Front Cover
 Varieties recommended
 Seed treatment and nematode...
 Production under full-bed plastic...
 Pesticide application and insect...
 Disease control
 Harvesting and handling
 Back Cover

Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service - 123C
Title: Lettuce and endive production guide for commercial use only
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067894/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lettuce and endive production guide for commercial use only
Series Title: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Alternate Title: Lettuce and endive
Physical Description: 13 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Montelaro, J
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1977
Subject: Lettuce   ( lcsh )
Endive   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by James Montelaro.
General Note: "April 1977."
General Note: "Revision of Circular 123B."
General Note: "4-3M-77"--P. 4 of cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067894
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51246141

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 1
    Varieties recommended
        Page 2
    Seed treatment and nematode control
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Production under full-bed plastic mulch culture and chemical weed control
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Pesticide application and insect control
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Disease control
        Page 11
    Harvesting and handling
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Back Cover
        Page 14
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

CCircular 12 3C April 1977


(Revision of Circular 123B)

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville

*- -. I

.. .. ."


.._ ,~ .""


This guide presents general recommendations
or the production of lettuce and endive in Florida.
modification may be necessary as improved prac-
ices are developed through research and ex-
For details on local application of these prac-
ices, see your county Extension agent. Other pub-
'cations on lettuce and endive production are:
"Commercial Vegetable Insect, Disease and
ematode Control Guide," Ext. Circ. 193.
"Chemical Weed Control for Florida Vegetable
rops," Extension Circular 196.
"Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide,"
extension Circular 225.
"Fertilization and General Sequence of Opera-
ons Under Full-Bed Plastic Mulch," Vegetable
rops Extension Report VC 9-1976.
"Vegetable Variety Trial Results for 1972-73-
4 and Recommended Varieties," Fla. Exp. Sta.
irc. S-234.
"Lettuce Production in the United States,"
SDA Ag. Handbook 221.

NOTE: Since these publications are revised
rom time to time, be sure to obtain the latest

Acreage Harvested and Yields*
(1974-75 Season)
reas Lettuce (all types) CWT
central Florida 1,530 164
outh Florida 5,570 186
tate 7,100 181
Endive Crates
central Florida 1,500 611
outh Florida 4,200 574
tate 5,700 584

From Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Sum-
mary, 1975.

Leaf Crops Cost and Returns*
for South Florida
(1974-75 Season, Range Per Acre)

Item Range: From To
Yield crates/A 214 807
Total growing cost $294.73 $ 713.70
Total harvest & market cost $372.67 $1,406.84
Total crop cost $723.63 $2,120.54
Crop Sales $554.46 $2,344.95
Returns (-$169.17) $ 224.41
*University of Florida, Food & Resource Economics De
apartment, Report 49 by D. L. Brooke. (NOTE: Ranges
from low to high are for each item and are not additive
in columns.)

Minetto-Medium plants of early maturity and
medium-green color. Head round, compact of ex-
cellent appearance. High yields in organic soils.
Excellent harvest uniformity of good quality
Fulton-Medium plants of early maturity and
medium green in color. Head round, compact of
fair appearance. High yields in organic soils.
Ithaca-Large plants suitable for winter pro-
duction on organic soils.
Mesa and Other Great Lake Strains-Large
plants of late maturity and dark green in color.
Head round but not too compact. Strain 118
adapted to muck and sands.

(Romaine or Cos)
Valmaine-Medium to large dark-green plants.
Resistant to downy mildew.
Dark Green Cos-Head medium large. Leaves
dark green.
Parris Island Cos-Similar to Dark Green Cos,
but tolerant to mosaic and resistant to bolting.

Bibb-Small early maturity head of excellent
quality. Dark green.
Improved Bibb-Leaves larger than regular
Bibb. No bronzing. Resistant to bolting.

White Boston-Medium to large heads with
pale-green color.
Dark Green Boston-Dark-green color, resist-
ant to bolting.
Other Varieties-Sweetheart.

Black-Seeded Simpson-Leaves large, frilled
nd crumpled.
Salad Bowl-Leaves small, light green and
Ruby-Red-leaved leaf type.
Prizehead-Green-red bordered leaves.

(Smooth Leaf Type ["Escarole"])
Full Heart Batavian-Broad-leaved with deep,
ide, bleached heart. Smooth.
Florida Deep Heart-Broad-leaved. Large, full
eart. Slightly crumpled.
(Curley Leaf Type ["Chicory"'])
Ruffec-Green, curled type.

