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 Copyright
 Introduction
 Sucking insects
 Chewing insects
 General recommendations
 Reference
 Chrysanthemum spray compatibility...
 Insects found on Chrysanthemum...






Group Title: Mimeo report - Gulf Coast Experiment Station - 61-3 (60-4 revised)
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemums
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067906/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insect and other pests of chrysanthemums
Series Title: Gulf Coast Experiment Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 9, 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kelsheimer, E. G ( Eugene Gillespie ), 1902-
Gulf Coast Experiment Station (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla
Publication Date: 1961
Edition: Rev. ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Chrysanthemums -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 9).
Statement of Responsibility: E.G. Kelsheimer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Revised version of Mimeo report 60-4.
General Note: "Nov. 1961"--Leaf 9.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067906
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71781780

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Sucking insects
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Chewing insects
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    General recommendations
        Page 8
    Reference
        Page 9
    Chrysanthemum spray compatibility chart
        Page 10
    Insects found on Chrysanthemum in Florida
        Page 11
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










Gulf Coast Experiment Station Mimeo Report 61.-3
(Mineo Report 60-4 Revised)

INSECT AND OTHER PESTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS
E. G. Kelsheimer

Introduction

The chrysanthemum industry in Florida has become one of the major
flower producing groups. Many of the gladiolus growers have a few acres as
an added endeavor. The flowering schedule is from November to June, although
a few farms produce flowers throughout the year.

According to the 42nd annual report of the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau (3) 25,470,000 pompon plants were intended for production in 1959, a
total about equal to all of the other producing areas together. Standards
were considerably less, but even so, the 5,371,000 plants intended for 1959
was an increase over 1958 and 1959. At least 50% of the plantings are
under shade.

The writer was first introduced to outdoor culture of mums in 1945 at
Bradenton. From that time on a list of insects has been assembled with their
control measures.

No chrysanthemum grower can hope to grow a crop and escape the attack
from insects and mites, hence his rigid control program (1, 4, 5). Because
of his spray program a good share of the enemies described are never given a
second thought. However, the home owner, who grows a few for his own enjoy-
ment may have one or more of all the insect pests herein described. Mums
are subject to heavy damage by a few pests but specific measures, both pre-
ventitive and eradicative, give satisfactory results.

Sucking Insects
Aphis

Description of destructive stage. --Actual size 1/16 inch. There may be
many species of aphis that attack mums but we have two that are pests: the
melon aphis, Aphis ggos.ypii (Glover), and the chrysanthemum aphis,
Macrosiphoniella sanb-ri (Gill). They are soft-bodied plant bugs, pale
green to dark red or nearly black in color. They may be winged or wingless,
generally the latter.

Nature of injury. Aphis feeding causes the plants to become weak and produce
small distorted leaves. They usually infest the new growth, causing the
top to be deformed. The leaves curl inward, and when the flower terminal is
infested, the blooms will be deformed. They will infest open flowers.
Shasta, blue chip, heyday and dandee varieties are very susceptible to aphid .
attacks.

Control. Spray with parathion at the rate of 1 pound of 15W to 100 gallons .
of water. Apply enough spray to thoroughly cover the leaves with a fine
mist. The size of plants and size of beds determine the amount of spray
necessary. Da not spray if plants show color. i -










Gulf Coast Experiment Station Mimeo Report 61.-3
(Mineo Report 60-4 Revised)

INSECT AND OTHER PESTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS
E. G. Kelsheimer

Introduction

The chrysanthemum industry in Florida has become one of the major
flower producing groups. Many of the gladiolus growers have a few acres as
an added endeavor. The flowering schedule is from November to June, although
a few farms produce flowers throughout the year.

According to the 42nd annual report of the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau (3) 25,470,000 pompon plants were intended for production in 1959, a
total about equal to all of the other producing areas together. Standards
were considerably less, but even so, the 5,371,000 plants intended for 1959
was an increase over 1958 and 1959. At least 50% of the plantings are
under shade.

The writer was first introduced to outdoor culture of mums in 1945 at
Bradenton. From that time on a list of insects has been assembled with their
control measures.

No chrysanthemum grower can hope to grow a crop and escape the attack
from insects and mites, hence his rigid control program (1, 4, 5). Because
of his spray program a good share of the enemies described are never given a
second thought. However, the home owner, who grows a few for his own enjoy-
ment may have one or more of all the insect pests herein described. Mums
are subject to heavy damage by a few pests but specific measures, both pre-
ventitive and eradicative, give satisfactory results.

