The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
FI / C
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CIRCULAR 100 C
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FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
STITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
BEAN (BUSH & POLE) PRODUCTION GUIDE
(Revision of Circular 100B)
This guide presents general recommendations
for the production of bush and pole beans in Flor.
ida. Modification may be necessary as improve(
practices are developed through research and ex-
For details on local application of these prac
tices, see your County Agricultural Extension
Agent. Other publications on bush and pole bear
(1) "Commercial Vegetable Insect and Diseas
Control Guide," Extension Circular 193.
(2) "Chemical Weed Control for Florida Veg
etable Crops," Extension Circular 196.
(3) "Commercial Vegetab e Fertilizatio
Guide," Extension Circular 225.
(4) "Vegetable Variety Trial Results for 1969
1970-1971 and Recommended Varieties," Fla. Ex:
Sta. Circular S-223.
NOTE: Since these publications are revise
from time to time, be sure to get the latest ed
County Bush Beans Pole Beans** Tot
Gadsden 950 9
Alachua 1,060 1,0
Hillsborough 850 8
Palm Beach 16,350 16,3
Broward 8,950 8,9.
Dade 2,950 3,600 6,5
All Others 1,390 1,3
TOTAL 32,500 3,600 36,1
*From "Florida Agricultural Statistics. Vegetable Summary
**Pole beans are also grown on limited acreage in Gadsden, Hil
borough and other counties.
YIELD, COSTS AND RETURNS*
(1971-72 Season, Range Per Acre)
Palm Beach-Broward Dade County (Pole
Item Range: from to Range: from
Yield (bu/acre) 33 87 246 329
Total growing cost $ 180.67 $313.74 $ 499.36 $ 790
Total harvest/market cost $ 51.97 $153.59 $ 401.29 $ 519
Total crop cost $ 260.62 $467.33 $ 986.75 $1,295
Crop sales $ 148.50 $435.00 $1,181.89 $1,543
Net return (or loss) ($-131.62) $106.78 $ 174.43 $ 534
*From University of Florida, Ag. Econ. Report 44. (Note: Ran
from low to high are for each item and are not additive in t
SWEET CORN PRODUCTION GUIDE
The purpose of this guide is to present general
recommendations for the production of sweet corn
in Florida. For details on local application of
these practices, see your county Extension agent.
Additional information on sweet corn production
can be found in the following publications: Uni-
versity of Florida, Extension Circulars 193, 196,
225 and Experiment Station Bulletins 596 and
714. Since Extension circulars are revised from
time to time, be sure to obtain latest editions.
ACREAGE AND HARVEST PERIODS*
Areas in Florida Harvest Period Acreage Harvested
North & West Florida May-June 1,610
North Central Florida May-July 8,300
West Central Florida April-June 290
Everglades Oct.-June 32,870
South Florida Dec.-May 13,530
State Total 56,600
*From Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Sum-
YIELDS, COSTS AND RETURNS*
(5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1968-69)
Everglades Coast Zellwood
(Muck) (Sand) (Muck)
Crates (5 doz.)/A 156 149 231
Production Costs/A $202.63 $252.27 $212.79
Costs/A 176.71 168.87 261.26
Total Costs/A 379.34 421.14 474.05
Sales F.O.B. 370.68 462.01 514.61
Profit or Loss/A -8.66 +40.87 +40.56
*From University of Florida Agricultural Economics
Report 2, by D. L. Brooke.
Many sweet corn hybrids are released each
year. Trials to screen sweet corn varieties for
performance under Florida conditions are con-
ducted each year by research workers of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Stations. Varieties
listed here are those that performed well in one
or more locations in Florida. Listing of these
varieties only is not meant to imply that other
varieties may not be suitable to Florida, also.
Carmelcross and Northern Belle.-Plant small,
early maturity. Ear yellow and only of fair ap-
pearance. Susceptible to leaf blights.
Iobelle (Fla. 104).-Medium size plant of mid-
season maturity. Ear attractive, pale yellow.
Planted for all season production. Susceptible to
Wintergreen.-Medium plant of midseason ma-
turity. Ear yellow, fair appearance. Tolerant to
Florigold 106, 106A and 107.-Medium size
plants of midseason maturity. Ears yellow, very
good appearance but with poor husk cover under
some conditions. Tolerant to leaf blights.
