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 Networking and AFSRE, by Jon Lizaso,...
 Networking survey
 AFSRE group meeting reports
 Alternative farming periodical...
 1992 AFSRE symposium informati...
 Other conferences
 Survey: Problems and issues in...
 New publication






Title: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071919/00003
 Material Information
Title: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
Alternate Title: AFSRE newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension
Publisher: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension
Place of Publication: Tucson AZ
Frequency: semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 1 (1993); title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00071919
Volume ID: VID00003
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 32987463

Table of Contents
    Networking and AFSRE, by Jon Lizaso, S. E. Johnson, Frederick Dadoun, and Clive Lightfoot
        Page 1
    Networking survey
        Page 2
    AFSRE group meeting reports
        Page 3
    Alternative farming periodicals
        Page 4
    1992 AFSRE symposium information
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Other conferences
        Page 9
    Survey: Problems and issues in FSRE, by. D. L. Galt
        Page 10
    New publication
        Page 10
Full Text





Sn S Number 1, 1992



Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter


Networking and AFSRE

A Summary of Discussion
From the 11th Annual

AFSRE Symposium

by Jon Lizaso, Sue Ellen Johnson,
Frederick Dadoun', and Clive Lightfoot2


NETWORKING IS VITAL TO FSRE

Practitioners of farming systems re-
search-extension (FSRE) often work in
isolated settings with minimal, sporadic
professional support and contact.
Individuals working on unrelated
projects have valuable experience that
often has direct application to other
practitioners' programs. However,
mechanisms and opportunities are
inadequate for FSRE professionals to
access and exchange their experiences.
Symposia serve to introduce personal
contacts, but more substantial and
extended interaction needs to be
developed and sustained. Similarly,
FSRE initiatives at the local level gener-
ate information that may be applicable
in other settings. Yet this information is
rarely accessible beyond the immediate
program. Procedures to identify and
access relevant information or appropri-
ate specialists, especially across disci-
plines, are neither routine nor estab-
lished. Individual contacts are especially

1 Michigan State University, East Lansing.
2 International Center for Living Aquatic
Resource Management, Inc., Manila, the
Philippines.


important for those with limited access
to libraries well stocked with journals
and other literature. Linguistic barriers
are another dimension of the challenge
faced by individuals. Such constraints
to communication limit the effective-
ness of FSRE practitioners and the
quality of their professional achieve-
ments.


NETWORKING CAN DO MANY
THINGS

Establishing and improving communica-
tion and information systems were
common themes in the discussion of the
networking roundtable at the 11th
Annual AFSRE Symposium. Farming
systems practitioners have several
objectives for networking. Over and
above the role of information exchange,
a network can serve to mobilize re-
sources. Exchanges of experiences and
information may lead to material
exchanges. Networking with individuals
may provide "connections" to facilities
or equipment or may facilitate cost
sharing or collaborative research.
Networks cannot substitute for local
infrastructure, but they may enhance
effective allocation of scarce resources by
minimizing duplication of efforts.
Individuals are often the best sources of
information. Networks serve as instru-
ments for identifying people, programs,
or other networks that can be mutually
supportive.
Networks take many forms: They
may be formal or informal, global,
regional, or local, with each having
different strengths and serving different


objectives. Informal personal networks
differ from formal institutional or
disciplinary networks, and local net-
works have different capacities than
international networks. Institutional
networks, for example, generally serve
the initiating institutions and their
objectives. Thus, they tend to have a
"one-way flow" of information. Al-
though international networks can
provide wide experience and diverse
information, local networks can best
address communication and logistical
challenges because they are more
accessible to individuals. Local-level
organization can also serve to maximize
resource use and "external" global
contact. For example, journal subscrip-
tions as well as research equipment can
be shared between individuals and
institutions in the same locale. Atten-
dance at meetings can be coordinated
among individuals in the same locale to


In This Issue...

Networking and AFSRE, by Jon
Lizaso, S.E. Johnson, Frederick
Dadoun, and Clive Lightfoot .... 1
Networking Survey ..................2
AFSRE Group Meeting Reports.....3
Alternative Farming Periodicals ...4
1992 AFSRE Symposium ...........5-8
Other Conferences ...................9
Survey: Problems and Issues
in FSRE, by D.L. Gait................ 10
New Publication: Storm Signals... 10


The Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension is an international society organized to promote the development and dissemination of
methods and results of participatory on-farm systems research and extension. The objective of such research is the development and adoption
through the participation by farm household members-male and female-of improved and appropriate technologies to meet the socioeconomic
needs of farm families; adequately supply global food, feed, and fiber requirements; and utilize resources in a sustainable and efficient manner.





