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Group Title: Bulletin ;, 179
Title: Introduction to field experiments with fertilizers
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071914/00001
 Material Information
Title: Introduction to field experiments with fertilizers
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: p. 288-318 : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knisely, A. L ( Abraham Lincoln ), 1865-
Publisher: Cornell University
Place of Publication: Ithaca N.Y
Publication Date: 1900
 Subjects
Subject: Field experiments -- New York (State)   ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- New York (State)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.L. Knisely.
Funding: Bulletin (Cornell University. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071914
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23945199

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Map showing localities where experiments with fertilizers have been conducted
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
    Content
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
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        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
Full Text






Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station,
ITHACA, N. Y.
CHEMICAL DIVISION.


INTRODUCTION TO


Field Experiments with


Fertilizers.


-a-
,+~*.~~ si6


59.-Results of thorough and hasty preparation-Buckwheat.
By A. L. KNISELY.


PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY.
ITHACA, N. Y.
1900.


Bulletin 179.


February, 1900oo.











ORGANIZATION.


BOARD OF CONTROL:

THE TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY.


THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE AND STATION COUNCIL.
JACOB GOULD SCHURMAN, President of the University.
FRANKLIN C. CORNELL, Trustee of the University.
ISAAC P. ROBERTS, Director of the College and Experiment Station.
EMMONS L. WILLIAMS, Treasurer of the University.
LIBERTY H. BAILEY, Professor of Horticulture.
JOHN H. COMSTOCK, Professor of Entomology.



STATION AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION STAFF.

I. P. ROBERTS, Agriculture.
G. C. CALDWELL, Chemistry.
JAMES LAW, Veterinary Science.
J. H. COMSTOCK, Entomology.
L. H. BAILEY, Horticulture.
H. H. WING, Dairy Husbandry.
G. F. ATKINSON, Botany.
MRS. A. B. COMSTOCK, Nature-Study.
M. V. SLINGERLAND, Entomology.
G. W. CAVANAUGH, Chemistry.
L. A. CLINTON, Agriculture.
*B. M. DUGGAR, Botany.
W. A. MURRILL, Botany.
J. W. SPENCER, Extension Work.
J. L. STONE, Sugar Beet Investigation.
MRS. MARY ROGERS MILLER, Nature-Study.
A. L. KNISELY, Chemistry.
S. W. FLETCHER, Extension Work.
C. E. HUNN, Gardening.
W. W. HALL, Dairy Husbandry.
A. R. WARD, Dairy Bacteriology.
L. ANDERSON, Dairy Husbandry.
W. E. GRIFFITH, Dairy Husbandry.
ALICE G. McCLOSKEY, Nature-Study.



OFFICERS OF THE STATION
I. P. ROBERTS, Director.
E. L. WILLIAMS, Treasurer.
EDWARD A. BUTLER, Clerk.
Office of the Director, 20 Morrill Hall.
The regular bulletins of the Station are sent free to all who request them.
Absent on leave.















CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y., February i, 19oo.
HONORABLE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE, ALBANY.
Sir. It cannot be denied that the use of commercial fertilizers
is a source of profit for the farmer, when they are used in the
right way. But the common way of using them is not the right
way. The application of a complete fertilizer, without knowing
whether the crop to be fertilized needs the three plant-foods, or
whether the yield may not be just as large, if but one, or perhaps
two of them are supplied, usually results in waste.
The purpose of the field experiments with commercial fertil-
izers, an account of which is given in part in this bulletin was
to interest farmers in testing their soils in order that they might
learn what plant-food is deficient for the crops that they wish to
raise, and also whether the commercial fertilizers used are more
or less profitable than good stable manure.
The results of these experiments have taught many farmers
that they have not been using these fertilizers in the right way;
this work has also taught them how to experiment. To Dr.
G. C. Caldwell, Chemist of the Experiment Station, much credit
is due for having inaugurated this plan of conducting field
experiments. The work has been made especially effective by
the zeal with which the author of this bulletin has superintended
the experiments during the three years of their continuance. In
his visits to a large number of the farms where experiments were
being carried on he helped and encouraged the experimenters by
his valuable criticisms and suggestions.
It is hoped that this work can be continued during the present
year. I. P. ROBERTS, Director.


























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with fertilizers have been conducted.


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INTRODUCTION TO


FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.

A difficult problem.-Some of the questions most frequently
asked by farmers are these: What fertilizer shall I use on my
land? How can I tell just what combination or mixture of
plant-foods is best adapted to my soils? What is the best all
round fertilizer? Such questions are among the hardest that
can be asked in the whole field of agriculture. They cannot be
answered offhand in a day or a week; it may take months and
in some cases years to answer them. Many a farmer spends his
whole life on the farm without even trying to solve these prob-
lems, or without getting correct answers if he does try to solve
them.
What regulates crop production.-A farmer grows an acre of
corn and harvests a modest crop of o1 bushels. What is the
cause of this very poor yield ? Something must be wrong and
it is for him to try and find out wherein the trouble lies. The
poor yield may be due to one or more of several conditions. It
may be a lack of moisture, or too much moisture ; the soil may
be too acid ; it may be deficient in either nitrogen, phosphoric
acid or potash; it may be too cold and heavy ; it may not con-
tain enough nitrifying organisms to maintain a good supply of
nitrates or it may contain too many denitrifying organisms
which destroy nitrates ; it may be too compact and therefore
may not leave enough air spaces between the soil particles;
capillary action may be imperfect; there may be a lack of
humus ; the texture may not be suitable to the crop grown;
and so on.
The law of the minimum.-This is most important with refer-
ence to plant growth. It means that the one essential condition
which is at a minimum, or is at the lowest grade, during the
growth of a crop, is the one condition that regulates the amount
of crop grown.









288 BULLETIN 179.

For example, a field may have all the essential conditions
favorable for producing a large crop, except one. Let that one
be a lack of available phosphoric acid, then the amount of crop
grown is regulated by the amount of available phosphoric acid
present. If this quantity is increased, the crop will be increased.
To apply nitrogen or potash to this soil would be unwise for it
may be taken for granted that these plant-foods are already
present in sufficient quantity for at least a fair crop. Again,
suppose that the essential condition which is at a minimum is a
lack of humus, or it may be an unsuitable texture. Then the
total crop produced will be governed by the amount of humus
or by the texture. If the amount of humus in the soil is
increased or if the texture is improved then this soil becomes
more productive. An application of commercial fertilizers to
such a field would have little or no beneficial effect.
It sometimes happens that some essential condition is at such
a low grade, and is of such a character that the farmer can
recognize it at a glance; for instance, a soil may be a very stiff,
hard, compact clay, similar to a brickyard. Such a soil must be
loosened and made porous and friable or mellow. Its texture
must be improved before one could expect to obtain profitable
results from the use of fertilizers. But if the farmer wants to
make the most that he can out of his farm he will not stop here ;
for just as soon as one low-grade condition has been improved
and larger crops are thereby obtained, some other condition may
be at a minimum and consequently regulates the amount of crop
produced. This becomes the condition to be sought out and
improved in order that the productivity of the soil may be raised
to a higher standard.
These essential conditions may be likened to a lot of jack-
screws and the productivity or fertility of the field to a large
house. If we wish to raise this house, we distribute the jack-
screws in various places under it. If the house is to be raised
without damage, every one of these jackscrews must be carefully
watched and that one which is the lowest must be screwed up;
presently some other screw becomes the lowest and that one in
turn must be attended to and so on with every one of the sup-
ports.









