The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
FOR COMMERCIAL GROWERS
Florida Cooperative Eiftns
Institute of Food and Ag udi
University of Florida,
John T. Woeste, Dean for
CUCUMBER PRODUCTION GUIDE
(Revision of Circular 101C)
This guide presents general recommendations
or the commercial production of cucumbers in
lorida. Modification may be necessary as im-
roved practices are developed through research
For details on local application of these prac-
ices, see your County Agricultural Extension
gent. Other publications on cucumber produc-
Commercial Vegetable Insect and Disease
control, Extension Circular 193H.
Chemical Weed Control for Florida Vegetable
rops, Extension Circular 196F.
Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide,
extension Circular 225.
Vegetable Variety Trial Results for 1972-
)73-1974 and Recommended Varieties, Fla. Exp.
;a. Circular S-234.
Since these publications are revised from time
> time, be sure to get the latest issues.
ACREAGE AND YIELDS*
sas Harvest Period Acres Yield per Acre*
)rth May-June, Sept-Oct. 1900 304
rth Central May-June, Sept-Oct. 1050 314
VCentral Apr-June, Oct-Dec. 3250 310
athwest Oct-May 7500 250
erglades, SE Oct-May 1700 325
tte, 15400 301
lb. bushel or equivalents from Florida Crop and Live-
ock Reporting Service Vegetable Summary 1976.
YIELDS, COSTS AND RETURNS*
1973-74 Range Per Acre
'ld (bushels) 127 259
tal growing cost ($) 418 754
al harvesting & marketing cost ($) 327 644
al crop cost ($) 745 1398
op sales ($) 896 1501
t return ($) 151 103
adapted from University of Florida, Food and Resource
onomics Department Report 67, D. L. Brooke.
New varieties are periodically compared with
current varieties in field tests conducted by state
experimental stations. The following list is a
partial listing of varieties which have performed
well in Florida. Most of the open pollinated, stand-
ard varieties bear male and female flowers (mon-
oecious). Many of the newer varieties, with higher
yielding and disease resistant characteristics, bear
mostly female flowers and are called gynoecious
1. Fresh Market Types (Slicing)
A. Open Pollinated
Ashley: A dark green, 7 to 8 inch long, early
to mid-season variety, resistant to downy
mildew, fairly tolerant to powdery mildew.
Poinsett: A dark green, 8 to 81/2 inch long
mid-season variety, with tolerance to down
and powdery mildew, anthracnose and an.
gular leaf spot.
RB. Gynoecious Hybrids
Victory: A dark green, 7 to 8 inch long
early season variety resistant to downy mil.
dew; moderately tolerant to powdery mil-
dew, scab, anthracnose, and angular leal
Gemini: A dark green, 7 to 8 inch long
mid-season variety tolerant to downy mil
dew, powdery mildew, scab, mosaic, and an
Sprint: A dark green, 7 to 9 inch long
blocky, early season variety, with good re
distance to scab; tolerant to angular lea
spot, cucumber mosaic, downy mildew, on
race of anthracnose and powdery mildew.
Slicemaster: A dark green, early 7 to 9 incl
long variety having high tolerance to an
thracnose, scab, mosaic, downy and powder
mildew and angular leaf spot.
2. Pickling Varieties
A. Gynoecious Hybrids
Explorer: A medium dark green, blocky,
inch long, early variety with tolerance t
downy and powdery mildew, angular lea
spot and anthracnose.
Carolina: A medium green, blocky, 5 to 6
inch long, early variety with good resistance
to angular leaf spot, scab, downy mildew;
and moderate resistance to powdery mildew
Premier: A medium green, blocky, 5 to 6
inch long, early season variety with good re-
sistance to scab; moderate resistance to
anthracnose, powdery mildew, mosaic and
Calypso: A dark green, 6 to 7 inch long,
mid-early variety with resistance to scab;
tolerance to downy mildew, and cucumber
North Central South
Florida Florida Florida
nting Dates February-
August- March September-
September September February
s to First
icking 40 to 50 40 to 50 40 to 50
Between Row 4' to 5' 4' to 5' 6' to 7'
Plants in Row 10" to 20" 10" to 20" 8" to 15"
Between Row 3' to 4' 3' to 4' 4' to 5'
Plants in Row 2" to 3" 2" to 3" 2" to 3"
'er Acre 2 lbs. 2 Ibs. 2 lbs.
nting Depth '" to %" "12" to %3" %" to %"
Seed is usually treated by seedsmen before it is
ered for sale. Any untreated seed should be
ated with materials available for this purpose
m farm supply stores.