"cover" as many events as possible.
These practical resource-sharing net-
works can bring immediate and tangible
benefits to the individual.
How can individuals access the
multitude of existing networks and
professional organizations? This is of
particular concern for the smaller local
or disciplinary-focused networks that are
difficult to identify or discover, espe-
cially by those with poor knowledge of
the region or discipline. Communica-
tions technology exists to allow linkages
between such networks. The barriers to
accessing these networks are organiza-
tional and logistical, not technical.
Institutional backing and financial
resources are necessary for effective
networking.
Access to networks at global, regional,
and local levels is necessary for both
professional and program development.
Although each individual participates in
a variety of networks, the presence of
strong peer networks is fundamental to
the effective practice and growth of
FSRE. Building on existing networks is
critical, not only to avoid network
redundancy but also to foster growth of
new initiatives. Initiatives are needed
that allow network development to go
beyond the creation of static "lists" to
linkages that help individuals working
within specific disciplines to interact
with those in other disciplines. Efforts
to train students in networking strate-
gies before they assume broad responsi-
bilities in the field is one place to start.
Strategies that make networks responsive
to the independent professional serving
at the local, regional, or national level
are critical.


WHAT CAN AFSRE DO TO HELP?

How can networking further promote
FSRE as a research approach and devel-
opment strategy? How can networking
foster AFSRE as an institution? What is
the appropriate orientation for AFSRE to
support networking? These are the
questions on which AFSRE seeks guid-
ance from its membership.
Currently AFSRE is fostering regional
development with the creation of
farming systems associations in Asia,
Latin America, and Africa. AFSRE


neither desires nor is capable of fulfilling
the many functions of networking at
regional or local levels. Independent
regional and grassroot networks are
essential. Linking regional, grassroot
networks and individuals to a global
arena is important to AFSRE.
AFSRE could provide a global direc-
tory of FSRE-related associations and
networks across all geographic areas and
disciplines. This directory would be the
starting point for a comprehensive
network registry. Such a directory
would allow individuals to identify
discrete networks or to link up with
individuals with expertise or common
interests with whom they could initiate
communications. Efforts and costs to
identify relevant networks would
thereby be minimized for the isolated
professional. Moreover, random or
chance discovery of a network that
coincides with an individual's interests
would be systematized. A global
directory would include topical,
regional, and disciplinary networks,
covering a range of approaches to
development and information in FSRE.
AFSRE may have to seek additional
resources to undertake such a service.
Nevertheless, a start has been made. A
computerized database of networks
interested in FSRE has been established.


This database, software (DataEase), and
manual will be made available to all
network coordinators and AFSRE
members. In addition, the AFSRE
Newsletter will announce new entries
and updates to the database. We think
that such a database will enhance
communications among professionals
and promote FSRE approaches with a
wider set of agricultural development
workers.
We ask for your input on this
initiative. Please fill out the form at the
bottom of this page and return it to Dr.
Clive Lightfoot, Board Member for
Networking, Association for Farming
Systems Research-Extension, MC P.O.
Box 1501, Makati, Metro Manila 1022,
the Philippines.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are given to all who partici-
pated in the roundtable discussion and
especially to the invited participants-
Consuelo Quiroz, Jorge Uquillas, and
James Sentz-and the regional coordi-
nators-Nimal Ranaweera, Julio
Berdegu6, David Gibbon, and James
Olukosi.


Netrking Information Form-------
Networking Information Form


Network Name:
Address:


Coordinator/Contact Person:


Membership Number:
Membership Type:
Institutional I Individual O By invitation 0 Open O

Date of establishment:
Publish directory?
Publish newsletter?
Newsletter title:
Published by:

Editor:
Number of issues/year:
L--







Reports From the AFSRE

Group Meetings
The following are reports of regional group
meetings that were held at the 11th Annual
AFSRE Symposium.


THE AFRICAN FSRE GROUP MEETING

The African FSRE Group, which met on
October 9, 1991, featured a briefing on
each FSR network operating in the
various subregions of Africa: West
Africa, Southern Africa, East-Central
Africa, and Northern Africa. Reports on
the activities of the Animal Traction
Networks for West Africa and Eastern
and Southern Africa and the West
African Rice Development Association
(WARDA) also were presented. Other
commodity networks for cowpea, millet,
sorghum, and maize, which operate
under the auspices of SAFGRAD/OAU,
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, were
mentioned as well.
It was observed that there was no
coordination of activities between the
various networks, even though some
problems such as funding, lack of
institutional support, and lack of
communication with the other existing
networks, were shared by these net-
works. While not relinquishing the
responsibility of coordination to the
international research institutes in the
African regions, it was observed that
institutes such as the International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA),
the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CYMMIT), the
International Crop Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and
WARDA could better assist in ensuring
adequate coordination and support.

