• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 The triple challenge of hunger,...
 Benefits to the United states
 A research agenda for the 21st...
 The need for United States...
 Advantages of collaboration
 The GREAN initiative
 Basic operating principles
 A fundamental premise
 The GREAN initiative task...
 An ad hoc university coalition...






Group Title: GREAN Initiative : Global Research on the Environmental and Agricultural Nexus for the 21st century
Title: The GREAN Initiative
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00071910/00001
 Material Information
Title: The GREAN Initiative Global Research on the Environmental and Agricultural Nexus for the 21st century
Physical Description: 7 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Office of International Studies and Programs
Cornell University
University of Florida -- Office of International Studies and Programs
Publisher: Office of International Studies and Programs, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural innovations -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Food supply -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Environmental degradation -- Research -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Population research -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Green Revolution   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "University of Florida, Cornell University."
General Note: "June 1995"--P. 7.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00071910
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 33155849

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    The triple challenge of hunger, environmental degradation, and population growth
        Page 2
    Benefits to the United states
        Page 3
    A research agenda for the 21st century
        Page 4
    The need for United States leadership
        Page 5
    Advantages of collaboration
        Page 5
    The GREAN initiative
        Page 6
    Basic operating principles
        Page 6
    A fundamental premise
        Page 6
    The GREAN initiative task force
        Page 7
    An ad hoc university coalition for GREAN
        Page 7
Full Text




* UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


Global Research on the Environmental and Agricultural Nexus for the 21st Century


Introduction
The Global Research on the Environmental and Ag-
ricultural Nexus (GREAN) Initiative for the 21st Cen-
tury is a call for a United States-funded effort, reaching
a level of $100 million of new money annually within
three to five years.
GREAN aims to deploy outstanding U.S. science on
a long-term, predictable basis to help resolve the press-
ing global problems of hunger, environmental degra-
dation, and population growth. The 1992 Rio Conference
served to heighten public awareness to the wide range
of critical global environmental issues. The 1994 Cairo
Conference brought the world's surging population
growth to the public's attention (See Figure 1). Less
readily understood, but equally critical to the future of
humankind, is the pressing need for vastly improving
food productivity. For example, cereal yield must in-
crease from 2,793 kilograms per hectare in 1992 to 4,215
kilogram by 2025 simply to maintain the 1992 status
quo on a per capital basis, since there is little likelihood
of increasing the area under cultivation. Together, these
three interlocked issues-the need to greatly enhance
food productivity, environmental degradation, and the
high rate of population increase in the poorest coun-
tries-constitute the most urgent challenge facing the
world community in the 21st century.
The GREAN Initiative's specific 300


on an environmentally sustainable basis for the poorest
people in the developing world. The intent is to work
closely with the World Bank and other donors. The
World Bank has offered to lend up to $500 million
annually to agricultural research over the next five
years, for a total of $2.5 billion. In addition, the World
Bank has already committed $2 billion to research in its
ongoing portfolio.
To maximize the efficiency and the global impact of
research, GREAN envisions U.S. scientists working in
close collaboration with those in the centers of the
Consultative Group for International Agricultural Re-
search (CGIAR) and National Agricultural Research
Systems (NARS) to rapidly transmit already


Figure 1: A Profile of Population Growth


9.8 billion
2050

8.3 billion1 '
2025


L i3 1io


12 billion


10 G
0
B
8 A
L

6
P
0
U
4 L
A
T
2 0
N


mission is to generate a new set of I I
locate m i 0 A.D. 500 1000 1500 2000 2200
location-specific mini green
revolutions to expand opportunities Note: Medium variant projection that assumes declining future fertility rates.
Source: United Nations Population Fund, 1994.
for improved livelihood and food security


Th G7REAN itiative


3COMNELL








known and new sustainable innovations to poor farm
households. The tasks now facing the developing coun-
tries are so massive that an enhanced effort to build
their capacities is urgently needed. Future growth in
food and agricultural productivity will depend on their
ability to play a central role in technology generation
and diffusion. The greatest challenge is to help NARS
scientists be productive in their home countries, where
severe constraints impact on their ability to conduct
research and its applications. The U.S. university sys-
tem is in a unique position to help.
This Initiative is very much in the spirit which en-
abled a previous generation to place a man on the moon
and to launch the first Green Revolution.