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


If all the screws are carefully watched the house rises prop-
erly; if only a part are watched and no attention is paid to the
others, before long something is liable to be strained and the
house may be badly injured. So it is with the fertility of a soil:
each and every one of the many conditions essential for raising
a large crop must be carefully watched : those which are con-
stantly falling short in consequence of the improvement of the
others must themselves be likewise improved in order to keep
the fertility up to its maximum. If only a few of the essential
conditions are looked after, the soil will in time become less pro-
ductive and the farmer becomes discouraged and sums up the
whole difficulty by saying, Farming don't pay." On the other
hand, a successful, wide-awake farmer is constantly trying to
find out, and does detect and improve those conditions of his
soil which are at the lowest ebb, and to him farming does pay.
Take for another illustration an actual case in which an
important condition, namely capillary action, was at a low grade.
Two adjacent fields were prepared for buckwheat; the same seed
was used on each field, it was sown at the same rate per acre and
with the same drill. Similar fertilizers were applied to each
field; the amount applied and the manner of applying them
were the same. For the results see the frontispiece.
The only known difference between the two fields was this;
one was thoroughly prepared, the other was prepared in a hurry.
The thoroughly prepared field was plowed in advance of plant-
ing-time and the soil had settled somewhat, so that its capillary
action had time to re-adjust itself and was able to pump up mois-
ture from below to keep the seed-bed damp ; consequently the
buckwheat sprouted promptly and grew luxuriantly thereafter.
The hastily prepared field was plowed just before the buck-
wheat was sown. The capillary action was broken up and did
not have time to re-adjust itself, consequently the moisture from
below could not rise to the seed-bed. The surface soil soon
became dry and the buckwheat grew very slowly owing to the
lack of moisture in the uppermost few inches of the arable
layer.
This season the author's attention was called to another inter-
esting case. A farmer planning to sow buckwheat started an









BULLETIN 179.


early preparation of the soil. The headlands were plowed and
also a narrow strip across the field, before night came on. Plow-
ing could not be finished, however, until planting-time. Then
the work was done hastily on the remainder of the field and the
seed was sown. The results were that the headlands and the
narrow strip across the field that were plowed early, and had
re-adjusted the capillary action before planting-time, yielded a
large crop that even lodged considerably. The rest of the field
was scarcely worth harvesting.
The object of the experimental work.-This work was under-
taken for the purpose of helping the farmers of the State to
detect and improve some of the low-grade conditions of their
fields. Experimental work with fertilizers, which is the subject
of this bulletin, was taken up. It was the plan of the Station
to send to such farmers as would agree to do the work, a suffi-
cient quantity of the three plant-foods, nitrogen, phosphoric
acid and potash, separately and in combination, with directions
for a series of experiments for the purpose of determining
whether any separate plant-food or any combination of them
would increase the crops to which they were applied. The
results of such experiments, carried out according to directions,
should assist the farmer to decide what plant-foods his soils
need, if any, for the production of satisfactory crops.
If the series of experiments proves to be a failure, that is, if it
gives no marked or definite results, it is still valuable. It at
least shows the farmer that his soil is not in a condition to
respond to the use of fertilizers, which means either that it is
already well stocked with available food or that some one or
more of the essential conditions other than plant-food condi-
tions need looking after and improving before much money or
time is spent on fertilizers.
Extent of the experimental work and the results in general.
-During the past three years 371 sets of fertilizers have been
sent to farmers in various parts of the State. (See map, page 286.)
The time at which the appropriation for this work became avail-
able in the spring was so far advanced, that in some cases the fer-
tilizers were received by the farmers much later than they
should have been applied to the soil ; the results may therefore









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


have been less satisfactory than might otherwise have been the
case.
A majority of the experimenters have been visited by a Sta-
tion representative ; in some cases photographs of the crops have
been taken; in other cases samples of soil have been sent to the
Station for analysis. In general the farmers manifested much
interest in the work and most of them took great pains with it.
A few were disappointed because it required so much time and
fussing." Of all the experimenters only one failed entirely to
catch the spirit of the work ; owing to some misunderstanding
he dumped the small sacks of fertilizers into a tub, mixed them
together, and applied the mixture on a small plat of land. He
reported that he thought the fertilizer increased the crop some-
what-a report of no use to him or to us.
A number of the experimenters made the mistake of measuring
off too small plats and consequently the fertilizers in some cases
injured the crop. A large number did the work well and kept
good records, but many of them unfortunately omitted the
check plat without fertilizers. This plat was absolutely neces-
sary as a standard for the measuring of the crops grown on the
several fertilized plats. Without it the results obtained on the
fertilized plats were almost worthless for the experimenter ; he
could not decide whether or not any of the fertilizers had
increased the yields, or whether any one gave a profitable crop.
However, notwithstanding all these unfortunate drawbacks
there were many experimenters who followed all the directions
and felt that they had profited by the work.
In 1897 and again in 1898, fertilizers were used at the rate of
200 lbs. of nitrate of soda, 400 lbs. of superphosphate and 200 lbs.
of muriate of potash per acre. Owing to the prevalence of acid
soils, in 1898 it was advised to use lime when convenient,
on half of each plat at the rate of two tons per acre. In
1899 the application of fertilizers was increased to 300 lbs. of
nitrate of soda, 6o00 bs. of superphosphate and 300 lbs. of muriate
of potash per acre.
Acid soils.-Within the last few years the subject of acid soils
has been brought to the attention of farmers and questions are
frequently asked about this acidity or sourness of soils. While








BULLETIN 179.


traveling about the State, the Station representative had excep-
tional opportunity for testing various soils for acidity ; the
tests were made by leaving blue litmus-paper in contact with the
moist soil for five minutes. The presence of acid in the soil
would be indicated by a reddening of the paper. One hundred
and eighty-six tests were made in different parts of the State;
of these, 160 indicated the presence of considerable acidity.
Generally, the most acid soils were found to be uplands, usually
sandy or light clay loams and especially soils underlaid with
hardpan. In several cases low-lying, wet, muck soils were
tested and were found to be free from acid.
Acid soils must not always be associated with poor crops.
Some acid soils produce very poor crops, others luxuriant crops.
The most thrifty cornfield seen during the season was growing
on very acid or sour soil. The same was also true with potatoes.
Experiments show that both corn and potatoes are not affected
by acid in the soil. Potatoes grown on acid soil were better,
smoother, less scabby and diseased than those grown on soil not
acid. Many clover fields were tested and most of them showed
acid, but usually the best fields would have the least acidity.
Generally, common plantain and sorrel would be sure indications
of free acid in the soil.
Was the use of lime beneficial ?-Since the presence of acid
in the soil was found to be so common, it was thought best to
try the use of lime for correcting this acidity ; it was applied at
the rate of two tons per acre, in some cases quicklime slaked
on the field, in others air-slaked lime. Thirty-one field tests
were thus made. Several months after this application these
soils were found to be just about as acid, producing the same
change of the litmus-paper as the adjacent soils which had not
been limed. The use of lime by itself gave very good results in
seven cases, injurious results in three cases, and indifferent
results in twenty-one cases. When used in connection with
fertilizers, the results were in five cases very good, in four inju-
rious, and in twenty-two indifferent. In two cases the use of
lime was followed by an injurious effect upon the physical con-
dition of the soil, consisting of clay loams, tending to make them
hard and lumpy, rather than loose and friable.










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


That the use of lime was not more often followed by marked
favorable results may be due to the fact that the application was
not large enough, or that it had not in that short time become
thoroughly mixed in the soil. Its use is worth further trial and
more serious study.
Circular of instructions.-In 1898 and '99 a special circular of
instruction was sent to each farmer who was carrying on experi-
mental work with fertilizers.
The following is one of the circulars which was sent out in the
spring of '99 and returned in the fall. Spaces were left for
recording the summer's work and these were filled out by the
experimenter according to the directions. That part of the cir-
cular printed in italics constitutes the actual report of the experi-
menter.



CIRCULAR OF INSTRUCTIONS

CONCERNING

FIELD EXPERIMENTS
WITH

FERTILIZERS
No. 14.


CORNELL UNIVERSITY
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.
I. P. ROBERTS, DIRECTOR.
ITHACA, N. Y., April, 1899.
DEAR SIR:
We have ordered one set of fertilizers to be sent to you by freight.
This set consists of two large sacks containing four 15 lb. sacks of nitrate
of soda; two 15 lb. sacks of muriate of potash ; two 30 lb. sacks of super-
phosphate, and two 45 lb. sacks containing a mixture of 30 lbs. of super-
phosphate and 15 lbs. of muriate of potash.
We have also sent you a revised copy of Bulletin 129 of this Station.
It contains many valuable suggestions about conducting field experiments
with fertilizers.
Circular No. 14 explains how to apply the fertilizers and how to keep a
record of the season's work.










BULLETIN 179.


KEEP THIS CIRCULAR IN A HANDY PLACE AND FROM TIME
TO TIME JOT DOWN NOTES UNDER THEIR PROPER HEADINGS. FINALLY
IN THE FALL RECORD THE WEIGHTS OF CROP GROWN ON EACH PLAT
AND THEN RETURN THIS SAME CIRCULAR TO G. C. CALDWELL,
ITHACA, N. Y.
Do not get this experimental work confused with another line of inves-
tigations with sugar beets which the Station is planning.



