5
10-17 3,6,8,10 & 11
19-20 12 & 14
21-22 9 & 16
23-26
27 15
28 1 & 17


Course Requirements: Each MS3 student must complete required readings, as
assigned, and be prepared to discuss these readings in class. Each student
shall identify "likes and dislikes: of the assigned materials, ask questions
regarding these materials and offer critical commentary on issues raised.

A substantive term paper is also required. Topics for these papers will
be determined in concert with the course instructor. (An early semester
discussion should start to focus individual topics.)

Student Evaluation: The quality of in-class participation shall bear on one-
half the final grade. The remaining half shall be determined by qualities
presented in the required term paper: succinctly written, clearly thought
out, stylish, complete in literature search and degree of focus on the issue
of sustainability in agriculture.


304







1. Course Title and Number' Cultural Models in IPrmaulture PREE 71647

2. Semester Hours 3

11. Prerequisite Both "Principles & Techniques of PC," PREE
71641 and "Quest for PC." PREE 61646

Cross-cultural comparisons are made of permaculture design.
Models of indigenous permacultural techniques are compared with each
other and with a variety of models employed in the industrial world.
The millennial knowledge-base of traditional peoples living
permaculturally amidst their plants and animals provides the vasis
for evaluating the permacultural viability of eco-villages,
intentional communities, co-housing projects, and rebirth of
metropolitan neighborhoods.

12. This course, "Cultural Models in Permaculture," is the last of
three courses offered in permaculture at S.R.U. The metaphysics of
permaculture and the hands-on skills required to make it successful--
both covered in prerequisite courses--are combined here as students
learn of and evaluate the kaleidoscope of permaculture techniques
used in both North and South countries. The mental exercises pursued
in "The Quest for Permaculture" join with the hands-on skills
developed in "Principles & Techniques of Permaculture Design" to
permit the MS3 permaculture student to look critically at the
landscape design process on a global scale. An ability to critique
this process needs to be expressed prior to the entry of our
permaculture graduates into circles of professional responsibility.

13. Objectives of "Cultural Models of Permaculture"
a. To raise the level of sensitivity toward the
highly sustainable nature of indigenous
communities worldwide.
b. To grasp, by means of primary research
monographs, the technical aspects of
permaculture design found in Southern countries.
c. To appreciate the cosmology held by those on
earth who are capable of sustaining themselves.
d. To become knowledgeable on efforts in Northern
countries to create permaculturally designed
communities.
e. To weld both North and South Permaculture
movements into a unified, global whole.

Competencies
a. To be able to critique primary research
monographs.
b. To be able to enter Southern countries with an
empathy toward their own sustainable resource
base, and to share with peoples their the "best of the
North" permaculture designs.
c. Likewise, to be able to enter North countries'
communities with an empathy toward their own
sustainable resource base, and to share with
peoples their the "best of the South"
permaculture designs.
d. To be able to model a permaculture design.
e. To be able to design sustainable communities.

14. Evaluation

Participation in class discussion related to assignments
given 20%
Mid-term written examination over materials
covered 20%
Research Paper 30%
Final examination 30%












15. Lectures as needed to convey information-based material.
Seminar group discussions of assigned readings.
Mini-group evaluation of design projects of both North and
South country origin.
Research paper presentation by course participants.

16. Course Outline:

I. PREVIEW OF PREREQUISITE MATERIALS
A. from "Quest for Permaculture"
--metaphysics of the permaculture paradigm
--activism and permaculture
B. from "Principles & Techniques of Permaculture
Design"
--skills

II. PERMACULTURE AND COMMUNITY
A.' Pursuing community
B. Pursuing settlement

III. MODELS OF INDIGENOUS PERMACULTURE: The South
A. Swidden
B. Aquatic polycultures: chinampas, So. China
integrated cropping systems
C. Backdoor gardening, milpa
D. Tree-based polycultures: Chagga of E. Africa,
Malaysia
E. Highland tropical systems: Altiplano raised
beds, Ecuador, Nepal, Hawaii ahupua's
F. In-field/Out-field systems, alleycropping
G. Hydrologic terraced systems: Bali, Philippines
H. Tribal vision as found in Asia, Africa, the
indigenous Americas

IV. PLANNED MODELS OF PERMACULTURE: The North
A. The intentional community movement
B. Land Trusts
C. The Co-Housing.Movement
D. Eco-village and Permaculture Design
E. Permaculture in the metropolitan area

V. PERMACULTURE IN THE METROPOLITAN REGIONS OF THE NORTH
A. Financing Urban Greening
B. Neighborhood planning: problems & challenges
C. Community Gardens
D. Urban farming
E. Cities as farms
F. Community-supported agriculture


306








SliDDery Rock University
P.R.E.E. MS3 curriculum
Cultural Models in Permaculture(3hr. course)

Bibliography

Arhem, K. M. (in press). Portrait of a culture.