Resolutions
The following resolutions were
adopted:
1. Members would return home to
strengthen their subregional networks
along FSRE lines.
2. There is an immediate need for
informal networking between the
existing subregional networks. Ex-
change of ideas, newsletters/bulletins,
and other useful research information
would commence immediately between


the subregional correspondents on a
monthly basis or as often as necessary.
3. For the purpose of establishing
formal networking in the near future, it
was agreed that the members present at
this meeting would seek ways and
means of gaining the consent of the
other FSRE members in the subregions
to organize an all-African Symposium on
FSRE.
4. To this end, a working committee
made up of a representative/correspon-
dent from each subregion was estab-
lished. Other members were added to
represent the interests and support of
international centers.

The Working Group
The working committee met after the
general meeting and made the following
firm decisions:
a. Each member of the committee
would return to his/her subregion with
the names and addresses of the commit-
tee members for exchange of informa-
tion.
b. Each member would complete the
preliminary Registration Form for the
forthcoming Animal Traction Network
for Eastern and Southern Africa Work-
shop to be held in Lusaka, Zambia,
January 18-23, 1992.
c. Members would write and submit
articles on the Animal Traction Work-
shop themes to Paul Starkey as soon as
possible so that they could be consid-
ered for sponsorship at the workshop.
d. The working committee will
continue their meeting at Lusaka.
e. The following other assignments
were agreed upon by the action commit-
tee:
1. Inform all concerned groups and
individuals in their respective subregions
about the planned symposium.
2. Collect the names, addresses,
and disciplines of participants for the
symposium.
3. Circulate information to other
subregions.
4. Enquire about possible donors
for the symposium.
5. Formulate tentative suggestions
for the symposium's title, objectives,
theme, and venue.
For more information about the
African FSRE Group, please contact:


Dr. James O. Olukosi
Interim Chairperson
National Coordinator
Nigerian Farming Systems Research
Network
c/o Institute for Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University
P.M.B. 1044, Zagia, Nigeria

ASIAN FARMING SYSTEMS
ASSOCIATION

A roundtable discussion, led by Dr.
Nimal Ranaweera and held on October
7, 1991, introduced AFSRE symposium
participants to the newly established
Asian Farming Systems Association
(AFSA). Issues discussed ranged from
activities of the association to member-
ship, publications, and networking.

Activities
Through its newsletter, journal, and
biannual symposium, the AFSA provides
its members not only with avenues for
publication and contact with other
researchers and donors, but also with
ways to improve writing skills and to
gain new knowledge and experience.

Newsletter
The AFSA will provide up-to-date
information on what is going on in the
Asian region through its newsletter,
which will be published twice a year.
Information geared toward putting
members in touch with donor agencies
will be featured in the newsletter.

Journal of the Asian Farming Systems
Association
Information about farming systems
research and extension in the region will
be presented in the Journal of the Asian
Farming Systems Association (JAFSA),
which will be published four times over
a two-year period. Volume 1, number 1
has already been published. JAFSA
welcomes submissions from researchers
around the world who are investigating
problems or issues in farming systems
research and extension related to Asia.

Symposium
The Association's first symposium,
"Sustainable Farming Systems in the
21st Century Asia," was held at the
Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand







in November, 1991. The 1992 AFSA
symposium, "Sustainable Agriculture:
Meeting the Challenge Today," will be
held on November 2-5 in Colombo, Sri
Lanka.

Membership
The AFSA invites anyone interested in
Asian farming to join. The AFSA also
endeavors to help its members link up
with other associations with similar
interests operating in other parts of the
world. A range of networking mecha-
nisms, from simply reporting about
these groups and their activities in the
newsletter to affiliate status, will be
explored. Opportunities for members to
join symposia of global or interregional
nature will also be explored with donors.
For more information about the AFSA
please contact:
Nimal Ranaweera
AFSA Secretariat
P.O. Box 7
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Tel.: 94-8-88081 or 88206
Fax: 94-8-32517 or 88206
Telex: 22959 PRAGEM CE


EUROPEAN FSRE GROUP MEETING

When AGRINET (a European-based
network devoted to FSRE and sustain-
able agriculture) was formed two years
ago, initial plans included strengthening
exchanges, despite language barriers,
between teams that are involved in FSR
in Europe itself ot in developing coun-
tries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
This would be accomplished through
collaboration with national teams or
nongovernmental organizations in these
countries.
We began these exchanges principally
through publications. An ICRA course
taught in Wageningen, The Netherlands
and in Montpellier, France gave us the
opportunity to discuss methodologies
and scientific results. Some of us built
cooperative projects. From the begin-
ning, we discussed the possibility of
organizing broader and more systematic
exchanges, not only among ourselves
but with other FSRE practitioners.
This symposium has given us further
opportunities to exchange information
and to formulate a plan of action. We
propose the following two-step process:


1992 European Meeting
We will organize a European meeting
in 1992 in order to identify original
farming systems research undertaken by
European teams. This present sympo-
sium has been very useful by providing
us with an overview of worldwide FSR
today. Related to this, we hope to
identify areas in which we think we
have something special to contribute.
We will try to hold this workshop
early in 1992 so that we can present the
results at the 1992 AFSRE symposium.