,ucumbers are susceptible to injury from root-
ot and sting nematodes. Soils known to be
ivily infested with these nematodes should be
>ided. Fallow cultivation, crop rotations, flood-
;, etc., are possible means of controlling nema-
es. If soils heavily infested with plant parasitic
nematodes must be used, they should be fumi-
gated as suggested in the following table.
NEMATICIDES-Rates and Use
Overall, 2 Row2
Fl oz/chisel linear feet
per 1000 Gal/Acre3 (any row
Nematicide Gal/Acre linear feet (36" Row) spacing)
D-D 20-25 59-73 8-10 72-90
Dowfume W-85 4.5-6.0 13-18 1.5-2.0 13-18
Telone 15-20 43-59 6-8 54-72
1The overall rate per acre of fumigants is based on a 12-inch chi
2For organic (peat and muck) soils, rates should be increased 75-100
3These gallonages are based on one chisel per 36" row. Closer 1
spacing will require more chemical per acre; wider row spacing, le
Multi-Purpose Soil Fumigants
for Production Field
There are a number of multi-purpose fumigan
which can be used on cucumbers. They contr
some of the soil-borne diseases, nematodes, i
sects, and weeds. The multi-purpose fumigants a
generally more expensive than the nematicid
Multi-Purpose Soil Fumigants
Fl oz/chisel Fl oz/chis
per 1000 Gal/Acre3 per 100
Fumigant Gal/Acre linear feet 136" Row) linear fe
Chloropicrin* 35-46 103-135 12-15 103-13!
Metham** 40-60 50-74 6-8 50-74
Vorlex 30-35 60-70 7-8 60-70
*Use the high rate in fields heavily infested with nematodes. An i
ditional 7-10 day waiting period is generally necessary when the hi
rate is used.
**Do not use in fields known to have high soil-borne disease or nen
1The overall rate per acre listed for chloropicrin is for a 12-in
chisel spacing; Metham requires a 5-inch chisel spacing and Vor]
requires an 8-inch chisel spacing.
2For organic (peat and muck) soils, the rates listed below, exc<
Vorlex, should be increased 75-100%. Use Vorlex at the rate of
3These rates are given as a guide to determine total amount of che
ical needed for a field. Closer row spacing will require more chemi
per acre; wider row spacing, less.
Since fertilizer rates, sources and placement
or unmulched and strip-mulch culture differ con-
iderably from full-bed mulch culture, information
or each is presented separately. A soil test should
e made as soon as the production field has been
art I. Production Under Unmulched or Strip- Mulch
Placement-Recommendations in the past for
pen culture have been to place the main or basic
plication of fertilizer normally used at planting
bands 2 to 3 inches to each side and slightly
elow the level of the seed or plant roots. An al-
rnative practice, which helps alleviate soluble
It problems, is the use of bed-incorporated appli-
tions for part or all of the basic fertilizer before
Strip-mulch culture differs from the open meth-
in that only 20% of the fertilizer is bed-incor-
:rated and the balance is placed under an 8- to
i-inch strip of polyethylene mulch to reduce
Timing-The basic application of fertilizer may
Applied before planting, during planting, short-
after planting, or in split applications combin-
g any two or all three of these. Supplemental
rtilizer may be applied whenever needed during
e growing season and especially after heavy,
Soil pH-Optimum range for cucumber produc-
on is between 6.0 and 6.5. Where magnesium
vels are low, use dolomitic limestone.
