• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Introduction
 The development of the pear
 The more important species...
 Adaptation and distribution
 Culture
 Pests
 Varieties






Group Title: Bulletin / New York Agricultural Experiment Station ;, no. 495
Title: The pear in New York
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071912/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pear in New York
Series Title: Bulletin New York Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : map ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tukey, H. B ( Harold Bradford ), 1896-1971
Publisher: New York Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Geneva N.Y
Publication Date: 1922
 Subjects
Subject: Pear -- New York (State)   ( lcsh )
Pear -- Varieties -- New York (State)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.B. Tukey.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (New York State Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071912
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24080122

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    The development of the pear
        Page 3
    The more important species of pears
        Page 4
    Adaptation and distribution
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Culture
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Pests
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Varieties
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text






BULLETIN No. 495


GENEVA, N. Y.







THE PEAR IN NEW YORK

H. B. TUKEY


PUBLISHED BY THE STATION


DECEMBER, 1922














BOARD OF CONTROL

GOVERNOR NATHAN L. MILLER, Albany. CHARLES R. MELLEN, Geneva.
COMMISSIONER BERNE A. PYRKE, Albany. JOHN B. MULFORD, Lodi.
IRVING ROUSE, Rochester. C. FRED BOSHART, Lowville.
FRANK M. BRADLEY, Barker. PETER G. TEN EYCK, Albany.
MARTIN H. SMITH, Geneva.

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD

CHARLES R. MELLEN, EDWARD J. COOK,
President. Secretary and Treasurer.


tALBERT R. MANN, A.
GEORGE W. CHURCHILL
REGINALD C. COLLISION,
Chief
tT. LYTTLETON LYON,
JAMES E. MENSCHING,
Associate i
JAMES D. HARLAN, B.S
Assistant i
WILLIAM P. WHEELER,
Associate in Rese
ROBERT S. BREED, Ph.I
Chief in
HAROLD J. CONN, Ph.D
Chief in Rese
tWILLIAM A. STOCKING
GEORGE J. HUCKER, M
Associate in
ARCHIE H. ROBERTSON,
) Assistant in
FRED C. STEWART, M.S
Chi
+DONALD REDDICK, Ph.
WALTER O. GLOYER, M
Associ
W. HOWARD RANKIN. P
Associate in Res
EDWARD E. CLAYTON,
MANCEL T. MUNN, M.K
ELIZABETH F. HOPKINS
LucIus L. VAN SLYKE,
Chief i
DWIGHT C. CARPENTER
Associate in Rese
LEON R. STREETER, B.S
Assistant in Research
cides).
RUDOPLH J. ANDERSON,
Chief in 1
tIEONARD A. MAYNARD
MILLARD G. MOORE, B.
Assistant in
ARTHUR W. CLARK, B.S
MORGAN P. SWEENEY, A
WILLIAM F. WALSH, B.S


STATION STAFF
ROSCOE W. THATCHER, D. Agr., Director.
M., NATHAN F. TRUE, A.B.,
Agricultural Economist. HAROLD G. BEATTIE, B.S.,
Agricullur 't. WALTER F. MORTON, B.S.,
,M. S., Assistant Chemists.
in Research (Agronomy). ARTHUR C. DAHLBERG, M.S.,
Ph.D., Associate in Research (Dairying).
Chemist (Agronomy). JAMES D. LUCKETT, M.S.A.,
4.S., Editor and Librarian.
n Research (Agronomy). CATHERINE S. OAKS, B.A., B.L.S.,
., Assistant Editor and Librarian
n Research (Agronomy). PERCIVAL J. PARROTT, M.A.,
Chief in Research (Entomology)
arch (Animal Industry). fGLENN W. HERRICK, B.S.A.,
., Entomologist.
Research (Bacteriology). HUGH GLASGOW, Ph.D.,
FRED Z. HARTZELL, M.A. (Fredonia),
earch (Soil Bacteriology). Associates in Research (Entomology).
jr., M.S.A., HUGH C. HUCKETT, M.S. (Riverhead),
Bacteriologist. Associate Entomologist.
.A., GUY F. MACLEOD, B.S.,
Research (Bacteriology). S. WILLARD HARMAN, B.S.,
B.S., Assistants in Research (Entomology).
Research (Bacteriology). ULYSSES P. HEDRICK, Sc.D.,
., Vice-Director; Chief in Research (Horticulture).
ef in Research (Botany). tROLLINS A. EMERSON, Sc.D., Geneticist.
.D., Botanist. tWILLIAM H. CHANDLER, Ph.D., Pomologist.
.A., FRED E. GLADWIN, B.S. (Fredonia),
ate in Research (Botany). ORRIN M. TAYLOR,
'h.D.. GEORGE H. HOWE, B.S.A.,
earch (Plant Pathology). RICHARD WELLINGTON, M.S.,
Ph.D. (Riverhead), Associates in Research (Horticulture).
Plant Pathologist. FRANK H. HALL, B.S.,
S., Associate Botanist. Associate in Research (Vegetable Gardening
*A.B., and Canning Crops).
Assistant Botanist.
Ph.D.. HAROLD B. TUKEY, M.S.,
n Research (Chemistry). GEORGE L. SLATE, B.S.,
,Ph.D., Assistants in Research (Horticulture).
arch (Dairy Chemistry). JAMES S. LAWSON, Phm.B.,
., Museum Preparator.
(Insecticides and Fungi- JESSIEA. SPERRY, Director's Secretary.