Seed that are untreated when they are obtained
should be treated with one of the "seed treat-
ient" preparations commonly available at farm
upply stores.

Lettuce and endive are susceptible to injury
rom sting, stubby-root, awl and root-knot nema-
odes. Planting in soils heavily infested with these
ematodes should be avoided whenever possible.
allow cultivation, crop rotations and flooding
re means of controlling nematodes. Soils heavily
'nfested with plant parasitic nematodes should be
fumigated as suggested in Tables 1 and 2.
Note: In cases where only nematode control
s needed, use one of the materials listed in Table
1. The multi-purpose fumigants, which are effec-
tive in controlling a complex of soil-borne diseases,
nematodes, certain insects and in some cases,
weed seeds, are listed in Table 2.

Seeding Information

North Florida Central Florida South Florida
Seeding Dates Sept Sept-Feb Sept-Feb
Transplanting Dates Oct Oct-Mar Oct-Mar
(Days) Feb-Mar
Days to Maturity*
From transplants 60-80 60-80 60-80
Direct field seeded 70-95 70-95 70-95
Planting Distances*
Between rows 18"-30" 18"-30" 18"-30"
Between plants 8"-12" 8"-12" 8"-12"
Seeding Depth /4" to 1/" 1 to 1/2" 1" to 1/2"
Seed Required
Seedbed transplant/A 1% to /2 lb 1' to 1/ lb % to 1/2 lb
Direct field seeded 1 to 2 lbs 1 to 2 lbs 1 to 2 lbs
*The fast growing leaf and butterhead types require about 10 days less to reach maturity. They may be planted at closer spacing,

Table 1. Nematicides-Rates and Use
Overall 36-inch spacing)l
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
ematicide Gal/acre linear feet Gal/acre linear feet
D-D 20-25 59-73 9-11 79-972
elone II 12-15 35-44 5.3-6.7 46-622
owfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
oilbrom 85
umazone 863
emagon 12.1 1.5-2.0 4.4-5.9 0.75-1.0 4.4-5.9
xy DBCP 12
umazone 703 2.0-2.8 5.9-8.2 1.0-1.5 5.9-8.2
emagon 8.6
The overall rate per acre of fumigants is based in a 12-
inch chisel spacing. If chisels are spaced closer than 12
inches, the rate of fumigant per chisel should be reduced
For organic (muck and peat) soils, rates should be in-
creased by 75% to 150%. Consult the label of the material
you choose for specific rate instructions for your con-
ditions. Higher rates require longer waiting periods be-
tween treatment and planting.
DBCP (Fumazone, Nemagon, Oxy DBCP) products may
be legally used only on mineral soil.

Placement-Recommendations in the past for
pen culture have been to place the main or basic
application of fertilizer normally used at planting
n bands 2 to 3 inches to each side and slightly
elow the level of the seed or plant roots. This
practice is good where soluble salt injury is not
anticipated. An alternative practice, which helps
alleviate soluble salt problems, is the use of broad-
ast applications for part or all of the basic fer-
ilizer before planting.
Timing-The basic application of fertilizer may
e applied before planting, during planting, short-
y after planting, or in split applications combin-
ng any two or all three of these. Supplemental
ertilizer may be applied whenever needed during
he growing season and especially after heavy,
teaching rains. A pH of 5.5 to 5.7 is suggested
or the organic soils of the Belle Glade area.
Soil pH-Optimum range of lettuce and endive
reduction is between 6.0 and 6.5 on mineral soils.
here magnesium levels are low, use dolomitic

Table 2. Multi-Purpose Soil Fumigants -Rates and Use

Overall or broadcast Row (36-inch spacing)
Rate/chisel Rate/chisel
per 1000 per 1000
Fumigant Rate/acre linear feet Rate/acre5 linear feet
Chloropicrini 35-78 gal2 103-229 fl oz- 12-25 gal' 103-229 fl oz2
(Picfume, 11-15 gal3 32-44 fl oz: 3.7-5.0 gal: 32-44 fl oz:
Chloropicrin mixturest Rates depend on % content of chloropicrin; consult labels for specific information.
(Terr-O-Cide series,
Telone C-17)
Vapam' 40-100 gal 49-122 fl oz 49-122 fl oz