Minor Elements-A general guide for adequate
inor elements, in the absence of past experience
soil tests, is the addition of 0.3% MnO, 0.2%
O0, 0.3% Fe203, 0.2% ZnO, and 0.2% B203 with
e fertilizer. The minor elements can be obtained
om mixtures of oxides and sulfates or fritted
materials. Growers should consider the elements
plied in fungicides in the overall management
a minor element program.
Higher rates are necessary to overcome the ten-
*ncy of minor elements to be completed or tied-
> by the high pH of marl soils.
FERTILIZERS-Rates and Use for Production
Fields (for open or strip-mulch culture)
Basic Actual Lbs./A
Application Applied each Number
Actual Lbs./A application of
N-P205-K20 N-P205-K20 Applications
Irrigated 90-120-120 30- 0-30 1 to 3
Unirrigated 60- 80- 80* 30- 0-30 1 to 2
Peat & Muck Not recommended for these soils.
Rockland 45- 60- 60 30-30-30 1 to 2
Marl 54- 72- 72 30- 0-30 1 to 2
*The total amount may be applied in split applications
reduce leaching and fertilizer burn.
Rates suggested are for new or low P205 and K20
ganic soils. When soil tests show a medium level of P2
reduce amount applied by one-third. When P205 lev
are high, reduce by two-thirds. Follow the same s
gestion for K20. On new organic soils, apply 15 Ibs.
CuO, 10 lbs. of MnO, and 4 lbs. of B203 per acre bef
During cold weather or following heavy rainfall, nitra
nitrogen sidedressing may be needed.
Part II. Production Under Full-Bed Mulch
When using full-bed mulch without drip irril,
tion, the crop must be supplied all of its soil :
quirements (lime, fertilizer, soil pesticides, init
moisture, soil preparation and bed shape) befo
the mulch is applied.
The following are suggestions for fertilizati
under full-bed mulch culture. They should
modified as needed.
A general sequency of operations for full-b
mulch culture is: (1) land preparation, (2) li
ing, (3) addition of superphosphate, mixed fi
tilizers and minor elements to be incorporate
into the future bed area, (4) mixing insectici
into soil, (4a) incorporation of herbicide, if usi
(5) bed-shaping, (6) fumigation, (7) bed-firmi
and re-shaping, (7a) application of surface-i
plied herbicide, if used, (8) application of the b
ance of mixed fertilizer on the surface, and (
application of mulch. The following are guic
lines to rates, sources and placement of fertili2
for full-bed mulch culture.
Total major elements suggested per acre for
ull-bed mulch culture:
N P205 K20
00 to 200 lbs. 50 to 100 (old land) 120 to 240 lbs.
100 to 200 (new land)
Placement of the fertilizer materials may vary
somewhat. The following approach has been used
uccessively by growers.
(1) Broadcast and disk in:
(a) Superphosphate (20%) at rate of 400
to 600 lbs. per acre before fumigation.
(Vary amount depending on residual
(b) Minor elements-Use rates suggested
for unmulched production.
(c) Mixed fertilizer-300 to 500 Ibs. of 5-
10-10 or 6-12-12 per acre as a "start-
er." (Note-Alternative is to broad-
cast the starter fertilizer on the sur-
face just prior to applying mulch
cover.) At a between row spacing of
4 to 5 feet, apply about 4.5 lbs. of start-
er per 100 linear feet of bed. On rows
6 to 7 feet wide, apply about 5.5 lbs. of
starter per 100 linear feet of bed.
(2) Apply on bed surface:
Balance of fertilizer in two broad bands on
each side of a one-row bed or in three
bands on a two-row bed. A total of 500
to 1,000 lbs. of an 18-0-25 mixture can be
used here, depending on the length of
harvest season anticipated. At a between
row spacing of 4 to 5 feet, apply 12 lbs.
of fertilizer per hundred linear feet of bed.
With a 6 to 7 foot spacing, apply 14 lbs.
per hundred linear feet.
NOTE: Nitrogen should come primarily from a
trate source for soils that have been fumigated
id fully mulched. A ratio of 60 to 70% nitrate-
Itrogen and 30 to 40% ammonia-nitrogen is sug-
isted. Some natural organic can be added, but
iey will not convert readily in fumigated soil
atil nitrifying organisms return. For two or
iree bands, divide the total pounds of fertilizer
ir 100 feet of row by the number of bands used.