The Triple Challenge of Hunger,
Environmental Degradation, and
Population Growth
By the year 2050, experts predict an additional 4
billion people on earth, 95 percent of whom will live in
developing countries. Already 1.3 billion people live in
poverty, with a disproportionate number of them
women and children and 75 percent of them in rural
areas. By 2025, the demand for food in developing
countries will more than double. It will triple by 2050.
How will the increased global population feed itself?
How can rural women, who account for one half of all
farmers, be empowered so that their productivity is
enhanced, their children's nutrition ensured and mor-
tality rates reduced, and their fertility rates thereby
lowered to curtail population growth? How can in-
creased food production be achieved in an environ-
mentally sustainable manner? Where should this food
be produced, and by whom?
Some claim that the U.S. can feed the world. The
GREAN Initiative argues that much of the increase in
food, fiber, and livestock production must occur in
developing countries through engaging the poor them-
selves. This is the only way to increase food security,
create livelihoods, lower fertility rates, protect natural
resources, and establish a foundation for long-term


and broad-based economic growth in the countries in
which most of the world's poor reside. Such growth
constitutes the surest means for stimulating demand
for U.S. goods and services.
The first Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s
saved millions from starvation, ranking as one of the
greatest scientific and social achievements of the cen-
tury. U.S.A.I.D., in conjunction with the World Bank
and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, played a
key role in establishing the CGIAR. The scientific exper-
tise of U.S. universities was enlisted to help develop


Figure 2: A Profile of the Developing World


World Population


Population
(in Developing


Africa


Latin
America


Sub-Sahoron
Africa


Middle East,
& NorthAfrica


Source: World Bank Development Report 1990








high yielding varieties of cere-
als, train hundreds of scientists Figure 4: Annual
from developing countries in
new scientific methods, 8
strengthen developing country ,
agricultural research and educa-
4
tional systems, promote policy 3 SubSah
reforms, and ensure that tech- 2 2 AfrIca
nology was adopted by small
00
farmers.
But the pressures of rapid -2
population growth have now
caught up with the Green Key:
Revolution's gains. Stagnating
agricultural production com-
bined with rampant environmental degradation once
again raise Malthusian concerns of widespread pov-
erty and hunger particularly in South Asia and Africa
(see Figures 2 and 3).
In the wake of the first Green Revolution a new set of
second-generation problems has also emerged, includ-
ing water logging and salinization of soils, depletion of
groundwater, soil erosion, loss of crop diversity, con-
tamination of water resources with chemical residues,
and multiplying health hazards. Increasing productiv-
ity growth has become more complex than ever before.


Figure 3: Per Capita food Production
1301


Growth in Per Capita GNP


East Asia


1 2 3 4


&Mddle East &
Noth Africa


South Asa



I Rn L 1


1=1965-73 2=1973-80 3=1980-92
Source: World Bonk Development Report


& Caribbean


4= 1989-92
1994


Regrettably, while the demands on the international
agricultural research system are mounting, its resources
are shrinking. Agriculture has become sidelined in the
agendas of traditional donors by concerns for the envi-
ronment, declining commodity prices, and compla-
cency in the face of industrialized-country food
surpluses. The U.S. involvement in international devel-
opment assistance generally and in agriculture particu-
larly has declined. The CGIAR, too, is facing a funding
crisis.
Following the debt crisis of the early 1980s, expendi-
tures by developing countries on agriculture have de-
clined, leaving a vast number of well-trained research
scientists underpaid and underutilized. Since all play-
ers in international agricultural research are under
tight budget constraints, new more cost-effective ways
must be found to address the formidable global prob-
lems.

Benefits to the United States
Experience today shows that enhanced agricultural
productivity in developing countries will bring great
benefits to the U.S. and the world community. The first
Green Revolution in Asia led to broad-based economic
growth, improved political stability, and expanded
markets for U.S. goods and services (Figures 3,4 and 5).


Year
Source FAO Production Yearbook, 1994








* U.S. agricultural exports to developing countries
increased by $9 billion from 1986 to 1993 and cre-
ated an additional 270,000 U.S. jobs.

U.S. involvement in international researchincreased
American access to important plant genetic mate-
rial. For example, more than half of the rice and
wheat varieties cultivated in the U.S. are derived
from improved germplasm developed at the inter-
national agricultural research centers; a single Ethio-
pian barley variety protects the entire $160 million
California barley crop from yellow dwarf virus.

* U.S. scientists working overseas have helped to
internationalize U.S. higher education while bring-
ing the overseas experience to bear on similar prob-
lems at home.