1993 AFSRE Symposium
We propose that the 1993 AFSRE
symposium be held in Europe. This must
be considered along with other initia-
tives that may exist for 1993, because we
do not want to be in competition with
any existing initiatives. We have begun
to discuss the issues around which such
a symposium would be organized in
order to ensure that it offers something
unique to Association members.
We propose two main topics for the
1993 symposium:

1. Current problems in European
agriculture.
Since the 1960s, agricultural policy in
the European Economic Community
(EEC) has been based on protected
markets and high internal prices. In
recent years this has resulted in over-
production, stockpiling, subsidization of
exports, and high costs to the EEC



Periodicals Pertaining

to Alternative Farming

Systems
This is a list of publications issued
by the Alternative Farming Systems
Information Center. The publica-
tions included range from those with
infrequent articles relating to alterna-
tive farming systems to those devoted
exclusively to promoting sustainable
farming practices. For more informa-
tion, contact the Alternative Farming
Systems Information Center, Na-
tional Agricultural Library, 10301
Baltimore Boulevard, Beltsville, MD
20705-2351, USA.


budget. Dramatic changes in European
agriculture are anticipated as a result of
the GATT negotiations in Uruguay,
leading to decreased prices and reduced
farm production. Commodity-based
research has tried to enable higher levels
of production through the development
of improved varieties. The problem now
in Europe is how to produce less in an
integrated manner without reducing
farmers' income. In contrast to tradi-
tional agronomic research, FSR has
developed the scientific background,
experience, and methodologies to face
such a problem. What are the farming
systems that will adapt to this new
economic situation? This may be a
tremendous topic in FSR for the next
decade.

2. How can theoretical and scientific
progress in each of the disciplines on which
FSR is based improve the state of the art of
FSR itself?
During the first years of the "recog-
nized FSR," theoretical issues were a
significant part of research. Recently,
however, FSR has diversified and become
more involved with action, extension,
and development. Although we believe
this focus is important, it should not
replace theoretical discourse. Without
theoretical considerations, we fear that
FSR will progressively lose its scientific
character and be more and more
disconnected from disciplinary research.
If such an issue is adopted for the 1993
symposium, more practical contribu-
tions and case studies would still be
welcome. This new direction will
combine both approaches.
If these proposals are accepted, we
look forward to seeing you in Europe in
1993.
For more information about the
European AFSRE Group, please contact:
Didier Pillot
GRET
213 rue Lafayette
75010, Paris, France







1992 AFSRE SYMPOSIUM INFORMATION


Michigan State University's Institute of
International Agriculture is pleased to
host the 12th Annual AFSRE Sympo-
sium. The Symposium will be held from
September 13-18, 1992 at the Holiday
Inn University Place, which is located
near the Michigan State University
campus in East Lansing.
The 12th Annual Symposium pre-
sents an opportunity for scholars and
practitioners of Farming Systems
Research-Extension to meet, exchange
ideas, experiences, information, and
renew their enthusiasm. The 1992
Symposium will be a major step in the
gradual evolution of a new paradigm in
the organized relationship between
farming people, agricultural research
systems, and agricultural extension.
The Symposium will develop a
strategic plan for technical advancement
in the use of systems science in address-
ing sustainable agricultural systems in
two ways.
1. Evolution of a research map that
identifies past achievements and
opportunities for future contributions to
farming systems.


2. Relationships between growing
networks of scholars-practitioners in the
global AFSRE and regional associations
on all continents.


SYMPOSIUM FEATURES
* Invited papers on key strategic issues
* Submitted oral and poster presenta-
tions
* Training tools bazaar
* Full discussion involving all partici-
pants


SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS
Abstracts must be submitted by
March 31, 1992 for poster sessions and
oral presentations and must be sent to
the AFSRE office on the official abstract
form (or a copy of the form). Abstracts
may be sent by fax. If the fax received is
not legible, you will be asked to resend it
by post.
A small number of the abstracts
submitted for oral presentation will be
accepted. The others may be offered the
opportunity of poster presentation.
Authors of abstracts submitted for oral


presentation will be requested to submit
full working papers of no more than 15
pages of text by July 6, 1992. Selected
papers will be published in a Working
Paper Set to be distributed at registration
of the symposium.


CATEGORIES FOR ABSTRACTS
Topics for abstracts are expected to fit
one or more of the categories listed on
page 6. Presentations that relate these
topics to each other and to the stated
objectives of this Symposium are
encouraged.


TRAINING TOOLS BAZAAR
Symposium attendees can browse
through an open house and participate
in a variety of multimedia events.
There will be a number of booths that
will exhibit examples of tools and
techniques that have been used in the
field or in training courses. Persons
interested in contributing a tool or
technique to the bazaar should contact
the AFSRE office for more information.