Sucking Insects
Aphis

Description of destructive stage. --Actual size 1/16 inch. There may be
many species of aphis that attack mums but we have two that are pests: the
melon aphis, Aphis ggos.ypii (Glover), and the chrysanthemum aphis,
Macrosiphoniella sanb-ri (Gill). They are soft-bodied plant bugs, pale
green to dark red or nearly black in color. They may be winged or wingless,
generally the latter.

Nature of injury. Aphis feeding causes the plants to become weak and produce
small distorted leaves. They usually infest the new growth, causing the
top to be deformed. The leaves curl inward, and when the flower terminal is
infested, the blooms will be deformed. They will infest open flowers.
Shasta, blue chip, heyday and dandee varieties are very susceptible to aphid .
attacks.

Control. Spray with parathion at the rate of 1 pound of 15W to 100 gallons .
of water. Apply enough spray to thoroughly cover the leaves with a fine
mist. The size of plants and size of beds determine the amount of spray
necessary. Da not spray if plants show color. i -









If demeton is used, mix at the rate of 1 1/2 pints of 2 pound active
material per gallon to 100 gallons of water and apply at the rate of 100
gallons per acre as a spray. Applied as a sprinkling, this is 1 gallon of
mixed solution to 435 square feet. If used as a soil application, more water
is required and the solution may be weaker. Use at the rate of 1 pint to
200 gallons of water. Thiodanat pound of 50% is also effective as well as
Dibrom 1 pt.-100 once a week. Dibrom will damage shastas, some pinks and
also hardens and blackens chips and shastas. A cattle dip consisting of BHC
2#-100 + DDT 3#-100 is also effective against aphids.

Thrips

Description of the destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/32 to 1/16 inch long.
There are many species that may attack mums, but the records show the chry-
santhemum thrips, Thrips nigropilosus Uzel; Florida flower thrips, Franklin-
iella bispinosa (Morg.); the composite thrips, Microcephalothrips abdominal-
is (Crawf.); tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Gowdeys thrips,
Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin) to be the most commonly found infesting mums.
The young vary in color from light to dark yellow with some greenish cast.
The adults vary from light brown to brownish yellow. No specific study has
been made of the species.

Nature of Injury. Infest foliage and open flowers. The insects cause general
browning of blooms, especially in warm weather.

Control. The grower has the choice of using dieldrin 50 percent WP at 1/2
pound to 100 gallons throughout the season or of using parathion 1 pound of
15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water up to the time of coloring. At first
sign of coloring use dieldrin at recommended rate. Records so far show no
petal burn when dieldrin is used properly. More recent tests have proven
dieldrin to be superior.

Mealy bugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/8 inch. They are soft-
bodied sluggish insects. One species is the citrus mealy bug, Pseudococus
citri (Risso). They are pure white and have a wax coating over them. They
are generally found in clusters on the underneath side of the leaves or in
the leaf axils.

Nature of Injury. Injury is caused to the stems and leaves resulting in a
discoloring and deforming of the foliage.

Control. Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of
water. The waxy covering on the insects may make penetration of insecticide
difficult so it may be necessary to add a wetting agent or some good
detergent.

Tarnished Plant Bug

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/4 inch long. The tarnish-
ed plant bug adult, Lygus lineolaris (P. de B) is of general brown color
with a mottling of white, yellow, reddish brown and black.








Nature of Injury. Small grayish dead areas are left where the insects have fed.
The sucking beak pierces the tissue of the plant, often causing deformed growth
and bending of the tip. The wilting of the tips is a fairly sure indication of
the presence of this pest. Almost invariably the shoots which have been stung
produce no flowers. A flower bud pierced by a tarnished plant bug will not open.

Control. A thorough coverage with a spray of 2 pounds of 50 percent WP DDT to
100 gallons of water is an effective control.

Southern Green Stink Bug (Pumpkin Bug)

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/2 inch long and almost as
broad. The full grown southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), is of
a light green color. The immature stages are bluish, with some red markings.

Nature of Injury. Both adult and immature stages damage the foliage and stems
by sucking the julce. Injured plants may turn brown and wither.

Control, Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at 1 1/2 to 2 pounds to 100 gallons
of water or chlordane 40 percent WP 2 1/2 pounds to 100 gallons of water. Para-
thion is slow in killing. Phosdrin at 4 ounces actual or 1 pound of 20% W.P.
per 100 gallons is a rapid killer, but has no residual like parathion. Thiodan
at 8 pounds per 100 gallons of water gave as good kill as parathion at the end
of 48 hours and has as long residual.