Ph.D.,
Research (Biochemistry).
Ph.D., Biochemist.
S..
Research (Biochemistry).
Associate Chemist.
.M.,
S.,
Assistant Chemists.


FRANK E. NEWTON,
WILLARD F. PATCHIN,
LENA G. CURTIS,
MADE L. HOGAN,
K. LORAINE HORTON,
LUCY I. CLEARY,
Clerks and Stenographers.
ELIZABETH JONES,
Computer and Mailing Clerk.


Address all correspondence, not to individual members of the staff, but to the
NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, GENEVA, N. Y.
The bulletins published by the Station will be sent free to any farmer applying
for them.

tMembers of the faculty of the New York State College of Agriculture affiliatedwiththis Station.












BULLETIN No. 495


THE PEAR IN NEW YORK
H. B. TUKEY

INTRODUCTION

The material presented in this bulletin is based partly upon the
researches carried on at this Station in the preparation of the mono-
graph on the Pears of New York, and partly upon more general studies
of pear growing in this State. Since the Pears of New York must of
necessity be limited to a very restricted circulation, it was felt that a
bulletin of this sort would serve a useful purpose in informing fruit
growers of approved practices in the growing of pears, and imparting
some information regarding the more desirable standard varieties of
pears.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEAR

One of the outstanding characteristics of the pear is its exacting
requirements as to soil and climate. Until it found a congenial home
in the cool, moist climate and clayey and chalky soils of Belgium,
its improvement had been slow and desultory. Here, in an environ-
ment conducive to the production of pears of the highest quality,
and under the painstaking care of the Belgians, the modern pear had
its beginning. In 1805 French literature recorded but 120 varieties;
by 1867 the number had leaped to 900.
Nicholas Hardcnpont (1705-1774) a priest of Mons, Belgium, is
credited with beginning the era of pear breeding. His success stirred
his neighbors until in the forepart of the eighteenth century the origi-
nation of new pears became the chief aim of the horticultural world.
Thousands of new sorts were produced by these enthusiasts led by
the Belgian pharmacist, physicist, and physician, Jean Baptiste Van
M ons (1765-1842), who at the height of his career had eighty thousand
seedlings in his "Nursery of Fidelity" at Louvain. With the name of
Van Mons stand those of Esp6ren, Bivort, Gr6goire, Bouvier, De
Jonghe, and De Nelis.
This period of pear development in Europe was reflected inAmerica.
Previous to 1825 most of the pears grown were of indifferent quality-












BULLETIN No. 495


THE PEAR IN NEW YORK
H. B. TUKEY

INTRODUCTION

The material presented in this bulletin is based partly upon the
researches carried on at this Station in the preparation of the mono-
graph on the Pears of New York, and partly upon more general studies
of pear growing in this State. Since the Pears of New York must of
necessity be limited to a very restricted circulation, it was felt that a
bulletin of this sort would serve a useful purpose in informing fruit
growers of approved practices in the growing of pears, and imparting
some information regarding the more desirable standard varieties of
pears.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEAR

One of the outstanding characteristics of the pear is its exacting
requirements as to soil and climate. Until it found a congenial home
in the cool, moist climate and clayey and chalky soils of Belgium,
its improvement had been slow and desultory. Here, in an environ-
ment conducive to the production of pears of the highest quality,
and under the painstaking care of the Belgians, the modern pear had
its beginning. In 1805 French literature recorded but 120 varieties;
by 1867 the number had leaped to 900.
Nicholas Hardcnpont (1705-1774) a priest of Mons, Belgium, is
credited with beginning the era of pear breeding. His success stirred
his neighbors until in the forepart of the eighteenth century the origi-
nation of new pears became the chief aim of the horticultural world.
Thousands of new sorts were produced by these enthusiasts led by
the Belgian pharmacist, physicist, and physician, Jean Baptiste Van
M ons (1765-1842), who at the height of his career had eighty thousand
seedlings in his "Nursery of Fidelity" at Louvain. With the name of
Van Mons stand those of Esp6ren, Bivort, Gr6goire, Bouvier, De
Jonghe, and De Nelis.
This period of pear development in Europe was reflected inAmerica.
Previous to 1825 most of the pears grown were of indifferent quality-










seedlings sprung from the seeds brought by colonists from their
European homes. Some of these trees planted by the French and
English explorers and settlers of over two centuries ago are still in
existence, marvels of size and vigor. But it was not until the importa-
tion of European varieties that the pear became of much interest
in America. Coxe in New Jersey, the pioneer importer, was followed
by William Kenrick of Newton, Massachusetts, and Robert Manning
of Salem, Massachusetts. To the thoro and careful work of the latter,
especially, who imported most of the new sorts developed by his
zealous European contemporaries, American horticulture owes much.
Robert Manning, Jr., followed the example of his illustrious father,
while A. J. and Charles Downing, Marshall P. Wilder, and Patrick
Barry are others recorded as leaders in pear culture in America.
Still another step in pear development was the advent of the Orien-
tal, Chinese, or Sand pear some time before 1840. Now began the
hybridization of this species with the common pear, resulting in the
Le Conte in 1846, the Kieffer in 1873, and the Garber about 1880.
Dozens of hybrids have since been produced -boons to middle-west-
ern and southern pear growing sections.