Golden Belle (3373).-Tall plant of midseason
maturity. Ear yellow. Susceptible to leaf blights.
Suitable for fall production in the organic soils
of the Everglades.
Gold Cup.-Medium size plant of midseason
maturity. Yellow. Fair quality. Susceptible to
leaf blights. More suitable for production in Cen-
Silver Queen.-Tall plant of midseason ma-
turity. White. Excellent quality. Susceptible to
Dates Days to Maturity
North Florida: March-April
Central Florida: February-March 75 to 100
South Florida: August-March
SPACING AND SEEDING
Planting Distances Depths of Seed/Acre(1)
28" to 42" 1" to 2" 5 to 12 lbs.
8" to 15"
() Rates can be reduced by 50% or more with
For seed that is purchased untreated, treat
with the following fungicide:
(1) Thiram (50%)-2 ounces per 100 lbs. seed
Neither yield nor earliness is improved by re-
moving suckers which are normally produced at
the base of the plant.
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL
The amounts listed here are for overall appli-
cation. When band treatment is used, reduce the
amount proportionately. Chemical weed control
may not prove to be very effective on the very
light sandy soils that are subject to severe shift-
ing of the surface soil from wind or rain.
HERBICIDES -RATES AND USE
Amt./Acre (Active Ingredient)
Herbicide2 Sandy Soils Muck Soils
Pre-emergence to Crop
CDAA (Randox)" 5 lbs.
CDEC (Vegadex)' 6 lbs. 4 to 6 lbs.
CDAA + CDEC' 6 lbs. 4 to 6 lbs.
Propachlor (Ramrod) 4 to 5 lbs. (4 to 5) lbs.1
Atrazine (AAtrex)' 1 to 2 lbs. (3 to 4) lbs.1
Simazine (Princep)' 1 to 2 lbs. -
Post-emergence to Crop'
Atrazine' 1 lb. % to 1/ lbs.
Atrazine & Oil8P, 1 lb. + 1 gal. 1 lb. + 1 gal.
2,4-D %/ to % lb. % to % lb.
1 Rates given in parenthesis ( ) are suggested for trial
2 All treatments are "preemergence" to weeds unless
3 CDAA is more effective against grasses than broad-
4 CDEC is more effective against broadleaf weeds than
5 Combine CDAA + CDEC for mixed broadleaf weed
and grass populations.
6 Good surface soil moisture is necessary for best re-
7 Apply directionally to base of plants.
8 Will kill weeds up to 1% inches tall.
9 Use a non-phytotoxic crop oil plus emulsifier and ap-
ply in 40 gallons of water.
Placement.-Fertilizer applied at seeding or
during early stages of growth should be placed in
bands two to three inches to each side, at or
slightly below the level of the seed or the grow-
ing tips of roots.
Timing.-The basic application of fertilizer may
be applied before planting, during planting, short-
ly after planting, or in split applications combin-
ing any two or all three of these. Supplemental
fertilizer may be applied whenever needed during
the growing season and especially after heavy,
Liming.-Optimum pH range of sweet corn
production is between 5.8 and 6.2. If soil tests
show that lime is needed, apply and mix it in
well with the soil two to three months before
Minor Elements.-Soils with pH 6.2 or above
may be deficient in some of the minor elements.
Zinc and manganese can be supplied by fungi-
cides, which are usually needed for disease con-
trol. Zinc and manganese as well as the other
minor elements may also be applied to the soil in
fertilizer or to the foliage as sprays or dusts.
FERTILIZERS -RATES AND USE
Soil Actual Lbs./ Actual Lbs.
Acre Each No. of
N-P205-KO N-PO,-KO tions
Mineral soils' 90-120-120 30-0-15 1 to 4
Mineral soils2 72- 96- 96 30-0-15 1 to 2
Muck and peat 0-160-180 (3) (3)
Marl 54- 72- 72 30-0-15 1 to 2
Rockland 45- 60- 60 30-0-30 1 to 2
1 Includes all mineral soils (except marl and rockland)
having a dependable supply of moisture.
2 Includes all mineral soils (except marl and rockland)
not having a dependable supply of moisture.
