..... 1 I
) | ", | ,. ,, I ,: ,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
rus Marmalades, Jellies and Preserves
Citrus is especially suited to the making of marmalades,
jellies and preserves because they are high in natural pectin
and acid. These are two necessary ingredients for jelling, and
when sugar is added in the right amounts a successful product
Some citrus especially suited to these uses are orange, grape-
fruit, ponderosa lemon, calamondin, kumquats, sour orange, cit-
ron and shaddock. The success of making marmalades, jellies
and other products from citrus is to cook them in small amounts.
Three cups of stock is all that should be cooked off at one time
if you wish to keep the delicate flavor and color typical of citrus.
The nice thing about citrus is that it can be held over in the
stock stage. Simply refrigerate until used. You need not cook
it all up into marmalade preserves or jelly in one day. A regular
candy thermometer or a jelly thermometer assures you of good
Stock from ground citrus and water may be cooked in pres-
sure saucepans at 10 pounds pressure for five minutes. Be
careful not to have saucepan more than 3/. full of the stock.
Cool, let stand a half-day or overnight. For marmalade, cook
as directed in recipe.
To keep products from boiling over during rapid cooking be
sure the saucepan is at least 5 times larger than the amount
of stock used. For example, 3 cups of stock should be put in a
four-quart capacity saucepan.
In Florida, due to climate and possibility of insects, it is best
to use jars that have lids which give an airtight seal to insure
against mold or insect damage. Paraffin is not recommended.
Wash 6 oranges. Quarter and remove seeds. Put through
a food chopper. Measure ground citrus. Add three cups of
water for each cup of pulp. Bring to a boil and cook .covered
For 15 minutes. Let stand overnight. The stock will then be
ready to make marmalade.
For marmalade, measure out 3 cups of the stock into a large
heavy saucepan. Add 1/2 cup lemon or lime juice. Measure out
three cups sugar. Bring stock to a boil. Add sugar, stir to
dissolve and cook rapidly, stirring occasionally until jelly or
-andy thermometer reaches 220 F. Remove from heat. Let
cool to 1900F. Pour into clean jars. Seal at once. (The cooling
to 1900F. prevents bits of peel from floating to the top.)
Wash 1 orange, 1 Florida lemon and 1 grapefruit. Quarter,
remove seeds and run through a food chopper. Measure. Place
in large saucepan. Add three cups of water for each cup of pulp.
Bring to a boil and cook 15 minutes. Let stand overnight.
Stock is then ready for making marmalade.
Measure out 3 cups of stock into a large saucepan. Bring
to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve sugar and cook
rapidly to 220F. Remove from heat. Let cool to 190F. and
pour into clean jars. Seal at once with self-sealing lids.
Seville Sour Orange Marmalade
Wash 6 sour oranges. Peel thinly, leaving as much of the
white rag as possible. This white substance immediately below
the yellow skin contains the pectin. Save peel from two oranges.
Cover this peel with water and boil to remove bitter oils. Drain.
Quarter oranges and put through food chopper. Put cooked
peel through food chopper. Cover chopped fruit with 4 cups
water and boil 15 to 20 minutes. With a sieve dip out half of the
pulp and peel and discard. Measure out 3 cups of stock. Bring
to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Cook until thermometer reaches
220F. Remove from heat and pour at once into clean jars.
Seal with self-sealing lids.
Wash 2 medium grapefruit. Peel thinly. Cut in half, remove
seeds and clip out tender "core". Quarter and run through food
chopper. Measure pulp. Add three cups of water to each cup
of pulp. Cover and let stand overnight. Boil gently next day
until pulp is tender, about 20 to 30 minutes. Measure out 3 cups
of stock. Bring to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve
sugar. Cook rapidly until candy or jelly thermometer reaches
2200F. Remove from heat, let cool to 1900F. Pour into clean
jars. Seal at once, Be careful not to let stand too long before
pouring up. If it gets too cool it may jell in the saucepan. If
this should happen place on low heat until it reaches 190F.
then pour up at once. Do not let it boil again.
Wash 3 medium tangerines and 1 Florida lemon. Quarter
tangerines and lemon. Remove seeds. Put through a food chop-
per. Measure the ground citrus. Add 4 cups water to each
cup of pulp. Bring to a boil and cook on low heat for about
1 hour, or until volume is about half that in the beginning. Let
stand over night. This extracts pectin from the lemon. Tan-
gerines contain very little pectin, therefore, the lemon is needed
to make a good jell later. Measure out 3 cups of stock. Add 21/4
cups sugar. Cook until candy or jelly thermometer reaches
222'F. Let cool to 1900F. Pour into clean jars. Close with
self-sealing lids at once.
Select 4 cups firm fruit, free of blemishes. Wash. Cut in
halves. Remove seeds. Slice thinly or put through food chopper.
Measure fruit. Place in saucepan. For each cup of fruit add
3 cups of water. Bring to a boil. Cook 15 minutes. May let
stand overnight or cook into marmalade immediately.