SAMPLING THE SOIL.

The first thing to do before applying the fertilizer is to get a good
SURFACE OF THEI IIELD). average sample of soil from
-.............. that portion of the field on
Which the plats are laid out.
S\ Proceed as follows: with
___ a spade with a square end
: -- dig a hole, the width of the
spade and nine inches deep,
leaving one side of the hole
vertical and the other side sloping just as in the cut. Clean out all the loose
soil at the bottom of the hole ; cut off front the vertical side a slice about
two inches thick from top to bottom, the full width of the spade; this slice
represents one of the partial samples; in precisely the same manner take
10 to 15 other samples from different parts of the field.
Put all the samples together, after having picked out of each one all
pebbles over Y4 to Y inch in diameter. In a clean box large enough to
hold them all, or on some clean boards, mix the samples together as thor-
oughly as possible, by stirring and shoveling over and over many times;
then put four or five pecks of this mixture into a strong sack, or into a box
about large enough to hold it, and tie the sack, or cover the box tightly.
The sack in which the fertilizers were sent must not be used for this pur-
pose. Too much care cannot be taken in preparing this sample so that it
shall represent the soil of the whole larger plat to be divided up into smaller
ones for the experiments.
Make a record of the field, as complete as possible, according to the fol-
lowing plan :
I-Location of Field.
a-Upland.
b-Lowland. (If lowland, do sidehills wash down upon it?)
c-Hillside, etc.
Write answer here- The field was valley land and laid up towards the
hills. The sidehill did not wash dow n on it.










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


II-Character of Soil.
a-Sandy.
b-Gravelly.
c-Clayey.
d-Loamy, etc.
e-How deep is surface soil ?
f-Is there a hardpan ; if so how deep is it?
g- Does soil hold moisture, or dry out rapidly?
Write answer here- The soil was dark loam and a little gravelly. The
surface was from o to 12 inches deep with no hardpan and rather inclined
to hold the moisture.

III-Fertility of Soil.
a-Does the soil possess the required amount of plant-food, or does it
run down quickly and need enriching?
b-Have manures or fertilizers been applied in past years? If so, how
often, what kinds and how much per acre ?
Write answer here- The soil possessed a good amount of plant-food and
does not run down easily. It has been manured about once in 4 years,
generally 2o tons per acre previous to raising a crop of corn in rotation.

IV-History of Crops Previous to 1899.
What crops have been grown and how much yield per acre, in
past years? In case of cereals give the number of bushels of grain
and tons of straw or stalks per acre.
Write answer here-Had raised in past years a rotation of hay, two years
yielding from 2 to 4 tons per acre ; then manured for corn or potatoes,
either yielding good crops-corn 125 bu. ears per acre, or potatoes 100 to 200
bu. per acre. This followed with oats, yielding from 4o to 60 bu. per acre
with a large growth of strawa; this completed the rotation. This year the
potatoes were raised after corn which had been manured.
The field should be plowed before the plats are laid out. Then use
good, substantial stakes at the corners of the plats, and mark them in such
a way that the plats will not become mixed, thus leading to confusion. It
would be well to leave a space of 4 ft. between each two plats in order to be
sure that the plants on one plat cannot feed on the fertilizer each side of it.
Do not lay out the plats on land that has been manured within one year.
If vou carried on fertilizer experiments last year do not use the same set of
plats again this season.
The following diagram shows the arrangement of the plats, with the
spaces between. Each plat contains .',, of an acre.










BULLETIN 179.


I. Plat K. 15 Ibs. Muriate Potash on s half



2. Plat N. 15 lbs. Nitrate a on this half



S t .. oo li : .
3. Plat P. 30 lbs. Superphos phate .:.: on ti half
.:- . .. .....-' .:-on this h. alf
. . . . ..: :' :


Plat Blank.



Plat KN.


... ...... -:. .: .: 100:ioo Ibs. lim e:
No Fertil izer this half



15 lbs. Muriate Potash ::: :i :I o lbs li e:.
15 lbs. Nitrate Soda::::::'::: :::: on this half 2


S i15 lbs. Muriate Potash :o:: ::: oo lbs. lime:
Plat KP.MXED 30 lbs. Superp hosphate o i::2:: on this half:


7. Plat NP.



8. Plat NPK.



9. Plat S.


15 lbs. Nitrate Soda:: :&o hs. lime:
30 lbs. Superp hosphate:: : ::on this half


15 lbs. Nit rate Soda: :...; bs. lime:
MIXED j lbs.Mur late Potash n th. li
i s. rSu "on tbis half..
30lbs.Suplerphosphate.: .......

S. lbs. lim. e
Stable Ma nure:on 2:: this half "::

Eight rods long.


THE USE OF LIME.


Some recent investigations that have been carried on under the direc-
tion of Mr. Wheeler of the Rhode Island Experiment Station, at Kingston,
R. I., have shown that acidity or sourness of the soil is much more com-
mon than has hitherto been supposed to be the case. It was proved by these
experiments that this acidity of the soil lessens the effect' of fertilizers on
very many crops; in most cases the effect of nitrate of soda was very much
lessened.
It is for this reason that the use of lime is recommended in the experi-


i 4.

'0

5.
o


6.










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


ments of this year, when it can be obtained without too much cost, on half
of each one of the small plats of the set, in the manner directed below.
If the soil is acid or sour, the lime corrects the acidity, and makes suc-
cess with fertilizers much more certain; besides this it loosens a heavy
clay loam, so that it can be more easily cultivated ; it helps in the conver-
sion of the slow action of the nitrogen of the soil into more rapid action ; it
may set free and make immediately efficient some of the tightly locked
potash of the soil.
The experiments of last year indicated that the failures to get good
crops with the fertilizers applied was not due to a ack of plant-food in some
of the soils tested ; it is quite possible that if lime had been used with the
fertilizers better results would have been obtained.
One application of lime will last for some years. Therefore, since its
use may prove to be profitable in many cases, a trial of it seems to us
advisable.


APPLICATION OF THE LIME AND FERTILIZERS.
Each half plat is to receive roo lbs. of lime. (One heaping bushel of
fresh stone lime weighs 75 lbs.; one heaping bushel of air-slaked lime
weighs o5 lbs.-Roberts' Fertility of the Land, page 305.)
The plats having been laid out, make two piles of fresh stone lime of
50 lbs. each (23 bushel in each pile) upon that half of each plat which is to
be limed. This quantity represents two tons of lime per acre. Pour from /4
to Y of an ordinary pailful of water on each pile of lime, or less water if the
soil is pretty damp, and immediately cover the lime with soil. In three or four
days the lime will be completely slaked. It is then in the form of a fine,
white powder, and it can be easily spread. With a shovel scatter the lime in
the two piles as evenly as possible over that half of the plat to be limed ; care
should be taken not to leave an excessive amount of lime on the ground
under the piles. If fresh stone lime cannot be obtained, use air-slaked lime
if that can be had. The air-slaked lime is already in the form of a fine
powder and should be spread broadcast immediately without further treat-
ment ; (2 bushels to each half plat if air-slaked lime is used.)
Apply the lime as early in the spring as possible on the PLOWED
GROUND and immediately drag it into the soil most thoroughly.
As soon as this work has been done, apply broadcast the muriate of
potash and superphosphate to the whole of each plat which is to be manured
with one or the other, or with a mixture of the two, and drag into the soil as
thoroughly as possible. Drag the plats lengthwise because particular care
must be taken that none of the fertilizer for one plat is sown on or is dragged
on another plat adjoining it. In many cases muriate of potash injures the
plant if applied just previous to putting in a crop ; so that the earlier this
fertilizer is applied in the spring the less will be the danger of injury.
*If potatoes are to be grown on the plats, omit the use of lime.










298 BULLETIN 179.

Apply half the nitrate of soda broadcast on the whole of each plat
requiring it just before the seed is planted and drag into the soil. Three
weeks later apply the rest and cultivate in.
Care should be taken to keep the nitrate off the foliage of plants, as it
may cause some damage ; in the case of sown crops, such as oats, it will be
impossible to prevent this altogether.
BE SURE NOT TO OMIT THE BLANK OR CHECK PLAT WITH NO FER-
TILIZER. This is the most important of any single plat because all of the
others must be compared with the blank in order to learn how much benefit
the fertilizers have been to the crop.
You are to grow any crop you wish on these plats.
The same kind and same amount of seed is to be sown on each of the
series of nine plats in the set. It must be remembered that these experiments
are to be tried upon the crop planted and not upon an accidental crop of
weeds. In no case will the experiments be of value if the weeds are allowed
to grow on the plats. Thorough cultivation is one of the most important
features of the field test.