ABSTRACT CATEGORIES

1. Systems perspectives in sustainable
development
Abstracts that describe types of
farming systems, agroforestry systems,
aquaculture farming systems, etc., are
expected to identify key components of
such systems, linkages among those
components and with outside systems,
and to use the perspectives of systems
science.

2. Diagnosis and farmer participation
Abstracts that feature techniques and
approaches that involve farm women
and men, along with researchers and
extensionists, in diagnosis of constraints
and discovery of opportunities for
sustainable modifications are encour-
aged.

3. Gender analysis
Although all abstracts are expected to
be sensitive to gender implications of
farming systems research-extension, in
this category abstracts should focus on
strategies for ensuring gender-sensitive
research and extension and the values
derived therefrom.

4. On-farm experimentation
Abstracts describing successful
methods for experiments with farmers
that enhance the success of farming
systems research-extension are invited.


follows:
5. Linkages with station research fls -------
Abstracts that feature experience with
alternative approaches to interactions


between FSRE and research activities in
the formal research system are needed.

6. Linkages with public and private
extension
Abstracts that document successes
and failures of attempts to achieve a
partnership between FSRE practitioners
and various types of extension systems
are expected.

7. Linkages and policy issues
Abstracts that describe attempts to
institutionalize farming systems ap-
proaches in various types of organiza-
tions, to gain financial and other
support for the systems approach, and
to transcend "disciplinary walls" in
order to comprehend whole farms as
systems and translate knowledge gained
on farms to public decision makers.

8. Other
Symposium planners assume that
there may be other topics that are
appropriate for this Symposium, and
this category opens the door for creative
authors to submit abstracts not covered
by other categories.


REGISTRATION
To receive a registration packet, fill
out, detach, and return the form at the
bottom of page 5 to the address pro-
vided. The registration fee schedule is as


Early Registration
(postmarked by August 15, 1992)
AFSRE Nonmembers
Members
Students US$75 US$95
Nonstudents US$125 US$145

Late Registration
(postmarked after August 15, 1992)
AFSRE Nonmembers
Members
Students US$120 US$140
Nonstudents US$170 US$190


Registration fees include one sympo-
sium program booklet; one Working
Papers Set; admission to a welcome
reception and dance; selected meals and
social functions; daily continental
breakfasts, refreshments, and snacks; and
admission to all symposium events. The
symposium registration fee does not
include any workshops, field trips,
transportation, or AFSRE membership.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Contact AFSRE Symposium, Institute
of International Agriculture, Michigan
State University, 324 Agriculture Hall,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 USA. Tel.:
(517) 353-5262, Fax: (517) 353-1888,
Telex: 650-264-1762 MCI.

DEADLINES

Rcceipt of abstract: March 31, 1992.
Early registration postmarked by:
August 15, 1992.






Abstract Form

1992 AFSRE Symposium


Instructions: Please complete both sides of this form. This information will be used to prepare the sym-
posium program book. Use a separate copy of this form (both sides) for each abstract submitted.
Abstracts must be received in the AFSRE Symposium Office by March 31, 1992. Abstracts may be
sent by fax.


MAILING INFORMATION

Title of paper/poster


Presenter
family name first name middle name
Institution

Postal address


Telephone Fax
country city local # country city local #
Telex
country city local #

First author
(if different from presenter) family name first name middle name
Institution

Postal Address


Telephone Fax
country city local # country city local #
Telex
country city local #

If selected for an oral presentation, in which language will you present? (check one)
O English O Spanish O French

If you wish to contribute to the Training Tools Bazaar, please check the box below and we will send you
a bazaar information form to fill out and return.
O Yes, I want to contribute to the Training Tools Bazaar.

Return this form to:
AFSRE Symposium, Institute of International Agriculture, Michigan State University
324 Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 USA
Tel.: (517) 353-5262, Fax: (517) 353-1888, Telex: 650-264-1762 MCI






Abstract Form

1992 AFSRE Symposium
Instructions: Please complete both sides of this form. ABSTRACTS WILL NOT BE EDITED. Use only the space
provided when typing/printing your abstract; text outside of the box will not be printed in the program. Abstracts
must be received in the AFSRE Symposium Office by March 31, 1992. Abstracts may be sent by fax.
Title of paper/poster


Presenter
Preferred category of presentation (check only one)
1. O Systems perspectives 5. L Linkages with station research
2. O Diagnosis and farmer participation 6. L Linkages with public and private extension
3. L Gender analysis 7. O Linkages and policy issues
4. L On-farm experimentation 8. L Other
Type abstract here