n~ a- 0Ct
3" D 02


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ci ~~ ~CD 52~

Vorlex" 30-50 gal 59-98 fl oz 2- -
'Chloropicrin and mixtures containing it are generally injected with chisels 10 to 12 inches apart. Rates shown per chisel assume o 3- C
12-inch spacing. CD ( C D
2Rates for open beds when only cultipacking or water is used to seal fumigant into the soil. -0 ( C
'Cover with polyethylene tarp or similar gas-tight tarpaulin to seal, as soon as possible after injection of fumigant. .
'If Vapam is applied by injection, chisel spacing should be 5 inches and rates per chisel are based on that spacing. Vapam can be 0 o -
applied by many techniques quite different from most other fumigants, and the method used can drastically affect the dosage 2 '*i N SC
needed. Control of soil-borne diseases and weed seeds generally requires higher dosages than nematode control. Consult label for 0 -
specific information. (
'Chisels for injection of Vorlex should be 6-8 inches apart. A polyethylene tarp is usually used to cover beds treated with Vorlex in < B
Florida. If a tarp is used to seal the fumigant into the soil, 59-69 fl oz/chisel/1000 linear feet (equivalent to 30-35 gal/acre on a
broadcast basis if chisels are set 8 inches apart) give satisfactory multiple pest control. Rates per chisel are based on 8-inch chisel -
spacing. P C
"Rates for use as a row treatment are offered only as guides to help determine the total amount of chemical needed. They assume -t" c r
use of a single chisel per row with 36 inches between rows. Closer spacing or use of more chisels per row will increase the total 0 T



tip <


52. P,

Higher rates may be needed to overcome the
tendency of minor elements to be tied up by the
organic matter in muck and peat soils and from
the high pH of limestone soils.

Table 3. Fertilizers -Rates and Use
Basic Supplemental
application applications
Actual lbs./A
applied each
Actual lbs./A application Number of
N-P205-K20 N-P205-K20 applications
Mineral Soils
Irrigated 108-144-144* 30- 0-15 1 to 3
Unirrigated 72- 96- 96 30- 0-30 1 to 2
(Peat & Muck)** 0-160-240*** **** ****
Rockland 45- 60- 60 30"30-30 1 to 4
Marl 54- 72- 72 30- 0-30 1 to 3
*The total amount may be applied in split applications
to reduce leaching and fertilizer burn.
**Research on the organic soils at Belle Glade indicates
a response to higher levels of P205 and K20 than recom-
mended here. On these soils, use 400 lbs. P205 and 300
lbs. K20 if they are low in these nutrients or are being
cropped for the first time.
***Rates suggested are for new or low P205 and K20
organic soils. When soil tests show a medium level of
P205, reduce the amount applied by one-third. When
P20s levels are high, reduce by two-thirds. Follow the
same suggestion for K20. On new organic soils, apply
15 lbs. of CuO, 10 lbs. of MnO, 7 lbs. of B203 and 5 lbs.
of ZnO per acre before cropping.
****During cold weather or following heavy rainfall,
nitrate-nitrogen sidedressing may be needed.

It has been shown experimentally that lettuce
and endive can be grown successfully under full-
bed plastic mulch culture. This system of culture
is being used widely for the production of toma-
toes, peppers, and strawberries on the mineral
soils of Florida. Technique of production used on
these crops can be adapted readily for lettuce and
endive, as well.
Before attempting wide-scale use of a new her-
bicide, it should be tested on a small scale for at
least one season.
For preemergence weed control, it is especially
important that the bed be prepared properly be-

Table 4. Herbicides Rates and Use'

Time of appli- (Active ingredient)
Crop Herbicides cation to crop" Sandy soils Muck soils Remarks
Lettuce Benefin Preplant % Incorporate immediately
(Balan) after application.
Bensulide Preplant 5 to 6 Incorporate 1 to 1%
(Prefar) inches deep. Note re-
strictions on label
before planting next crop.
CDEC Preemergence (2 to 4) (2 to 4) Some varieties and
(Vegadex) strains of lettuce may
be injured.
Pronamide Preemergence (1 to 1) -
Endive CDEC Preemergence 2 to 4 2

Pronamide Preemergence (1 to 1%)

'Rates given in parenthesis ( ) are suggested for trial purposes only.
2All treatments are preemergence to weeds.