RECORDS FOR 1899-TO BE FILLED OUT.

I-Date of plowing field. May 2.
2-Date of applying lime. No lime used.
Was the lime fresh slaked, or air-slaked ?
Date when dragged into soil.
Dragged how many times?
3-Date of applying muriate and superphosphate. 3ay rI..
Date when dragged into soil. May 55.
Dragged how many times? Threelimes.
Date of applying first half nitrate of soda. May 15.
Date of applying second half nitrate of soda.
4-Kind of crop grown. Rural New Yorker Potatoes.
5-Date of planting crop. May 15.
Dates when crops came up on each plat. June 5-Could see no -
ence in the plals as to time they came up.
6 -Dates of rain storms and general remarks on weather. Very dry from
June ist to '5th. Good rain June ilth and June 24th: Showers June
2Sth then very dry up to July 6th. Plenty of rain from July 6th to
July 2oth, then very dry. No more rain to speak of till after the
potatoes were matured and dug.










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


7-Dates of cultivating plats. Wlilh a Hallock Weeder-May 2oth, 23d,
25th, 2Slh, 3jst, June 3d and loth. Wilk cultivator-June z6th and 23d
and hand hoed. With cultivator June 29th and July 51h. With hil'er
July 2tlh. With hiller July 21lh and hand hoed.

8-Injury by crows, insect pests, etc. Old beetles ate them a considerable
when first came up. The summer hatch of beetles did little damage.
Used Paris green on them but once.

9-Keep record of general appearance of plats during summer. Which
plats are most thrifty? Which least thrifty, etc. July iSlh plats on
which superphosphate was used and the one of stable manure, tops dark-
est green. Plats S (stable manure) and N P K (complete fertilizer) a
little the most thrifty.

Io-General remarks and questions. Was well pleased with the experi-
ment. It was both interesting and helpful and was very little extra
work or trouble, besides the fertilizer well repaid all the little eixra care
and grew a fine crop. The experiment showed that the nitrogen used
was really detrimental to the potato crop as it caused an e.itra large
grozuth of vines and IE SS. TU7P'BRS T7I..IV TH7E 'LAVK[
1'l A T.

We next come to the harvesting of the crop. Bull. 129, p. 146, says:
In carrying out this part of the work, allowance must be made for
the possible growth of the roots of one row into the feeding-ground of the
adjoining rows ; thus the outside row of one plat may steal food from the
next plat, that was not intended for it ; hence the directions to exclude the
two outside rows of each plat, one on one side and the other on the other
side, and not to include the crop of those rows in the harvest measured, are
important."
In measuring the crop, due credit should be given for every part of it
that can be utilized in any way ; if corn, not only the seed, but the stalks;
if wheat, oats, etc., the straw as well as the seed; if potatoes, of course
only the tubers."
If each plat contains three rows, then harvest and weigh the middle
row. If each plat contains four rows, then harvest and weigh the two
inside rows. If each plat contains five rows, then harvest and weigh the
three inside rows, and so on.
Bear this important request in mind, namely, that it is necessary to
report separately the weight of each crop harvested upon both the limed
and unlimed half of each plat.

[Fill out one of the following blank forms as a part of your report of
records and observations taken during the summer.]

Size of each plat: length, 16 rods; width, I/ rod.










BULLETIN 179.


No. of rows grown on each plat. 3.
No. of rows included in the weighed yield of each plat. 1.

ATS OF COR Limed Unllmed
PLATS OF CORN. half of half of
Plats Plats

i- Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ..............
K.
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds ...........


2-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ....... .......
N.
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds ............


3-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds ..............
P.
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds .............


4 Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ....... .......
Blank. (No fertilizer)
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds .............


5-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ....... ......
KN.
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds .............


6--Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. .
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds ....

7-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ............
KP.




Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds .............


8-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ............
NPK.
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds .



9-Plat Weight of corn from rows harvested, in pounds. ..... .. ....
S. (Stable manure)
Weight of stalks and husks harvested, in pounds............

NOTE.-In case the corn is for fodder and not to be husked, then give
the weight of stalks and ears combined.










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 301


Unlimed
PLATS OF POTATOES. Plats

i-Plat
K. Weight of- potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 267

2-Plat
N. Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 2og

3-Plat
P. I Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. _258

4-Plat (No fertilizer)
Blank. Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 211

5-Plat
KN. Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 240

6-Plat
KP. Weight of potatoes from rows har' ested, in pounds. I 307

7-Plat I
NP. I Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 20S

8-Plat |
NPK. I Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 28S

9-Plat (Stable manure)
S. Weight of potatoes from rows harvested, in pounds. 315

NOTE.-If some other crop is grown, one of the above blanks can easily
be changed and filled out for that particular crop.
At the close of the season and as soon as the results of each plat have
been properly recorded, please return this circular to the Chemist of the
Experiment Station at Ithaca, N. Y.
G. C. CALDWELL, Chemist.
A. L. KNISELY, Ass't Chemist.

Name of Experimenter. Homer H. Jones.
P.. Homer,
County. Cor/land.
State. NVew York.

Experiments by Mr. H. H. Jones, Homer, N.Y.-Mr. Jones who
made the experiments and sent in this completed report states
that each plat was Y rod wide and 16 rods long, making an area
of o of an acre. Three rows of potatoes were grown on each









302 BULLETIN 179.

plat. In harvesting the crop, the outside rows being discarded
according to the directions, the yield of the middle row only of
each plat was weighed. This row represented 10 of an acre.
The weight of potatoes harvested from the central row of plat K
(muriate of potash) was 267 lbs. This yield on 61 of an acre
multiplied by 60 gives the yield of pounds per acre, which was
16,02o lbs. ; this is equivalent to 267 bushels per acre. It so
happens that in this experiment the weight per plat multiplied by
60 gives the yield in pounds per acre and that this product
divided by 60 gives the number of bushels per acre. Therefore
the number of pounds per plat represents the number of bushels
per acre.













Plat (KN) Plat (KP) Ptat (NP) Plat (NPK) Plat (S)
Potash Potash Nitrogen Nitrogen Stable
Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid. Potash. Manure.
6o.-Mr, Jones harvesting and weighing the experimental plats ofpotatoes.

What lessons can be drawn from this set of experiments? We
will first consider whether it was a profitable investment to use
nitrate of soda. (See page 301.) The blank plat gave 211 lbs. of
potatoes; the nitrate of soda plat yielded only 209 lbs.; this would
indicate that when used alone the nitrate of soda was injurious
rather than beneficial. Muriate of potash used alone gave 267
lbs. per plat, an increase of 56 lbs. over no fertilizers, or 56 bushels
to the acre. When nitrate of soda was used with muriate of
potash the yield was reduced to 240 lbs. per plat. This means
that potash plus nitrogen gave 27 bushels less than potash alone.
Here again the nitrogen compound was injurious.
Something more of interest and importance may be learned









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


from this series of experiments. For example, it was observed
that while the stable manure gave the largest yield, the crop
contained the most small potatoes, and the tubers were more
scabby than on the other plats. Also where nitrate was used
the potatoes were of a poorer quality and more scabby. On the
other hand, plats treated with either potash or superphosphate
produced very fine, smooth tubers; the plat with a mixture of
potash and superphosphate produced as fine a lot of tubers as the
Station representative has ever seen.
It is clearly proved by this set of experiments that it would be
a waste of money to buy nitrogenous fertilizers for potatoes on
this field; but in all probability it might be a good investment to
use a moderate amount of potash and superphosphate. It must
however not be forgotten that these results, while applicable to
this particular field, may or may not be suited to a neighboring farm
or even to another part of this same farm; for, on other farms, even
if near by, some at least of the conditions of the soil which may
affect the crop may and are likely to be different from those of the
soil tested by these experiments. The soil of another farm may
be quite different, and it may have received quite different treat-
ment in previous years.
Potato experiments by Mr. H. H. Bonnell, Waterloo, N. Y.-
Mr. Bonnell has experimented during the past three years. We
give here a condensed form of his experiment for 1899. Each
plat was 2A of an acre and contained four rows of potatoes. The
two central rows were harvested and weighed giving the yield
per of an acre for each plat. The figures in the table repre-
sent the yield in bushels per acre, calculated from pounds
per A of an acre.