3 The amount of fertilizer suggested here is the amount
needed for organic soils low in P2Os and K.O. When
soil tests show a medium level of PAOs in an organic
soil reduce the amount of P205 suggested here by one-
third; when soil PsOs levels are high, reduce by two-
thirds. Follow the same suggestions for medium and
high levels of KIO.
The amount of fertilizer suggested here is sufficient to
grow these crops under normal conditions. Most crops
will respond to supplemental applications of nitrate-nitro-
gen during periods of cool weather or following heavy
On new peat soils, make a broadcast application of 15
pounds of .CuO, 10 pounds of MnO, and 4 pounds of B2Os
per acre before any crop is planted.
Insects Sprays Dust To Harvest
Aphids1 Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. Parathion 1-2% 3
Spider Mites Phosdrin 2E, 1 pt. Phosdrin 1 % 1
Fall Armyworms2 Gardona 75% WP, 1-11/ Ibs. **
and Lannate 90% SP, % lb. **
Corn Earworms Parathion 4E, 1/ pt. plus **
feeding in bud Toxaphene 8E, 1%/ pts.
6-3E 1/2 pt.
Silk-Fly" Parathion 4E, % pt. 3
Earworms' Gardona 75% WP, 2/-1 lb.* NTL
Lannate 90% SP, lb. NTL
Parathion 4E, pt. plus
DDT 2E, 4 qts.* DDT 5%-Parathion 1% 3
6-3E, pt.* Parathion 2% 3
Sevin 80% WP, 2 lbs.* Sevin 10% NTL
Corn Stem WeevilP Lannate 90% SP, lb. **
Gardona 75% WP, 11/ lbs. **
DDT 2E, 4 qts.
Cutworms See footnote No. 6 below.
Wireworms See footnote No. 7 below.
Lesser Cornstalk See footnote No. 8 below.
*These amounts should be mixed in 50 gallons of water and applied to one acre.
**These usages should not result in a residue problem on the edible ears.
first appear and continued until all the silks are dry or
brown. Additional applications may be needed where re-
newed silk growth occurs after normal browning. Appli-
cations of one of the recommended insecticides will give
control when applied at 48-hour intervals to sweet corn
silking during October through March. During the rest
of the year, apply one of the recommended insecticides
every 24 hours. The amounts of insecticides recommended
in the preceding table should be mixed with 50 gallons
of water and applied to one acre. The dust must be ap-
plied at 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Dusts or sprays should
be directed to thoroughly cover the silks.
(5) Corn Stem Weevil.-Treatments must be started
when the first seedlings emerge from the soil and con-
tinued every four days or two times a week for six ap-
plications or until the corn stem is %1-inch or more in
diameter. Sprays must be directed to the lower stem and
the adjoining soil. Use overhead nozzles to apply 50 gal-
lons per acre until the foliage begins to form a canopy
that prevents the spray from reaching the ground and
lower stem. Then, add a nozzle to each side of the row
and increase the rate to 100 gallons per acre. Cultivation
should be as infrequent as possible during this spray
schedule and should precede a spray application.
Pre-emergence chemical weed control (See Extension
Circular 196C) and delay of the first cultivation until
after the final corn stem weevil spray has resulted in
better corn stem weevil control. The corn stem weevil
has been recognized as a pest only in the Everglades.
(6) Cutworms.-Apply toxaphene, or chlordane at 2
pounds active ingredient (5 pounds of 40% WP or 20
pounds of 10% dust or granules) per acre to the soil
surface before planting if cutworms are known to be
present. Do not disturb soil for three to five days. A
2%% toxaphene or 2% chlordane or 5% Dylox bait can
be used as above at 20 to 40 pounds per acre. If cutworm
damage to young plants is noted, baits should be used at
once. Regular applications of insecticides, including para-
thion, toxaphene, etc., for control of foliage insects will
prevent the establishment of cutworms.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly mix-
ing 5 pounds of 40% chlordane WP or 6 pounds of 40%
toxaphene WP with 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten
bait slightly with water and apply in late afternoon. Use
freshly mixed baits.