Spittle Bugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/8 inch long. The undetermined
species belong to the Cercopidae. Bits of saliva-like material adhering to the
stems of mum plants denote the presence of the greenish or yellowish insects.
This is the immature form of the spittle bug.

Nature of Injury. The tips of the leaves usually curl where these saliva masses
are present.

Control. DDT applied at the rate of 1.5 pounds active ingredient per acre has
given good economic control. Lindane at the rate of 1 pint of 25 percent emul-
sion per acre gives even better control. The wettable powder is applied at the
rate of 0.2 pound gamma isomer per acre. Toxaphene at the rate of 1 quart of
60 percent emulsifiable concentrate per acre has proven equally as effective.
The 40 percent wettable powder is applied at the rate of 1.5 pounds per acre.

White flies

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/6 inch. There are several spe-
cies of white flies (Aleyrodidae) that infest citrus and some of these may infest
pompons. The larvae of these flies are small, light green scale-like organisms
that feed on leaves. They are sucking insects. The adults are winged and white
in color.

Nature of injury. Plants grown near trees that harbor flies may become infested
with small white flies that suck the juice of the plant causing it to turn yellow
and die. The larvae exude a honeydew which gives the foliage a glazed appearance,

Control. Spray with a parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gal-
lonPe of water or DDT 2# or Malathion 2#-100.







Leafhoppers

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1/20 to 1/4 inch rarely larger
than 1/4. These small yellowish-green insects are particularly troublesome be-
cause they are attracted to lights which are an essential part of chrysanthemum
growing. There are no records of the species involved.

Nature of Injury. The insects produce damage to the leaf by sucking out the
juice from the underside of the leaf, leaving a tiny yellow spot on the upper
surface. Leafhoppers besides producing damage to the leaves, may carry virus
disease from plant to plant. Spray thoroughly with DDT at recommended strengths
several times during the season. Keep premises free from weeds and grass or
keep them sprayed regularly with DDT,

Leafhoppqrs are worse from the latter pert, of May until the middle of July. They
come in from surrounding vegetation and, damage is alway- greatfer-an the outside
rows and gradually works.in.ovward the,.cetter of the planting. Maintain a clean
barren strip around the shade houses.
Mites

Of the plant feeding mites, the Tetranychidae are the most widespread and
the most important economically. There is hardly a plant that is free of at
least one species and all species appear to be pests. Mites are distributed
by wind and by man, being carried on clothing from one part of the shade to
another. Varieties differ in their susceptibility, Iceberg, blue chip and por-
trait are quite susceptible to mite attack. Since there are so many varieties
grown at different seasons it is difficult to establish the susceptibility of
these varieties.

The northern or green two-spotted mite, Tetranychus telarius (L.), and the
southern lobed mite, T. lobosus Boudreaux, are two common species. These mites
are found on many weeds and cultivated plants,so infestation is simple. The
host plants for T. lobosus are gladiolus, geranium, eggplant, clover, sweet po-
tato, bean, strawberry, hibiscus and many others. The green two-spotted mite
was formerly reported as T. cinnabarinus (Boisduval). Boudreaux (2) says he
has not seen this species in Florida. The two-spotted mite has been found on
nightshade, pokeweed, hairy indigo, strawberry, eggplant and many other plants.

Description of destructive stage. -- They are very small, the actual size about
1/64 inch. They are generally more greenish or orange than red. They are usu-
ally found on the under surface of the leaf.

Nature of injury. The first sign of injury on the foliage is the pale green
mottling of upper leaf surface. The mites damage the plants by piercing the
leaves with their stylet-like mouthparts and sucking out the plant juice near
the puncture. Mites produce at such rapid rates that the populations reach
fantastic proportions if left uncontrolled. Wilson (6) reported that the aver-
age time for completion of a generation of T. telarius is 15 days with approxi-
mately 24 generations per year. T. telarius will produce fine webs. Mite dam-
age to the open flower ready for the market resembles a spray injury which in
the case of blue chip or portrait variety is a browning and withering of the
petals (the flowers look old or past their prime). On iceberg and pristine a
heavy mite population causes a browning of the white petals, sometimes confused
with thrips damage. Examination of a flower under a glass will disclose the
presence of the mites,