THE MORE IMPORTANT SPECIES OF PEARS

The species of the pear may be divided into occidental and oriental
pears, one coming from Europe and northwestern Asia, the other from
eastern and northeastern Asia.
Of the occidental group there are several species of which only one,
or possibly two, may be considered of importance: Pyrus commnuis,
the common pear; and Pyrus nivalis, the snow pear. The latter can
be dismissed with a word: It is a native of eastern Europe and Asia
Minor, having small roundish fruit which is used extensively for perry
making. The former is the species to which belong the thousands
of varieties cultivated in the temperate regions of Europe and Amer-
ica, the pear of history, of the Greeks and the Romans. Its native
home is in a region free from temperature extremes; and pure varie-
ties of the species do best in cool, moist, and rather heavy soils.
The oriental pears supply several species of growing importance,
chief among which is the Sand pear, Pyrus serotina culta, with its
cultivated varieties, Sha Lea, Gold Dust, and Daimyo. It is readily
distinguished from the common pear by its broad ovate leaves, long-
pointed and, sharply toothed; b flowers that appear before the










leaves; and by fruits with deciduous calyxes, often apple-shaped,
russeted, and long-stemmed. To this species, crossed with the com-
mon pear, we owe the group of hybrids characterized by Kieffer, Le
Conte, and Garber, valuable because of their ability to withstand
heat and drouth.

ADAPTATION AND DISTRIBUTION
No pear is native to this country. In its European home the pear
is possibly the most popular tree fruit, while in this country it is of
major importance in but few sections and is cultivated not much more
than the cherry and plum. This difference is due to a number of
factors, chief among which is the fact that the climate of Europe,
in which the pear reaches its greatest state of perfection, is more
equable than ours. Shortage or excess of moisture, extreme heat,
extreme cold are all detrimental to the pear. The regions in North
America where commercial pear growing has reached importance
are those tempered by adjacent bodies of water and favored by uni-
form moisture supply. With the advent of hybrid pears, pear
growing has been greatly extended, but pears of the European stock
are still grown only in favored localities.
This limited distribution of pear growing is illustrated by a com-
parison of the important regions in New York. In total number of
trees, Niagara County leads all counties, not only in the State but
in the entire United States as well, with a total of 620,743 trees. Next
in order are Monroe County with 384,374; Orleans with 377,371;
Columbia with 308,298; Wayne with 305,239; and Ulster with
304,158. Sixty percent of all the pear trees of the State are in these
6 of the 62 counties.
For years New York has been the leading pear-producing State in
the Union. Within the past decade California has overtaken her,
and the present indications are that she will be further outdistanced.
In number of bearing trees New York is still in the lead, but a glance at
the 14th United States Census indicates that even this supremacy
will be short lived.

New York California
Trees of bearing age ................ 2,788,761 2,305,646
Trees not of bearing age ............. 967,573 2,178,526


Total ......................... 3,756,334


4,484,172






Nwnber of trees by Counties
Over 600,000
300,000
200 000oo

S50 000 2O /
25& OOoT-


ThePedr-ProdtcingRegions of New York.











CULTURE

LOCATING THE ORCHARD
Pear growing is not only confined to certain favored localities;
but leaving out economic factors, such as proximity to markets, labor
supply, and the like, certain sections of these localities are more suit-
able than others. Since it is naturally a deep-rooted tree, the pear
requires a deeper soil than its relative, the apple. Unless it is in
congenial surroundings, the tree does not do well, and the fruit is
astringent, sour, gritty, or otherwise inferior. One of the reasons
why Bartlett, Seckel, and Clapp Favorite are more popular than
other varieties is that they do well under a greater number of con-
ditions. For most varieties of pears the problem is to find the en-
vironment in which they are happiest. It is true that pears generally
grow best on a heavy soil, but they may do well on other soils pro-
vided other conditions are right. Heavy soils are more retentive of
moisture than light ones and since the pear is exceedingly insistant
upon an equable moisture supply, it can be seen why clay soils are
more often better for this fruit. Hybrid pears, which withstand heat
and drouth much better than varieties of the pure European species,
often grow well on sandy or gravelly soils. Wet soils are to be shunned
for all pears.
Soil for the pear must be fertile but not too rich. Rich land tends
to produce green, vigorous growths which are susceptible to pear
blight; yet because of the slow growth and weak stand that most
pears make, the soil must not be so low in fertility that the trees
will not produce good crops.