CONFERENCES


Latin American Symposium
on Agricultural and Live-
stock Systems

During the 1990 and 1991 Annual
AFSRE Symposia, Latin American
participants and people interested in the
systems approach to agricultural re-
search and extension formed an ad hoc
committee to organize a continent-wide
symposium on Latin American develop-
ment. The result of the committee's
discussions is the Latin American
Symposium on Research and Extension
in Agriculture and Livestock Production
Systems, to be held in Quito, Ecuador in
February 1993. The symposium will be
hosted by the Foundation for Agricul-
ture and Livestock Development
(FUNDAGRO), with financial assistance
provided by Canada's CIID.
The broad objective of the sympo-
sium is to critically examine the experi-
ence of production systems research and
development since the 1970s in order to
identify lessons learned and conclusions
that may contribute to increasing the
impact of current and future efforts in
these fields. The official languages will
be Spanish and Portuguese.
For information about the sympo-
sium, contact Dr. Jorge E. Uquillas,
Executive Coordinator, FUNDAGRO/
UIO 0006, P.O. Box 02-5435, Miami, FL
33102-5435, USA; in Ecuador, write Dr.
Uquillas at FUNDAGRO, P.O. Box 17-16-
219 C.E.Q., Quito, Ecuador; Tel.: 500297
or 540600; Fax: (593-2) 503243.

Agricultural Research and
Education Conference

The Agricultural Research Institute of
the College of Agriculture, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is hosting
a conference on Participatory On-Farm
Research and Education for Agricultural
Sustainability. The meeting will be held
in Champaign, Ill., from July 30-August
1, 1992. For more information, contact
Dr. John M. Gerber, Assistant Director,
UI Agricultural Experiment Station, 211
Mumford Hall, 1301 W. Gregory Dr.,
Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Tel.: (217) 244-
4232.


Meetings on Diversity

The Association for the Study of Food
and Society and the Agriculture, Food,
and Human Values Society are jointly
convening their annual meetings under
the theme "Diversity in Food, Agricul-
ture, Nutrition, and Environment." The
conference will explore the nature of
diversity as it relates to issues of food,
agriculture, environment, and health,
how this diversity is changing, and what
the consequences of these changes
might be.
The joint meetings will be held at the
Kellogg Center of Michigan State
University from June 4-7, 1992. For
more information, contact Lawrence
Busch, Program Chair, Department of
Sociology, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1111, USA.

Farmer-Managed
Irrigation Workshop

The International Irrigation Manage-
ment Institute (IIMI) is sponsoring the
South Asian Regional Workshop on
Groundwater Farmer-Managed Irrigation
Systems and Sustainable Groundwater
Management. The workshop will be
held in Dhaka, Bangladesh from May
18-21, 1992.
The workshop will focus on issues of
sustainability related to the farmer-
management institutional approach to
groundwater irrigation. The objective
will be to assess South Asian experiences
with different social, institutional, and
legal structures that promote sustain-
able, productive, and equitable manage-
ment of groundwater through framer-
managed irrigation systems. A central
theme of the workshop will be the
degree of independence farmer-managed
groundwater systems can maintain
while providing an equitable and
sustainable supply of water that contrib-
utes to agricultural growth.
This workshop is part of the Farmer-
Managed Irrigation Systems (FMIS)
Network program supported by IIMI.
For more information, contact the
workshop organizer, Shaul Manor, FMIS
Network Coordinator, IIMI, P.O. Box
2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Tel.: 94-1-
565601-12; Fax: 94-1-562919; Telex:
22318 & 22907 IIMIHQ CE.


International Seminar:
Livestock Services for
Smallholders

This meeting, to be held in
Yogyakarta, Indonesia from November
15-21, 1992, will present a critical
evaluation of the delivery of animal
health and production services to small-
scale farmers in the developing world.
Please send requests for information
to Secretariat, Livestock Services, P.O.
Box 94 BOUT, Bogor, Indonesia;
Fax: 62 251 326425.

Soil Management and
Sustainable Agriculture

The 1st and 2nd Wye International
Conferences, in 1980 and 1984, respec-
tively, considered general aspects of
sustainable agriculture and, in particu-
lar, the role of micro-organisms in this
regard. One important conclusion
emerging from both conferences was
that the effective management of soils is
of central importance to sustainable
agriculture. The 3rd Wye International
Conference on Sustainable Agriculture
will review progress in this area. Given
the many soil-related problems facing
farmers worldwide, a thorough under-
standing of the total soil system is
central to agricultural sustainability.
The conference will consist of a core
program of keynote lectures supported
by papers, poster sessions, and discus-
sions, including research and applied
aspects of physical, nutritional, and
microbial soil factors, soil/plant interac-
tions, and economics of soil manage-
ment. The sessions will not run concur-
rently, so that all participants may be
involved in each component of the
program.
The conference will be held at Wye
College, University of London, from
August 31-September 3, 1993. The
deadline for receipt of abstracts is
December 1, 1992.
Please address enquiries to: Dr.
Hadrian Cook or Dr. Howard Lee, Wye
College, University of London, Wye,
Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH U.K.; Tel.: 0233
812401; Fax: 0233 813320; Telex:
94017832 WYECG.