Control. Control measures vary in effectiveness as regards species, location,
season of year and abundance of the pest. The establishment of another species,
T. lobosus has helped to eliminate some of the confusion due to failures of miti-
cides to control all mite infestation. Some infestations that were almost pure
cultures of T. telarius responded very well to phosphatic miticides. Varying de-
grees of success depended on the preponderance of other species. Plantings in-
fested with T. lobosus did not respond to the phosphatic miticides. Demeton ap-
plied at the rate of 1 1/2 pints per 100 gallons of water (4-6 oz. active ingred-
ient) has proven successful upon certain occasions. Parathion 15W applied at
1 1/2 pounds to 100 gallons of water has been effective under the same conditions
as those listed for demeton. Aramite used at 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 pounds to 100 gallons
of water has proven effective but to a much lesser degree at times under the same
conditions as demeton and parathion. Kelthane WP applied at 2 pounds to 100 gal-
lons of water has proved to be the most effective against all species of mites so
far encountered and is recommended for mite control. Tedion applied 1 pound of
25% wettable at two week intervals has given very good control.

Since 15 days are required for a complete generation, two sprays at weekly
intervals with the third (clean up) give control of the mites. A well established
and flourishing population is hard to control.

Plant susceptible varieties together because they will require more careful
spraying than less susceptible ones and there will be less spread of the mites
throughout the shade.

Greenhouse Orthezia

Description of the destructive stage. -- Actual size hard to describe as the long
white fluted egg sac of the female may reach a length of 3/4 inch in length. The
actual insect, the greenhouse orthezia, Orthezia insignis Douglas is about 1/8 inch
in length.

Nature of injury. The insects settle on the leaves and stems of the plants sucking
the juice and causing the plant to become yellow, sickly and finally to die if not
treated.

Control. Spray with parathion 1 pound of 15 percent WP to 100 gallons of water.
Add a getting agent or detergent to facilitate penetration of the waxy covering.

Chewing Insects

Leaf tier

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size, 1/2 inch. This undetermined
species ties the foliage together with a web; it ruins the foliage appearance.
Its name ir derived from its habit of spinning a light web enclosing two or more
leaves or tying together the parts of a single leaf. The caterpillar is very
active, and when disturbed will wiggle off the leaf, often backwards, lowering
itself on a silk-like strand.

Nature of injury. When first hatched, the larvae eat out shallow holes on the
under side of the leaves. As they grow, they enlarge these holes but usually do
not cut through to the upper surface. The result is that the leaf is skeletonized.
When the leaves are webbed together over the bud a misshapen flower can result.

Control. Direct the spray against the underside of the foliage. Use DDT, parathion
or a combination of the two especially if the insect has rolled or tied the leaves
together. Parathion acts as the fumigant causing the insect to crawl out of the
webbed leaves.




-6-


Corn Earworm

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of larvae 1 1/2 to 2 inches.
The full grown larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) are of vari-
able colors ranging form pink, green or yellow to almost black. There is a
dark stripe along the middle of the back divided longitudinally by a narrow
white line.

Nature of injury. They chew the flower buds and also enter and chew the petals
from an opened flower.

Control. Spray with 2 pounds 50 percent DDT to 100 gallons of water plus 1 pound
of 15W parathion before buds show color. After the buds show color use dieldrin
at 1/2 pound per 100. Dieldrin can be used at 1 pound per 100 without injury to
bud or petals. Sevin 25W applied at the rate of 1 pound per 100 gallons is also
effective. Sevin must be used with care as it may severely injure some varieties.

Corn earworm in the buds of potted mums has been a major problem. Endrin
applied at 14 oz. to 100 has perhaps been as effective as any material used at
the present. Higher strengths of endrin will cause injury. Dibrom at 14 oz. per
100 has been used but, since it injures some varieties, its use should be cur-
tailed.

Cutworms and Armyworms

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 1 1/2 to 2 inches. These are of
various colors and markings. There are several species.

Nature of injury. Cutworms cut off the young plant and armyworms eat the foliage
and chew buds.

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil at the rate of 2 1/2 pounds of 40 percent
wettable to 100 gallons of water or a 5 percent dust will control the larvae.
Heptachlor applied at the rate of 2-3 pounds of 25W per 100 gallons or dieldrin
applied at the rate of 1 pound of the 50W are also excellent controls. In comm-
ercial plantings, soil sterilization keeps these pests under control.

Salt-marsh caterpillar,Woolly bear

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of fall-grown larvae of the
woolly bear, Estigmene acraea (Drury), is 2 inches in length. The larvae are
hairy or woolly brown to dark brown in color.