Weeds must be controlled during the initial
phases of cucumber production before the vines
cover the soil. Thorough soil preparation to con-
trol all weed growth before planting is essential.
After cucumber emergence, cultivate weeds when
they are small and easy to control.
The following herbicides are registered for use
in cucumber production. However, growers should
test these herbicides on a trial basis to become
acquainted with the weeds they control and th
proper methods of application. Read the herbicid
labels carefully and apply at proper time wit
proper soil or planting conditions.
HERBICIDES-Rates and Use
Herbicide common Time of (active
name and (trade application ingredient)
name)* to crop sandy soils Remarks
Bensulide Preplant 5 Incorporate
(Prefar) 1 to 1.5 inches
deep in moist
Naptalam Preemergence 3 to 4 Soil surface
(Alanap) must be moist
at time of
Chloramben Preemergence (2 to 3)1 Apply lower
(ester) rate on sandy
DCPA Postemergence 10.5 Apply 4 to 6 wk
(Dacthal) after seeding.
*Indicates trade name (see last paragraph pertaining I
'Rates given in ( ) are suggested for trial purpose
The amount per acre of insecticides and fungi-
ides recommended under "Insect Control" and
'Disease Control" is for full-grown crops and
should be reduced proportionately for smaller
plants. "Minimum Days to Harvest" means the
minimum number of days that must elapse be-
ween last foliar application and harvest. If the
osages recommended are exceeded, the minimum
ays listed may not be applicable and a longer in-
erval should be allowed.
The amount of spray or dust required for ade-
uate coverage varies according to size of the
lants. Generally, 50 to 150 gallons of spray or 20
35 pounds of dust are sufficient for good cover-
ge. Pressure in spraying should not exceed 250
PRECAUTIONS: Pesticides should be used with
treme caution. Read the label and follow recom-
endations on crop to use, dosage and time lapse
quired between last application and harvest.
tudy suggestions for safety and follow carefully.
INSECTICIDE AMOUNT MIN. DAYS
INSECT FORMULATION PER ACRE TO HARVEST REMARKS
Leafminers Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)***2E 1 qt. 1.0 The Serpentine leafminer has become a most difficult
Dibrom 8E 1 pt. NTL pest to control on many crops grown under Florida
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15 conditions. Research evidence indicates that spray-
Phosphamidon 8E %4 % pt. 3 ing needlessly, overdosing, and preventative insur-
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 8E % 1 pt. 1 ance-type sprays lead to early buildup. As a result,
Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 7 it is not unusual for large, uncontrollable popula-
tions to be reached before the end of a growing
season. The grower is cautioned to monitor the field
and make applications only as field counts or dam-
ages reach a level that can cause crop quality or
Aphids Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 7 Diazinon works well in the northern part of the
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E
Methomyl (Lannate, 90SP
S- 1 pt.
state but often can give erratic results in the
southern growing areas.
INSECTICIDE AMOUNT MIN. DAYS
INSECT FORMULATION PER ACRE TO HARVEST REMARKS
ing on the
Lindane 25% WP
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) 2E
Methomyl (Lannate, 90SP
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E
Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E
*Do not apply more than twice per season.
**Higher rate for pickleworm.
***Do not apply Guthion more than 3 times per season.
% 1 pt.
1 1% pts.**
1 -2 pts.
NTL Loopers are considered as rindworms and are more
difficult than most caterpillars or worms to control.
Bacillus thuringiensis and methomyl have proven to
1*** be most effective.
Research results often indicate that where two or
1 more insecticides are recommended for an insect,
NTL resistance is slowed by alternating materials and not
using the same material over and over in the spray
INSECT CONTROL (Continued)
Flea beetles Endosulfan (Thiodan) 2E 1 qt. NTL
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WP 1'A lbs. NTL
Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15
Mites Parathion 4E % 1 pt. 15
Dibrom 8E 1 pt. NTL
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E 1 -1 pt. 1
Kelthane 1.6E 1% -2 pts. 2
Thrips Diazinon 4E 1 pt. 7
Dibrom 8E 1 pt. NTL
Parathion 4E % 1 pt. 15
Stinkbugs Parathion 4E 1 pt. 15
Grasshoppers Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 2E 2 1 pt. 1.0
Armyworms Methomyl (Lannate, 90 SP 1 % lb. 3
Nudrin) 1.8E 1 -2 pts.
