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 Introduction
 Biology
 Planting
 Cultural practices
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Group Title: Circular - Florida Cooperative Extension Service - 183A
Title: Growing redcedar in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067877/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing redcedar in Florida
Series Title: Circular
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Webb, Roger S ( Roger Stuart ), 1950-
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Juniperus silicicola   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Roger S. Webb.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "July 1990."
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067877
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22901432

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Biology
        Page 1
    Planting
        Page 2
    Cultural practices
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Back Cover
        Page 6
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Circular 183A


Growing Redcedar

in

Florida


Roger S. Webb
Florida Cooperative Extension Sen ice
institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesvlle
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension



Librai /
'", r '- ,-^


July 1990


of







Growing Redcedar in Florida
Roger S. Webb1

Introduction
Two species of redcedar grow naturally in Florida. Eastern red-
cedar (Juniperus virginiana) occurs throughout the eastern United
States and is one of the most widely distributed conifers east of the
Mississippi River. Southern redcedar (J. silicicola) is much more
common in Florida and is adapted better to our hotter climate and
more alkaline soils than eastern redcedar. Southern redcedar is
often confused with eastern redcedar which has thicker twigs, larger
fruits and less pendulous branches than the former.
Redcedars have close-grained, aromatic, and durable wood which
affords them many uses, including pencil wood, fence posts, cabinet
and furniture wood, ornamental landscape trees and Christmas
trees. It is also an excellent tree to use as windbreaks, livestock
shelter and shade.











Biology
The flowers ofredcedars are small, inconspicuous, and are borne
on the ends of or along short branchlets in the spring. The yellowish
male flowers form short catkins while greenish female flowers are
composed of several or more pointed scales, some or all bearing 1-2
ovules. Female flower scales become fleshy and fuse to form small,
indehiscent strobili commonly known as "berries". As the greenish
immature berries ripen, they become reddish-brown to bluish-black
and are usually covered with a whitish waxy bloom. There are
usually 1-4 brownish seeds per berry but many of the seeds may
contain no endosperm or embryo. This characteristic is an unfortu-
nate constraint to redcedar seedling production since seed lots vary
annually in percentage of filled seed and in germinability. Seeds
are dispersed in the fall primarily by birds but ripe fruits will
remain on the trees.
1Associate Professor-Extension Forest Specialist, Department of Forestry, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611. 1







Growing Redcedar in Florida
Roger S. Webb1

Introduction
Two species of redcedar grow naturally in Florida. Eastern red-
cedar (Juniperus virginiana) occurs throughout the eastern United
States and is one of the most widely distributed conifers east of the
Mississippi River. Southern redcedar (J. silicicola) is much more
common in Florida and is adapted better to our hotter climate and
more alkaline soils than eastern redcedar. Southern redcedar is
often confused with eastern redcedar which has thicker twigs, larger
fruits and less pendulous branches than the former.
Redcedars have close-grained, aromatic, and durable wood which
affords them many uses, including pencil wood, fence posts, cabinet
and furniture wood, ornamental landscape trees and Christmas
trees. It is also an excellent tree to use as windbreaks, livestock
shelter and shade.











Biology
The flowers ofredcedars are small, inconspicuous, and are borne
on the ends of or along short branchlets in the spring. The yellowish
male flowers form short catkins while greenish female flowers are
composed of several or more pointed scales, some or all bearing 1-2
ovules. Female flower scales become fleshy and fuse to form small,
indehiscent strobili commonly known as "berries". As the greenish
immature berries ripen, they become reddish-brown to bluish-black
and are usually covered with a whitish waxy bloom. There are
usually 1-4 brownish seeds per berry but many of the seeds may
contain no endosperm or embryo. This characteristic is an unfortu-
nate constraint to redcedar seedling production since seed lots vary
annually in percentage of filled seed and in germinability. Seeds
are dispersed in the fall primarily by birds but ripe fruits will
remain on the trees.
1Associate Professor-Extension Forest Specialist, Department of Forestry, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611. 1








Planting
Redcedar seeds are collected in the fall either directly by hand
or by vigorously shaking the branches to dislodge the berries onto
a canvas or plastic sheet spread on the ground surface. Since the
number of filled seeds varies widely from tree to tree, it is advisable
to perform a cutting test on at least 20 seeds from each tree before
collecting from that tree. If more than 50% of the seeds from a
particular tree are empty i.e., no white endosperm and embryo
visible, then that tree should be avoided.
After berries have been collected, twigs, leaves and other debris
are also inadvertently present and may be removed by fanning or
forced-air blowers. Seeds are extracted by passing berries through
a macerating seed cleaner which uses water to float away pulp and
empty seeds.
The seeds of both eastern and southern redcedar have dormant
embryos and must be fall-sown or cold-stratified and either fall-or
spring-sown. Stratification is conducted by placing cleaned seeds
in moist peat moss (1:4 by volume) in cans or jars. Containers are
sealed and refrigerated at 40 degrees F for 2-3 months for best
germination results. Examine the contents of each container every
two weeks and remoisten the peat moss. If during these inspection
periods, seed coats begin to split open, then the seed must be planted
immediately.
Individuals may prepare seed beds to grow their own redcedar
seedlings by locating areas of moist soil with good drainage which
are shaded partially from the afternoon sun either by overstory trees
or with shade cloth. If beds must be located in the open, shade cloth
or wooden lathe shade should be located approximately 1 meter above
the bed. Redcedar seeds germinate with much higher success if the
soil is kept cool and moist.
Beds should be at least 1 meter wide and as long as necessary. An
analysis should be performed on soil samples from the beds to deter-
mine what fertilization, if any, should be performed prior to seeding.
If fertilizing is required, fertilizer should be worked thoroughly into
the soil to a depth of about 15 centimeters and afterwards the bed
surface should be raked level and smooth before planting.
Cold-stratified seeds should be sown in lines or drills about 3
centimeters within each drill. Seeds should be covered lightly with
about 1/2 centimeter of soil. Seeds should be planted as early as
possible in the spring.
After seeds are planted, mulch the beds with partially-decayed leaf
mold or pine straw to a depth of approximately 0.5 centimeter. Water
to settle the bed surface and at frequent intervals thereafter to keep
the soil moist so that germination will be unhindered.