Nature of injury. The pest may move in rapidly from adjoining fields and overnight
ruin blocks of chrysanthemums. Because the pest is migratory and capable of fast
locomotion, it can damage considerable areas in a short time. Migrating larvae
are heavy feeders and are difficult to control.

Control. This pest is the one exception where a dust is advisable, despite the
stage of growth of the mums, because of the voraciousness of the insect. A
thorough dusting of 10 percent DDT will control the pest. It is necessary to
repeat the dusting within a day or so to kill caterpillars missed by the first
dusting.

Geometrid (measuring) worms

Description of destructive stage. -- The larvae of this group are called measuring
worms, spanworms or loopers because of their method of locomotion. Identification
is made easier because these larvae do not have any legs in the middle of the
body, only a' the head and and rear end. They cen attach themselves by their






rear legs and assume the likeness of a dry twig. One species known to attack mums
is Synchlora rubrifrontaria Pack.

Nature of injury. Injury results from their eating leaves or florets.

Control. Apply DDT 50 percent WP at rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water.

Cabbage looper

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size of full grown larvae is 1 1/4 in-
ches. The pale green larvae have a narrow white stripe along each side of the body
and two others along the middle line of the back. They travel with a looping mo- a
tion of the body.

Nature of injury. The young larvae eat small holes in the leaf but do not com-
pletely penetrate the leaf. As the larvae increase in size they eat the more
tender leaves and frequently ruin the bud.

Control. DDT applied at the rate of 3 pounds of 50 percent WP to 100 gallons of
water or toxaphene at 1 1/2 pounds of 40 percent WP will control the insect if
they are small. A combination of BHC + DDT applied 3 1/2 pounds per 100 alter-
nated with Thiodan + DDT each at 2 pounds per 100 has been applied. A good com-
bination spray for loopers contains 1/2 pint of parathion 4E plus 1 pint of tox-
aphene 8E applied at weekly intervals, but not on open flower. A full grown larva
is quite difficult to kill. Do not dust because of danger of spotting the petals.
Sevin 25W applied at the rate of 1 pound per 100 gallons is also effective but may
injure certain varieties. Bacillus thuringiensis, a dried preparation of viable
spores is very effective. Apply at the rate of 3 pounds per acre plus 1 ounce of
Triton 1-100 per 100 gallons of water, Death of larvae occurs within 36 hours. No
matter what insecticide is used, application must be thorough and penetrating to
reach larvae within the buds.

Leaf miners

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/16-1/4 inch long. The adult is
a tiny shining black fly marked with yellow in various ways. Larvae of the serpen-
tine leaf miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.), are yellow or orange colored and do the
tunneling.

Nature of injury. Most common injury is the serpentine mines made by the small
bright yellow to orange larvae. The tunnel leaves the upper and lower leaf sur-
faces intact. Another type of leaf mine is made by an undetermined species of
lepidoptera. The injury begins as an irregular tunnel which is widened to form
a large blotch.

Wbite and yellow Iceberg are two varieties subject to heavy attack from
leafminer. Since infestation is greater on these two varieties, control is more
difficult to obtain.

Control. Spray with parathion 15 percent WP at the rate of 1 pound to 100 gallons
of water. Diazinon 25W at 1 pound per 100 gallons of water is a very effective con-
trol but for the present should be used with caution as a foliage and petal burn may
result. More recently Phorate (Thimet) and Disyston applied at 3-4.5 pounds per
1000 square feet have given excellent control for 5-6 weeks. Four applications were
broadcast per season.

Dibrom at 14 oz. per 100 has been used and claimed effective, but some varie-
ties showed injury. This material should be used with caution before spraying an
entire range. Apply once a week on those varieties that are tolerant. (See injury
under Aphis).






Grasshoppers

Description of destructive stage. Various sizes up to the large lubberly.
There are several species.

Nature of injury. Grasshoppers can move in suddenly and cause severe damage to
flowering plants by eating foliage, flowers and tender growth.

Control. Aldrin applied at the rate of 1/2 pint of the emulsifiable concentrate
per acre is effective. Toxaphene sprayed at rate of 1.5 to 2 pounds of the 40
percent wettable per acre is effective.

Sowbugs

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size 3/8 to 5/8 inch, dark gray with
a lighter gray underneath. They are crustaceans, related to crayfish and crabs,
and are not insects. They are found in moist areas usually near some decayed
matter. They seldom appear during the daytime.