SECURING THE TREES
With no other fruit is good stock more necessary than with the
pear. Trees in the nursery are very susceptible to blackheart, a
form of winter injury. Trees with this trouble should be discarded
as they never make good orchard plants. Stock with crowngall, or
hail or insect injury, or dry or shrivelled stock is not desirable, nor
are trees with large, soft, green tops. Well-ripened, two-year-old
trees of short, stocky growth are to be preferred.
The pear is usually propagated on seedlings imported from Europe,
tho it may be grafted on the quince as a dwarfing stock. But the
planting of dwarf trees in commercial orchards has been discontinued
in New York, because the trees are difficult to grow in the nursery











and demand too close attention in the orchard, and because they often
strike root above the stock and become standards. For the amateur,
they are worthy consideration, especially since some varieties do
better on the quince than on pear roots. Varieties that make good
dwarfs are Beurr6 d'Anjou, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Howell, Law-
rence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Elizabeth, and White Doyenn6. Other
varieties, like Bartlett and Seckel, grow much better on pear stocks,
while still a third class, including Beurr6 Bose, Sheldon, and Winter
Nelis, usually failon quince unless double-worked. In double-work-
ing, a variety that will take is grafted on the quince, and the resulting
tree is later top-worked.
No stock in use at the present time is satisfactory. It was hoped
that the vigorous hybrid pears would furnish a good stock but the
results have been disappointing. Lately attention has been given
to some of the oriental species as vigorous blight-resistant stocks,
but none as yet have proved to be worth using in New York.

PLANTING THE TREES
In New York, spring planting is always better than fall planting.
The distance apart to plant varies with the variety and the methods
of culivation and pruning. Ordinarily, pears are set 18 x 18 feet, or
20 x 20 feet; altho in the case of such strong-growing varieties as
Kieffer, Beurr6 d'Anjou, and Flemish Beauty, they may well be set
at a distance of 22 or even 25 feet. Broken roots should be trimmed
before the tree is set, otherwise the less the root system is interfered
with the better. The ground should be well prepared and the tree
set slightly deeper than it stood in the nursery. One of the most
common sources of failure is in not getting the soil packed firmly
about the roots. It is not enough to firm the soil about the sides and
tops of the roots; it must be packed under the roots as well. Too
often an air pocket is left immediately beneath the crown, a constant
menace to the life of the tree. With the soil firmly in place, a mulch
of loose dirt on top completes planting.

PRUNING AND TRAINING THE YOUNG TREE
Since the root system has been greatly reduced, it cannot be ex-
pected to furnish the unreduced top with all the food materials that it
needs. Consequently the top should be reduced in turn. For the
most part this matter takes care of itself in the pruning necessary to
proper heading and training. Pear trees are headed lower than apple











trees, as they are especially subject to sunscald and are generally up-
right in habit of growth. Twenty-four to thirty inches is a safe
height at which to start the scaffold branches, all shoots below this
being removed. With the more spreading Beurr6 d'Anjou, the head
ought not to be so low as for the upright Bartlett or Clapp Favorite.
Once the three, four, or five branches are selected for the frame-
work of the tree, as little cutting back should be done as possible.
Too much pruning induces a rank succulent growth susceptible to
fire-blight. Moreover, too great a reduction of leaf area is as bad,
if not worse, than too little. More often it will be found best to leave
the scaffold branches unpruned. The vase-formed pear tree has much
in its favor; for, if blight is severe, less damage is done by its attack
upon one scaffold limb than upon the central leader. But, on the
other hand, the close-centered tree is more easily managed and carries
more fruit, so that in the main it will be found to be the better.

CULTIVATION, FERTILIZATION, AND COVER CROPS
Clean cultivation is the rule in the pear orchard. Pear trees are
none too certain of life, and anything that helps to conserve moisture
and increase the supply of available plant food-yet not over supply
it-should be carefully observed. In most orchards, intercropping
with such cultivated crops as beans, cabbage, and tomatoes is per-
missible for the first four or five years and often desirable, while
grain crops and grass should never be planted. When trees are
making a poor growth, fertilizers-usually some form of nitrogen-
are necessary. The amount of nitrogen added should be small at
first, as it is easier to increase the amount another yearthanto check
a succulent woody growth. For most orchards, clean cultivation
and cover crops keep up soil fertility sufficiently.
The cover crop seed is sown at a time when there is promise of
plenty of moisture for its germination and is covered the last time
the orchard is cultivated. Buckwheat, oats, rye, wheat, clover,
vetch, all make good cover crops. Cover crops add humus to the
soil, lessen the loss from leaching, and help to ripen up the wood of
the trees and put them in better shape to go into the winter, anim-
portant consideration in pear growing. Early the next spring, or
late the same fall, the crop should be plowed under.