SURVEY:
Problems and Issues in
the Institutionalization of

Farming Systems
Research-Extension

by Daniel L. Gait

The following problems and issues were
raised by participants in the institution-
alization roundtable discussion during
the llth Annual AFSRE Symposium.
Because there was insufficient time to
arrive at potential solutions to all of
them, we offer the readers of the AFSRE
Newsletter a chance to assist their fellow
practitioners in this regard. Below is a
list of institutionalization issues and
problems raised by participants, as well
as some solutions given and recorded.
The solutions are included as examples
of the type of response that we would
like to receive from you.
On the response form on page 11,
please fill in the appropriate sections of
this survey as they relate to any or all of
these problems or issues your Farming
Systems Research-Extension (FSRE)
approach has faced and solved. Return
your response to the AFSRE Newsletter.
Your solutions will be recorded and
synthesized. These solutions will then
be shared with the AFSRE membership
in an upcoming issue of the Newsletter
and at the 12th Annual Symposium.


No. Issue or Proble Encountered in
Institutionalizing FSRE
01 Project or program difficulties with
a Multiple approaches to FSRE
and/or
b Personality conflicts among team
members.
Example solution: One solution for
problem 01b put forward by
roundtable participants was the
selection of a nondictatorial coordi-
nator for the FSRE team.
02 FSRE needs to be empowered, or
legitimized, in National Agricultural
Research Systems (NARSs).
03 FSRE can either be institutionalized
through each NARS discipline/
department/unit, or via a unit added
onto an existing, or modified, NARS
organization.
04 Traditional and/or discipline-based
"attitudes" of FSRE practitioners and
those being trained to practice FSRE
hinder effective institutionalization.
Example solution: Training and/or
orientation in how to modify such
discipline-based behavior to view
farmer problems more holistically.
05 Definition of individual roles in an
FSRE team.
Example solution: Continual emphasis on
the multidisciplinary nature of FSRE
work.
06 Policy issues and linkages (a) within
the NARS and (b) between the NARS
and decision-makers in other pivotal
governmental ministries (Finance,
etc.).
07 High recurrent costs of FSRE; more
specifically, the issue of transporta-
tion versus representability of a given
domain.


08 Commodity bias of a FSRE approach.
09 How to include farmer demand in
decision-making (the balance in the
farmer-extension-research triangle).
Example Solution: The three-dimensional
"farmer's vote" matrix, followed by a
joint research and extension annual
work plan, which incorporates
farmers' scores as work plan criteria
scores (see Al-Kadi and Gait, 1991,
Journal for Farming Systems Research-
Extension 2(3):31-50).
Example Solution: The CIAT "farmer-
designed trials" approach as devel-
oped and fine-tuned byJacqueline
Ashby.
10 What is a pragmatic definition of
"institutionalization?"
11 How can NARS policy-makers'
understanding of FSRE be improved,
and how can this lead to an
increased degree of institutionaliza-
tion?
12 What are possible viable "organiza-
tional homes" for FSRE?
13 Lack of impact of FSRE (a) diagnostic
findings and/or (b) research and
extension activities, on NARS
decision makers.
14 Concentrating scarce funds and
manpower on FSRE training for core
staff of an FSRE Unit versus those in
other NARS disciplinary/commodity
units.
15 Lack of promotions, incentives, and/
or plain "justice" for NARS staff
members involved in FSRE work.
16 External funding of FSRE approaches
and how the transition to 100%
internal funding can be accom-
plished.


NEW PUBLICATION


Storm Signals: Structural Adjustment
and Development Alternatives in the
Caribbean
by Kathy McAfee
The Caribbean in the 1980s was a
testing ground for the aid and trade
policies that are now at the core of the
U.S. economic program for a "new world
order" in the 1990s. The Caribbean
experience indicates that these policies
hinder sustainable development and
cannot succeed in promoting meaningful
democracy.
An inspiring challenge to these failed
policies is arising from the Caribbean


itself, in the form of a movement for self-
reliant, Caribbean-centered development.
Caribbean NGOs are creating innovative
alternatives based on grass-roots organi-
zation, women's leadership, ecological
sustainability, and defense of Caribbean
cultures and communities-an approach
entirely different from the one promoted
by the U.S. government.
This is the core of the argument put
forward in Storm Signals, a book-length
study sponsored by Oxfam America. The
study analyzes the transformation of U.S.
policy toward the Caribbean since the
early 1980s and explains how the twin


doctrines of "free-market development"
and "structural adjustment"-now being
extended to other regions around the
world-have been applied in the Carib-
bean and why so many Caribbean people
who have experienced these policies are
warning others against them.
Storm Signals is available for US$15 per
copy, plus shipping costs US$3 for the
first book and US$0.75 for each addi-
tional book. To place Visa or Mastercard
orders, call South End Press at (800) 533-
8478; or send check or money order to:
South End Press, P.O. Box 741, Monroe,
ME 04951 USA.