(7) Wireworms.-Apply parathion or diazinon at 2
pounds active ingredient per acre on mineral soils; on
organic soils apply parathion at 5 pounds or diazinon at
4 pounds active ingredient per acre. Distribute evenly
over the soil surface 2 to 3 weeks before planting and
immediately mix into the upper 6 inches of soil.
(8) Lesser Cornstalk Borer.-In the Everglades area
apply parathion, using a wetting agent or detergent in
the spray water to help wet the soil and the webbing.
Make first application broadcast (covering rows and mid-
dles) just before crop emerges, using 1 pint of parathion
4E per acre. Make second application as soon as crop
emerges and before cultivation, using 1 pint of parathion
4E per acre. Higher gallonage (up to 300 per acre) of
more dilute coarse sprays at about 100 pounds pressure
may be more effective.
The lesser cornstalk borer is an erratic pest with out-
breaks during dry periods; doubtful that routine control
measures would be profitable.
Read pesticide labels thoroughly before opening
container, and observe all safety precautions. Dis-
pose of empty containers promptly and safely.
Information is given on recommended pesticides
and minimum days between last application and
harvest. There will be changes and cancellations;
therefore, the grower is urged to keep abreast of
developments through county agents, experiment
stations, industry, etc.
Disease Spray To Harvest
Helminthosporium Maneb 80% 11/ lbs., or NTL*
Leaf Blights- Polyram 80% 2 lbs., or 1* **
(Helminthosporilm Zineb 75% 2 lbs., or NTL***
maydis and Dithane M-45 80%, 7**
Hclminthosporium 11 lbs., or
turcicum) Manzate 200, 80%, 7**
*Kqrnel and cob Do not feed treated forage to livestock.
**Use restricted to Florida.
***Do not feed forage to dairy animals, or animals being
finished for slaughter.
Any of the materials properly applied once or
twice weekly, depending on weather, disease con-
ditions and locations, will give economic control.
For crops in the "whorl stage" of growth, the
sprayer should have two nozzles over the row in
addition to the side nozzles required for complete
coverage of unfurled leaves. Application of fun-
gicide should cease 10 days before harvest unless
younger corn is growing nearby. Maneb, Man-
zate 200, Dithane M-45 and Zineb should also
give satisfactory control of corn rust. Where it
is practicable use Helminthosporium resistant
Bacterial Leaf Blight (Pseudomonas alboprecipitans).
No chemical control.
Sweet corn is subject to injury from nem-
atodes. Planting in soils known to be heavily
infested with nematodes should be avoided when-
ever possible. Fallowing, flooding, pangolagrass
and other crop rotations are practices which can
be used to help control nematodes. When it is
necessary to use nematode-infested soils, they
should be fumigated with one of the materials
suggested in the following table.
NEMATICIDES-RATES AND USE
Pints/chisel Gal/Acre Pints/chisel
Materials Gal/Acre per 1000 ft. 36" Row3 per 1000 ft.' Remarks
D-D, Vidden D
For broadcast application, set
shanks 12" apart. Inject at a
depth of 8" 10". Fumigate
only when soil is moist. Avoid
undecomposed trash in field.
Wait at least 3 weeks before
For Broadcasting application,
set shanks 8" apart. Inject at
a depth of 6" 8".
For organic (peat and muck) soils, rates should be increased 50-75%.
Broadcast rate per acre on 12-inch chisel spacing, except Vorlex which requires an 8-inch chisel spacing.
These gallonages are given as a guide to determine total amount of chemical needed for a field. Closer row spacing will require more
chemical per acre; wider spacing less.
Amount per single chisel per row regardless of row spacing.
Vorlex at rates of 25-40 gal/A (mineral soils) and 40-60 gal/A (organic soils) is effective against nematodes, soil diseases, soil insects
Quality of sweet corn st
mediately after harvest. Ti
vest and pre-cooling (remo
should be kept to a minimum to
Sweet corn should be harvested a
stage of maturity, cooled to 32 to 400 F. an
maintained in that temperature range until con-
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a
guarantee or warranty of the products named and does
not signify that they are recommended to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.
James Montelaro and M. E. Marvel in cooperation with
personnel of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. Special thanks go to J. E.
Brogdon, D. W. Dickson and R. S. Mullin for valuable
assistance received from them in the preparation of this
Revised January 1971
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Unversity of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
Joe N. Busby, Dean