* Productivity growth has helped to protect and
maintain global biodiversity by conserving forest
lands, including rain forests, from transfer to agri-
cultural uses.



50 igure 5: I.s. Agricultural Eiports
501


Total


Developed Countries


Developing Countries


86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93
Year
Source: USDA/FAS


In a rapidly integrating and interdependent world
economic and political system, the potential costs to the
United States of neglecting the global problems of
hunger, environmental degradation, and population
growth are profound. They include:
* Growing ethnic and interregional conflicts in the
developing world.


* Increasingly frequent and expensive U.S. humani-
tarian and military interventions, often leading to
the loss of U.S. lives.

* The loss of potential markets to the U.S.

* The loss of valuable plant and animal species.

* Global warming.

* Growing international migration.

* The spread of pests and diseases which saddle U.S.
agriculture with billions of dollars in damages and
endanger human health.


A Research Agenda for the 21st Century
Research has been a powerful tool for increasing
food and agricultural productivity, and returns to agri-
cultural research have been impressive. Although the
past emphasis on productivity alone was not enough,
neither is an exclusive stress on environmental con-
cerns. The GREAN Initiative calls for a research agenda
that incorporates objectives of both sustainability and
productivity. This is the only way to meet world food
consumption needs in the 21st century.
The particular strengths of American science would
be harnessed for application in developing countries
through active networking and partnerships. The
GREAN agenda aims to exploit recent advances in
genetics, molecular biology, computer and information
sciences, communication technologies, and legal and
policy studies. It envisages four highly interactive pro-
gram areas where collaborating partners could have
great impact:

* enhanced productivity, food security, and human
nutrition;

* sustainable use of soil, water, forests, and fisheries;

* conservation of biological diversity in natural sys-
tems and in domesticated plants and animals; and

* coping with an uncertain and fluctuating climate.

The Initiative will also promote the use of invaluable
indigenous knowledge, along with policy and








institutional analysis, to focus on the concerns of
sustainability. Priorities would be continually rede-
fined, based on grassroot demands, considerations of
innovativeness, and the possibilities of scientific solu-
tion. The research agenda would build on the evolving
strengths of the major research partners.
Among the strengths of U.S. universities are their
advanced capacities in basic science, excellence in re-
search methods, training of scientists, and client orien-
tation. Many universities, however, are also able to
make excellent contributions in strategic and adaptive
research. The CGIAR centers are well positioned to
develop prototype research methods for adaptive re-
search. The NARS institutions, closest to farmers and
local problems, are more effective in applied and adap-
tive research. Yet variabilities in the size and capabili-
ties among the national systems are great, allowing
some NARS to conduct excellent basic and strategic
research, while resources barely suffice for adaptive
research in others. GREAN envisages a major mobiliza-
tion of U.S. scientific talent along the entire length of the
research continuum: from basic laboratory research
through strategic, applied and adaptive research; and
its rapid outreach to be developed jointly with the
CGIAR Centers and NARS.

The Need for United States Leadership
There are compelling reasons for the U.S. scientific
community, particularly its university system, to reen-
gage itself as a leading partner in a series of second
green revolutions. All are related to the unique U.S.
educational and scientific capacities.

* The U.S. has the single largest pool of scientific
talent in the world, with a total (private and public
sector) annual investment in agricultural and re-
lated envi-ronmental research of over $6 billion. In
contrast, the annual outlay of the CGIAR for the
operation of its 16 centers for agricultural and envi-
ronmental research in the entire developing world
amounts to slightly more than $300 million.


* The United States is already the world's largest
external provider of higher education to nationals
of developing countries.

* There is a substantial reservoir of U.S. university
researchers who are keenly interested in interna-
tional issues.

* Advances in fields such as molecular biology, ecol-
ogy, sociology, law, and economic theory have
vastly expanded the alternatives for addressing the
problems of poverty and hunger. As a world leader
in each of these fields, the U.S. scientific community
can play a pivotal role in bringing the new knowl-
edge to bear in solving problems globally and at
home.