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The amount per acre of insecticides and fungi-
cides recommended under "Insect Control" and
"Disease Control" is for full-grown crops and
should be reduced proportionately for smaller
plants. "Minimum Days to Harvest" means the
minimum number of days that must elapse be-
tween last foliar application and harvest. If the
dosages recommended are exceeded, the minimum
days listed may not be applicable and a longer
interval should be allowed.
The amount of spray required for adequate
coverage varies according to size of the plants.
Generally, 50 to 150 gallons of spray are sufficient
for good coverage. Pressure in spraying should
not exceed 250 psi.
PRECAUTIONS: Pesticides should be used
with extreme caution. Read the label and follow
recommendations on crop to use, dosage and time
apse required between last application and har-
est. Study suggestions for safety and follow
Table 5. Insecticides- Rates and Use
Insecticides and Amounts Min. days
Insects formulations' per acre to harvest
Aphids Parathion 4E 1/ pt. 21
Caterpillars Parathion 4E /2 pt. 21
Banded Cucumber Carbaryl (Sevin) 114 lbs. 14
Beetle 80% WP
Lygus Bug
Cutworms Effective insecticides are not cleared.
Parathion or diazinon applied for
wireworms and regular applications
of parathion or Sevin for foliage
insects will aid in control.
Mole Crickets Broadcast diazinon at 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre as a spray, dust
or granule or 5% Dylox bait evenly
over the soil surface at 20 to 40
pounds per acre before seeding or
transplanting if insects are present.
After plants are up, use a fresh bait
on soil (not plants) in late afternoon
when soil is moist and warm.
Wireworms Apply parathion or diazinon at 2
pounds active ingredient per acre on
mineral soils; on organic soils apply
parathion at 5 pounds or diazinon at

Insecticides and Amounts Min. days
formulations1 per acre to harvest


4 pounds active ingredient per acre.
Distribute evenly over the soil surface
2 to 3 weeks before planting and im-
mediately mix into the upper 6 inches
of soil.
Aphids Naled (Dibrom)
8E 1 pt. 1
Parathion 4E /2 pt. 14**
(Phosdrin) 2E 1 pt. 2
Banded Cucumber Parathion 4E '/ pt. 14**
Beetle Mevinphos
Caterpillars*** (Phosdrin) 2E 1-2 pts. 2
Lygus Bug Carbaryl (Sevin)
80% WP 1/4 lbs. 14*
Cutworms If cutworms are known to be present,
a preplant application of 2 pounds
active ingredient per acre toxaphene
can be used. The soil should not be
disturbed for 3 to 5 days after appli-
cation. If cutworms become a prob-
lem after the lettuce has been planted,
a bait should be used. At 2 %% toxa-
phene or 5% Dylox bait at the rate of
20 to 40 pounds per acre can be used.
Mole Crickets Broadcast diazinon at 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre as a spray, dust
or granule, or 5%Dylox bait evenly
over the soil surface at 20 to 40
pounds per acre before seeding or
transplanting if insects are present.
After plants are up, use a fresh bait
on soil (not plants) in late afternoon
when soil is moist and warm.

Wireworms Apply parathion or diazinon at 2
pounds active ingredient per acre on
mineral soils; on organic soils apply
parathion at 5 pounds or diazinon at
4 pounds active ingredient per acre.
Distribute evenly over the soil surface
2 ot 3 weeks before planting and im-
mediately mix into the upper 6 inches
of soil.
'Other formulations may be registered and available.
*Except 3 days on head lettuce.
**Except 7 days on head lettuce. The waiting period for
1 pint of parathion 4E on bibb and leaf lettuce is 21
***Bacillus thuringiensis is effective against loopers.
Several products contain the latest strain of Bacillus.
Follow recommendations on the label for crop and
dosage. Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) is effective
against loopers and other caterpillars. It is registered
for use on head lettuce at the rate of 1I to 1 lb. of
Methomyl 90% SP per acre. The waiting period is 7
days for %h lb. and 10 days for 1 lb.