Carbaryl (Sevin) 80WP 1% lbs. NTL
Cutworms Parathion 10G 30- 40 lbs. Cutworms can overwinter in the larval form and
Carbaryl (Sevin) 5% bait
2 4 qts.
14- 28 lbs.
can be present at planting time in sufficient size and
numbers to severely damage stands. Cutworms are
often severe where cucurbits are planted behind
Apply parathion or diazinon just prior to planting
and work into soil to a depth of 2-3 inches for sur-
face cutworm and 3-6 inches for subterranean cut.
worm. Caution: Cutworms are night feeders and
baits should be applied late in the afternoon or early
evening hours. If applied early in the day, rain, ir-
rigation, heat and sunlight can reduce their effec-
tiveness. Since the cutworm moves very little, baits
applied in the row would probably give as good re-
sults as those broadcast. When spraying young
plants with most recommended insecticides, if noz-
zles are arranged so that the spray also contacts
the soil around the plant stem, control is often
Wireworms Diazinon 14% G
Parathion 10% G
14 28 lbs.
20 30 lbs.
Wireworms can devour seed, particularly when farm-
ing behind grass or pasture. The worm can live for
several years in the soil and if the field in question
has been known to be infested in the past year or
so, perhaps more strong consideration should be
given for treatment.
AMOUNT MIN. DAYS
PER ACRE TO HARVEST REMARKS
INSECT CONTROL (Continued)
Mole Malathion bait****
Crickets Diazinon bait****
Use high rates of materials for organic soils.
Apply all wireworm soil insecticides 2 weeks prior
to planting. Distribute evenly, cross-disc into the
soil preferably to a depth of 6 inches.
Apply labeled mole cricket bait late in the after-
noon for the same reason as discussed under cut-
worms. Mole crickets do not accept bait unless night
temperatures are in excess of 60*F. and the soil is
in a moist condition. Control of this insect is dif-
ficult or unlikely, even at best. Remember if any
control is to be expected, baits must be broadcast
and not applied in spots.
Diazinon spray used for cutworms (see instructions
under cutworms) has resulted in reduced mole
****These materials are cleared for use on cucumbers and are frequently made into baits of various percentages.
,'...-,,,- ...,,. ,. 10, hn-1 -at-s ond instructions.
Disease Spray to Harvest
thracnose Zineb 75%, 1 lb. plus 5
Colletotrichum Maneb 80%, % lb., or 5
lagenarium) Manzate 200 80%, 1-3 lbs., or 5
wney mildew Dithane M-45 80%, 1%-31bs., or 5
PseudoperonosporaBenlate, /4-% lb. /A NTL
cubensis) (Benlate does not control
mmy Stem Blight downy mildew.)
dery Mildew Karathane 25%, 6-8 oz., or 7
rysiphe Bravo W75, 1%-2 lbs., or NTL
ichoracearum) Benlate, 1%-% lb./A NTL
umber Scab Bravo W75, 1%-2 lbs., or NTL
ladosporium Manzate 200 80%, 1%-3 lbs., or 5
cumerinum) Dithane M-45 80%, 1%-3 lbs./A 5
Anthracnose, Downy Mildew, and Gummy Stem
ight-Downy mildew is serious in all parts of
e state during warm, damp weather. Spray every
to 7 days, beginning before runners start, if
cessary. In seasons of light infection, applica-
ins may be delayed until runners form and in-
:vals may be longer.
There are several varieties of cucumbers re-
itant to downy mildew but fungicides should be
ed to prevent other diseases.