304 BULLETIN 179.

Potatoes per acre in bushels
calculated from 1-40 of an acre.

Large. Small.

Plat K .................................... 137.7 6.o
N ..................................... 129.5 7.3
S P ..................................... 118.5 8.2
Blank ..................................... 122.2 6.3
Plat K N ................................... 155.2 5.2
K P .................................... 147.0 5.2
N P .................................... 128.0 5.8
N PK ................................. 170.o 5.7
S .......... .......................... 189. 5.5

For the meaning of these abbreviations and the rate at which the fertilizers were
applied see page 296.
A study of the above table shows that stable manure (S) gave



ao rft.T.


Plat (KP) Plat (NPK) Plat (NP) Plat (S)
Potash Nitrogen Nitrogen Stable
Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid. Potash. Phos. Acid. Manure.
61.-Potatoes grown and harvested by Mr. Bonnell.

the best results and that a complete fertilizer (NPK) gave the
next best. Stable manure having increased the yield of large
potatoes 66.8 bu. over the the yield on the blank plat and
decreased the yield of small potatoes from 6.3 bu. to 5.5 bu.
The complete fertilizer (NPK) increased the yield over the
blank plat 47.8 bu. of large potatoes and decreased the yield of
small potatoes from 6.3 bu. to 5.7 bu.
Of the plant-foods used alone, potash gave better results than
either nitrogen or superphosphate. Potash, when used with









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


nitrate of soda, gave better results than when used with
superphosphate.
The results of these experiments would seem to indicate that
a complete fertilizer would give the best results when used on
this field, and that the greater portion of it should be potash
with only a moderate amount of nitrogen and but little super-
phosphate.
In 1897 Mr. Bonnell experimented with potatoes on another
part of the farm ; the results indicated that potash gave rather
the best results. In 1898 oats were grown on this piece of
ground and the superphosphate plats gave the best yields. Again
in 1899, two years after the fertilizers had been applied, wheat
was grown on it. The plats that had received superphos-
phate in 1897 still gave the largest crops. These results
indicated one of two conditions : either that the cereal plants,
oats and wheat, could not find enough phosphoric acid in that
soil, unless supplied in the fertilizers; or that the calcium
sulphate (gypsum or land-plaster), of which all superphosphates
are largely composed, gradually made available some of the
tightly locked potash that existed in the soil, and that it was
this liberated potash and not the phosphoric acid that gave such
marked results the second and third year following the appli-
cation of the fertilizers.
It was formerly a common practice to use calcium sulphate
(plaster) upon land for the purpose of making available some of
the tightly locked plant-food especially potash.
Experiments of Mr. A. O. Stewart, Mariposa, N. Y.-Mr.
Stewart has experimented for the past three years, in 1897 and
1898 on potatoes and in 1899 on corn for the silo. On Sept. 21, '99,
one square rod of each plat was cut, shocked and photographed.
(See cuts, next page.) Then each shock was weighed and the yield
per acre estimated. Also after a week of warm weather the
remaining crops on each plat were cut and weighed in order to
determine whether the estimated yield per acre would vary
much whether based on the yield of one square rod, or of eight
square rods. In general, the smaller the area taken for estimating
the crop per acre, the greater the probable errors in the calcula-
tion. These results are tabulated on page 307.





































Plat (S) Plat (NP) Plat (P) Plat (N)
Stable Manure. Vitrogen Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid. Nitrog-en.


Plate (K) Plat (KP) Plat (KN) Plat (NPK) Plat (Blank)
Potash. Polash Polasih Nirogen No Fe tilizer.
Phos.Acid. Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Potash.
62.-Mr. Stewart harvesting corn fodder for the silo. Each shock represents the
yield from one sq. rod of each plat.


I










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 307


Corn silage per acre in tons.
Gain in pounds per
acre from Sept. 21
Calculated from Calculated from eight to Sept. 99
one square rod. square rods.
(Sept. 2ist.) (Sept. 28th )

Plat K*......... 5.28 5.59 620
N......... 4.56 4.82 520
P .......... 7.68 8.04 720
Blank .......... 4.24 4.51 540
Plat KN........ 4.64 4.89 500
KP ....... 6.88 7.27 780
NP ........ 8.8o 9.24 88o
NPK ...... 7.84 8.28 880
S ...... ... 14.48 15.26 1,560

For the meaning of these abbreviations and the rate at which the fertilizers were
applied see page 296.

On studying this table it is plainly seen that available phos-
phoric acid in the soil was at a minimum since the yield was
best on all the plats which received phosphate, whether alone or
mixed with one or both of the other plant-foods. It appears
further that neither potash nor nitrogen with phosphate added
much to the crop over and above the yield with phosphate alone :
therefore it would be poor policy to use a complete fertilizer for
corn on this field. The experiments of 1897 and 1898 also
showed that phosphoric acid was the one plant-food that was
deficient in that soil.
On comparing the estimated yields per acre from each cutting,
we see that in every case there was a decided increase in the total
crop during the last week of growth and that these increases
per ton were quite uniform. This shows that the estimated yields
per acre when calculated either from one square rod or from eight
square rods are very nearly alike and that correct results can be
obtained by measuring the crop of a part only of each plat.
The value of stable manure as a fertilizer is very distinctly
shown in the results of this series of experiments, the increase
over the yield on the blank plat being more than three times the
increase given by any other fertilizer. Although the quantity of
the manure applied contained less available nitrogen compounds,
potash and phosphate than was contained in the commercial fer-
tilizers used, it was far ahead of the other fertilizers. This









BULLETIN 179.


result may be due in part to the useful bacteria possibly in the
manure, or to the effect of the manure on the physical qualities
of the soil, such as its texture, its temperature, etc.
Many other illustrations might be given of the value to the
farmer of this kind of experimentation, but lack of space forbids.
Injury caused by Fertilizers.-As already stated in this bulletin,
not all the experiments were entirely successful. In some cases
the plats were too small, in others not enough care was taken in
mixing the fertilizers thoroughly with the soil; the result was
either a partial injury to the crop, or killing it completely. Such
injurious effects were especially noticeable with the muriate of
potash and nitrate of soda. The superphosphate did not seem
to cause any damage even when applied very close to the plant
or in large quantities, even at the rate of two tons per acre, as
in some cases by mistake. Superphosphate may therefore be
used very carelessly without doing any harm, while great care
must be exercised in the application of nitrate of soda or muriate
of potash.
Does it pay to use commercial fertilizers?-This question is
frequently asked by farmers, but it is a question that can be
answered only by the questioners themselves. They, only, know
what the purchased fertilizers cost them ; they only can know or
they ought to know what increase of crop is yielded by the fer-
tilizers applied, and how much money they have received for
such increase. As a rule, they know only what they have paid
for the fertilizers, and how many bushels or tons of their crops
they have harvested; but they do not know how many bushels
or tons are to be credited to the fertilizers, for they do not know
how much the soil will yield without any fertilizer, or with stable
manure. Neither do they know what the stable manure has cost
them. Furthermore, since as a rule they use complete fertilizers,
containing all three of the plant-foods, nitrogen compounds,
potash and phosphate, therefore they do not know whether any
increase in crop is due to the action of all three of the plant-
foods, or to two of them, or to one only. In the case of several
of the series of experiments that have been carried out under
the supervision of this Station, it has been conclusively shown









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


that phosphate was the only plant-food that was useful, and that
all the money paid for the other two was wasted.
Such being the results of a number of the experiments with
fertilizers, it would seem that a wise and prudent farmer would
attempt to keep a sort of a bank account with every field on his
farm that is under cultivation. To accomplish this he would
charge to each field the cost of the fertilizer applied to it, if he
uses commercial fertilizers; after the harvest he would credit
every field with the market value of its produce. It would cost
him but little time and labor to measure three plats, say of a
tenth of an acre, in each field to be treated with commercial fer-
tilizers, one plat being left unfertilized ; multiplying the yield of
each of these plats by ten would give the yield per acre. He
has then all the data that are necessary in order that he may
learn by a simple calculation whether the increase of the crop
has more than paid for the cost of the fertilizer used.
The farmer may say that he cannot spare the time for carrying
out this plan; or he may say that he does not want to lose the
increase of crop that the fertilizer would give on the one unma-
nured plat. But this loss on a tenth of an acre only, would be
very small and it would be of much more importance to him to
know whether he gains or loses by the application of fertilizers.
Better still would it be if he could carry on a set of experiments
with the three important plant-foods in a complete fertilizer, in
the manner described in the preceding pages. He might then
learn that only one of the three foods, say, for example, the
phosphoric acid in a plain superphosphate, or potash, or some
combination of two of the three foods is all that the field experi-
mented upon requires, and that money spent for any other food
is simply thrown away.
Frequently during the summer the representative of the
Station was asked by the farmers if it would pay to use such
large quantities of fertilizers as were sent out by the Station
and if smaller quantities would not do just as well. The answer
was that in these experiments the cost of the fertilizers was not
taken into consideration, the main object being to find out
whether the use of any one or more of the plant-foods would
give profitable yields over and above the yield without any fer-