PRUNING
As a rule, young trees are pruned too much, and more often than











not, bearing trees are over-pruned. It must be kept in mind that
pruning is for two purposes: (1) To train the tree, and (2) to regulate
fruit production. Training the tree is coming to be more and more
regarded as the sole object of pruning. It is being recognized that
the more the tree is allowed to grow in its natural way the more fruit
it will produce. It must be remembered that fruit is borne on the
spurs found on two-year-old wood, and in the case of the pear these
spurs branch and rebranch and bear fruit over a considerable period
of years. Removing them, or lessening the opportunities for their
formation, is so much loss. The main object in pruning, then, is to
give these spurs the most favorable conditions in which to develop.
With the young tree it is often advisable to shorten the long one-
year-old growth so as to hasten the formation of spurs. But more
often than not, more harm than good is done by this treatment, for
the removal of too much wood induces wood growth at the expense
of spur formation. On the other hand, some growers feel that it is
better to remove all suckers and shoots arising from the main limbs
as a matter of insurance against blight. They say that it is better
to cut away some fruit than to run the risk of blight running down a
young shoot and infecting the main branches of the tree. The loss
of a few young shoots is not to be compared with that of a large limb.
So far as the trunk is concerned, there is no question that all young
growth should be removed at once, and most shoots that arise from
vulnerable parts of mature large limbs should also be taken off. But
if the tree is properly trained when young, this danger is obviated.
In short, then, if the attention of the pruner is paid to removing
blighted branches and those that interfere and cross, and to shortening
those that are much out of proportion, he will find that his pruning
problem has been solved for the most part.
In some sections it is the practice to prune Kieffers and other
vigorous, upright growers almost as severely as grapes, cutting the
one-year growth back to 10 or 12 inches. The resulting tree is small.
easily picked, and easily sprayed, but it is a question whether the ease
of handling makes up for the loss of fruit.

POLLINATION
The subject of pollination is of especial concern to growers of pears,
not because there is more self-sterility in pears than in other fruits.
but because the varieties most grown are commonly self-sterile.
Bartlett, Beurr6 d'Anjou, Clapp Favorite, Lawrence, Winter Nelis











are all reported mostly or completely self-sterile, while Seckel and
Kieffer are often in the same class. A variety may be self-fertile in
one locality and self-sterile or partially so in others. In fact there
are solid Bartlett orchards on record apparently self-fertile. That
is to say, climate, soil, insects, weather at blossoming time, and
general health and vigor of the tree play a large part in self-sterility.
There is evidence that even the self-sterile varieties arebenefited
by cross polination, so that in setting an orchard two or more varieties
should be planted for cross pollination. Some growers prefer to
plant a pollinizer, that is a variety that blooms at about the same
time as the variety in the orchard, at the center of each group of eight
trees so that each tree in the orchard is immediately adjacent to a
source of pollen for fertilization.

HARVESTING AND MARKETING

The quality of no fruit is more dependent on time of picking than
is that of the pear. The early and main crop varieties demand nearly
the same careful handling as do the stone fruits, while the proper
time to pick is if anything more important. Most varieties of pears,
if ripened on the tree, develop soft cores and a mushy texture and
may be wholly worthless, even tho apparently sound. They should
ordinarily be harvested when, upon lifting the fruit, the stem snaps
from the branch. Winter pears can be left on the trees longer than
earlier sorts, as winter varieties demand a very long season in which
to mature.
For the market, the packages for pears range from the apple barrel
for Kieffer to the grape basket for Seckel. Main crop varieties are
most often shipped green in bushel baskets or large-sized Climax
baskets. Pears usually receive too little attention in grading. If
more attention were paid to grading, and if the fruit were carefully
packed in boxes and put into cold storage until they had begun to turn,
they would command a much higher price. Where the product is
disposed of to canners, as much of it is, these items are not of much
importance.

PESTS

It is impossible in a discussion of this length to treat any but the
common diseases and insects attacking the pear. Information of a
particular or more detailed nature may be had from the Station.










DISEASES
Of all diseases common to fruit trees, pear blight (Bacillus amylo-
vorus (Burr.) Trev.) has been more discussed, with less progress in
its control, than any other. It is notorious as the first plant disease
to be recognized as caused by bacteria. Because of its infectious
and virulent nature, it is extremely difficult to control. It is famil-
iarly known as fire-blight, a name which characterizes its terrible
ravages. It is doubtful if there is an orchard of any extent in New
York that has not been attacked by this dread disease at one time or
another. Altho it attacks blossoms, twigs, leaves, branches, and fruit,
it is most common on the new, succulent growths. Here it is recog-
nized by the dried and blackened leaves and the discolored wood.
On older wood it forms dark, sunken, cankered areas.
In the spring of the year when nourishment from the new sap
reaches these cankered areas they become active, and bacteria ooze
thru cracks and broken-down lenticels. Insects attracted by the
gummy exudate are drawn to it and become carriers of the disease
to blossoms and twigs. Any wound or abrasion may afford the bac-
teria an entry, but most frequently it enters thru the blossoms.
The remedies suggested are thoro and systematic cutting out of
infected twigs and branches immediately blight appears, making
the cuts at least 6 inches below the signs of infection; cultural prac-
tices that induce hard, mature growth, not easily susceptible to the
disease; and disinfection of wounds and pruning tools with bichloride
of mercury and carbolic acid. It is claimed that an organized effort
will control the disease, but under practical conditions it is most
difficult, especially on older trees. All varieties are susceptible but
some, like Bartlett and Clapp Favorite, are more so than others,
such as Kieffer and Seckel.
Tho similar in appearance to apple scab, pear scab (Venturia
pyriina Aderh.) is by no means the same disease. The symptoms
and methods of control, however, follow closely those for apple scab.
It attacks the leaves and fruit as does apple scab, but differs in that it
is common on the twigs. The fungus winters over on leaves and twigs
and early in the spring discharges spores which are carried by wind,
rain, and insects to opening buds. Pear scab is controlled by appli-
cations of lime and sulfur, 1 to 50, made (1) a few days before the
blossoms open, (2) after the blossoms have.fallen, and (3) two weeks
later. Plowing under the dead leaves and paying some attention to