Powdery Mildew-The fungicides used for
wny mildew give some control of powdery mil-
w, but most will not give sufficient control.
rathane, Bravo, and benomyl are effective. If
wdery mildew is a persistent problem, use one
the materials on a preventative basis: i.e., on a
,ular schedule (every 7 to 14 days) before the
ease appears. During cold weather, sulfur may
used to help control powdery mildew. Use sul-
in cold weather only 2 or 3 times at a maxi-
im rate of 2 lbs. per acre each time.
iruses (Mosaic)-Most mosaic symptoms in
se crops are caused by aphid-transmitted
uses that occur naturally in wild hosts. Elimi-
ion of weeds around the field before planting
1 help greatly in reducing losses from virus
Angular Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans
-Use only disease-free seed.
Weekly applications of copper sprays (3 pound
of 48-53% metallic copper per 100 gal/A) help t
control spread of the disease in the field. Coppe
will not give satisfactory control of powdery mil
dew and this is not a substitute for the othe
materials. Repeated copper applications may caus
yellowing of leaf margins and possibly reduction
of yields. No time limitation when used as su
Bees are necessary for pollination of cucumber
Good pollination improves set, shape, and size
fruit. Use at least one hive of honey bees for evei
three to five acres of cucumbers. Place beehive
in the field so that bees do not have to travel mo:
than a hundred feet to feed.
Apply insecticides in late afternoon to avoid ii
jury to bees.
HARVESTING AND HANDLING
Harvesting extends from October to July an
normally begins about 45-65 days after planting
or 7 to 10 days after flowering. Season an
weather significantly affect plant growth an
picking frequency. Picking is necessary sever
times per week due to rapid increase in size, d
crease in quality and the need to remove all fru
to insure continued production of desired size
Cucumbers for slicing or pickling should be ha
vested before they have reached full diameter ai
while the seeds are small and soft. Increase
amounts of light green and yellow external col
indicate that seeds are no longer immature. Sli
ing cucumber texture should be firm and not so
Vines should be trained into the row to ke(
them out of the picker's way since stepping on t
vines greatly reduces yield. Cucumbers should
removed carefully from the plant to avoid dama
to the fruit and vine. By grasping fruit near t
stem, pickers can snap fruit from the vine by
slight twisting motion.
Cucumbers should be hauled to the packing-
house immediately after harvest to reduce water
loss, sunburn, and decay. To avoid bruising, they
should be handled in rigid containers such as bulk
bins or field boxes and not burlap bags, since im-
act and pressure can cause serious internal dam-
ge. Slicing cucumber fruit are washed, waxed,
ized, packed in cartons or wirebound crates, and
oaded directly in trucks for shipment. The U.S.
ancy grade for slicing cucumbers requires a
iaximum of 23/8 inch diameter with a minimum
ength of 6 inches, and a shape that is nearly
straight with very little taper or constriction. Cu-
umbers grown in Florida are usually sized ac-
ording to market demands rather than U.S.
standards. Cucumbers may have a storage life of
0-14 days at 450-500F. and 90-95% relative hu-
iidity, but they are very susceptible to yellowing,
hriveling from moisture loss, and chilling injury
rom temperatures lower than 450F.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
ie purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
larantee or warranty of the products named and does
ot signify that they are recommended to the exclusion
others of similar composition.
Prepared by: George A. Marlowe, Jr. and James
:ontelaro, Extension Vegetable 'Specialists.
The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to the
any faculty members of the Institute of Food and Ag-
cultural Sciences who made many helpful suggestions in
Le preparation of this circular. Special contributions were
Disease Control T. A. Kucharek & J. P. Jones
and Handling R. K. Showalter
Insect Control W. C. Adlerz & F. A. Johnson
ematode Control R. A. Dunn & A. J. Overman
varieties G. W. Elmstrom &
D. J. Cantliffe
eed Control R. D. William & D. S. Burgis
Single copies are free to residents of Florida and may be obtained
from the County Extension Office. Bulk rates are available upc
request. Please submit details of the request to C.M. Hinton, Pub:
cation Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University 4
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
This public document was printed at an annual
cost of $515.00, or 17.1 cents per copy, to inform
interested growers on cucumber production in
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director