Advantages of Collaboration
Recent developments have created favorable condi-
tions for collaborative research among scientists scat-
tered across the globe. Communications technology,
inexpensive air travel, and computerization have
brought phenomenal improvements in the efficiency of
information exchange.
Collaboration can reduce research costs, allowing
partner institutions to acquire research services from
others who specialize in them. Effective collaborative
research plays up the strengths and resources of each
partner, thereby capturing economies of scope and
scale. Strengths are balanced against weaknesses for
the most cost-effective relationship.
The best of the existing programs for collaborative
research demonstrate the potential efficiency and pro-
ductivity of collaboration among U.S. universities,
CGIAR centers, and NARS institutions. Yet, the mecha-
nisms currently in place suffer from limited scope and
grossly inadequate scale. They are hindered by unpre-
dictable, short-term funding and uncertain political
backing. The tendency to neglect NARS capacity build-
ing limits their impact.








institutional analysis, to focus on the concerns of
sustainability. Priorities would be continually rede-
fined, based on grassroot demands, considerations of
innovativeness, and the possibilities of scientific solu-
tion. The research agenda would build on the evolving
strengths of the major research partners.
Among the strengths of U.S. universities are their
advanced capacities in basic science, excellence in re-
search methods, training of scientists, and client orien-
tation. Many universities, however, are also able to
make excellent contributions in strategic and adaptive
research. The CGIAR centers are well positioned to
develop prototype research methods for adaptive re-
search. The NARS institutions, closest to farmers and
local problems, are more effective in applied and adap-
tive research. Yet variabilities in the size and capabili-
ties among the national systems are great, allowing
some NARS to conduct excellent basic and strategic
research, while resources barely suffice for adaptive
research in others. GREAN envisages a major mobiliza-
tion of U.S. scientific talent along the entire length of the
research continuum: from basic laboratory research
through strategic, applied and adaptive research; and
its rapid outreach to be developed jointly with the
CGIAR Centers and NARS.

The Need for United States Leadership
There are compelling reasons for the U.S. scientific
community, particularly its university system, to reen-
gage itself as a leading partner in a series of second
green revolutions. All are related to the unique U.S.
educational and scientific capacities.

* The U.S. has the single largest pool of scientific
talent in the world, with a total (private and public
sector) annual investment in agricultural and re-
lated envi-ronmental research of over $6 billion. In
contrast, the annual outlay of the CGIAR for the
operation of its 16 centers for agricultural and envi-
ronmental research in the entire developing world
amounts to slightly more than $300 million.


* The United States is already the world's largest
external provider of higher education to nationals
of developing countries.

* There is a substantial reservoir of U.S. university
researchers who are keenly interested in interna-
tional issues.

* Advances in fields such as molecular biology, ecol-
ogy, sociology, law, and economic theory have
vastly expanded the alternatives for addressing the
problems of poverty and hunger. As a world leader
in each of these fields, the U.S. scientific community
can play a pivotal role in bringing the new knowl-
edge to bear in solving problems globally and at
home.


Advantages of Collaboration
Recent developments have created favorable condi-
tions for collaborative research among scientists scat-
tered across the globe. Communications technology,
inexpensive air travel, and computerization have
brought phenomenal improvements in the efficiency of
information exchange.
Collaboration can reduce research costs, allowing
partner institutions to acquire research services from
others who specialize in them. Effective collaborative
research plays up the strengths and resources of each
partner, thereby capturing economies of scope and
scale. Strengths are balanced against weaknesses for
the most cost-effective relationship.
The best of the existing programs for collaborative
research demonstrate the potential efficiency and pro-
ductivity of collaboration among U.S. universities,
CGIAR centers, and NARS institutions. Yet, the mecha-
nisms currently in place suffer from limited scope and
grossly inadequate scale. They are hindered by unpre-
dictable, short-term funding and uncertain political
backing. The tendency to neglect NARS capacity build-
ing limits their impact.








The GREAN Initiative
Recognizing both the challenges and the opportuni-
ties in the current scene, an American university-led
task force (see box on page 7) has proposed establishing
a bold new program of competitive research grants-a well-
proven mechanism for bringing the best scientific knowl-
edge and methods to bear in collaborative, disciplinary,
and multidisciplinary research to address crucial prob-
lems on a consistent, predictable, and long-term basis.


Launching a Pilot GREAN
The Initiative envisions $10 to $15 million as seed
money for a period of three to five years, with contribu-
tions not only from the U.S. government but also from
foundations and corporations concerned with issues
related to poverty, agriculture, health, gender, environ-
mental quality, natural resource conservation, popula-
tion, biotechnology, human capital, and local
governance. This initial contribution will allow the
GREAN Initiative to be implemented on a pilot basis,
and to improve program design. It will also stimulate
World Bank financing of collaborative activities. Con-
gressional funding for full program implementation
could then proceed with assurance that the Initiative is
valid and functional.