For marmalade measure 3 cups of stock into a large sauce-
pan. Bring to a boil. Add 3 cups of sugar. Stir to dissolve
sugar. Cook rapidly to 2200F. on a candy or jelly thermometer.
Remove from heat, cool to 190F. Pour into clean jars and close
with self-sealing lids.
Follow directions for making stock for calamondin marma-
lade. Reduce sugar to 214 cups for 3 cups of the stock when
cooking the stock into marmalade. Cook to 2220F. Remove
from heat, cool to 190F. and pour into clean jars. Close at
once with self-sealing lids. A blend of half kumquat and half
calamondin stock makes a delicious marmalade. Cook as directed
Sour Orange Jelly
Wash 4 sour oranges. With a sharp knife peel the yellow
skin from fruit, leaving the white rag on fruit as it contains
the pectin; discard peel. Quarter fruit. Remove seeds. Add
4 cups water and cook until fruit falls apart or in a pressure
saucepan at 10 pounds pressure for 5 minutes. Pour into jelly
bag and let juice drain out. Strain juice a second time. Measure
3 cups of the clear stock. Add 3 cups sugar and cook rapidly
to 2200F. This will jell at a lower temperature because of its
high pectin and acid content. Remove from heat and pour at
once into clean jars. It jells rapidly and air bubbles may be
trapped in the jelly unless it is poured up at once. Close with
Preserved Whole Kumquats
2 cups fresh kumquats 1 stick cinnamon (optional)
1 cup water 1 lemon sliced thinly (op-
2 cups sugar tional)
Wash and drain fruit. Cut a small gash crosswise in eaci
kumquat. Cover with water and bring to a boil. Cook 5 min
utes. Drain. Make a syrup of sugar and water. Add cinnamon
(or other spices of your choice) and lemon. Drop kumquat!
into syrup. Bring to a boil and cook 10 minutes. Cover an(
let stand overnight. Cook again uncovered for 10 minutes an<
let stand to "plump"-at least overnight. Bring to a boil agaii
and cook until fruit is clear and syrup thick. Pack in clean jar
while hot. Cover with hot syrup and close jar with a self
sealing lid. To keep flavor and color it is best to cook in small
amounts as in this recipe. Never try to do more than twice thi
recipe in the same cooking.
Preserved Whole Calamondins
Follow the directions for making preserved whole kumquats
Sour Orange Preserves
4 sour oranges 1% cups water
1% cups sour orange juice 1% cups sugar
Wash sour oranges. Peel off thin yellow skin leaving as
much of thick white part as is possible; cut in halves. Squeez(
out juice. Handle carefully to avoid splitting halves. Covei
with water in a large saucepan and cook 10 minutes. Drain
Make a syrup of orange juice, water and sugar. Drop halves
into syrup. Cook on low heat until rinds are transparent. Pacl
rinds in clean jars. Cover with hot syrup. Seal and place jars
in large kettle of hot water. Water should cover jars. Simmel
for 10 minutes to complete the seal and sterilize.
Sweet Spiced Kumquats or Calamondins
1 quart kumquats or cala- Whole pickle spice
mondins 3 cups water
3 cups sugar 1 cup vinegar
Wash fruit. Make a small slit crosswise. Cover with watei
and bring to a boil. Cook 10 minutes. Drain. Make a syrul
of sugar, vinegar and water. Bring to a boil. Drop in spice
tied in small clean cloth. Cook 5 minutes. Remove spice bag
Add fruit. Cook 10 minutes, let stand overnight to plump
Then bring to a boil and cook until syrup is thick. Pack intc
Lrs. Cover with hot syrup. Seal with self-sealing lids. Place
i large kettle of boiling water deep enough to cover jars and
)ok 10 minutes.
Crystallizing Citrus Fruit
The crystallizifig of fruit is one of the oldest methods of food
reservation. Crystallization is the process of saturating the
*uit with sugar throughout.
There are several crystallizing methods. The quick methods
ive good products which may be held a short time. The longer
methods produce good products which will keep for 2 to 3 months.
The skins of fruit should be thick. The ponderosa lemon,
rapefruit, shaddock, some oranges and sour orange are well
united to crystallizing by the short or long method.
Quick Crystallized Citrus Peel
1 medium grapefruit or 2 cups sugar
1 ponderosa lemon 1 cup water
2 oranges or % shaddock
Select bright fruit with a thick peel. (May use peel left
ver from grapefruit or oranges served at a family meal.) Wash,
ut in half and remove pulp and membrane inside. Leave in
11 the white "rag." If desired, lightly grate outside peel to
,reak oil cells, this will give a milder flavor. Cut peel into
4-inch wide strips or into wedges. Place in saucepan and cover
rith 2 quarts of water. Boil 5 minutes. Drain. Repeat this
process 3 times to remove bitter flavor. Be careful not to over-
ook. Allow 5 minutes only to each boil. Drain and lay peel
n clean dish towel. Cover with cloth and press gently to re-
aove excess water.