infected twigs when pruning will help to control the trouble. Flem-
ish Beauty and Summer Dovenn6 are especially susceptible, while
Kieffer is rather resistant.
Mycosphmrella, or ashy leaf-spot (MJycosphcrella sentina (Fr.)
Schr6t.), a fungus attacking the leaves, often does considerable dam-
age by causing premature defoliation and consequent checking of
growth. Occasionally new growth is started which, failing properly
to mature, goes into the winter in a dangerous condition. The spots
on the leaves are recognized by their grayish-white centers and dis-
tinct, angular margins. In the spring these spots on the old leaves
discharge spores which are carried by the wind to infect the new leaves.
Spraying with lime and sulfur, 1 to 50, (1) after the blossoms have
fallen, (2) two weeks after the first application, and (3) four weeks
after the first application, will control the disease.
Leaf-blight (Fabrcea maculata (Lev.) Atk.) is distinguished from
leaf-spot by the more circular outline and reddish color of the spots.
It is caused by a fungus which winters over either on infected twigs
or fallen leaves and which attacks the leaves, twigs, and fruit. Spray-
ing with lime and sulfur as recommended for pear scab will hold
the disease in check.
INSECTS
San Jose scale (Aspidiotus pcrniciosus Comstock) is one of theworst
insects attacking the pear. It is found on both tree and fruit, in
severe cases encrusting the branches and twigs of the former with a
gray-ash material and malforming the latter badly. The myriads of
minute insects responsible for the damage are found beneath round,
shield-like scales. They reproduce rapidly during the summer, and,
since summer spraying is unsuccessful in controlling them, they gain
a strong foothold by fall. Thoro spraying with lime and sulfur, 1 to
8, either in the winter, or just as the buds are swelling is the recom-
mended means of control.
The codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella Linnaius) is destructive
to the fruit of the pear. Two or three weeks after the trees have
bloomed, the larvae hatch from the small eggs laid by the mother
moth. The young worms crawl to the calyx end of the small fruits
and enter. Control measures, then, are directed toward a thoro
application of lead arsenate at the rate of 2 or 3 pounds to 50 gallons
about the time the petals have fallen. Where a second brood develops,
usually in late July or August, an application may be necessary in
time to cover the fruit before the worms begin to hatch.










In the Hudson River Valley the pear thrip (Tceniothrips pyri
Daniel) causes much damage to blossoms. The insects pass the win-
ter in small earthen cells 3 or 4 inches underground, from which they
emerge as adults early in the spring just as the buds are breaking and tear
and rasp the tender parts and suck their juices. The eggs which
they lay hatch in three or four days, and after feeding for two or three
weeks, the larvae fall to the ground to take up their winter quarters.
The damage is especially severe upon the pear because the blossoms
are in clusters. Control measures consist in spraying with nicotine
sulfate, 34 pint to 100 gallons to which 3 to 5 pounds of soap have
been added, as the first buds are opening, followed by a second appli-
cation for the nymphs when the blossoms have fallen. It willbe recog-
nized at once that one of the best control measures is directed at the
cells in the soil. Consequently plowing and cultivating will do much
to check the thrips.
The pear psylla (Psylla puricola F6rster) is one of the most difficult-
ly controlled insects attacking the pear. The adult has been likened
to a diminutive cicada in its appearance and to an aphid in its sucking
habit. The winged adults hibernate in crevices in the bark or under
old leaves and trash, and in the spring come from their places of
shelter and lay eggs on the twigs and developing buds. The young
nymphs, almost indistinguishable, cluster about the emerging flowers
and leaves and suck their juices, exuding a sticky substance called
honey dew. This honey dew is an ideal medium for the growth of
the sooty-blotch fungus and soon the infected parts have a blackened
appearance, often the first intimation the grower has that the insect
is present. Control measures are directedagainst both the adult, the
eggs, and the nymphs, as indicated in the accompanying spray
schedule.
SPRAY SCHEDULE
In most localities, barring local epidemics of certain diseases and
insects, pear troubles may be held in check by regular and system-
atic cultural and spray practices. Clean cultivation, plowing under
of leaves, proper pruning, all make decided contributions to the chances
of freedom from pests, and since many troubles are controlled by the
same treatment, a combination of sprays outlined in a spraying sched-
ule will help materially. No single schedule will meet the needs of
each individual grower, but each should make out a spray program
for his own conditions. It is only as a basis from which to work that
the following schedule is offered.