Nature of injury. They feed on the roots and tender portions of the plant,

Control. Chlordane applied to the soil as a spray at the rate of 2.5 pounds of
40 percent WP to 100 gallons of water or 30 pounds of 5 percent dust or granules
will control these pests.

Termites "white ants"

Description of destructive stage. -- Actual size variable about 3/16 3/4 inch.
The destructive stage are wingless, usually pale-colored, soft-bodied and possess
chewing mouthparts. They are called white ants but are not an ant or related to
ants.

Nature of injury. Termites have caused the loss of many chrysanthemum plants
around the home. They injure or kill a plant by tunnelling the stem. Around the
home, a wilted plant is a likely suspect for termite injury. Cutting across the
stem will frequently reveal the presence of the termites. Nothing can be done
for the plant once the termite attack has progressed this far.

Control. Termites can be eliminated from the soil by the use of Vapam, steaming,
chlordane, dieldrin or certain gaseous soil fumigants, such as MC-2, DD or EDB.
The chlordane or dieldrin is applied to the soil at the rate of 1 ounce of active
material to 100 square feet.

General Recommendations

All spray dosages are given in pounds of the insecticide per 100 gallons of
water. Normally, an acre oftwell-gown pompons requires 2400 gallons of spray.
There are certain right and wrong methods of application depending upon the type
of pest to be controlled. For most purposes a spray directed upward through
the foliage is most effective in controlling both insects and diseases. A three-
nozzled spray jet is the most satisfactory. It is very important that the nozzles
be of the same type, and the size of the orifices be the same, or uneven spraying
will result, causing irregular control patterns.


For compatibilities see the attached chart.







-9-

References

1. Ball, George J. Inc., Ball Mum Guide, 1955.

2. Boudreaux, H. Bruce correspondence. L. S. U. 1956-7-8.

3. Florida State Marketing BurteaU 42nd Annual Report 1959-1960.

4. Gloeckneri Fred C, & Co., Gloeckner's Chrysanthemum Manual. 1952.

5. Kiplinger,D. C. Greenhouse and Garden Chrysanthemum. 1954.

6. Wilson, J. W. The two-spotted mite on asparagus plumosus. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 234. 1931.








































Nov. 1961
300 copies








Chrysanthemum Spray Compatibility Chart
E. G. Kelsheimer, Gulf Coast Experiment Station
Bradenton, Florida


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Insects Found on Chrysanthemums in Florida*


Scales, mealy bugs and white flies
Orthezia insignia Douglas Greenhouse orthezia
Coccus sp.
Pseudoccus citri (Risso) citrus mealy bug
Common mealy bug
Icerya purchase Mask Cottony Cushion Scale
Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.) hemispherical scale
Aspidiotus lataniae Sign. latania scale
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morg.) Dictyospermum scale
Aleyrodidae sp. white flies

Aphids
Aphis sp.
Rhopalosiphum sp.
Myzus persicae (Sulzer) green peach aphid
Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill) Chrysanthemum aphid
Aphis padi Linn. Plum aphid
Aphis gossypii Glover melon aphid

Thrips
Frankliniella bispinosa (Morg.). Florida Flower Thrips
Thrips nigropilosus Uzel chrysanthemum thrips
Frankliniella cubensis Hood
Frankliniella tritici Fitch Flower thrips
Haplothrips gowdeyi Franklin Gowdeys thrips
Frankliniella cephalica melanomatta Wms.
Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Cravf.) the composite thrips
Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) Tobacco thrips

Mites
Tetranychus telarius (L.) Two-spotted mite
Tetranychus lobosus Boudreaux Southern lobed mite

Miscellaneous Pests
Centrinus sp. (weevil)
Membracidae treehopperr)
Synchlora denticularia (Walker)
Synchlora rubrifrontaria Pack measuring wrm
Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst.) sunflower moth
lygus lineolaris (P. de B.) Tarnished plant bug
Nezara viridula (L.) Southern green stink bug (pumpkin bug)
Cercopidae sp. spittle bugs
Leafhoppers
Leaf tier
Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.) serpentine leaf miner
Heliothis zea (Boddie) corn earworm
Estigmene acraea (Drury) Woolly bear
Prodenia eridania (Cram) Southern armyworm
Feltia subterranea (F.) Granulate cutworm
Grasshoppers
Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.) Cabbage looper
Termites
Sowbugs


*Division of Plant Industry, Florida Dept. of Agr.




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