Basic Operating Principles
The GREAN Initiative would be fully functional
with a $100 million annual budget from the United
States. Operating on the following basic principles, it
would:

* Fund innovative research programs consistent with
the GREAN research agenda for the 21st century.

* Involve scientists from all three partner institu-
tions, engaged in true tripartite collaboration in
setting research priorities, preparing proposals, and
conducting research.

* Assign high priority to problems perceived by
NARS to be in need of immediate attention. Pro-
posals would include explicit measures to


strengthen NARS capacities to design and imple-
ment their own research agendas.

* Provide program grants through a competitive
grants process, ranging from $750,000 to $1.4 mil-
lion per year for periods of generally 3 to 10 years.

* Stimulate World Bank and other donor govern-
ment investments for collaborative research in de-
veloping countries.

* Demand high standards of scientific and financial
accountability.

* Demonstrate visible impact through meeting farm-
ers' needs.

The management of GREAN would involve a gov-
erning board and scientific panels to review research
priorities. It would develop methods for actively in-
creasing information flow among scientists and their
clienteles and to stimulate research partnerships.
Implicit in this undertaking is an invitation to the
institutions and scientists of other developed countries
to join with their U.S. counterparts in a closer alliance
with the CGIAR system and NARS.


A Fundamental Premise
A fundamental premise of the GREAN Initiative is
that a collaborative approach to research which draws
on the strengths and resources of each partner institu-
tion constitutes a direct, effective way to deal with the
daunting triple challenge of world hunger, environ-
mental degradation, and population growth. In an in-
creasingly interconnected global economy, the
enhancement of food production, incomes, and secu-
rity of the poor in developing countries is in the direct
interest of the United States.








The GREAN Initiative
Recognizing both the challenges and the opportuni-
ties in the current scene, an American university-led
task force (see box on page 7) has proposed establishing
a bold new program of competitive research grants-a well-
proven mechanism for bringing the best scientific knowl-
edge and methods to bear in collaborative, disciplinary,
and multidisciplinary research to address crucial prob-
lems on a consistent, predictable, and long-term basis.


Launching a Pilot GREAN
The Initiative envisions $10 to $15 million as seed
money for a period of three to five years, with contribu-
tions not only from the U.S. government but also from
foundations and corporations concerned with issues
related to poverty, agriculture, health, gender, environ-
mental quality, natural resource conservation, popula-
tion, biotechnology, human capital, and local
governance. This initial contribution will allow the
GREAN Initiative to be implemented on a pilot basis,
and to improve program design. It will also stimulate
World Bank financing of collaborative activities. Con-
gressional funding for full program implementation
could then proceed with assurance that the Initiative is
valid and functional.


Basic Operating Principles
The GREAN Initiative would be fully functional
with a $100 million annual budget from the United
States. Operating on the following basic principles, it
would:

* Fund innovative research programs consistent with
the GREAN research agenda for the 21st century.

* Involve scientists from all three partner institu-
tions, engaged in true tripartite collaboration in
setting research priorities, preparing proposals, and
conducting research.

* Assign high priority to problems perceived by
NARS to be in need of immediate attention. Pro-
posals would include explicit measures to


strengthen NARS capacities to design and imple-
ment their own research agendas.

* Provide program grants through a competitive
grants process, ranging from $750,000 to $1.4 mil-
lion per year for periods of generally 3 to 10 years.

* Stimulate World Bank and other donor govern-
ment investments for collaborative research in de-
veloping countries.

* Demand high standards of scientific and financial
accountability.

* Demonstrate visible impact through meeting farm-
ers' needs.

The management of GREAN would involve a gov-
erning board and scientific panels to review research
priorities. It would develop methods for actively in-
creasing information flow among scientists and their
clienteles and to stimulate research partnerships.
Implicit in this undertaking is an invitation to the
institutions and scientists of other developed countries
to join with their U.S. counterparts in a closer alliance
with the CGIAR system and NARS.


A Fundamental Premise
A fundamental premise of the GREAN Initiative is
that a collaborative approach to research which draws
on the strengths and resources of each partner institu-
tion constitutes a direct, effective way to deal with the
daunting triple challenge of world hunger, environ-
mental degradation, and population growth. In an in-
creasingly interconnected global economy, the
enhancement of food production, incomes, and secu-
rity of the poor in developing countries is in the direct
interest of the United States.