310 BULLETIN 179.
tilizer. For such a purpose it is better to use large applications
rather than small ones in order to make the results of the experi-
ment more marked.
With the cultivated fields of this State in their present condi-
tion, with their present amounts of humus and with their pres-
ent texture, it will not pay, as a general thing, to use large
applications of fertilizers, because moderate amounts are usually
sufficient to make the available plant-food conditions as good or
better than other essential conditions of the soil. Just as soon
as plant-food conditions are better than other essential conditions,
the plant will not be able to get the benefit of this extra food,
and more or less may be wasted.












63.-Mr. Mabee, of Spencer, N. Y., harvesting and weighing experi-
mental plats of potatoes.
Interest in the experimental work and its value.-In most
cases the farmers were very much interested and painstaking
with the work. Oftentimes the experimenters said that the
work was being watched by neighbors, for they wanted to see
whether there is anything in it or not."
Mr. Wills C. Hatch, of Skaneateles, N. Y., wrote as follows:
" Below you will find the results of my third experiment with ferti-
lizers on potatoes under your supervision. Each year's experi-
ments gave practically the same results, proving to me beyond
doubt what I had before believed, that the soil on my farm did
not need the addition of either potash or nitrogen, or in other
words it would not pay me to use them. I am now using plain
phosphate alone on all my crops and am getting better results
than with the mixed goods. This will save me from fifty to one
hundred dollars a year in the cost of purchased fertilizers, and
with better results.









FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


The results of my experiments have been given in the Grange
and club meetings and also published in the papers. Whether
this had anything to do with the case or not I don't know, but I
do know that of about forty tons used by our Grange this season
only one ton used was other than plain phosphoric acid goods."
Mr. A. O. Stewart, of Mariposa, N. Y., wrote as follows : In
making my report I wish to assure you that we have been greatly
benefited by the experimental work in many ways. We have
learned that the better preparation of the soil and good cultivation
are the prime requisites of a good crop.


Flat (N) Plat (K) Plat (P) Plat (Blank)
Nitrogen. Potash. Phos. Acid. Nofertilizer.
64.-Potatoes harvested from four of the experimental plats of Mr. Hatch.

In making these experiments the past three years we have,
with the kindly help and suggestions of the Experiment Station,
been able to determine what our soil requires, and now in buying
fertilizers we buy only what our soil most needs, thus reducing
the cost of the fertilizer bought nearly 50 per cent. Several of
our neighbors have been interested in our experimental work
and they requested me this last spring to purchase for them a
fertilizer containing only phosphoric acid. They claim that it
gave them good results on all crops, equally as good as a com-
plete fertilizer costing nearly twice as much, and this in alter-
nate pieces and with the same cultivation."









BULLETIN 179.


From a letter of Mr. Chas. Vanderbilt, Alloway, N. Y., we
quote, I am very glad that I undertook the fertilizer experiment
work, as it has helped me to know what our land needs, and my
neighbors are just beginning to think that one can tell what one
needs by carrying on the experimental work. I think that acid
phosphate, or superphosphate, will show up better than anything
else on our clay land as the work shows so far; and some of our
neighbors are going to try acid phosphate as an experiment on
their wheat this fall through me. As I have got
started in the experimental work I shall never stop it. I shall
keep on experimenting."
Farmers who have experimented.-The following is a list of
the farmers to whom sets of fertilizers have been sent. Some
have received them but once, others twice, and still others three
times. The column headed Years of Experimentation indi-
cates the number of years that each farmer has experimented and
how many successive sets of fertilizers have been sent to him.

Years of
Name of experimenter. Post office. County. experi-
,nentation.


Ackley, Denver.......... Gowanda.......... Cattaraugus.. I
Adcook, George ......... Fayetteville ....... Onondaga ... I
Akeley, Ward B ......... Holley ............ Orleans.. ... 2
Akin, James L .......... Fluvanna ......... Chautauqua I
Albright, John H ........ Ontario .......... W ayne ...... I
Allen, John J........... Depauville......... Jefferson..... I
Allendorph, D........... Sliters ............ Renssalaer... 2
Almy, W C ............. Dundee ........... Yates ...... 2
AndersonJohn........... Oriskany Falls..... Oneida...... 3
Anderson, R. E ...... .. North Wilna ....... Jefferson ... I
Andrews, F. M ......... Pompey ........... Onondaga... I
Averell, Warren ......... Caledonia.......... Livingston... I
Backus, J. H ............ Little Genesee..... Allegany .... I
Bagg, S. F............... Watertown ....... Jefferson .... I
Bailey, A. M............ Townsend......... Schuyler.... 2
Baker, N. A ............. Fishers............. Ontario...... 3
Baldridge, C. J .......... Kendaia........... Seneca ...... I
Banglar, Frank ......... East Bloomfield.... Ontario..... I
Banta, C. J.............. Conklin ........... Broome...... I
Barney, Frank D......... Westfield.......... Chautauqua .
Barris, McClellan........ Silver Creek....... Chautauqua.. I
Barrows, George A.... .. Groton ............ Tompkins... 2
Bassett, B. A ........... Afton ............. Chenango ... I
Bates, C. A .............. Ellington ......... Chautauqua.. I
Beadle, Geo ............. Brockport ......... Monroe...... I
Beardsley, F. E.......... Coventry ...... ...Chenango ... I
Belknap, J. J............. Campville ..... Tioga....... I
Benjamin, Chase......... Haskinville....... Steuben ..... 2










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


Name of experimenter.



Bennett, Bert........ ..
Bingham, G. W ........
Bingham, Henry M ......
Bird, Albert A...........
Birge, E Pratt............
Black, J. E ..............
Bleaker, Joseph..........
Bliss, Geo. A ............
Blood, Elner E..........
Bonnell, H. H ...........
Boynton, L. R ..........
Briggs, G. D.............
Brigham R. \ .........
Brill, Thomas............
Brodie, Geo..............
Bronson, Geo. H.........
Brown, Cassius S.........
Brown, P. E.... ........
Buckland,W. F..........
Bulkeley, R. P ..........
Burke, T. Tracy. ........
Burnham, \Wm. H.......
Burritt, F. M ............
Burritt, W B ............
SCampbell, John H........
Cardner, G. R...........
Carlile, David ...........
Cary, H L .............
Catchpole, E. W..........
Cavanaugh, G. W ........
Chaffee, L. R ...........
Chamberlain, Ed ........
Chapman, C. E..........
Child, Lewis E ..........
Christy, W T ...........
Clark, C. J...............
Clark, C. W. ..........
Clark, Ernest A..........
Clothier, F. B............
Clothier, H. B............
Cockburn, Frank M......
Cockburn, J. E...........
Cole, A. P ..............
Conklin, Geo. E ........
Cooley, G. W ............
Corbett, M. J ........
Cowles, James S..........
Curtis, C. H ..............
Curtis. Herbert S ........
Davis, C. E ..............
Day, H N ...............


Yearsof
Post office. County. experi-
mentation.


Howard ........... Steuben ..... I
Summer Hill....... Cayuga..... 2
Albion............. Orleans...... I
Otto............... Cattaraugus.. 2
Chatham .......... Columbia... I
Ithaca............. Tompkins.... I
Mumford .......... Livingston... I
Groton City:....... Tompkins ... 3
West Potsdam..... St. Lawrence. I
Waterloo.......... Seneca ...... 3
Lakeside.......... Wayne...... I
Lima... .......... Livingston... I
Perry............. W yoming... I
Poughquag ........ Dutchess .... I
Churchville....... Monroe ... I
Vernon Centre.... Oneida...... I
*Vest Bethany..... Genesee..... 2
Cicero Centre .... Onondaga I
Lysander.......... Onondaga... 2
Coventryville. ..... Chenango ... i
Afton......... ... Chenango ... I
Groton............ Tompkins... I
Parma Centre...... Orleans ... I
H ilton............. Orleans...... I
Caledonia.......... Livingston .. I
Tully......... .... Onondaga ... I
Eureka....... ...., Sullivan..... I
Lockwood ......... Tioga ....... I
North Rose ........ i Wayne ..... I
Watertown ........ Jefferson .... I
Natural Bridge..... Jefferson .... I
Barnes' Corners ... Jefferson .... I
Peruville.......... Tompkins... I
Philadelphia ......Jefferson .... I
Silver Creek. ...... Chautauqua.. I
LaFayette. ........ Onondaga.... I
Skaneateles........ Onondaga. ..
East Onondaga .... Onondaga.... I
Silver Creek....... Chautauqua. I
Silver Creek....... Chautauqua.. 2
Silver Creek ...... Chautauqua.. I
Silver Creek....... Chautauqua.. I
Howard........... Steuben..... 2
Chappaqua ........ Westchester.. I
Verona............ Oneida...... I
Corbettsville...... Broome...... I
Otisco ............ Onondaga.... I
W aterville......... Oneida...... 2
Ridgeland......... Monroe...... I
H eath............ Ulster....... I
Canandaigua....... Ontario...... I











BULLETIN 179.


Name of experimenter.



Denison, F. E ...........
Drummond, Wm.........
Dudley, Henry C .......
Dunn, Geo. W .........
Dunton, H. V............
Durham, Wm. C .........
Dye, Ernest ..........
Eastman, John M........
Elmendorf, W. E .......
Emmons, Roy D ........
English, Andrew........
Field, Harry T..........
Fitzgerald, W'..........
Fosmire, Frank L......
Fredenburg, Lewis E.....
Fuliagar, Howard. .....
Fuller, James S .........
Fullington, M. C.........
Garlock, William .......
Garrett, J. D.. ........ .
Geer, Harvey L..........
Goodwin, Geo. A ........
Greene, Chas. S..........
Griffin, Maurice N .......
Grinnell, W M ..........
Guilford, C. R ...........
H all, G A ...............
Harrison, L. E ......... .
Hartley, S. F ... ......
Hatch, W ills C ..........
Hawkins, Noel .........
Heap, Henry.. .........
Heath, AdelbertL ......
Hendrick, James ........
Hess, Chas. F ...........
Heyward, William.......
H ills, J. Bert ........ ...
Hoffman, E. M... ......
Holmes, Frank ..........
Howard, F. W.........
Howe, W. D.............
Hoyt, Frank D ..........
Hulbert, Lorenzo.....
Hulett, Henry. ..........
Hungerford, Nye ........
Ingalls, Chas. W ......
Irwin, Wm A ...........
Jackman, Geo. W ........
Jacks, Corwin ...........
James, V. L ........
Jeffords, Harry A.......


BULLETIN 179.


Post office.



W estfield.........
Perry City .........
Bath .............
Forest Lawn.......
Camden ..........
Mount Kisco .....
Villenovia.........
Woodville.........
Strait's Corners....
Pulaski........ ..
Van Etten. .......
Oneida ............
Alpine............
Freeport...........
Afton ............
Penn Yan.........
Poland ............
W arsaw ...........
Marshville ........
North Syracuse....
Forestville .......
Auburn ..........
East German.......
Rutland. .........
Broadalbin ........
Cuba .............
Red Creek.......
North Winfield ....
Gouverneur .......
Skaneateles ......
Gowanda .........
Hamilton. ........
DeRuyter. ........
Slingerlands ......
Great Valley ......
Stafford ...........
DeRuyter ........
Appleton ..........
M arietta ..........
Fredonia..........
Fayette ..........
Cicero.. ......
Dansville..........
French Creek ....
Ithaca ...........
Watkins .......
Stone Mills ........
Livonia Station .. .
Batavia............
Cooperstown ......
Upper Lisle .......


County.



Chautauqua..
Schuyler ....
Steuben......
Monroe ......
Oneida ......
Westchester..
Cattaraugus .
Jefferson ....
Tioga .......
Oswego......
Chemung...
Oneida ......
Schuyler ....
Queens......
Chenango....
Yates.. .....
Herkimer ...
Wyoming ...
Montgomery.
Onondaga....
Chautauqua..
Cayuga......
Chenango..
Jefferson ....
Fulton ......
Allegany ....
Monroe ....
Herkimer .
St. Lawrence.
Onondaga...
Cattaraugus.
Madison ..
Madison ....
Albany......
Cattaraugus .
Genesee....
Madison ....
Niagara .....
Onondaga. .
Chautauqua
Seneca ......
Onondaga....
Livingston ..
Chautauqua
Tompkins...
Schuyler ....
Jefferson ....
Livingston ..
Genesee.....
Otsego ......
Broome......


Years of
experi-
mentation.


I
I
I
2
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
2
I
I
I

2
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
3
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
2
I
I
3
3
I
I
2
2
2
2
I










FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


Years of
Name of experimenter. Post office. County. experi-
mentation.


Jenkins, E. E .......... Wolcott ........... Wayne ...... I
Jerry, E. J ............. Risingville ........ Steuben .
Johnson, Truman I ....... North Ridgeway... Orleans ..... 2
Jones, David W.......... Nelson ........... Madison ..... I
Jones, H. H ............. Homer ............ Cortland .... I
Jones, Thomas W........ Watervale ........ Onondaga 2
Kales, Dr. John W.... Franklinville ...... Cattaraugus 3
Keener, C. L ...... .... Potsdam .. ....... St. Lawrence. I
Knapp, A. A............. Preble ............ Onondaga.... I
Knapp, C. E ............ Little York........ Cortland .... 1
Knowles, W. A .......... Germantown ...... Columbia ... 1
Koon, Archie M ..... Auburn ........... Cayuga...... I
Kyes, Caleb ............. Natural Bridge ..... Jefferson .... i
LaFrenay, Clark C....... Hammond ........ St. Lawrence. I
Lane, Lloyd W .......... Lyons ........... Wayne .... i
Langdon, E. R .......... Hermitage ........ Wyoming .. i
Lanphear, Perry ........ Black River ....... Jefferson .... 2
Lewis, R. N..... ...... Red Hook......... Dutchess .... 2
Lindsley, B. M .......... Monticello ........ Sullivan .... 2
Lockley, Jesse B......... Pultneyville ....... Wayne ...... I
Lombard, Louis ....... Jonesville. ........ Saratoga I
Long, John D ........... W illiamsville ...... Erie ....... 1
Loomis, Eugene W ...... Wilson ........... Niagara..... I
Mabee, C. T............. W est Candor...... Tioga....... 3
Mabee, E. J ............ West Candor...... Tioga .... I
Mapes, Arlington ........ Rushville ......... Yates ......
McBirney, S. J ......... Smithville Flats... Chenango... 2
McDonough, John....... East Bloomfield.... Ontario .... I
McMurray, A. H. ........ Walworth ......... Wayne...... i
McNair, A. D............ Dansville.......... Livingston I
McNair, H. R........... Dansville ......... Livingston. 3
Mead, U. W............. Forestville ........ Chautauqua 2
Mead, W. B .. .........Portland ........ Chautauqua I
Medburv. C. B. .......... Rockdale ..... Chenango .. 2
Metz, John U............ W illiamsville...... Erie........ 2
Miller, D. M............ South Otselic...... Chenango...
Miller, Gage M......... Chili Centre....... Monroe. ....
Moore, D. M. ............ Hooper.... ...... Broome. ... I
Morse, Frank E......... Dalton ........... Livingston .. 2
Munson, J. O ..... ..... East Lansing... .. Tompkins 2
Nash, D. D.............. Ellisburg ......... Jefferson ....
Nicholas, T. B.......... Center ............ Herkimer... 3
North, Geo. R....... ... Copenhagen ...... Lewis....... I
Oaks, Jerome ........... Ketchumville ..... Tioga ....... 2
Oaks, W. A............. Oaks Corners ...... Ontario.. .
Osborne, Chas. L......... Rose.... ......... Wayne... 2
Ovenshire, T. C.......... Bath ............ Steuben .. .
Palmer, J. D........... Montour Falls. .... Schuyler. 3
Parker, Julius J...... ... Fredonia ...... ... Chautauqua 2
Pattat, John............. Little France..... Oswego ... I
Pease, Ira................ Oswego ........... Oswego ..... I











BULLETIN 179.