Ordinarily a delayed dormant spray of lime and sulfur, 1 to 8, is
advisable as general insurance against scale and as added protection
against scab. A second spray of lime and sulfur, 1 to 8, should be
made for psylla eggs, scale, and scab just as the cluster-buds are
separating. A third spray of lime and sulfur, 1 to 50, with nicotine
sulfate, 34 pint to 100 gallons and lead arsenate 2 or 3 pounds to 50
gallons, should be applied, just after the petals fall, for codling moth,
psylla nymphs, and scab. In some years a fourth spray of lime and
sulfur, 1 to 50, for scab two or three weeks following the third ap-
plication will be found advisable. For summer applications many
growers are adding 30 to 40 pounds of hydrated lime per 100 gal-
lons of diluted spray.

VARIETIES

BARTLETT
This variety is the one by far most commonly grown in New York.
It needs no description. Its popularity lies largely in its adaptability
to diverse soils and to its ability to bear early, regularly, and heavily.
Its tendency to overbear must be guarded by thinning, otherwise the
tree will be dwarfed and the fruit small. The fruit is esteemed both
for dessert and canning, and has the added advantage of not shrivelling
when picked green. Unfortunately the tree, an upright grower,
blights easily and is tender to cold.

BEURRE D'ANJOU
Tho having a vigorous, spreading tree and one somewhat more
hardy and more blight resistant than others, Beurr6 d' Anjou, or Anjou
as it is more commonly known, is not widely planted. The fruit is
of good size, regular in shape, fair in color, and good in quality-al-
together one of the best late fall and early winter pears. It is owing
largely to its unreliable manner of bearing that this variety has not
been more extensively planted. This fault is serious, for in many
cases the tree not only bears lightly but often fails to bear at all.

BEURRE BOSC
Beurr6 Bose is one of the standards in quality. Its large size,
attractive shape, beautiful bronze color, and superb quality mark it
one of the finest of pears. It has never been extensively planted,
partly because it is a poor grower in the nursery and nurserymen
therefore dislike to grow it. More recently some nurseries have at-










tempted to get a more vigorous tree by double-working the variety.
It is slow to take hold in the orchard, but once it is started it is a vig-
orous and free grower. It bears early, regularly, and well, tho it has
no tendency to overbear, and the fruit hangs tenaciously. The tree
is very subject to blight, a serious handicap. As a home fruit it is
one of the best.
BEURRE CLAIRGEAU
This variety is characterized by a particularly fine tree. It is
large, vigorous, upright, with strong, healthy foliage, ordinarily quite
free from blight, and bears large crops early and regularly. But it is
not wholly without faults; for unless the fruit is thinned it is apt to
overbear, and the fruit does not hang well, especially in dry years.
The fruit is of good size and shape, and of pleasing color, but lacks
in quality. Nevertheless, it is one of the standard sorts for late fall
and winter markets.
BEURRE GIFFARD
Beurr6 Giffard has medium size, clear, attractive color, and good
quality to recommend it at a season when pears of this character are
at a premium. It is a summer pear, ripening several weeks before
Clapp Favorite and could well be grown more extensively than it
is. Like most summer pears it softens rather quickly at the core.
The tree is a spreading, scraggly grower, vigorous, rather hardy, and
does not blight badly. It carries good crops of uniform-sized fruit
annually, beginning early in its life.

CLAPP FAVORITE
Clapp Favorite heralds the pear season with its large, shapely,
attractive fruits which ripen a week or ten days before Bartlett. It
has every mark of a good market fruit and is of very good quality
besides. The tree is vigorous, upright, a strong grower and bears
abundantly and regularly. Yet it is so subject to blight that it can-
not be grown in many localities, while in others it is unprofitable.
If blight can be controlled, it is a desirable sort; otherwise, not.

DANA HOVEY
This little pear with its attractive yellow coloring and sweet, de-
licious flavor, is rated one of the best of all pears. The fruit is small,
tho usually larger than that of Seckel. As a winter sort it should be
in every home orchard and in more commercial plantings. Were it










not that the tree is only moderately productive and is prone to blight,
Dana Hovey would be more extensively grown.

DOYENNE BOUSSOCK
If some of the excellent tree characters of this variety could be
combined with quality fruit, Doyenne Boussock would be one of the
leading sorts. The tree is large, exceptionally vigorous, upright-
spreading, a heavy annual bearer, and nearly free from blight. The
fruit, too, is healthy, for it is free from most disease and insect troubles.
But the pears, altho of good size and appearance, are of only mediocre
quality and soon soften at the core. Nevertheless, they are desirable
for local markets.
DUCHESSE D'ANGOULEME
This variety is more commonly dwarfed by grafting on the quince
than any other sort. In fact, it is not infrequent that commercial
dwarf orchards of it are found, tho less frequently now than formerly.
Either as a standard or a dwarf it bears early, annually and regularly,
good crops of large fruit-often enormous. The quality is no more
than average yet this pear is not displeasing as a late autumn fruit.