Mix sugar and water. Bring to a boil and stir until sugar is
dissolved. Add drained peel and boil gently 10 minutes. Let
tand overnight. Next day cook on low heat until most of the
yrup is absorbed. Heat must be low to keep peel from scorching.
)ip peel out and roll in granulated sugar. Place on rack to cool.
toll again in sugar and store in a container with a loose lid.
'eel will keep 2 to 3 weeks. It can be used in fruit cakes and
theirr recipes calling for candied fruits.
Crystallized Citrus Peel
1 medium grapefruit or 2 cups kumquats
ponderosa lemon or 3 cups sugar
1 shaddock, 2 oranges or 3 cups water
Use bright, clear skinned fruit. Cut in halves and remc
pulp and membrane. Grate outside skin if desired. For ku
quats, calamondins and other small citrus, wash and cut a sm
gash crosswise the fruit (leaving whole, do not grate). Ph
peel or small fruit in a saucepan. Cover with water and bri
to a boil. Drain. Repeat several times for large fruits to remc
bitterness. Once is enough for the small fruit. Fruit shoi
be tender, but not soft.
Mix sugar and water. Heat to boiling. Add the peeling
whole small fruits. Cook on low heat until fruit begins to 1c
transparent or clear. Remove from heat. Cover and let sta
24 hours. Cook fruit until a candy or jelly thermometer reg
ters 222F. Pack into clean hot jars. Cover with boiling syr
and seal while hot. Keep sealed in syrup for at least 6 we(
before using; it may be held as long as 3 to 4 months. The j,
must have an airtight seal to prevent fermentation. W1
ready to use, remove from jars and dip fruit into hot water
remove syrup from surface. Dry in the sun for 24 hours
in a warm (175F.) oven for 6 to 8 hours. (Keep oven d<
open to get good circulation of air.)
Prepare a glace of 3 cups sugar and 1/ cup water. Heat
dissolve sugar. Dip peel or fruit in glac6. Place on rack
drain and dry. Dry in sunshine or in warm oven as descrit
above. Store in boxes lined with waxed paper or in jars w:
a few holes punched in lid to allow for air circulation. M
keep 2 to 3 months. Use as a candy or where candied fruit i
used in recipe.
4 cups whole kumquats 2 cups sugar
(about 1 pound) 1 cup water
Make up a syrup from sugar and water. Wash kumqua
Cover with water and boil for 5 minutes. Drain. Cut ku:
quats lengthwise in halves. Drop in boiling syrup and co
10 minutes. Cover and let stand overnight. Cook for 20 mi
utes longer next day and lift from syrup. Place on wax par
to cool. Fill each chip with a toasted pecan half and roll
The citron, known as the citron of commerce, is of the citr
family. It is used in fruit cake, plum puddings and in oth
dishes featuring candied fruits. Citron is often confused wi
the "citron melon" which grows on a vine in Florida.
The citrus citron is large and the rind thick and rough. T
fruit is best for use when still slightly green in color, but ful
iture. The following directions are for crystallizing the citrus
ron. (Recipe for 1 large citron.)
Fruit must be freshly picked. Cut fruit in half. Place fruit in
)rine made from 6 ounces of ice cream salt to 1 gallon of water.
iep fruit under brine. A plate on top is good for this. The
ining should be complete in 15 to 30 days. The fruit will
come translucent and slightly expanded. Remove from brine
.d wash in several waters. Allow citron to soak in each wash
to 10 minutes. Cover with cold water and bring to a boil.
,ok until slightly tender. Drain and cover at once with cold
iter. Let stand 24 hours.
Cut citron into desired sizes (4's or strips). Make up a
rup of 3 cups sugar and 4 cups of water (for 1 large citron).
-at syrup to dissolve sugar. Drop citron in syrup and remove
om heat. Do not let boil. Cover and let stand 24 hours. At
d of time taste syrup. If syrup is salty discard and make a
cond syrup of 4 cups sugar and 4 cups water. Heat and add
;ron. Let stand 24 hours. If not salty, remove citron and
.d 1 cup sugar. Heat to dissolve sugar and add citron again.
>ver and let stand another 24 hours. After second 24 hours
riod remove citron, add 2 cups sugar. Heat to dissolve sugar
Id add citron. Let stand 2 to 3 days covered. Drain and dry
to 8 hours on racks in a warm 175 F. oven if it is to be used
2 to 3 weeks. Store in containers with loose lid. If it is not
be used soon, drain and pack into clean jars. Cover with the
iling syrup and seal at once. It will keep a year. To use later,
'en jar and drain citron. Use as desired.
illetin, Florida's Favorite Recipes for Citrus Fruits, written by Florida
Agricultural Extension Service, printed by Florida Citrus Com-
urce: Bulletin 167, Using Florida Citrus Fruits, 1958. Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, Gainesville, Florida.
COOPERATIVEE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director