Once seeds begin germinating and begin to emerge through the
mulch, care should be taken to keep the beds free from weeds to
maximize seedling growth. Be sure to monitor seedlings for early
symptoms of foliar blight which may be controlled by applications
of fungicides such as DaconilR or BayletonR.
If large numbers of redcedar seedlings are required, commercial
nurseries would be more efficient than individual homeowner-
managed nursery beds given the former's economies of scale. Private
nurseries as well as several managed by the Florida Division of
Forestry offer high-grade redcedar seedlings at competitive prices.
Ordering the seedlings in July for delivery in December of the same
year is the key to assuring that your order is filled. Too many people
wait until winter to order seedlings only to find that these are no
longer available.
Redcedars should be planted during the colder months of De-
cember, January and February. Redcedars are currently used for
ornamental landscape plantings, shelterbelts/visual screens and
Christmas trees.
Individual trees are planted for ornamental uses while double
offset rows of redcedars are planted for shelterbelts. When grown for
Christmas trees, redcedar seedlings are planted at a 2 x 2 meter
spacing to provide 484 trees per hectare (1,210 trees per acre). After
4-5 years, redcedars should be in the 1.5-3 meter height range and
ready for sale. If the trees are left to grow for timber purposes over
long rotations (40+ years), this same spacing is also adequate and
will promote shading and ultimately shedding of the lower branches
for producing clear, knotfree stems.

Cultural Practices
Redcedar seedlings grow best in unshaded areas free from weed
competition. In plantations, weed competition for water, sunlight
and nutrients may stunt redcedar seedling growth. Excessive growth
of weeds may promote fungal disease of the foliage due to the higher
humidity retained around lower branches. Dew formation on
branches in the spring and fall encourage fungal infection by provid-
ing ample moisture on the foliage which spores may utilize to germi-
nate and later penetrate cells to establish infection. Certain fun-
gicides such as BayletonR and DaconilR are effective against foliar
blight diseases when used at recommended dosages according to
label directions. However, reducing the likelihood of disease develop-
ment through proper weed control is an important first step and
promotes better redcedar seedling growth as well.
Redcedars are sensitive to most "over-the-top" herbicidal sprays
and are easily stunted or killed. Care should be taken to avoid apply-








ing herbicides which will contact the foliage. Contact herbicides such
as RoundupR are most effective when shields attached to spray booms
prevent accidental application or drift of the herbicide to foliage.
Rooted cuttings are another means of obtaining planting stock.
Although a more expensive means of production, rooting selected
foliar cuttings allows you to choose from the best trees so that high-
quality progeny are ensured. Shoots should be collected from the
uppermost portions of the parent tree where shoots grow in a more
upright fashion. Lower branches, while easier to collect, often grow
in a strongly lateral direction and rooted cuttings from these areas
continue to grow laterally before finally orienting vertically. Certain
basic facilities are required for rooting redcedar cuttings and these
include 1) a mist bed, comprised of soil mix (peat: vermiculite:perlite
1:1:1) with a PVC irrigation system designed to release moist inter-
mittently through the day, 2) a closed greenhouse to retain high
humidity levels while allowing ample light for cutting growth, and
3) a series of timer clocks to control misting intervals and artificial
lighting schedules.









Branch tips 15 25 centimeters long should be removed from
preferred trees and foliage removed at the base of the cutting to
provide a clean span of 2 1/2 3 1/2 centimeters long. The base of
each cutting should be dipped in a rooting powder containing at least
0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as a rooting hormone, a fungicide
to control possible microbial contamination of freshly-cut surfaces,
and talc as a carrier.
Dipped cuttings are "stuck" in the mist bed and misting schedules
are timed to provide a brief interval i.e., 8-15 seconds of mist every
few minutes during the day. The exact schedule will be determined
based on the most efficient misting which permits a visible water
film to remain on the foliar surface. This film is necessary to ensure
the proper cooling effect so critical energy reserves are directed
towards root regeneration rather than maintaining higher respira-
tion levels stimulated by higher ambient temperatures. Heating coils
placed in the bottom of the mist bed may be used to improve rooting
success if cuttings are propagated during the winter.








Redcedar plantations or pure stands do not thin themselves natu-
rally so spacing is important to maximize growth while not providing
too much growing space to stimulate production and retention of
lower branches. The thin bark and prevalence of roots near the soil
surface make redcedars very susceptible to fires which are their
principal enemy. Few insects cause serious damage to redcedars and,
except for a few decay fungi associated with mature and overmature
trees, and two fungi which cause foliar blight, redcedars suffer little
from pests. Establishing healthy, high-quality seedlings and minimiz-
ing weed competition during the early years are keys to growing
vigorous redcedars suitable for a variety of uses.


Trade names used in this educational publication are for illustrative
purposes only and do not constitute a recommendation of trade names
used nor exclusion of other suitable products.
































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE
OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste, director, in cooper-
ation with the United State Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to
further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is
authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age,
handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H
and youth publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information
on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribu-
tion Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 8/90.




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