ELIZABETH
Elizabeth, with its neat regular lines, bright yellow color, and lively
red cheek, is one of the most attractive of the summer pears. Its
very good quality is perhaps marred by a flesh somewhat coarse and
a flavor lacking in richness. Moreover, the fruit is small. The
trees, besides being vigorous and producing heavy crops annually
and early in their lives, are not especially subject to blight. Eliza-
beth is well worthy of a place in both the home and commercial orch-
ard.
FLEMISH BEAUTY
This variety is perhaps the most easily disfigured by scab in both
tree and fruit of all pears. Moreover, the tree, tho large and a vigor-
ous grower, is very susceptible to blight. These qualities have prac-
tically eliminated Flemish Beauty from commercial orchards. The
fruits are large, symmetrical, and attractively colored; the flesh
melting and juicy; the flavor sweet and aromatic with a slight musky
flavor; and the quality very good.
KIEFFER
It is doubtful if any pear has been condemned as freely and yet










praised as often as the Kieffer. Those who have decried it have
compareditwith the finer dessert sorts, while those who have praised
it have considered it from a money-making view point. There is no
question that it is not the best for dessert; but, on the other hand,
it is very good for culinary use and cans well. Moreover, the trees
are especially vigorous, bear prolifically, resist blight and scale, and
endure heat and drouth well. For sections where these factors are
most important, Kieffer has a place, but where other sorts can be
grown, it has none.
LAWRENCE
Lawrence deserves recognition as a winter pear of good quality
for the home orchard. The fruits are below medium in size, clear
yellow, shapely, and in season in November and December. The
size is much against it as a commercial sort. The tree is only moder-
ately vigorous but is a regular and productive bearer and is reputed
to be especially long lived.
LOUISE BONNE DE JERSEY
This variety is one which grows as well or better on the quince
than on the pear and is consequently particularly esteemed by the
amateur. It is an attractive yellow fruit with a red cheek, of good
size, high quality, and tho strictly an autumn pear keeps well into
the winter. The trees are subject to blight and not overly hardy,
but they are good croppers and vigorous growers.
SECKEL
Seckel is the standard in quality in America and justly so. The
fruit tho small, is perhaps the most delicious of all pears and with its
trim shape and bronze color is a favorite wherever grown. The tree
further recommends the variety, for it is blight resistant, shapely,
easily trained, vigorous yet not a rampant grower, and bears early,
annually, and abundantly. It is third in importance in New York
and should be in every orchard whether home or commercial.
SHELDON
Sheldon is another high quality fruit, characterized by its apple-
like shape and bronze color. It matures at about the same season
as Beurr6 Bosc, a fact which has had much to do with its apparent
disregard. The tree, a vigorous, upright grower, blights somewhat
and bears irregularly. Still, because of its excellent quality, Sheldon
commands attention for both home and commercial plantings.











TYSON
Were the fruits of Tyson larger and more attractive, they would
be one of the leading kinds seen in the market. Moreover, the tree
is about as blight proof as a tree can be and is a vigorous, upright
grower bearing annually and abundantly. The quality of the fruit
is "very good" and the season a little earlier and a little longer than
that of Clapp Favorite. It should be in every home orchard.

VERMONT BEAUTY
This is one of the most attractive of pears, with its clear, glossy,
brilliant red cheek. The fruit is not of large size nor of highest quality,
vet it is good enough. The tree is hardy, vigorous, upright-spread-
ing, and an abundant and regular bearer, but somewhat subject to
blight. It is recommended as a variety to follow Seckel.

WILDER EARLY
Wilder Early might be likened to an early Bartlett in size, color,
and shape, tho often more highly colored. It matures early, before
Clapp Favorite, and ships and keeps well. The tree is large, vigorous,
upright, and a heavy cropper. It would seem that this variety
merits greater consideration as an early commercial kind.

WINTER NELIS
Size and appearance are against this pear, yet it isperhapsthemost
esteemed winter variety, and where the market is familiar with it,
is profitable commercially. Its season is December to March, and
it ranks among the best in quality. The tree is a poor grower in the
nursery, but becomes moderately vigorous in the orchard, a good
regular bearer, and holds its fruit well. It is characteristically spread-
ing with straggling and crooked branches. No commercial or home
orchards should be without Winter Nelis.

WORDEN SECKEL
Why Worden Seckel has not met with more favor is puzzling un-
less it be that it isnot vet well enough known. Tho not quite as de-
licious as Seckel, the fruit is larger, more attractive, and keeps longer.
The tree on the other hand is not quite so good as that of Seckel,
being not quite so vigorous and a little more subject to blight. Where
the market has been educated to it, it is profitable; otherwise, not.




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