The GREAN Initiative
Recognizing both the challenges and the opportuni-
ties in the current scene, an American university-led
task force (see box on page 7) has proposed establishing
a bold new program of competitive research grants-a well-
proven mechanism for bringing the best scientific knowl-
edge and methods to bear in collaborative, disciplinary,
and multidisciplinary research to address crucial prob-
lems on a consistent, predictable, and long-term basis.


Launching a Pilot GREAN
The Initiative envisions $10 to $15 million as seed
money for a period of three to five years, with contribu-
tions not only from the U.S. government but also from
foundations and corporations concerned with issues
related to poverty, agriculture, health, gender, environ-
mental quality, natural resource conservation, popula-
tion, biotechnology, human capital, and local
governance. This initial contribution will allow the
GREAN Initiative to be implemented on a pilot basis,
and to improve program design. It will also stimulate
World Bank financing of collaborative activities. Con-
gressional funding for full program implementation
could then proceed with assurance that the Initiative is
valid and functional.


Basic Operating Principles
The GREAN Initiative would be fully functional
with a $100 million annual budget from the United
States. Operating on the following basic principles, it
would:

* Fund innovative research programs consistent with
the GREAN research agenda for the 21st century.

* Involve scientists from all three partner institu-
tions, engaged in true tripartite collaboration in
setting research priorities, preparing proposals, and
conducting research.

* Assign high priority to problems perceived by
NARS to be in need of immediate attention. Pro-
posals would include explicit measures to


strengthen NARS capacities to design and imple-
ment their own research agendas.

* Provide program grants through a competitive
grants process, ranging from $750,000 to $1.4 mil-
lion per year for periods of generally 3 to 10 years.

* Stimulate World Bank and other donor govern-
ment investments for collaborative research in de-
veloping countries.

* Demand high standards of scientific and financial
accountability.

* Demonstrate visible impact through meeting farm-
ers' needs.

The management of GREAN would involve a gov-
erning board and scientific panels to review research
priorities. It would develop methods for actively in-
creasing information flow among scientists and their
clienteles and to stimulate research partnerships.
Implicit in this undertaking is an invitation to the
institutions and scientists of other developed countries
to join with their U.S. counterparts in a closer alliance
with the CGIAR system and NARS.


A Fundamental Premise
A fundamental premise of the GREAN Initiative is
that a collaborative approach to research which draws
on the strengths and resources of each partner institu-
tion constitutes a direct, effective way to deal with the
daunting triple challenge of world hunger, environ-
mental degradation, and population growth. In an in-
creasingly interconnected global economy, the
enhancement of food production, incomes, and secu-
rity of the poor in developing countries is in the direct
interest of the United States.









The GREAN Initiative Task Force
In May 1993, the University of Florida and Cornell
University assembled 120 scientists from 14 CGIAR cen-
ters, 13 U.S. land-grant universities, developing country
research institutes, the World Bank, USAID, USDA,
UNDP, and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to
explore how U.S. universities might reestablish their
former leadership position in international agricultural
research. They sought ways to strengthen existing col-
laborative mechanisms and explored new approaches
for engaging the vast U.S. scientific expertise. The Uni-
versity of Florida and Cornell University then orga-
nized a task force, funded by Ford and Rockefeller
Foundations, to follow up on the workshop.
CO-CHAIRS
Uma Lele, Graduate Research Professor, Food and
Resource Economics, University of Florida, and
Advisor to the Environmentally Sustainable Development
Vice Presidency, World Bank
Ronnie Coffman, Associate Dean for Research, College
of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Director, Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Cornell University

OTHER U.S. UNIVERSITY MEMBERS
Rattan Lal, Professor of Soil Science, Ohio State
Fowden Maxwell, Professor of Entomology, Texas A&M
Calvin Qualset, Professor of Agronomy, University
of California at Davis
Thomas Reardon, Associate Professor of Agricultural
Economics, Michigan State
Larry Zuidema, Associate Director, CIIFAD, Cornell,
and Senior Research Associate, International Center for
National Agricultural Research
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTION MEMBERS
I. P. Abrol, Deputy Director General, Indian Council of
Agricultural Research
Michael Collinson, Science Advisor, CGIAR Secretariat
Larry Harrington, Economist, International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center
Roberto M. Nogueira, Dean, School of Economics,
University of Buenos Aires
M. S. Sompo-Ceesay, Director General, Institut du
Sahel/CILSS
Eugene Terry, Director General, West Africa Rice
Development Association
Hubert Zandstra, Director General, International Potato
Center


An Ad Hoc University Coalition for GREAN
Chancellors and/or presidents of a cross section of
major land-grant universities have indicated strong
support for the agenda set forth in the GREAN Initia-
tive. They have expressed a willingness to form an ad
hoc coalition to promote this agenda on behalf of all
U.S. universities. Co-chaired by Presidents John V.
Lombardi of the University of Florida and Frank H.T.
Rhodes of Cornell University, the informal coalition
currently includes some 19 institutions.