Bunch, R. (1985). Two ears of corn: A guide to Deoole-centered agricultural
improvement. Oklahoma City: World Neighbors.

Campbell, B. (1991). Agriculture and cooperation in a Himalayan village.
DeveloDina a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 4th International
permaculture conference. Katmandu: Institute for Sustainable
Agriculture Nepal.

Clarkson, J. D. (1968). The cultural ecology of a Chinese village. Chicago:
University of Chicago.

Collier, G. A. (1975). Fields of the Tzotzil. Austin: University of Texas.

Felder, D. W. (1983). The best investment: Land in a loving community.
Tallahassee, FL: Wellington.

Getz, A. (1991). Japanese organic farming and farmer-consumer co-
partnerships. DeveioDina a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 4th
International Dermaculture conference. Katmandu: Institute for
Sustainable Agriculture Nepal. (reprinted in Permaculture Activist, 25.
1991, December)

Gilman, D., & Gilman, R. (1991). Ecovillages and sustainable communities.
Bainbridge Island, SW: Context Institute.

Handy, E. S. C., Handy, E. G., & Pukui, M. K. (1972). Native planters in old
Hawaii: Their life. lore. and environment. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.

Hart, R. A. de J. (1984). Ecosociety: A historical study of ecological man.
Dehra Dun, India: Natraj.








Lindegger, M. O., & Tap, R. (1989). Conceptual Dermaculture report: Crystal
waters village. Nabour, Queensland: Nascimanere.

Lindegger, M. 0., & Tap, R. (Eds.). (1986). Best of permaculture: A
collection. Nabour, Queensland: Nascimanere.

McCamant, K., & Durret, C. (1988). CoHousing: A contemporary aDDroach to
housing ourselves. Berkeley: Ten Speed.

Meyer, C., & Moosang, F. (1992). Living with the land: Communities
restoring the earth. Philadelphia: New Society.

Olkowski, H. et al. (1979). The integral urban house. San Francisco: Sierra
Club.

Olson, P. A. (ed.). (1990). The struggle for the land: Indigenous insight and
industrial empire in the semi-arid world. Lincoln, NE: University of
Nebraska.

Reijntjes, C., Haverkort, B., & Waters-Bayer, A. (1992). Farming for the
future. London: MacMillan.

Schaffer, D. (1982). Garden cities for America: the Radburn experience.
Philadelphia: Temple University.

Smole, W. J. (1963). Owner-cultivatorship in middle Chile. Chicago:
University of Chicago.

Todd, J., & Todd, N. J. (1984). Bioshelters. ocean arks. and city farming.
San Francisco: Sierra Club.

Van der Ryn, S., & Calthorpe, P. (1991). Sustainable communities. San
Francisco: Sierra Club.

Walter, B., Arkin, L., & Calthorpe, P. (Eds.). (1992). Sustainable cities:
Concepts and strategies for eco-citv development. Los Angeles: Eco-
Home Media.


308






Slippery Rock University
Department of Parks and Recreation/Environmental Education

Principles and Techniques of Permaculture Design

Syllabus

Fall, 1992

Instructor: Ted Simanek home phone #538-3911

Location: 011-ECB and Harmony House

Time: First Meeting 011-ECB, Saturday 9 a.m. Noon

Text: Permaculture "A Practical Guide for a Sustainable
Future" by Bill Mollison, $34.95.

Course Number: 71-641 Credits: 3

Course Description: This course is designed to develop a
comprehensive understanding of the conscious design and
maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have
the diversity, stability and resilience of natural
ecosystems. Special foci are placed on the harmonious
integration of landscape and people providing their food,
energy, shelter and other needs in a sustainable way.

Course Competencies:
1. Demonstrate knowledge of the natural systems
which relate to regenerative agriculture, the
built environment and resource management.

2. Analyze differences in various local and world
climatic regions and their effect on the
development of permanent sustainable systems.

3. Analyze social, economic and site considerations
of sustainable systems.

4. Synthesize information and develop strategies
for permaculture design in a variety of global
settings.

Evaluation:
1. Project Observation/Evaluation in
Resource/Error Identification.

typical errors/problems at a design site
major or "Type I Errors"
resources and potential yields
stacking functions...technologies and
processes producing multiple yields

*** Project will be due at the beginning of the
tenth class session (Nov. 14th) for
presentations to class.


309




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs