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 Sustainable land-use systems research...
 Short courses at the University...
 AFSRE 11th annual symposium...
 Call for AFSRE nominations
 The program in Agrarian studies...
 AFSRE 11th annual symposium abstract...
 Farming systems research-extension...
 New publications
 Community development conferen...
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 Health care certificate progra...
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Title: Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension newsletter
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Table of Contents
    Sustainable land-use systems research and development
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Flyer 1
        Flyer 2
        Flyer 3
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Short courses at the University of Florida
        Page 6
    AFSRE 11th annual symposium information
        Page 7
    Call for AFSRE nominations
        Page 8
    The program in Agrarian studies at Yale University
        Page 8
    AFSRE 11th annual symposium abstract and author forms
        Page 9
    Farming systems research-extension structural adjustment
        Page 10
    New publications
        Page 11
    Community development conference
        Page 12
    Farming systems conference
        Page 12
    Health care certificate program
        Page 13
    Journal for farming systems research-extension
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Notes from the editor
        Page 15
    AFSRE membership information request form
        Page 16
Full Text





SNumber 1, 1991



Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter


Sustainable Land-Use
Systems Research and

Development1

by
Robert D. Hart and
Michael W. Sands2

INTRODUCTION

Sustainable development quite suddenly
has become a global issue. The ideas
that have converged to produce this new
concept are as varied as the definitions
that have been put forward to define
"sustainability." Everyone, from global
climatologists to proponents of less
chemical-intensive farming, can legiti-
mately claim to be involved in the
movement. Because the concept has
emerged from the synthesis of different
perspectives, it is not likely that com-
monly accepted definitions will emerge
in the near future. Almost everyone
who is a proponent of sustainable
development agrees, however, that
action must be taken to begin develop-
ing land-use systems that are economi-
cally viable in the short run yet not
environmentally degrading in the long
run. In short, the essence of sustain-
ability is the maintenance of natural
resource productivity.



Paper presented at the International
Workshop on Sustainable Land Use Systems
Research, February 12-16, 1990, New Delhi,
India.
2 Director, Rodale Research Center; Coordina-
tor of Cooperative Research, Rodale
Institute.


This paper describes a general systems
conceptual framework, a general
research and development process, and a
set of potential sustainability strategies
that could be used by local institutions
as guidelines for the development and
dissemination of sustainable land-use
systems.
The first section of the paper intro-
duces the concept of sustainable land-
use systems. The second section
outlines a hierarchical systems frame-
work that separates physical and
biological (ecological) systems from
social and economic (socioeconomic)
systems, so that the key trade-off
between short-term economics and
long-term ecological impact can be
explicitly analyzed. The third section
details a five-step research and develop-
ment process that leads to the design of
alternative land-use systems and then to
their subsequent evaluation and trans-
fer. The fourth section describes various
sustainability strategies that could be
used by a multidisciplinary team as
guidelines for the selection of appro-
priate technology during the design
phase of the research and development
process.


SUSTAINABLE LAND-USE SYSTEMS
Sustainability has become a popular
label. It is used in some countries as a
label that is acceptable to people and
institutions with similar objectives but
different biases. For example, research-
ers developing "organic" systems
(systems that do not use inorganic
pesticides or fertilizers) and researchers


developing "low-input" systems (sys-
tems that use fewer purchased inputs)
can agree on the need for "sustainable"
systems even though they have different
research interests. Where it is used as a
label rather than as operational concept,
sustainability is usually "defined" by
listing a long series of goals and tech-
nologies that are "associated" with the
common agenda of those who have
selected the label.
However, many institutions are
trying to convert the concept of
sustainability into an operational
approach. Although there are no
commonly accepted definitions, most
that have been proposed include the
concept of indefinite (or at least "long-
term") system performance or indefinite
maintenance of resource productivity, or

In This Issue
Sustainable Land-Use Systems Research
and Development ............................ 1
Short Courses at the University
of Florida.......................................... 6
AFSRE 11th Annual Symposium
Information ................................... 7
Call for AFSRE Nominations .................
Agrarian Studies Program................... 8
AFSRE 1lth Annual Symposium Abstract
and Author Forms............................ 9
Farming Systems Research-Extension
Structural Adjustment.................... 10
New Publications ................................ 11
Community Development
Conference..................................... 12
Farming Systems Conference in
Edinburgh........................................ 12
Health Care Certificate Program.......... 13
ASFRE Journal Reviewers and Proofers
for Foreign Authors........................ 13
Notes from the Editor...........................15


The Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension is an international society organized to promote the development and dissemination of
methods and results of participatory on-farm systems research and extension. The objective of such research is the development and adoption
through the participation by farm household members-male and female-of improved and appropriate technologies to meet the socioeconomic
needs of farm families; adequately supply global food, feed, and fiber requirements; and utilize resources in a sustainable and efficient manner.








a combination of these two concepts.
The evolution of a commonly accepted
operational concept will take time. In
order for these concepts to have general
applicability, it is critical that the
perspectives of both resource-poor and
resource-rich countries be integrated.
For many resource-poor countries, the
essence of sustainability is feeding
people both today and tomorrow. For
many resource-rich countries, the
essence of sustainability is the preserva-
tion of natural resources, including not
just agricultural resources, but local
natural habitats and even flora and
fauna in other countries.
The concept of "sustainable land-use
systems" (Figure 1) may be one way to
integrate and make operational these
different perspectives. At the center of
the diagram is a Farm System. In this
paper, "farm system" is used in the
broadest possible sense and refers to
primary production activities such as
forestry and aquaculture, not just to
annual crop or livestock production
(Hart, 1980; Conway, 1985). The farm
system interacts with the socioeco-
nomic environment through the
purchase of inputs (seed, fertilizer, etc.)
and sale of outputs (grain, employment
of family labor off-farm, etc.). It inter-
acts with the biophysical environment
through the degradation of natural
resources caused by some farm outputs
(pesticides, manure, etc.) and through
the use of resources as inputs for farm
production processes (water, nutrients,
etc.).
Different institutions focus on
different characteristics of the system
described in Figure 1. Some institutions
focus on the need to use inputs that do
not degrade the natural resource base
(the left side of Figure 1). Other institu-
tions focus on the development of
systems that use natural resources and
that, at the same time, "regenerate"
their productive potential (the bottom
half of Figure 1). Institutions that take
an applied ecology approach (such as
fisheries and forestry researchers) focus
on the need to maintain system produc-
tion at a level that does not exceed
resource productivity (the right side of
Figure 1). The traditional research
approach focuses on short-term eco-


SUSTAINABLE LAND USE SYSTEM

Value of system production exceeds value of inputs


Inputs do not
degrade the
resource base


System production
does not exceed
resource
productivity


Resource degradation does not exceed
resource productivity


nomic viability (the top half of Figure 1).
Research to develop sustainable land-
use systems will require explicit consid-
eration of all four system-to-environ-
ment relationships depicted in Figure 1.
Even if systems lack negative impacts on
the environment or regernerate the
natural resource base, they will not be
adopted by farmers if they are not
economically viable (Pezzey, 1989).
Economically viable systems that
degrade the resource base to the point
that natural resource productivity
decreases cannot sustain system produc-
tion longer than society is willing to
subsidize externally purchased inputs.
Systems that are managed in such a way
that their production exceeds the
productivity of the natural resource base
(e.g., cutting forest faster than a forest
can produce trees) may be economically
viable in the short run, but the income
produced by these systems is, in effect,
borrowed from future generations
(Barbier, 1989).
We define sustainable land-use
systems as those that use both biophysi-
cal and socioeconomic resources to
produce outputs that the present
socioeconomic environment (today's
society) values more than the value of
purchased inputs (i.e., the system is
economically viable) and that at the
same time maintain the future produc-


tivity of the biophysical environment
(i.e., the system is ecologically sustain-
able).


A GENERAL SYSTEMS
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

General concepts, such as economic
viability and ecological sustainability,
may help clarify definitions, but they are
not particularly useful to a research and
development team that is developing
alternative land-use systems. Figure 2
depicts a general systems framework that
could be used as an initial conceptual
framework by a multidisciplinary team.
The framework subdivides the socioeco-
nomic and biophysical environment
into local and regional systems. Farm
systems are farm households) (which
are also components of the local
socioeconomic system) and their crop
and/or livestock production systems.
Crop and livestock systems interact with
the soil (which is also a component of
the local biophysical system) and with
pests and diseases (Hart, 1980; Conway,
1985).
If a local research or development
institution decided to use this frame-
work to develop a project, they would
probably begin by identifying specific
crop or livestock production systems
(including tree or fish production





FOOD from

DRYLAND

GARDENS

An Ecological,
Nutritional, and
Social Approach to
Small-Scale Household
Food Production

by David A. Cleveland and Daniela Soleri
illustrated by Daniela Soleri

CENTER FOR PEOPLE, FOOD AND
ENVIRONMENT
with support from UNICEF
FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS was written for field workers, extension agents, students, project workers,
and program planners in the Third World, as well as gardeners in the industrial world interested in sustainable
dryland food production. Both a beginner's guide as well as a reference for those with more experience, this book
helps the reader observe and work with local people to ask appropriate questions about the community, the en-
vironment, and the potential for gardens to improve nutritional, economic, and social well-being in drylands
worldwide. The following themes are emphasized throughout the book:
* Understanding existing gardens as the basis for Control and decision-making by the local people
improvements who will be affected
* Using low-cost local resources, including indige- Improving household nutritional status and income
nous knowledge, trees and other garden crops, to Women's roles
promote self-reliance Ecological sustainability including the conservation
* The scientific principles of garden management of soil, water, and genetic resources
The Center for People, Food and Environment (CPFE) is a non-profit organization devoted to research, education,and action
for sustainable food systems. The authors of this book are co-directors of CPFE.

FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS is the best book I have seen for a FOOD FRocDRYLAND GARDENS draws on painstaking and wide-
small-scale,people-centered approach to agriculture. This book isnot ranging research and repeatedly makes wise judgements.
only ecologically sound, but shows a remarkable understanding of Joe Collins, Institute for Food and Development Policy;
and sensitivity to local traditions, culture and politics. Most impor- co-author of FOOD FIRST
tant of all, perhaps, it clearly "puts the last first" and will provide an
extremely useful tool in the process of empowering marginalized FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS is an important milestone in
peoples to take greater charge of their health and their lives, strengthening our support to households in the Developing World.
David Werner, Hesperian Foundation; We, at UNICEF, are convinced that it will prove to be a key reference
author of WHERE THERE IS NO DOCTOR document for individuals workinginthe fields of agriculture andnu-
trition.
James Grant, Executive Director,
UNICEF
FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS is not just another book about
how to grow garden crops. It is an impressively comprehensive and
clear book that stands out from the gathering stampede of literature
S- on "sustainable agriculture." It is both an analysis of gardening
/ / strategies anda practicalguide for those working in the Third World.
,/"/t ,, This book's emphasis on "social sustainability"-local self-determi-
S\. nationand a justdistributionof resources-adds a needed dimension
/ 's. \ .to the measure of "environmental sustainability" now being stressed
/ // in much of the ecodevelopment literature. FOOD FROM DRYLAND
GARDENS is a smooth blend of indigenous and Western scientific
*. knowledge, mixing the strategies of gardeners and farmers through-
S{ i -*\' out the world within understanding of the sciences of nutrition, soils,
t'/ -'and plant growth.
T .; Mac Chapin, Program Director,
Cultural Survival




FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS
Table of Contents



PART I: Gardens as a Development Strategy


1 Introduction


2 Gardens and Nutrition in Drylands
3 Gardens, Economics, and Marketing


4 Assessment Techniques


PART II: Garden Management


5 How Plants Live and Grow
6 Growing Plants from Seeds
7 Vegetative Propagation
8 Plant Management
9 Soils in the Garden


10 Water, Soils, and Plants
11 Sources of Water for the Garden
12 Irrigation and Water-Lifting
13 Pest and Disease Management


PART III: Garden Harvest


14 Saving Seeds for Planting
15 Processing, Preserving and Marketing Garden Harvest


16 Weaning Foods from the Garden


PART IV: Resources

17 Glossary 20 Annotated Bibliography and References
18 Some Crops for Dryland Gardens Index
19 Resource Organizations

ORDER FORM
FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS: An Ecological, Nutritional, and Social Approach to Small-Scale Household Food
Production (ISBN:0-962799-0-X) 8.5 x 11, xiv+387pp, over 200 illustrations, soft cover, acid free paper, durable
sewn binding; $25/copy. $15/copy to the Third World (except projects and workers sponsored by industrial
country aid agencies). Those in the industrial world working with poor communities or organizations can also
purchase copies for $15. Send us a description of your project or organization with your order. Discounts are
available for large orders, please contact us.
Sponsor a free copy of FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS for Third World readers by sending $15, we will pay
postage. You may designate who you wish the gratis copy to be sent to, or simply the location, i.e a community
worker in West Africa, otherwise it will be sent to the next request we receive for a free copy.
All orders must be prepaid in US dollars by money order or check drawn on a US bank account. Please make
checks payable to CENTER FOR PEOPLE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT, and send to: 344 South Third Avenue,
Tucson, AZ 85701, USA.

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AFIRE
Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension






ASSOCIATION FOR FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH-EXTENSION

RENEWAL NOTICE
1990-91




We still have a substantial number of 1989-90 members who have not renewed their
memberships for 1990-91. This year's membership provides three issues of the
AFSRE Journal (acclaimed for the quality of its content and publication) and three
issues of the AFSRE Newsletter (an important networking and communication forum).
Many new members have joined AFSRE this year, but we want to make sure that our
1989-90 charter members also have the opportunity to maintain an active membership
in the Association. The current fee structure is as follows:

Developing Countries: U.S. $20.00
Developed Countries: U.S. $40.00
Students: U.S. $20.00
Institutions: U.S. $60.00
Associate Members: U.S. $10.00
We would be pleased to accept multiyear payments (your hedge against inflation).
Please fill out the biodata form located in the back of the AFSRE Newsletter, so we can
include this information in our AFSRE Directory. Also, please indicate if you are a
charter member but did not receive your charter member certificate.
If you have already renewed your subscription, please disregard this notice.


An international society organized to promote the development and dissemination of methods and results of participatory on-farm systems
research and extension. The objective of such research is the development and adoption through the participation by farm household
members -male and female of improved and appropriate technologies to meet the socioeconomic needs of farm families; adequately
supply global food, feed, and fiber requirements; and utilize resources in a sustainable and efficient manner.








systems). For example, the multi-
disciplinary research team might
identify cropping systems, such as
intercropped maize and sorghum or rice-
wheat rotations; livestock systems, such
as dual-purpose goats or intensive
poultry systems; forestry systems, such
as secondary forest, cut, mixed-wood
products; or fish production systems,
such as Tilapia ponds or fish in rice
paddies.
In addition to the local market and
social institutions that are typically
identified by most development projects
as influencing potential development
opportunities, the team would also
identify the characteristics of the local
biophysical environment (such as
potential soil erosion) that could effect
the long-term sustainability of any
alternative technology that is developed
by the project. The framework described
in Figure 2 suggests that the team should
also consider the effect of the local
socioeconomic environment (such as
market prices or the effect of religious
preferences on potential markets). The
regional biophysical environment and
the regional socioeconomic environ-
ment must also be taken into considera-
tion because issues such as downstream
water quality and national policies may
also be important.
After applying the general framework
depicted in Figure 2, the local multi-
disciplinary team should begin to
conduct research in order to develop
alternative land-use systems that are
more sustainable. The team must agree
upon a methodology that will guide
them through the process of developing
and evaluating these alternative systems.
A key question that needs to be
addressed in the implementation of any
sustainable land-use systems research
methodology is, how can systems be
made more sustainable?


A SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Although there is general agreement on
many of the concepts discussed above,
there is no agreed-upon methodology to
develop and promote sustainable land-
use systems. There is, however, consid-
erable experience and methodology


available for the development and
promotion of many of the technologies
often associated with sustainable
systems (e.g., minimum tillage, multi-
species cropping systems, integrated pest
management, etc.). Also, methodologies
that evolved from agroforestry research,
crop/livestock systems research, and
farmer-participatory research can
definitely contribute to the development
of a sustainable land-use systems
research and development methodology
(Hart, 1982; Conway, 1986).
As suggested above, any multidiscipli-
nary research and extension team that
attempts to develop a methodology
must first agree upon a common
conceptual framework. The framework
in Figure 2 is only one way of viewing
reality. If it is agreed that the trade-off
between short-term economic viability
and long-term ecological sustainability
must be explicitly addressed, the
framework agreed upon by the team
probably will look similar to the frame-
work described above. The methodol-
ogy that the team agrees upon will, in
all likelihood, include a systematic
sequence of steps, which over time will
result in the design, evaluation, and
promotion of new technology. This
technology, when integrated, could
evolve into more sustainable land-use
systems.


A Five-Step Process
Figure 3 depicts the agricultural systems
conceptual framework (described in
Figure 2) and a five-step systems research
and development process that can be
applied to the systems framework. The
first step is to describe the existing
systems in the framework. This first
activity usually begins with a qualitative
description of the components of the
systems included in the framework,
followed by the collection of more
quantitative data describing the inter-
actions among the components. Step 2
uses the quantitative information to
analyze the systems and their interac-
tions. Step 3, the design of alternatives,
is a complex process that requires the
modification of existing systems or the
creation of new systems, which must be
analyzed to predict how well they will
perform with regards to both economic
viability and ecological sustainability.
During Step 4, these predictions are
tested in the real world. Alternatives
that do not pass this step return to the
design phase; those that meet both the
economic and ecological criteria move
to Step S for dissemination to individu-
als and institutions for implementation
at the farm, local, and regional levels.
A multidisciplinary team might not
apply all of the steps equally to all of the
systems that form the conceptual


SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK

REGIONAL SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
LOCAL SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
INPUT purchased outputs URBAN
PRODUCERS inputs sold MARKETS
C R
HOUSEHOLD O
,,,,, --seas F.M E
pests & E
die ..e. F M G
A U
CROPS LIVESTOCK R
M N I

SOIL 0 I T


NATURAL soil water IRRIGATION
ECOSYSTEMS po"utants nutrients SYSTEMS
LOCAL BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT J

Terrestrial REGIONAL BIOPHYSICAL Aquatic & marine
ecosystems ENVIRONMENT ecosystems








framework. The DESCRIPTION phase
will probably be applied to the entire
framework because qualitative informa-
tion describing farm, local, and regional
systems will be needed. The ANALYSIS
phase will probably be applied only to
the farm and local socioeconomic and
biophysical systems. The DESIGN phase
will be directed primarily at the develop-
ment of alternative farming systems,
although changes in the local socio-
economic system (e.g., creation of new
markets or waste recycling laws) may be
necessary components of some of the
alternatives that will be developed. The
EVALUATION phase will be directed at
farms and the local socioeconomic and
biophysical systems that interact with
the farming systems. The DISSEMINA-
TION phase, like the preliminary
description phase, once again, will be
directed at all of the systems that form
the conceptual framework.


INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
NEEDS
Information management is critical for
successful implementation of the five-
step process described above. Multi-
disciplinary development-oriented
research must be supported by an
information-management system that


collects, synthesizes, and disseminates
information, while at the same time
linking development opportunities with
research initiatives. A multidisciplinary
team that implements a sustainable
land-use systems project will need some
type of centralized data base to collect
the different types of ecological and
socioeconomic information. This data
base will be critical for the analysis of
resource management trade-off issues
that are the essence of sustainable
development.
Information collected by site-specific
projects must be made available to the
individuals and institutions that interact
to implement a community-level
project. In addition to maintaining
information in a user-friendly format, it
must be synthesized and analyzed so
that the macrolevel socioeconomic and
biophysical systems and their impact on
local production systems can be under-
stood. This information management
process should be located at or near the
sites where alternative systems are being
developed so that it is accessible by all
participating institutions.
Another key information process is
the linkage between the farmer and
community-level constraints and
opportunities and the research designed
in response to these needs. For example,


if on-farm experiments show that yield-
loss due to droughts is a critical concern,
this information should lead to the
development of research on drought-
tolerant crops or better soil-moisture
management. As the results of this
needs-driven research become available,
they must be transferred to the farmers
and researchers participating in the next
year's on-farm research.
Information must be managed to
facilitate the use of analytical tools to
analyze trade-offs between short-term
production and long-term resource
productivity. To simply identify
economically viable alternatives for
farmers is a difficult task, and if the
additional criteria of ecological sustaina-
bility is factored in, the design of
potential new alternatives becomes even
more difficult. Local research and
development project workers are likely
to find the lack of analytical tools to
help them analyze issues, such as
upstream benefits and downstream costs
(i.e., pesticides that economically
control upper-watershed pests but
negatively effect downstream fish
production) and trade-offs between costs
incurred by today's generation that
primarily benefit the next generation, to
be a critical methodological issue.


STRATEGIES FOR MAKING SYSTEMS
MORE SUSTAINABLE
One of the key steps in the five-step
research and development process
described above is the design phase.
Experience in cropping, livestock, and
agroforestry systems research shows that
this step is critical in the process because
decisions made at this stage affect all
subsequent research. In most cases,
individual members of multidisciplinary
teams suggest alternatives or modifica-
tions to farmers' current practices, and
then ex ante analyses are conducted to
determine if the proposed alternatives
will have higher economic return than
the present system. However, if long-
term ecological considerations are
weighted equally, the design of alterna-
tives and ex ante evaluation become
even more difficult and complex.
The first key question that must be
addressed is: what system (or systems)


RESEARCH PROCESS


SBIOPHYSICAL CRITERIA L
TIME


SYSTEMS








needs to be sustained? Clearly, a
different approach will be taken if the
goal is to sustain the production of a
given commodity (Plucknett and Smith,
1986) than if the goal is to sustain the
livelihood of a certain type of farmer or
to sustain natural resource productivity.
In the discussion that follows, it is
assumed that the goal is to sustain the
productivity of the local biophysical
system while at the same time meeting
the needs of people that are part of the
local socioeconomic system.
The next question is: What are the
different strategies or approaches that
could make a land-use system more
sustainable? Because, for the purposes
of this discussion, land-use systems
interact with their biophysical and
socioeconomic environment (Figure 1),
one way of identifying potential strate-
gies is to look for and analyze alternative
technology that could enhance: (1)
farm-by-biophysical environment
interactions, (2) farm component
interactions, and (3) farm-by-socioeco-
nomic environment interactions. These
are depicted in Figure 3 as information
inputs to the design stage in the five-
step process and are discussed below in
more detail.
1. Maintain or Enhance Farm-by-
Biophysical Environment Interactions
It is difficult to disagree with the
premise that the maintenance of natural
resource productivity-more specifically,
soil productivity-is a prerequisite for
any sustainable land-use system. Soil
productivity is tightly linked to plant
production, and maintaining or enhanc-
ing soil/plant interactions and other
interactions between farm systems and
the local biophysical system must be
considered in the design of any sustain-
able land-use system.
Land-use systems can be made more
sustainable by direct intervention in the
way soil is managed (Steiner et al.,
1988). Management effects on soil
productivity are grouped into three
major areas: physical, chemical, and
biological. Tillage and water manage-
ment can have dramatic impacts on soil
structure and productivity. Soil chemis-
try has long been recognized as a critical
component of soil productivity. Increas-
ingly, research is pointing to the


importance of free-living soil microbes
in the efficient, productive use of scarce
soil nutrients.
Terraces, contour plowing, and other
erosion control technologies can also
directly impact long-term soil productiv-
ity. Recently, considerable research has
been done with different tillage regimes,
such as minimum tillage, ridge tillage,
etc. Usually the effects of tillage on
weed control and soil compaction are
the principal foci of the studies. Much
more information is needed on how
different tillages affect soil microbial
activity and long-term soil productivity.
Land-use systems also can be made
more sustainable by using technology
that affects soil/plant interactions. In
fact, one possible reason that some
cropping systems are not sustainable is
because soil and plant management
questions have been separated rather
than integrated. Systems can be made
more sustainable by tightening soil/
plant cycles and decreasing nutrient
losses that have to be replaced by
external inputs. Crop residue removed
from the field must be replaced by
external fertilizer unless the natural
productivity of a soil is very high or
farmers are willing to accept lower
yields. This strategy might lead to
research on cover crops that keep
nutrients from being lost in the dry
season or winter or research on crop
residue management to regulate decom-
position processes. Leguminous cover
crops can be used both to add nitrogen
inputs and to improve soil character-
istics that influence soil productivity.
Introduction of more diverse crop-
ping systems, especially involving
combinations of legumes, cereals, and
perennial plants (including trees), can
lead to substantial increases in soil-
resource-use efficiency. These systems
diversify resource use (e.g., by tapping
soil nutrients and water from different
soil depths) and may reduce system

variability and farmer risk.
2. Maintain or Enhance Farm System
Component Interactions
The interaction among the components
of a farm system (household, crops,
livestock, pests, etc.) cannot be over-
looked in the development of potential
sustainability strategies because these


interactions determine the relationship
between a farm and its local biophysical
environment. The presence of mixed
farms, where crops and livestock are
grown on the same farm, makes avail-
able many different types of technology
that can be used to increase system
sustainability. Here again the focus may
be on tightening the interactions
between the various components of the
system. The ideal is a system where the
"waste" from one enterprise is an
"input" into a second enterprise.
Crop residue, along with hay or
forage crops, can be fed to livestock, and
the manure can be returned to the soil
either directly or after being composted
with other plant or waste materials.
Many different types of farm-system
technologies make systems more
sustainable. Examples include cut-and-
carry livestock systems that concentrate
manure for use on high-value crops,
livestock grazing of small grains at early
growth stages, and agroforestry systems
that (as suggested above) use deep-
rooted trees to recycle soil nutrients and
at the same time provide forage for the
livestock. If mixed farms include fish,
livestock manure and/or crop residue
can be used to integrate even more farm
enterprises.
With increased availability of low-
cost pesticides, pest management
became almost indistinguishable from
pesticide management. But over the last
decade, there has been increasing
interest in integrated pest management
technology. The use of biological agents
is presently being explored for the
control of insects, diseases, and weeds.
One area that is just beginning to
receive research attention is habitat
management to either encourage
beneficial organisms (that prey upon
pests) or to attract pests away from
crops. Enhancing soil/plant/pest
interactions can make a farm system
more sustainable by decreasing reliance
on external pesticides. This decreases
risks to farm workers, to consumers who
are increasingly worried about the
health affects of pesticide residue on
food, and to downstream ecosystems
and future generations that might
depend on these ecosystems (Gliessman
et al., 1981).








3. Maintain or Enhance Farm-by-
Socioeconomic Environment
Interactions
Because economic viability is deter-
mined by the relationship between a
farm and its local socioeconomic
environment, these interactions
obviously must be considered in the
development of more-sustainable land-
use systems (Pezzey, 1989).
Agriculture, silviculture, fisheries,
etc., are influenced as much by global,
national, and local policies as they are
by natural resource productivity.
Changes in policy can make land-use
systems less sustainable or more sustain-
able. Policy changes are often beyond
the scope of local research and develop-
ment institutions, but often this is
because policy makers are not presented
with the information they need in order
to weigh the long-term impact of
policies.
Price support to some commodities
and not others can lead farmers to
develop production systems that are
economically viable in the short run but
are not ecologically sustainable in the
long run. This can lead to uses of
irrigation, pesticides, or purchased
fertilizers that reduce farm-level resource
productivity as well as downstream
resource productivity and, potentially,
long-term resource productivity and the
livelihood of the next generation.
Many of the complex interactions
described above could be modified to
make systems more sustainable. A
critical problem is that often the net
effect of changing these interactions is
difficult to predict. Adding a cover crop
might decrease nitrogen loss, but the
cover might also compete with the next
crop for moisture or attract insect pests.
In the long run, the net effect on the
system may be more negative than
positive. Another critical problem is
that often the potential combinations of
alternatives are so formidable that the
design of an alternative becomes more
of an "art" than a "science." An impor-
tant strategy to consider is analyzing
farm-by-socioeconomic interactions that
are currently sustainable and systems
that were sustainable in the past but
currently are not sustainable.
The analysis of traditional farming
systems that currently are not sustain-


able might lead to the discovery of
general principles that could be applied
to the design of new land-use systems.
Farmer knowledge, either as articulated
directly by farmers or as expressed by
the systems that have been sustained for
many years, can be used both as a source
of technology and as a source of these
general principles that can be applied to
develop new technology and new land-
use systems (Gliessman et al., 1981;
Hart, 1982).


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Sustainable land-use systems can be
conceptualized as farm systems that
interact with their biophysical and
socioeconomic environments in such a
way that they are both economically
viable in the short run and ecologically
sustainable in the long run. In order to
conduct development-oriented research
that will lead to more sustainable land-
use systems, a multidisciplinary field
team needs a conceptual framework and
a systematic methodology that explicitly
recognizes these potential resource-
management trade-offs.
The framework and methodology
described in this paper are too general
for site-specific research and develop-
ment, but they could serve as guidelines
for the development of a more appro-
priate framework and methodology.
The design phase, in which new land-
use systems are proposed, is likely to be
one of the most difficult stages in the
development of more sustainable land-
use systems. One way of identifying
potential strategies or research
approaches is to analyze and consider
alternative technology that could
enhance: (1) farm-by-biophysical
environment interactions; (2) farm
component interactions; and (3) farm-
by-socioeconomic environment inter-
actions.

REFERENCES
Barbier, E. 1989. Economics, Natural Resource
Productivity, and Development: Conventional
and Alternative Views. London: Earthscan
Publications Ltd.
Conway, G.R. 1985. Agroecosystem analysis.
Agric. Admin. 20:31-55.
Conway, G.R. 1986. Agroecosystem Analysis
for Research and Development. Bangkok:
Winrock International.


Gliessman, S., R. Garcia, and M. Amador.
1981. The ecological basis for the
application of traditional agricultural
technology in the management of tropical
agro-ecosystems. Agro-Ecosystems 7:173-
85.
Hart, R.D. 1980. A natural ecosystem analog
approach to the design of a successional
crop system for tropical forest environ-
ments. Biotropika 12:73-82.
Hart, R.D. 1982. An ecological conceptual
framework for agricultural research and
development. Pp. 44-58 in W.W. Shaner,
P.F. Philipp, and W.R Schmehl, eds.,
Readings in Farming Systems Research and
Development. Boulder, Co.: Westview Press.
Pezzey, J. 1989. Economic analysis of
sustainable growth and sustainable
development. Environment Department,
World Bank working paper no. 15.
Plucknett, D., and N.J. H. Smith. 1986.
Sustaining agricultural yields. Bio Science
36(1):40-45.
Steiner, J., J.C. Day, R. Papendick, R. Meyer,
and A. Bertrand. 1988. Improving and
sustaining productivity in dryland regions
of developing countries. Advances in Soil
Science 8:79-122.



FLORIDA OFFERS SHORT COURSES


The following Short Courses, some of
which are U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture Training Courses, will be offered at
the University of Florida, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Inter-
national Training Division:

Integrated Pest Management
May 13-31, 1991
Agroforestry Extension and Training
(USDA TC 170-5)
May 13-June 14, 1991
Farming Systems Approach to Research
and Extension for Small Farmers
July 8-August 9, 1991
Vegetable Production, Postharvest
Technology, and Marketing
(USDA TC 130-11)
July 8-August 23, 1991

For additional information regarding
any of these courses (and other training
opportunities), please contact: Inter-
national Training Division, IFAS,
University of Florida, 1001 McCarty
Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611; Telephone:
(904) 392-3166; FAX: (904) 392-3165.








11th Annual Symposium

Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension


Call for Abstracts

"Farming Systems Research and
Extension in the 1990s: Critical
Issues and Future Directions"

The Institute of International Agricul-
ture at Michigan State University in East
Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A., will host the
11th Annual Symposium of the Associa-
tion for Farming Systems Research-
Extension (AFSRE). The symposium will
be held October 5-10, 1991. In addition
to panels and roundtables, the program
will include plenary sessions and one
half-day of poster presentations, exhib-
its, and computer software demonstra-
tions. AFSRE welcomes interested
parties to submit abstracts for panels
and posters.


SUBMISSION OF ABSTRACTS
Abstracts of papers to be considered for
panel or poster presentation must be
sent to the AFSRE Symposium office on
the abstract/author information form
(page 9). All abstracts must cite the
proposed title and specifically identify
the purpose, methods, results, and
conclusions of the proposed paper. All
panel and poster papers accepted for
presentation at the Symposium are
eligible for publication in the Journal for
Farming Systems Research-Extension. The
deadline for receipt of abstracts is
March 15, 1991.


REVIEW POLICY
AFSRE will review all submitted abstracts
with the objective of assuring that those
accepted meet standards of relevance
and scientific quality. Only those
abstracts submitted on the abstract/
author information form will be
reviewed. Because of publishing
deadlines, abstracts that are not received
before the March 15, 1991 deadline will
not be considered for review. AFSRE
reserves the right to reject any submitted
paper.


PANEL AND POSTER THEMES
Papers are invited for panels and posters
that address the following themes and
specific concerns:
Sustainability: 1) conceptual
frameworks to study farming systems
development; 2) quantitative and
qualitative methods to understand and
assess sustainability, with an emphasis
on ecological and bioeconomic model-
ing; and 3) case studies of sustainable
farming at the household and commu-
nity levels.
Gender: 1) the institutionalization of
gender analysis in agricultural research
and extension organizations; 2) method-
ologies for learning about gender roles;
3) case studies of gender analysis
affecting decisions in research and/or
extension; and 4) research focused on
helping women to identify new resource
options.
Institutionalization: Preconditions
of, constraints on, and/or success stories
of institutionalization; and case studies
of a national or regional FSRE approach.
Field Methods: 1) on-farm trial
design and analysis; 2) field use of
computers in data analysis; 3) participa-
tory methodologies; and 4) tools for
monitoring technology adoption.
Papers should offer a concise description
of the methodss, their strengths,
limitations, and application to FSRE.
Policy and Development Linkages:
The relation of FSRE to policy formula-
tion and the design of development
programs. Case studies and examples
from national systems and international
donor agencies are welcome.
Impact Assessment: The impact of
FSRE projects in terms of farmer adop-
tion of technology and economic
returns to adaptive, on farm research.
Are there greater social and economic
returns to FSRE than to traditional
research? What farm-level changes
result from priority-setting and experi-
mentation directly linked to FSR?


WORKSHOPS AND FIELD TRIPS
Workshops and field trips will be held in
conjunction with the Symposium.
Details on individual workshops and
field trips will be included in the
registration packets to be mailed in May.
If you or your organization would like to
host a workshop or a field trip, please
contact AFSRE for more information.


PROPOSALS FOR PANELS/
ROUNDTABLES
Proposals for special panels/roundtables
are invited. Forms are available from
AFSRE and must be submitted by
March 15, 1991.


TRAVEL SUPPORT
Limited funds are available to help
defray some of the travel and other costs
involved in attending the Symposium.
Priority in allocating travel grants is
given to non-U.S. residents and non-U.S.
students residing in the United States
who do not have access to other sources
of funding. To be eligible to receive a
travel grant, you must: 1) submit the
"Application for Travel Grant," available
from AFSRE, and 2) have a paper
accepted for presentation on a panel or
as a poster. Grants are not available for
workshops or field trips.


CONFERENCE SITE
The Symposium will be held at the
Holiday Inn University Place, located in
downtown East Lansing, within walking
distance of shopping, restaurants, and
city bus lines. Facilities are fully acces-
sible to the handicapped. East Lansing
is served by Lansing's Capital City
Airport, with connecting flights from
Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dayton,
Detroit, and Minneapolis.




Continued on pages 8 and 9.








REGISTRATION
AFSRE members and paid participants of
the 1990 AFSRE Symposium will be sent
registration packets. (If you are a
member and you do not receive registra-
tion information, contact the AFSRE
Symposium office, address below.)
Participants may also register during the
Symposium. The registration fee
schedule is as follows:

Early registration (before Sept. 1,
1991)
AFSRE Members Nonmembers
Students $75.00 $95.00
Nonstudents $165.00 $205.00

Late registration (after Sept. 1, 1991)
AFSRE Members Nonmembers
Students $100.00 $120.00
Nonstudents $210.00 $250.00
Registration fees include one copy of
the Symposium program booklet;
admission into a Welcome Reception;


meal and social functions; daily conti-
nental breakfasts, refreshments, and
snacks; and admission to all Symposium
events. The Symposium registration fee
does not include any workshops, field trips,
or AFSRE membership.


DEADLINES
March 15, 1991:
Receipt of abstracts
Application for travel grants
Proposals for workshops/field trips
Proposals for panels/roundtables
September 1, 1991: Early registration
These deadlines will be strictly adhered to.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Contact AFSRE Symposium, Institute of
International Agriculture, 324 Agricul-
ture Hall, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 U.S.A.;
Telephone: 517-353-5262; Fax: 517-
353-1888; Telex: 650-264-1762 MCI.


Call for
Nominations

Nominations are requested for the
following officers of the Association
for Farming Systems Research-
Extension:

President-elect
Secretary/Treasurer
Nominations/Elections Chair
Networking Chair
Africa Representative
Europe Representative
2 at-large representatives

Please send names, phone num-
bers, addresses, and, if possible,
biographical data to Cornelia Flora,
Department of Sociology, Virginia
Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137, by
April 15, 1991.


The Program in Agrarian
Studies at Yale
University

The Program in Agrarian Studies at Yale
is an experimental, interdisciplinary
effort to reshape how a new generation
of scholars understands rural life and
society. The goal of the Program is to
infuse categories of social science
research in danger of becoming purely
statistical and abstract with the fresh air
of popular knowledge and reasoning
about poverty, subsistence, cultivation,
justice, art, law, property, ritual life,
cooperation, resource use, and state
action.
The many hands from many disci-
plines that have shaped this Program
share three premises. The first is that
analysis of agrarian development must
begin with the lived experience, under-
standings, and values of its historical
subjects. The second premise is that the
study of the Third World (and what was
until recently called the Second World)
must never be segregated from the
historical study of the West, or the


humanities from the social sciences. In
this spirit, the Program aims to bring
together streams of scholarship that
rarely interact. Finally, it is felt that the
only way to loosen the nearly he-
gemonic grip of the separate disciplines
on how questions are framed and
answered is to concentrate on themes of
importance to several disciplines. By
building a sustained community of
interdisciplinary conversation and by
demonstrating what creative trespassing
can accomplish, Program developers
hope to set a standard of integrative
work that will act as a magnet to others
interested in similar endeavors.
The program begins in 1991-92, with
support from the Rockefeller and Ford
Foundations and Yale University.

Colloquium Series
The core of the Program's activities is a
weekly colloquium organized around an
annual theme. Invited specialists send
papers in advance that are the focus of
an organized discussion by the faculty
and graduate students associated with
the colloquium.
"State-Agrarian Relations," under-


stood broadly, is the theme for the first
two years. Topics include: nomads and
the state, taxation and conscription,
high culture-vs-"folk" culture, collectivi-
zation, water control and irrigation,
development schemes-historical and
contemporary, peasant resistance and
flight, state property law and local
rights, nationalism and agrarianism,
comparative forms of servitude, etc.

Program Fellows
The Program appoints Research Fellows
annually who are in residence for the
year, present a paper, and attend the
colloquia. Program developers hope to
have four to six Fellows whose diversity
reflects the breadth of the Program and a
Senior Fellow who has already made
important contributions to agrarian
studies. Fellows are selected competi-
tively.
For further information about the
Colloquium Series, Research Fellow-
ships, and graduate training, contact
James C. Scott, Director, Program in
Agrarian Studies, Yale University, Box
3075 Yale Station, New Haven, CT,
06520, U.S.A.


I








REGISTRATION
AFSRE members and paid participants of
the 1990 AFSRE Symposium will be sent
registration packets. (If you are a
member and you do not receive registra-
tion information, contact the AFSRE
Symposium office, address below.)
Participants may also register during the
Symposium. The registration fee
schedule is as follows:

Early registration (before Sept. 1,
1991)
AFSRE Members Nonmembers
Students $75.00 $95.00
Nonstudents $165.00 $205.00

Late registration (after Sept. 1, 1991)
AFSRE Members Nonmembers
Students $100.00 $120.00
Nonstudents $210.00 $250.00
Registration fees include one copy of
the Symposium program booklet;
admission into a Welcome Reception;


meal and social functions; daily conti-
nental breakfasts, refreshments, and
snacks; and admission to all Symposium
events. The Symposium registration fee
does not include any workshops, field trips,
or AFSRE membership.


DEADLINES
March 15, 1991:
Receipt of abstracts
Application for travel grants
Proposals for workshops/field trips
Proposals for panels/roundtables
September 1, 1991: Early registration
These deadlines will be strictly adhered to.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Contact AFSRE Symposium, Institute of
International Agriculture, 324 Agricul-
ture Hall, Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 U.S.A.;
Telephone: 517-353-5262; Fax: 517-
353-1888; Telex: 650-264-1762 MCI.


Call for
Nominations

Nominations are requested for the
following officers of the Association
for Farming Systems Research-
Extension:

President-elect
Secretary/Treasurer
Nominations/Elections Chair
Networking Chair
Africa Representative
Europe Representative
2 at-large representatives

Please send names, phone num-
bers, addresses, and, if possible,
biographical data to Cornelia Flora,
Department of Sociology, Virginia
Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137, by
April 15, 1991.


The Program in Agrarian
Studies at Yale
University

The Program in Agrarian Studies at Yale
is an experimental, interdisciplinary
effort to reshape how a new generation
of scholars understands rural life and
society. The goal of the Program is to
infuse categories of social science
research in danger of becoming purely
statistical and abstract with the fresh air
of popular knowledge and reasoning
about poverty, subsistence, cultivation,
justice, art, law, property, ritual life,
cooperation, resource use, and state
action.
The many hands from many disci-
plines that have shaped this Program
share three premises. The first is that
analysis of agrarian development must
begin with the lived experience, under-
standings, and values of its historical
subjects. The second premise is that the
study of the Third World (and what was
until recently called the Second World)
must never be segregated from the
historical study of the West, or the


humanities from the social sciences. In
this spirit, the Program aims to bring
together streams of scholarship that
rarely interact. Finally, it is felt that the
only way to loosen the nearly he-
gemonic grip of the separate disciplines
on how questions are framed and
answered is to concentrate on themes of
importance to several disciplines. By
building a sustained community of
interdisciplinary conversation and by
demonstrating what creative trespassing
can accomplish, Program developers
hope to set a standard of integrative
work that will act as a magnet to others
interested in similar endeavors.
The program begins in 1991-92, with
support from the Rockefeller and Ford
Foundations and Yale University.

Colloquium Series
The core of the Program's activities is a
weekly colloquium organized around an
annual theme. Invited specialists send
papers in advance that are the focus of
an organized discussion by the faculty
and graduate students associated with
the colloquium.
"State-Agrarian Relations," under-


stood broadly, is the theme for the first
two years. Topics include: nomads and
the state, taxation and conscription,
high culture-vs-"folk" culture, collectivi-
zation, water control and irrigation,
development schemes-historical and
contemporary, peasant resistance and
flight, state property law and local
rights, nationalism and agrarianism,
comparative forms of servitude, etc.

Program Fellows
The Program appoints Research Fellows
annually who are in residence for the
year, present a paper, and attend the
colloquia. Program developers hope to
have four to six Fellows whose diversity
reflects the breadth of the Program and a
Senior Fellow who has already made
important contributions to agrarian
studies. Fellows are selected competi-
tively.
For further information about the
Colloquium Series, Research Fellow-
ships, and graduate training, contact
James C. Scott, Director, Program in
Agrarian Studies, Yale University, Box
3075 Yale Station, New Haven, CT,
06520, U.S.A.


I








11th Annual Symposium
Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension

Abstract and Author Forms
ABSTRACT FORM
Instructions: Please complete this form and the author information form (or photocopies). This information will be used to
prepare the symposium program book. Abstracts must fit into a box that is 7.75 in. (19.6 cm) by 5.38 in. (13.7 cm); text outside
of the box will not be included in the program book. ABSTRACTS WILL NOT BE EDITED. Use separate copies of these forms for
each abstract submitted. Abstracts and forms must be received in the AFSRE Symposium Office before March 15, 1991.
Author(s):

Title:
Presenter:
Contact person:
Preferred method of presentation (check only one): F Panel O Poster
Preferred category for review (check only one):
I Sustainability F Field Methods
D Gender Analysis D Policy and Development Linkages
FI Institutionalization D Impact Assessment
One line summary of your paper:

AUTHOR INFORMATION FORM
Title of abstract:

Contact person:
Address:
Telephone: Fax:
country city local number country city local number
Telex: E-mail:
number answerback
First author:
Affiliation and address:

Second author:
Affiliation and address:

Third author:
Affiliation and address:

Fourth author:
Affiliation and address:

IFifth author:
Affiliation and address:

If giving an oral presentation, in which language will you present? (check one)
D English l Spanish D French
Has the presenter of this paper applied for a travel grant from the AFSRE symposium office?
Syes D no

Return this form to:
AFSRE Symposium, Institute ofInternational Agriculture, 324 Agriculture Hall
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 U.SA.
Telephone: 517-353-5262; Fax: 517-353-1888; Telex: 650-264-1762 MCI


9








Farming Systems Research-Extension Structural Adjustment


by
Doyle Baker
International Institute of Tropical
Research, Cameroon


INTRODUCTION
Farming systems work continues to face
financial difficulties. Although progress
continues in some national FSRE
programs, donor support is rapidly
drying up. FSRE hopefully can move out
of donor-funded projects, but for the
next five to ten years donor subsidies
will be needed.
What can be done to encourage
continued donor funding? Perhaps a
lesson can be drawn from recent
experiences in structural adjustment.
Structural adjustment programs basically
comprise a set of contingencies forcing
certain actions toward desired reforms in
exchange for support funds. Donors,
particularly USAID, might agree to
extend support for FSRE activities in
exchange for contingencies controlling
future directions and activities.


STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS

To initiate FSRE structural adjustment,
FSRE workers and donor agencies (and
international agricultural research
centers) need to agree on priorities for
FSRE. A starting point is to acknowledge
donor concerns and criticisms of FSRE
activities. For example, there is a
general feeling that FSRE has failed to
deliver technologies that have had a
demonstrated impact on farmer produc-
tivity. Excuses about lack of on-shelf
technologies and ineffective extension
services only reinforce donor concerns.
Impact is a bottom line that FSRE
workers must learn to accept. To an
extent, FSR is haunted by its failure to
incorporate E.
Another reality is that research itself
is out of favor with donors. There is
growing pressure to cut all research
expenditures, and FSRE is the baby that
is being thrown out with the bath water.
Donors have shifted their focus to policy


reform after observing that technologies
cannot overcome severe infrastructural
and institutional constraints. David
Norman, among others, called for a
policy dimension to FSRE more than ten
years ago, but the call has been largely
ignored.
Stemming from donor concerns,
structural adjustment priorities will
likely relate to increased impact, reduced
costs, and stronger contributions to
national development beyond provision
of technologies. They also could relate
to interests of FSRE workers-such as
farmer/client participation, gender
analysis, nontraditional field research
methods, and sustainability-if a case is
made that these are instrumental in
promoting impact and reducing costs.


CONTINGENCIES

Once agreement is reached on strategic
priorities, it should not be too difficult
to identify contingencies that force field
workers to move in desired directions.
After negotiation and agreement, the
contingencies can serve as release valves
for future funding; at the least, these can
serve as the basis for project evaluations
and renewal.
The following are a typical set of
contingencies that might serve as a
starting point for negotiation.
1) Cost per researcher. Historical
costs can be calculated for the project to
serve as a baseline. Sustainable costs by
the National Agricultural Research
Station (NARS) can be determined
through dialogue with local research
leaders and a convergent path of annual
percentage reductions can be specified.
This will address donor concerns with
recurrent costs.
2) Number of additional technolo-
gies with a specified minimal-retention
rate for one or more years. This contin-
gency addresses two donor concerns:
getting closure rather than continual
iteration in research and providing hard
numbers relating to adoption prospects.
Modest numbers of technologies could
be specified for each year, since the


cumulative number will likely be of
primary concern to donors. Retention
rates probably should distinguish
between varieties (generally having high
rates) and other technologies. Retention
can be measured most feasibly after a
single year through revisit surveys, but
should be coupled with periodic multi-
year retention surveys to get closer to
donor concerns with adoption and
impact.
3) Percentage of tests subject to
economic as well as technical analysis.
This percentage, targeted to increase
over time, would ensure focus on
economic returns. Separate targets
could be established for ex ante benefit/
cost analyses that relate to private
profitability at the farm level. These
targets ensure that both private and
societal goals are addressed by research.
4) Numbers of farmers involved in
program planning meetings, work plan
approval, trials implementation, and
assessment surveys. These targets, each
specified to increase over time, are
proxies for an appropriate research
focus and development of acceptable
technologies. FSRE workers should have
no trouble accepting targets relating to
increased farmer participation.
Although donors are no longer in a
bottom-up development mode, the
instrumental value of farmer participa-
tion is still widely accepted.
5) Percentage of research budget for
on-farm adaptive research versus applied
and basic research. This target could
increase or decrease, depending on
whether the main perceived constraint
is technological supply options or
closure on existing options. In most
countries, adaptive research is still
underfunded in overall research port-
folios, implying a need for increasing
target percentages.
6) Percentage of budget on extension
liaison versus research activities. Almost
without exception, this target would
increase overtime-perhaps dramati-
cally. Extension services are ineffective
in many countries, and FSRE workers
have to do more selling and less product








development. Imagine how long a
private sector operation would last that
used 95 percent of its resources on R&D
and five percent on production and
distribution!
7) Number of impact assessment and
policy reform studies. Impact assess-
ment studies are a high-risk activity for
FSRE workers because good research does
not necessarily translate into substantial
impact. Nevertheless, donors need to be
assured that they will be provided with
bottom-line information. Donors also
need assurance that FSRE can contribute
to donor and governmental goals aside
from technologies. The easiest way to
provide these assurances is to make a
commitment to deliver certain studies
by specific dates.


8) Percentage of test resources going
to development of sustainable technolo-
gies (that is, having low requirements
for external inputs). Sustainable
agriculture is an area of convergent
interest between FSRE workers and
donors. A commitment of budgetary
funds for development of sustainable
technologies should be easy to negoti-
ate. This target will enable donor repre-
sentatives to cite contributions to donor
priorities besides farmer productivity.


RECOMMENDATIONS
FSRE structural adjustment can be
avoided, to maintain freedom and
flexibility. But the prospect of future
funding cuts suggests that a "head-in-


the-sand" approach is self-defeating.
Alternatively, agreements can be worked
out with NARS directors and project
officers. These will be of modest benefit,
because such people are generally
sympathetic to FSRE activities.
The most difficult but most effective
approach will be to negotiate contin-
gency targets with contract officers and
nonproject, policy-reform proponents.
Having established targets, the negotia-
tors must extract a high-level commit-
ment (mission director or foundation
representative) that project evaluations
and refunding decisions will be based on
agreed-upon contingencies, rather than
on an evolving set of fad issues.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


Property, Poverty, and People:
Changing Rights in Property
and Problems of Pastoral
Development

Edited by P.T.W. Baxter with Richard
Hogg. University of Manchester, Faculty
of Economic and Social Studies,
Manchester, United Kingdom.
The papers in this volume derive
from a workshop held in Manchester
during April 1987. Paul Baxter and
Richard Hogg convened the workshop
because they were concerned that many
development interventions were taking
place in ignorance, both of the ways in
which property is entangled with social
relationships and of the changes that
have recently taken place in property
rights and in social relationships in
African pastoral societies.
All the contributors to the volume
have based their findings on recent field
data. This collection of original papers
will be useful to development workers
and of interest to all students of pastoral
societies.
To order, please send remittance by
check or draft on a UK bank or by
money order, payable to the University
of Manchester. The volume costs UK
11.00; by surface mail to all countries
the total cost is UK 15.00; by air mail to


all countries, UK 19.00.
Send full payment to: Paul Baxter,
Department of Social Anthropology,
Roscoe Building, University of Man-
chester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK;
Telephone: 061-275 3998.


Structural Adjustment and
African Women Farmers

Edited by Christina Gladwin
In the 1980s, development experts
and donor agencies agreed on the
importance of macroeconomic policies
to the development of sub-Saharan
Africa. Policy reforms aimed at "getting
prices right" were made preconditions
for structural adjustment loans and
grants in Africa. "SAP" reforms include
devaluation of an overvalued currency,
increases in artificially low food prices
and interest rates, an emphasis on
tradeables and trade liberalization,
privatization of state industries (parasta-
tals), wage and hiring freezes, and the
removal of food and fertilizer subsidies.
Recently, debates about the pros and
cons of these programs have surfaced,
with many social scientists claiming that
adjustment policies are ignoring the
reality of life at the micro-level (village
or household), where up to 80 percent


of the farming is done by female
farmers. For these producers, a decrease
in government spending on social
services may mean no available medi-
cines and exhorbitant school fees; wage
freezes may mean no remittances from
sons or husbands; the removal of input
subsidies may mean that expensive
fertilizers are now priced beyond their
reach; an emphasis on exportables may
mean a decrease in the resources
available to their food crops.
The 1990 Carter Lecture Conference
of the Center for African Studies at the
University of Florida focused on these
issues and produced this volume.
Several noted anthropologists (G. Clark,
J. Ensminger, M. Goheen, J. Guyer, P.
Peters, B. Schoepf, A. Spring, L. Trager),
as well as agricultural economists (U.
Lele, B. Johnston, J. Due, S. O'Brien),
political scientists (R. Meena, C. Osin-
ulu, G. Hyden), sociologists (P. Elabor-
Idemudia), and home economists
(Olayiwole, S. Smith, B. Taylor) gave
papers on the village-level and house-
hold-level impacts of SAP reforms. The
book, which highlights the social
dimensions of adjustment, will be
available in February, 1991, from the
University of Florida Press for US$34.95.
Call Christina Gladwin (904-392-5071;
FAX: 904-392-8634) for an order form.









CONFERENCES


Community
Development
Conference


DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE
COMMUNITIES: LOCAL
EMPOWERMENT IN A GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENT
The Community Development Society
will hold its 23rd Annual International
Conference from July 21-25, 1991, in
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The
purpose of the Community Develop-
ment Society is to encourage and
facilitate the exchange of ideas, informa-
tion, and expertise among individuals
and organizations engaged in or con-
cerned with community development.
The Conference brings together commu-
nity developers from around the world-
educators, public and private sector
professionals, international develop-
ment workers, researchers and commu-
nity leaders. Through workshops,
papers, discussions, presentations, films,
and exhibits they will share their
thinking, experiences, and skills in
community development.
Conference sessions fall into four
categories:
a) Workshops: These interactive
meetings will focus on critical issues of
community-development theory or
practice. Formats may include panels,
presentations and discussions, as well as
audience response or question and
answer sessions.
b) Papers: Substantially completed
work on concepts, policies, and/or
applications with results and conclu-
sions may be presented. No more than
three papers will be presented in a
session to allow time for critique,
discussion, and summary.
c) BRIDGE Sessions: This stands for
Bringing Relevant Innovative Dynamic
Group Explorations to community
development. Exploratory sessions will
feature work-in-progress, think pieces, or
controversial issues presented in creative


formats. Sessions might employ simula-
tions, debate, trials, video, posters, or
other participatory models.
d) Exhibits: Visual displays may
include, but are not limited to, informa-
tion on organizations, projects, pro-
grams, case studies, and publications.
Exhibitors will be asked to staff displays
periodically during the conference.
Several related activities have been
planned by the Local Arrangements
Committee to supplement the confer-
ence offerings. A preconference sympo-
sium on Saturday, July 20, will highlight
Canadian experiences in community
development. The University of Sas-
katchewan will offer a graduate course in
"Community Development for Sustain-
able Communities" (July 15-August
21), and the University of Regina will
offer two undergraduate classes in the
"Politics of Change" (July 2-26) and
"Justice and the Community" (July 26-
August 3). These courses are open to
qualified students from throughout
North America. For community devel-
opment workers, several professional
development sessions will be held on
July 21. The University of Arkansas is
offering Continuing Education Units for
these sessions.

Information
To be placed on the conference mailing
list, or to find out more about attending
the conference, contact: 1991 CDS
Conference, Room 132, Kirk Hall,
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, Canada S7H 3B9. Tele-
phone: (306) 966-5591; FAX: (306) 966-
5567.


Farming Systems
Conference


THE BRITISH COUNCIL:
INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY SEMINAR
This seminar, Recent Advances in
Farming Systems Research: An Interna-
tional Seminar, will be held April 2-12,
1991, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom
(UK).


The seminar will review recent and
prospective developments in Farming
Systems Research (FSR) and will include
lectures by leading researchers and
practitioners working in the United
Kingdom or with experience in tropical
and subtropical countries. To promote
discussion, a seminar-style format will
be used for lectures and open forums
will provide opportunities for partici-
pants to introduce topics of particular
interest.
In particular, the seminar will
consider the following topics: FSR;
historical perspective, critical review,
applications; issues in FSR; economics,
credit, infrastructure, sustainability,
social anthropology, human nutrition;
research methodology; economics of
research, agricultural experimentation,
social science research, translation of
research into practice; extension meth-
odologies, mechanisms to enhance
adoption; computer-aided technology
transfer; socioeconomic models, bio-
logical models, whole-farm integrated
models, and agricultural and geographic
systems.
This seminar, which is directed by
Barry Dent, Professor of Rural Resource
Management, Edinburgh School of
Agriculture, is designed for civil servants
involved in strategic policy-making for
development at a national level, for
senior academics and administrators
from universities and polytechnics who
are involved in agriculture, and for
senior personnel in national agricultural
research organizations.
Space is available for 35 participants.
Working sessions of the seminar will
take place at the Edinburgh School of
Agriculture. Participants will be accom-
modated at a hotel in single rooms with
private bathroom or shower.
Course fee: UK 820; accommodation
charge: UK 440; total fee: UK 1260.
Application forms may be obtained
from the nearest British Council Office
or from Courses Department, the British
Council, 65 Davies St., London, W1Y
2AA, UK; Telephone: 01-389 7817/7819/
7820.









