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Group Title: AREC-H research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center-Homestead ; SB-73-6
Title: Progress in variety development and evaluation of fresh market tomatoes for Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067836/00001
 Material Information
Title: Progress in variety development and evaluation of fresh market tomatoes for Florida
Series Title: Homestead AREC research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Volin, R. B
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Homestead Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomato industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.B Volin
General Note: "September 5, 1973"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067836
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72440210

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        Copyright
    Progress in variety development and evaluation of fresh market tomatoes for Florida
        Page 1
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        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






I Homestead AREC Research Report SB73-6 September 5, 1973

Progress in Variety Development and Evaliatiob
of Fresh Market Tomatoes for Florida '


R. B. Volin-

I. Objectives:
The general aim of the fresh market tomato breeding program is to select .plants
or breeding lines of superior quality and disease resistance which will b'eneTit
the Florida tomato industry. This main objective is met'by the growing and
selection of hundreds of crosses and new entries and by the thorough evaluation
of advanced lines. Only when a tomato selection is considered superior to those
presently grown is it considered for release as a new variety.

II. Evaluation and selection
The criteria used in tomato evaluation are: (1) resistance to diseases, (2) the
presence of superior flavor, firmness, appearance, texture and fruit size, (3)
concentrated and abundant fruit set, (4) maximized yield (5) horticultural
adaptability to Florida growing conditions and (6) acceptability to growers,
packers, buyers and consumers.

Promising tomato selections were planted this year for the first time by coop-
erators at four research centers The plantings consisted of selections from
the Bradenton and Homestead breeding programs. Each location had the same se-
lections which were designated as hand harvest and machine harvest types. Hand
harvest types generally have characteristics less desirable for machine harvest,
namely a jointed pedicel, less fruit set concentration and a less compact plant.
The machine harvest types, on the other hand, are selected for jointless pedi-
cels, concentrated fruit set, firm fruit, and smaller plants. While machine
types may also be hand picked the need still exists for superior hand harvest
fresh market tomato varieties.

Whereas flavor and texture have always been selection criteria these qualities
are now receiving a greater degree of emphasis than ever before. Consumer
acceptance tests have been conducted by IFAS Home Economics and Food Specialist
personnel. Their most recent results indicate a very high level of acceptance
of Florida MH-1 red-ripe tomatoes. It is anticipated that candidate varieties
may be evaluated in similar manner prior to their release as varieties.

III. Replicated and observational evaluation

A. Replicated machine harvest state trial
Since the trial was to evaluate machine harvest types, the fruit was collected
by severing the vines at the soil level and shaking each vine over an '



/ Assistant Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Homestead 33030.

The assistance of Mr. Leandro Ramos-Ledon, Laboratory Technologist I, is acknow-
. ledged.

/ Cooperators included Prof. N. C. Hayslip (ARC-Fort Pierce) Prof. D. S. Burgis,
Dr. J. P. Crill (AREC-Bradenton), Drs. H. H. Bryan, R. B. Volin (AREC-Homestead)
and Dr. P. H. Everett (ARC-Immokalee).







-2-

improvised canvas catch trough. By simulating machine harvest, estimates of
fruit-pedicel release were obtained as follows:


Selection

720009-1
720287-1
720306-1
Imm. Rep. #6
Fla. MH-1
720342-3
908--D4


% fruit
without stems


% plants resistant
to Verticillium


Resistance to verticillium wilt, shown on page 2, was determined when a
separate group of seedlings of these lines were inoculated with Verticillium
albo-atrum. After 14 days response was recorded. Total plants inoculated
ranged from 25 to 67.

Corresponding plantings were grown at the Fort Pierce, Immokalee and Bradenton
Research Centers. Results of the Homestead trial are shown in Table 1.


Table 1.