Auburn University
Colorado State University
Cornell University
Michigan State University
National Association of State Universities and Land
Grant Colleges
North Carolina State University
Ohio State University
Penn State University
Purdue University
Texas A&M University
University of California-Davis
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Illinois
University of Kentucky
University of Maryland
University of Minnesota
Virginia Tech University
Washington State University


For comments and information, please contact:

Professor R. Hunt Davis, Jr.
Global Research on Environmental and Agricultural
Nexus Initiative
Office of International Studies and Programs
123 Tigert Hall, P.O. Box 113225
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-3225
Phone: (904) 392-9386 Fax: (904) 392-8379
E-mail: GREAN@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu



Document layout by the Office of International Studies and
Programs at the University of Florida June 1995









The GREAN Initiative Task Force
In May 1993, the University of Florida and Cornell
University assembled 120 scientists from 14 CGIAR cen-
ters, 13 U.S. land-grant universities, developing country
research institutes, the World Bank, USAID, USDA,
UNDP, and the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to
explore how U.S. universities might reestablish their
former leadership position in international agricultural
research. They sought ways to strengthen existing col-
laborative mechanisms and explored new approaches
for engaging the vast U.S. scientific expertise. The Uni-
versity of Florida and Cornell University then orga-
nized a task force, funded by Ford and Rockefeller
Foundations, to follow up on the workshop.
CO-CHAIRS
Uma Lele, Graduate Research Professor, Food and
Resource Economics, University of Florida, and
Advisor to the Environmentally Sustainable Development
Vice Presidency, World Bank
Ronnie Coffman, Associate Dean for Research, College
of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Director, Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Cornell University

OTHER U.S. UNIVERSITY MEMBERS
Rattan Lal, Professor of Soil Science, Ohio State
Fowden Maxwell, Professor of Entomology, Texas A&M
Calvin Qualset, Professor of Agronomy, University
of California at Davis
Thomas Reardon, Associate Professor of Agricultural
Economics, Michigan State
Larry Zuidema, Associate Director, CIIFAD, Cornell,
and Senior Research Associate, International Center for
National Agricultural Research
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTION MEMBERS
I. P. Abrol, Deputy Director General, Indian Council of
Agricultural Research
Michael Collinson, Science Advisor, CGIAR Secretariat
Larry Harrington, Economist, International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center
Roberto M. Nogueira, Dean, School of Economics,
University of Buenos Aires
M. S. Sompo-Ceesay, Director General, Institut du
Sahel/CILSS
Eugene Terry, Director General, West Africa Rice
Development Association
Hubert Zandstra, Director General, International Potato
Center


An Ad Hoc University Coalition for GREAN
Chancellors and/or presidents of a cross section of
major land-grant universities have indicated strong
support for the agenda set forth in the GREAN Initia-
tive. They have expressed a willingness to form an ad
hoc coalition to promote this agenda on behalf of all
U.S. universities. Co-chaired by Presidents John V.
Lombardi of the University of Florida and Frank H.T.
Rhodes of Cornell University, the informal coalition
currently includes some 19 institutions.

Auburn University
Colorado State University
Cornell University
Michigan State University
National Association of State Universities and Land
Grant Colleges
North Carolina State University
Ohio State University
Penn State University
Purdue University
Texas A&M University
University of California-Davis
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Illinois
University of Kentucky
University of Maryland
University of Minnesota
Virginia Tech University
Washington State University


For comments and information, please contact:

Professor R. Hunt Davis, Jr.
Global Research on Environmental and Agricultural
Nexus Initiative
Office of International Studies and Programs
123 Tigert Hall, P.O. Box 113225
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-3225
Phone: (904) 392-9386 Fax: (904) 392-8379
E-mail: GREAN@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu



Document layout by the Office of International Studies and
Programs at the University of Florida June 1995




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