CONFERENCES


Community
Development
Conference


DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE
COMMUNITIES: LOCAL
EMPOWERMENT IN A GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENT
The Community Development Society
will hold its 23rd Annual International
Conference from July 21-25, 1991, in
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The
purpose of the Community Develop-
ment Society is to encourage and
facilitate the exchange of ideas, informa-
tion, and expertise among individuals
and organizations engaged in or con-
cerned with community development.
The Conference brings together commu-
nity developers from around the world-
educators, public and private sector
professionals, international develop-
ment workers, researchers and commu-
nity leaders. Through workshops,
papers, discussions, presentations, films,
and exhibits they will share their
thinking, experiences, and skills in
community development.
Conference sessions fall into four
categories:
a) Workshops: These interactive
meetings will focus on critical issues of
community-development theory or
practice. Formats may include panels,
presentations and discussions, as well as
audience response or question and
answer sessions.
b) Papers: Substantially completed
work on concepts, policies, and/or
applications with results and conclu-
sions may be presented. No more than
three papers will be presented in a
session to allow time for critique,
discussion, and summary.
c) BRIDGE Sessions: This stands for
Bringing Relevant Innovative Dynamic
Group Explorations to community
development. Exploratory sessions will
feature work-in-progress, think pieces, or
controversial issues presented in creative


formats. Sessions might employ simula-
tions, debate, trials, video, posters, or
other participatory models.
d) Exhibits: Visual displays may
include, but are not limited to, informa-
tion on organizations, projects, pro-
grams, case studies, and publications.
Exhibitors will be asked to staff displays
periodically during the conference.
Several related activities have been
planned by the Local Arrangements
Committee to supplement the confer-
ence offerings. A preconference sympo-
sium on Saturday, July 20, will highlight
Canadian experiences in community
development. The University of Sas-
katchewan will offer a graduate course in
"Community Development for Sustain-
able Communities" (July 15-August
21), and the University of Regina will
offer two undergraduate classes in the
"Politics of Change" (July 2-26) and
"Justice and the Community" (July 26-
August 3). These courses are open to
qualified students from throughout
North America. For community devel-
opment workers, several professional
development sessions will be held on
July 21. The University of Arkansas is
offering Continuing Education Units for
these sessions.

Information
To be placed on the conference mailing
list, or to find out more about attending
the conference, contact: 1991 CDS
Conference, Room 132, Kirk Hall,
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, Canada S7H 3B9. Tele-
phone: (306) 966-5591; FAX: (306) 966-
5567.


Farming Systems
Conference


THE BRITISH COUNCIL:
INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY SEMINAR
This seminar, Recent Advances in
Farming Systems Research: An Interna-
tional Seminar, will be held April 2-12,
1991, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom
(UK).


The seminar will review recent and
prospective developments in Farming
Systems Research (FSR) and will include
lectures by leading researchers and
practitioners working in the United
Kingdom or with experience in tropical
and subtropical countries. To promote
discussion, a seminar-style format will
be used for lectures and open forums
will provide opportunities for partici-
pants to introduce topics of particular
interest.
In particular, the seminar will
consider the following topics: FSR;
historical perspective, critical review,
applications; issues in FSR; economics,
credit, infrastructure, sustainability,
social anthropology, human nutrition;
research methodology; economics of
research, agricultural experimentation,
social science research, translation of
research into practice; extension meth-
odologies, mechanisms to enhance
adoption; computer-aided technology
transfer; socioeconomic models, bio-
logical models, whole-farm integrated
models, and agricultural and geographic
systems.
This seminar, which is directed by
Barry Dent, Professor of Rural Resource
Management, Edinburgh School of
Agriculture, is designed for civil servants
involved in strategic policy-making for
development at a national level, for
senior academics and administrators
from universities and polytechnics who
are involved in agriculture, and for
senior personnel in national agricultural
research organizations.
Space is available for 35 participants.
Working sessions of the seminar will
take place at the Edinburgh School of
Agriculture. Participants will be accom-
modated at a hotel in single rooms with
private bathroom or shower.
Course fee: UK 820; accommodation
charge: UK 440; total fee: UK 1260.
Application forms may be obtained
from the nearest British Council Office
or from Courses Department, the British
Council, 65 Davies St., London, W1Y
2AA, UK; Telephone: 01-389 7817/7819/
7820.








Health Care Certificate Program
at Boston University



Fifth Annual Certificate Program:
Financing Health Care in Developing
Countries

This twelve-week course, which will be
offered September 12-December 9,
1991, by Boston University's School of
Public Health, addresses the practical
application of economic and financial
management principles in the public
and private health sectors. The course is
taught in a seminar/workshop format
and provides up to 16 credits (represent-
ing 33% of the total required) towards
the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.)
degree at Boston University. Program
topics include:
* Macro-economic factors and their
effect on the health sector
Structural analysis of health sector
revenues and expenditures
Comparative financing strategies in
selected developing and developed
countries
Methods for generating nongovern-
mental revenue
Health insurance alternatives,
including health maintenance
organizations (HMOs)
Cost-effectiveness analysis of health
programs
Projecting capital, operating, and
recurrent costs
Financial management techniques for
health facilities and health programs
* Practical applications of personal
computers including the use of
spreadsheets
* Strategies for optimizing public and
private sector resource allocation

Eligibility
All health personnel who have or
anticipate having planning, manage-
ment, policy making, financial manage-
ment, or supervisory responsibilities in
the public or private sector of develop-
ing countries are welcome to apply.
Applicants must have completed the
equivalent of a bachelor's degree or
other comparable technical or profes-
sional training after high school.
Geographic diversity among participants


is desired, and total course enrollment is
limited.

Instruction
The faculty, drawn from universities,
international agencies, and international
consulting firms, have relevant and
recent overseas experience. Problem
solving, group discussion, case studies,
and lectures are carefully interwoven to
assure an effective learning process. In
addition to the faculty, two resident
tutors attend classes and work with
participants who may need additional
clarification on certain segments of the
course. This is done outside of class on
an individual and small group basis.
In class, participants frequently will
work in small groups. One major
financial and program planning exercise
will culminate in the submission of a
group paper. In addition, there will be
computer exercises to assist participants
in learning financial analysis programs.
Participants are requested to bring
from their countries current program
and budget materials such as annual
reports, development plans, country
health data, and statistical summaries.
To the greatest extent possible, these
will be used in class to illustrate the
range of financial issues and alternatives
facing developing countries.

Information
Please address all inquiries and/or
applications to:
Boston University School of Public
Health, Office of Special Projects, 80 E.
Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118
U.S.A. Telephone: (617) 638-5234; FAX:
(617) 638-4476; Telex: 200191 BU UR.


Journal for Farming Systems
Research-Extension


In its second year of publication, the
Journal for Farming Systems Research-
Extension is improving the system by
which the editors select papers for
publication. The review process will be
enhanced by selecting outside reviewers
from a pool of experts representing
various disciplines. Listed below are the
names and addresses of AFSRE members
who have agreed to serve as reviewers:

Hammid Agroola
The Ohio State University
Department of Animal Science
2029 Fyffe Rd.
Columbus, OH 43210 U.S.A.

Susan Almy
c/o Peter E. Hildebrand
2126 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32606 U.S.A.

Chris Andrew
Food and Resource Economics
University of Florida
1157 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32606 U.S.A.

K. L. Arora
Professor and Head
Department of Veterinary Science
Fort Valley State College
P.O. Box 4370
Fort Valley, GA 31030 U.S.A.

Jay Artis
Department of Sociology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 40024-1111 U.S.A.


James Beebe
International Research and
Development
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331-1641 U.S.A.

Julio Berdegue
Casilla 6122
Correo 22
Santiago, Chile
FAX: (56-2) 223-5249








Health Care Certificate Program
at Boston University



Fifth Annual Certificate Program:
Financing Health Care in Developing
Countries

This twelve-week course, which will be
offered September 12-December 9,
1991, by Boston University's School of
Public Health, addresses the practical
application of economic and financial
management principles in the public
and private health sectors. The course is
taught in a seminar/workshop format
and provides up to 16 credits (represent-
ing 33% of the total required) towards
the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.)
degree at Boston University. Program
topics include:
* Macro-economic factors and their
effect on the health sector
Structural analysis of health sector
revenues and expenditures
Comparative financing strategies in
selected developing and developed
countries
Methods for generating nongovern-
mental revenue
Health insurance alternatives,
including health maintenance
organizations (HMOs)
Cost-effectiveness analysis of health
programs
Projecting capital, operating, and
recurrent costs
Financial management techniques for
health facilities and health programs
* Practical applications of personal
computers including the use of
spreadsheets
* Strategies for optimizing public and
private sector resource allocation

Eligibility
All health personnel who have or
anticipate having planning, manage-
ment, policy making, financial manage-
ment, or supervisory responsibilities in
the public or private sector of develop-
ing countries are welcome to apply.
Applicants must have completed the
equivalent of a bachelor's degree or
other comparable technical or profes-
sional training after high school.
Geographic diversity among participants


is desired, and total course enrollment is
limited.

Instruction
The faculty, drawn from universities,
international agencies, and international
consulting firms, have relevant and
recent overseas experience. Problem
solving, group discussion, case studies,
and lectures are carefully interwoven to
assure an effective learning process. In
addition to the faculty, two resident
tutors attend classes and work with
participants who may need additional
clarification on certain segments of the
course. This is done outside of class on
an individual and small group basis.
In class, participants frequently will
work in small groups. One major
financial and program planning exercise
will culminate in the submission of a
group paper. In addition, there will be
computer exercises to assist participants
in learning financial analysis programs.
Participants are requested to bring
from their countries current program
and budget materials such as annual
reports, development plans, country
health data, and statistical summaries.
To the greatest extent possible, these
will be used in class to illustrate the
range of financial issues and alternatives
facing developing countries.

Information
Please address all inquiries and/or
applications to:
Boston University School of Public
Health, Office of Special Projects, 80 E.
Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118
U.S.A. Telephone: (617) 638-5234; FAX:
(617) 638-4476; Telex: 200191 BU UR.


Journal for Farming Systems
Research-Extension


In its second year of publication, the
Journal for Farming Systems Research-
Extension is improving the system by
which the editors select papers for
publication. The review process will be
enhanced by selecting outside reviewers
from a pool of experts representing
various disciplines. Listed below are the
names and addresses of AFSRE members
who have agreed to serve as reviewers:

Hammid Agroola
The Ohio State University
Department of Animal Science
2029 Fyffe Rd.
Columbus, OH 43210 U.S.A.

Susan Almy
c/o Peter E. Hildebrand
2126 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32606 U.S.A.

Chris Andrew
Food and Resource Economics
University of Florida
1157 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32606 U.S.A.

K. L. Arora
Professor and Head
Department of Veterinary Science
Fort Valley State College
P.O. Box 4370
Fort Valley, GA 31030 U.S.A.

Jay Artis
Department of Sociology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 40024-1111 U.S.A.


James Beebe
International Research and
Development
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331-1641 U.S.A.

Julio Berdegue
Casilla 6122
Correo 22
Santiago, Chile
FAX: (56-2) 223-5249








Jit Pradhan Bhukfan
32/121 Dilli Bazar
Kathmandu, Nepal

Mike Collinson
CGIAR, Rm N5051
World Bank, 1818 H St N.W.
Washington, DC 24003 U.S.A.

William D. Dar
Da-Bar
3rd Floor ATI Bldg
Elliptical Rd, Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

German Escobar
A. A. 53016
Bogota, D.E.
Colombia

Hilary Feldstein
RFD 1 Box 821
Hancock, NH 03449 U.S.A.
FAX: (603) 525-4140

Dan Gait
15 Juniper Ridge
Shelburne, VT 05482 U.S.A.

Elon Gilbert
P.M.B. 371 Serrekunoa
The Gambia

Doyle W. Grenoble
Penn State University
202 Tyson Bldg.
University Park, PA 16802 U.S.A.

William B. Kurtz
The School of Natural Resources
1-30 Agriculture Bldg.
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211 U.S.A.

Deborah Merrill-Sands
ISNAR P.O. Box 93375
2509 AJ The Hague
Netherlands

Bernard Mtonga
925 Cherry Lane
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48823 U.S.A.


David W. Norman
Department of Agricultural Economics
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506 U.S.A.

Dr. K. S. Randhawa
Senior Olericulturist and Head
Department of Vegetable Crops
Punjab Agricultural University
Ludhiana-141 004
Punjab, India

Andre Siborana
Ministry of Agriculture
Livestock and Forestry
B.P. 621 Kigali
Rwanda

Jacques Sorel
International Agriculture
University of Arkansas
300 Hotz Hall
Fayetteville, AR 62601 U.S.A.

Donald E. Voth
Department of Agriculture Economics
and Rural Sociology
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701 U.S.A.

Robert A. Woog/N. Sriskandarajah
Faculty of Agriculture and
Rural Development
University of Western
Sydney-Hawkesbury
Richmond, NSW 2753
Australia
FAX: 61-45-885538


COUNTRY/REGIONAL
REPRESENTATIVES


To facilitate the review process, a
number of AFSRE members have
volunteered to be regional or country
representatives to assist authors in the
production of manuscripts. In countries
or regions where English is not the
native language, these representatives
can help to correct English grammar.
Representatives will follow the guide-
lines for manuscripts found in AFSRE
Newsletter (1990, vol. 1, no. 1). In the
listings below, an asterix (*) signifies


that this individual also serves as a
reviewer, as described above. The region
or country covered by the representative
is listed in parentheses after the address.
Country/regional representatives are:

Doyle Baker*
USAID/Yaounde 2520
Washington, D.C. 20080-6950 U.S.A.
FAX: 237 22-30-22
(Cameroon)

Manfred T. Besonez
T.L.U., I.R.A. Ekona
PMB 25-Buen
Cameroon
(Cameroon)

Arsenio D. Calub
Associate Professor
College of Agriculture
Institute of Animal Science, U.P.
Los Banos, Laguna,
Philippines 4031
(Philippines)

Charles Chileya*
IFAD Smallholder Services
Rehabilitation Project
P.O. Box 34890, LUSAKA
Zambia
Fax: 221111; Telex: ZA 42310
(Zambia)

Anil Gupta*
Chairman (Research and Publications)
Centre for Management in Agriculture
Indian Institute of Management
Vatsapur, Shmedabad, India 380056
(India)

Clive Lightfoot*
International Center for Living Aquatic
Resources Management
MC P.O. Box 1501, Makati
Metro Manila 1299, Philippines
(Philippines)

Domingo Martinez*
Apartedo 11-0697
Lima 11, Peru
Fax: 51-14 36-7460
(Peru)








Dermot McHugh
IRA-Bambui
P.O. Box 80
Bamenda, Cameroon
(Cameroon)

Edward Ngong-Nassah
I.R.A. Bembui Station
P.O. Box 80
Bamenda N.W.P., Cameroon
(Cameroon)

Carlisle A. Pemberton*
University of the West Indies
St. Augustine Trinidad and Tobago
(West Indies)


Susan V. Poats*
CIAT/FUNDAGRO
Casilla 219 Suc. 16 C.E.Q.
Quito, Ecuador
(Ecuador)

Consuelo Quiroz*
Universidad de Los Andes
Nucleo "Rafael Rangel"
Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias
Apdo. Post. No. 22
Trujillo 3102, Venezuela
(Venezuela)


Peter G. Rood
Pakhribas Agricultural Centre
c/o British Embassy
P.O. Box 106
Kathmandu, Nepal
(Nepal)

Wajed A Shah
Farming Systems Program
Regional Station, BARI
Ishurdi 6620, Bangladesh
(Bangladesh)


Notes from the Editor

Circulation Delays: It has come to my
attention that a number of our members
have not received the second issue of
the Journal in a timely manner. This
delay is due to the following factors.
First, the mailing coincided with the
holiday season, delaying distribution.
Second, to avoid high postage costs for
overseas mailing, we opted to use book
rate rather than first class. While this
measure saved the treasury several
thousand dollars, it also delayed receipt
of the publications. We apologize for
any inconvenience this may have
caused.


Membership Renewals: We also want
to make it clear that the renewal notice
that was distributed in the last Newsletter
was sent to everyone, rather than
targeting those who have not renewed
their membership in the AFSRE. If you
have already submitted your dues, please
disregard this notice. Yearly dues are (a)
US$40 for individuals from the United
States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan,
Australia, and New Zealand, including
persons from these countries who are
residing in other countries or persons
from other countries who are earning
international, hard currency salaries; (b)
US$20 for students studying in the
above countries; and (c) US$20 for all


other persons. Institutional subscrip-
tions are US$60. Individuals in develop-
ing countries who wish to be associate
members should send payment of
US$10.
Support: We encourage all members
to help solicit new memberships in their
respective countries and organizations,
as well as generating institutional
support from local libraries. Although
we are continuing to solicit support
from external funding sources for
production of AFSRE publications, your
support is essential to the viability of the
Association, and the publications that
serve to maintain its network. Building
a strong base in the first couple of years
is critical to the sustainability of our
organization.


The AFSRE Newsletter is supported by a grant (58-319R-9-003) from the Office of International Cooperation (an agency of the
United States Department of Agriculture); the Office of International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida; contributions from AFSRE members; Title XII funding; and the Office of Arid Lands Studies, The
University of Arizona. The editors welcome articles, news items, and publication announcements for consideration in future
issues.

Address comments, contributions, and requests for mailing to:


Timothy R. Frankenberger, Editor
Association of Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter
Office of Arid Lands Studies
The University of Arizona
845 N. Park Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85719
FAX: (602) 621-3816


Staff:
Associate Editors:
Daniel M. Goldstein and
Nancy Schmidt
Design: Arid Lands Design, 1991









SE Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter
Office of Arid Lands Studies, The University of Arizona
845 North Park Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85719 USA
Telephone: 602-621-1955, FAX: 602-621-3816










Membership Information

Please send membership fees (US $40 for persons from the United States, Canada, western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New
Zealand; US $20 for students studying in these countries; US $20 for all other persons; and US $10 for associate members from
developing countries) along with the completed form to:

Dr. Timothy J. Finan, Secretary/Treasurer
AFSRE
Department of Anthropology
The University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721 USA
ASSOCIATION FOR FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH-EXTENSION MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY

1. Family name
2. First name and middle name or initial


3. Female
4. Title or position
5. Department
6. Institution
7. Postal mailing address


Male Age Citizenship


8. Telephone Fax Telex
9. Primary languages)
10. Other spoken languages (indicate fluent, f, proficient, p, basic, b)
11. Other languages read
12. Highest educational degree Discipline
13. Current professional interests


14. Experience: Name of project, capacity, country




15. Would you like to volunteer to serve as an AFSRE country representative to collect association dues in local currency and
forward them, in US dollars, to the treasurer if you can legally do this in your country of residence?


I




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