Name of experinenter.



Peo, James A............
Percy, Martin...........
Perkins, D. Center......
Petrie, J. F...............
Pierce, Dr. B............
Platt, Clarence J .......
Poole, J................
Price, Geo. H ..........
Putnam, Wm. R ......
Quereau, C. N...........
Randolph, Alva ......
Render, Geo. H.........
Rice, Ammnon...........
Rice Frank D...........
Richardson, B. F.......
Robb, C. F ........ ...
Roe, A. LaVerne...... .
Rogers, Geo. A..........
Rumsey, Burr .........
Rutherford, Thomas. ....
Salisbury, J. L .........
Sanders, Chas ..........
Schoonmaker & Son.....
Sears, Geo. L .........
Seeber, D. V ............
Seeley, R F.............
Selby, A. I. ............ .
Seymour. J. I .........
Shedd, Maurice H .......
Siddon, Chas...........
Simpson, Frank .... ....
Smith, Carlos F..........
Smith, Clarence ....... .
Smith, W C ...........
Snow, C. L .............
Southard, D. W..........
Stanton, Chas. E. ... ...
Staplin, Jr., Geo .........
*Starr, Jesse K ...........
Steele, H. J ..........
Stephenson, Geo.......
Sterling, E. S........ ...
Stewart, A. 0 ...........
St. John, J. Henry ...... .
St. John, C. L ......... .
St. John, Lewis S ... ...
Stone. C. A ... ..........
Storms, E. G ............
Strickland, W J.........
Suydam, Nelson S .......


Post office.



River View .....
Sodus.............
Castile ..........
Plessis ........ ...
Coopers Plains.....
Hamburg .........
Center Village.....
Newark ...........
W ayville.........
Baldwinsville .....
Alfred... .......
Antwerp ..........
W olcott ...........
Hom er............
Rome...........
W ebster..........
Plymouth .........
Brookfield.......
Ithaca.............
Hammond .........
Phelps............
Schenectady .......
CedarHill..........
French Creek. .....
Perch River.......
Waterloo. .........
Pultneyville ......
Turin .............
Lowell ............
Syracuse .........
Jasper........... .
Charlton .........
Forestville ........
Candor............
Forestville .....
Gilboa .. .......
East Venice ......
Mannsville .. ....
Fredonia ..........
E lba .............
Ballston Spa .......
Eagle Harbor......
Mariposa .........
Cohocton ..........
Canajoharie ..... .
Canajoharie ......
Pine City..........
St. Johnsville.....
Albion ...........
Binghamton......


Years of
County. experi-
mentation.


Jefferson... .
Wayne ......
Wyoming ...
Jefferson ....
Steuben ..
Erie ........
Broome.
Wayne .....
Saratoga ....
Onondaga ...
Allegany.. ..
Jefferson ....
Wayne ......
Cortland ....
Oneida.
Monroe ..
Chenango.
Madison....
Tompkins ...
St Lawrence.
Ontario...
Schenectady.
Albany .
Chautauqua .
Jefferson ....
Seneca ...
Wayne. .....
Lewis. ......
Oneida ....
Onondaga...
Steuben. ....
Saratoga ....
Chautauqua .
Tioga .......
Chautauqua
Schoharie..
Cayuga .....
Jefferson ....
Chautan qua .
Genesee.....
Saral oga ....
Orleans .....
Chenango...
Steuben .....
Montgomery.
Montgomery.
Chemung ...
Montgomery.
Orleans ...
Broome......


" Mr. Starr furnished his own fertilizers.











FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS.


\Name of experimllletelr, P'-t office,



Taber, H. B .. .......... W ells Bridge......
Thomson, F. H .......... Holland Patent ....
Torrence, Clay............ Gowanda ..........
Tubbs, Martin W ........ Portville. ..........
Turney, John R ......... Lairdsville ........
Tuttle, C. H. ............. Smyrna ..........
Twitchell, A. B ......... Pulaski .........
Tyrrell, Geo. F .......... W olcott. .... .....
Tyrrell, J. S............. Wolcott. .........
Ulrick, H W ............ Owego ......... .
Vanderbilt, Chas ........ Alloway. ...........
Van Buskirk, S. B ....... Purdy Creek. .....
Van Santford, A. P ... Tribes Hill .....
Vary & Son, Nathan C .. Ava .... .........
Wager, Ben. M .......... Catharine ....... .
W alker, A.. .. .......... Portland ..........
W alker, Robt. F .... ... Rome ............
Wallace, A. P ....... .Morristown ....
Wallis, Edward G ....... Apulia
Warford, C. 0 ........ ..Newburgh. .......
Waterbury, C. B......... W hitelaw ....... .
Watson, Maurice J ...... Center Village.....
W weeks, W R...... ..... Scottsville .......
W ells, Geo. S............. Knoxboro .......
Wheeler, Oscar ....... Hornellsville ......
Wheelock, E. W. ........ Mexico ..
Whitcomb, C. H......... West Somerset ....
"*W ilbur, O. B ........... North Easton......
W ilcox, B. F ............ East Glenville .
Wilkinson, Ed. C......... Penn Van.........
W illiams, Frank ......... Catatonk ..........
W killing, E. L ......... Sherman ..........
W illson, John R ......... Shortsville .......
W inters, Harry B ...... Stnithboro .........
W ood, Geo. W ........... Northfield .........
W oodford, L. L.......... Berwyv .........
Worden, Palmer......... Fayetteville .....
Yates, Martha G......... Slaterville Springs.
York, A. L ......... .... North Brookfield...
Young, Frank E......... East Venice. ......

SMr.Wilhur furnished his own fertilizers.


Years of
Countty, experi-
Smentation.


Otsego ...... I
Oneida..... I
Cattaraugus. 2
Cattaraugus I
Oneida ..... I
Chenango ... 2
Oswego ..
\ ayne ..... .
\\avne ...... I
Tioga.. ..... I
\ ayne ..... 2
Steuben ... 2
Montgomery. I
Oneida .. .. 2
Sclhuler .. 3
Chautauqua .
Oneida ..... 1
St. Lawrence. 1
Onondaga. .
Orange ..... 2
Madison .... 3
Broome ..... i
Monroe ..
Oneida .... 3
Steuben..... I
Oswego ... 2
Niagara .... 2
Washington. I
Sohenectady. i
Yates ....
Tioga ....... 2
Chautauqlua. 2
Ontario .... I
Tioga ...... 2
Delaware I
Onondaga I
Onondaga .. I
Tompkins ... 3
Madison....
Cayuga...... I









318 BULLETIN 179.

General results of the field experiments.-A study of all the
experiments for three years recorded shows that of the three
plant-foods when used alone, nitrogen gave the largest increased
yield in 26 experiments, phosphoric acid in 58 experiments and
potash in 36 experiments. This would seem to indicate that
when one plant-food is used alone, phosphoric acid will in most
cases give the best results. When a mixture of two plant-foods
was applied, nitrogen and potash gave best results in 24 experi-
ments, phosphoric acid and potash in 48 experiments, and nitro-
gen and phosphoric acid in 52 experiments. A comparison of a
complete fertilizer and stable manure shows in 38 experiments
the complete fertilizer gave better results, while in 54 cases
stable manure produced the larger crops. These good results
accompanying the use of stable manure may not be due so much
to the plant-food it contains as to an improvement in the physi-
cal conditions of the soil.
In only 40 cases out of a total of 126 recorded, did the com-
plete fertilizer, a mixture of nitrate of soda, phosphate and
muriate of potash, give better results than fertilizers containing
one or two of the plant-foods.
These results tend to show that more often it is some espe-
cially prepared rather than a complete fertilizer that a soil
requires, and that when a farmer uses commercial fertilizers he
is often not following the wisest policy; he is simply going it
blind and possibly throwing away money.
A. L. KNISELY.

NoTE.-Farmers wishing to co-operate with the Experiment Station in
conducting field experiments with fertilizers should make application soon
to G. C. CALDWELL, Chemist. Then if the Station is permitted to con-
tinue this experimental work, much valuable time lost in correspondence
will have been saved.




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