Insecticides and Amounts Min. days
formulations' per acre to harvest


Alternaria Leaf Spot (Alternaria sonchi)-
Chloranil (Spergon) is the only fungicide ap-
proved by the Environmental Protection Agency
for control of this disease-and this in plant bed
only. Use 2 lbs. of 95% material/100 gallons of
water at 3-5 day intervals until plants are drawn.
Downy Mildew (Bremia lactucae)-The follow-
'ng fungicides are suggested for control of downy

Min. days
pray to harvest
ineb 75% 2 lbs., or 10
.aneb 80% 11/-2 lbsJA 10*
*Remove residues from head lettuce by stripping and
trimming, and from leaf lettuce and endive by washing
or other effective means.
Begin applications when disease appears, repeat at 7-
day intervals.

Drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)-Since the dis-
ase is not serious every year, it is difficult to sug-
-est a definite control program. Each of the fol-
lowing control measures has reduced drop, but
when conditions become favorable for the develop-
ment of the disease, it may be necessary to com-
bine all of them in order to obtain a satisfactory
1. Rotate with a crop not susceptible to this
disease, such as sweet corn.
2. Turn soil at least 6 inches deep when plow-
3. Flood the soil either completely, partially or
intermittently for a period of six weeks during
the summer. Before flooding, find out from local
authorities if drainage into a given body of water
is permissible.
4. Spray weekly with a mixture of 2 pounds
ferbam plus 1 pound hydrated lime per 100 gallons
of water at 100 to 200 gallons of spray per acre.
Remove residue by stripping, trimming and wash-
ing. Do not apply within 7 days of harvest.
Soft Rot (Pseudomonas marginalis)-Grow
healthy plants and avoid bruising. Also, use rapid
precooling and avoid crushing and free water in
shipping containers.

Mosaic (Lettuce Mosaic Virus and Biddens
Mottle Virus)-The suggested control is to use
seed which has been indexed as lettuce mosaic
virus-free. BMV is not reported to be seed borne;
instead BMV is found on weed hosts, hairy beg-
garticks (Bidens pilosa) and Virginia pepperweed
(Lepidium virginicum). Aphids transmit both
LMV and BMV from infected plants to healthy
Tipburn-This disorder occurs during periods
of rapid, succulent growth. To reduce incidence,
fertilize sparingly with nitrogen during warm
weather and near harvest. Several small applica-
tions are better than one large application. Irri-
gate sparingly near harvest. Several varieties of
leaf and head lettuce are resistant to tipburn.
Bolting-Production of seed stalks may occur
when plants are exposed to high temperatures at
any stage of growth. Lettuce should be seeded
after hottest weather has passed in the fall.
Several varieties of leaf and head lettuce are re-
sistant to bolting.

Each of the particular types of lettuce and en-
dive requires a different harvesting and handling
technique. Head lettuce should not be harvested
until heads are firm and the top of the heads have
broadened and are light green in color. Begin
harvest during the day after outer leaves are
slightly wilted to reduce breakage. The marketing
of immature heads reduces the carrying ability
and quality. Waiting too long to harvest creates
the risk of tipburn and bolting in warm weather.
Sufficient wrapper leaves should be retained to
protect the head in packing and shipping. Cut
heads should be removed from the field, packed
and precooled as rapidly as possible. All types
should be packed by size and containers not over-
All types of lettuce should be handled with great
care because they are fragile. The Bibb types are
extremely fragile and are very sensitive to top
icing. They tend to break down easily and discolor
from prolonged exposure to ice water. Precooling

ay be done by either vacuum cooling or hydro-
)ling. Temperatures should be brought down
near 320F and maintained between 320 to 400F
roughout transit and marketing.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
e purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
arantee or warranty of the products named and does
ot signify that they are recommended to the exclusion
others of suitable composition.

prepared by: James Montelaro

Acknowledgements-The author wishes to express his
ncere thanks to the many faculty members of the In-
itute of Food & Agricultural Sciences who made many
lpful suggestions in the preparation of this circular.
special contributions were made by:
J. E. Brogdon and F. A. Johnson-Insect Control
R. S. Mullin and T. A. Kucharek-Disease Control
R. A. Dunn-Nematode Control
R. K. Showalter-Harvesting and Handling

ngle copies are free to residents of Florida and may be obtained
m the County Extension Office. Bulk rates are available upon
quest. Please submit details of the request to C.M. Hinton, Publi-
tion Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of
orida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


EXENIONiijL ij~j iii~


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director

This publication was promulgated at a cost
of $495.00, or 161/2 cents per copy, to inform
Florida growers on lettuce and endive pro-

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