SURVEY:
Problems and Issues in
the Institutionalization of

Farming Systems
Research-Extension

by Daniel L. Gait

The following problems and issues were
raised by participants in the institution-
alization roundtable discussion during
the llth Annual AFSRE Symposium.
Because there was insufficient time to
arrive at potential solutions to all of
them, we offer the readers of the AFSRE
Newsletter a chance to assist their fellow
practitioners in this regard. Below is a
list of institutionalization issues and
problems raised by participants, as well
as some solutions given and recorded.
The solutions are included as examples
of the type of response that we would
like to receive from you.
On the response form on page 11,
please fill in the appropriate sections of
this survey as they relate to any or all of
these problems or issues your Farming
Systems Research-Extension (FSRE)
approach has faced and solved. Return
your response to the AFSRE Newsletter.
Your solutions will be recorded and
synthesized. These solutions will then
be shared with the AFSRE membership
in an upcoming issue of the Newsletter
and at the 12th Annual Symposium.


No. Issue or Proble Encountered in
Institutionalizing FSRE
01 Project or program difficulties with
a Multiple approaches to FSRE
and/or
b Personality conflicts among team
members.
Example solution: One solution for
problem 01b put forward by
roundtable participants was the
selection of a nondictatorial coordi-
nator for the FSRE team.
02 FSRE needs to be empowered, or
legitimized, in National Agricultural
Research Systems (NARSs).
03 FSRE can either be institutionalized
through each NARS discipline/
department/unit, or via a unit added
onto an existing, or modified, NARS
organization.
04 Traditional and/or discipline-based
"attitudes" of FSRE practitioners and
those being trained to practice FSRE
hinder effective institutionalization.
Example solution: Training and/or
orientation in how to modify such
discipline-based behavior to view
farmer problems more holistically.
05 Definition of individual roles in an
FSRE team.
Example solution: Continual emphasis on
the multidisciplinary nature of FSRE
work.
06 Policy issues and linkages (a) within
the NARS and (b) between the NARS
and decision-makers in other pivotal
governmental ministries (Finance,
etc.).
07 High recurrent costs of FSRE; more
specifically, the issue of transporta-
tion versus representability of a given
domain.


08 Commodity bias of a FSRE approach.
09 How to include farmer demand in
decision-making (the balance in the
farmer-extension-research triangle).
Example Solution: The three-dimensional
"farmer's vote" matrix, followed by a
joint research and extension annual
work plan, which incorporates
farmers' scores as work plan criteria
scores (see Al-Kadi and Gait, 1991,
Journal for Farming Systems Research-
Extension 2(3):31-50).
Example Solution: The CIAT "farmer-
designed trials" approach as devel-
oped and fine-tuned byJacqueline
Ashby.
10 What is a pragmatic definition of
"institutionalization?"
11 How can NARS policy-makers'
understanding of FSRE be improved,
and how can this lead to an
increased degree of institutionaliza-
tion?
12 What are possible viable "organiza-
tional homes" for FSRE?
13 Lack of impact of FSRE (a) diagnostic
findings and/or (b) research and
extension activities, on NARS
decision makers.
14 Concentrating scarce funds and
manpower on FSRE training for core
staff of an FSRE Unit versus those in
other NARS disciplinary/commodity
units.
15 Lack of promotions, incentives, and/
or plain "justice" for NARS staff
members involved in FSRE work.
16 External funding of FSRE approaches
and how the transition to 100%
internal funding can be accom-
plished.


NEW PUBLICATION


Storm Signals: Structural Adjustment
and Development Alternatives in the
Caribbean
by Kathy McAfee
The Caribbean in the 1980s was a
testing ground for the aid and trade
policies that are now at the core of the
U.S. economic program for a "new world
order" in the 1990s. The Caribbean
experience indicates that these policies
hinder sustainable development and
cannot succeed in promoting meaningful
democracy.
An inspiring challenge to these failed
policies is arising from the Caribbean


itself, in the form of a movement for self-
reliant, Caribbean-centered development.
Caribbean NGOs are creating innovative
alternatives based on grass-roots organi-
zation, women's leadership, ecological
sustainability, and defense of Caribbean
cultures and communities-an approach
entirely different from the one promoted
by the U.S. government.
This is the core of the argument put
forward in Storm Signals, a book-length
study sponsored by Oxfam America. The
study analyzes the transformation of U.S.
policy toward the Caribbean since the
early 1980s and explains how the twin


doctrines of "free-market development"
and "structural adjustment"-now being
extended to other regions around the
world-have been applied in the Carib-
bean and why so many Caribbean people
who have experienced these policies are
warning others against them.
Storm Signals is available for US$15 per
copy, plus shipping costs US$3 for the
first book and US$0.75 for each addi-
tional book. To place Visa or Mastercard
orders, call South End Press at (800) 533-
8478; or send check or money order to:
South End Press, P.O. Box 741, Monroe,
ME 04951 USA.




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