Fresh market machine harvest tomatoes replicated evaluation. Homestead,
Fall 1972-73-


Total mkt. Mkt. yield Mkt. yield Nkt. yield Cull fruit as
yield 30 as % of 6x6 30 U.S.#1 30 % of total
Selection lb. boxes/A total yield lb. boxes/A lb. boxes/A mkt. yield

720009-1 1026ab2/ 78 318 b 783a 27
(RMH-1)
720287-1 902ab 82 260 b 530 c 21
(RMH-2)
720306-1 1050a 81 532a 647ab 24
(RMH-3)
Imm. Rep. #6 1024ab 75 535a 664ab 32
(RMH-4)
Fla. IMH-1 969ab 91 369ab 578abc 10
(RMH-5)
720342-3 845 c 62 327 b 373 c 61
(RMH-6)
908-1-DSpBk-
BGl-D4-DBk 1095a 80 375ab 798a 24
(RNH-7)


Seeded:
Transplanted:
Picked:


9-8-72
9-28-72
12-4-72


S / Selections followed by the same letter, in any one column, are not significantly
different at the 5% probability level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


I -








B. Replicated, hand harvest state trial

Entries for this trial were selected for their adaptability to being hand
picked. As before the selections were grown at four state locations. In
Homestead the response to inoculation to Verticillium are as follows:


Selection

720500-1
720497-1
720518-2
720357-1
Walter
Floradel


% plants resistant
to Verticillium

55
55


Results of field evaluation are shown in Table 2.


Table 2. Fresh market hand
Fall 1972-73-L


harvest tomatoes replicated evaluation.


Homestead,


Total mkt. yield- Mkt. yield Mkt. yield Mkt. yield Cull fruit as
30 lb. boxes/A as % of 6x6 30 U.S.#1 30 % of total
Selection Harv. I Harv. II total yield: lb. boxes/A lb. boxes/A mkt. yield

720500-1 405a2/ 420 c 71 47 559ab 22
(RHH-1)
720497-1 464a 566a 72 62 536ab 24
(RHH-2)
720518-2 570a 517ab 79 55 731a 15
(RHH-3)
720357-1 517a 298 c 65 68 379 b 45
(RHH-4)
Walter 406a 481ab 61 28 690a 14
(RHH-5)
Floradel 337a 582a 69 32 688a 23
(RHH-6)


Seeded:
Transplanted:
Picked:


9-8-72
9-28-72
12-4-72 and 12-16-72


2/
/ Selections followed by the same letter in any one column are not significantly
different at the 5% probability level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


C. Observation machine and hand harvest tomato trials in 4 south Florida
locations

As with the replicated trials observational evaluation was conducted at four
locations. Single plant selections made in the fall planting were grown in
the spring 1973 trials. These breeding lines were not inoculated to Verti-
cillium but were grown on Verticillium infested soil. Observational entries
generally are not picked for yield or grading purposes. This single-plot
growing procedure allows qualitative evaluation and selection from a large








number of entries. After observation a decision may be made whether or not
to place the selection in replicated trial.

Seeded: 9-8-72 and 1-5-73
Transplanted: 9-28-72 and 1-29-73
Selections: 12-16-72 and 3-23-73

Single plant selections made in the spring of 1973 will be included in the
1973-74 observational trials.

D. Replicated machine harvest and hand harvest lines in Homestead

Mid-winter tomato production in Dade County often exists under extreme grow-
ing conditions. Cooler soil and air temperatures accompanied by drying winds
may cause decreased productivity and quality especially in some tomato culti-
vars. The need is paramount for selections with fruit set which is less
sensitive to weather conditions and which produce more No. 1 grade fruit
under mid-winter conditions. For this reason a group of breeding lines were
evaluated in a replicated trial during this period. They were planted on
land which had been in tomato production for five previous seasons and was
known to be infested with a wide range of soil pathogens including Verticil-
lium albo-atrum.

The most productive breeding lines included 407, 908-(D1), 908-(D4), 2159,
2317 and MH-7 with 908-(D4), MH-7 and 2159 topping the group with overall
performance (Tablq 3). Line 407 was released as a variety in September 1972
as 'Florida 556'1/ Line 2317 has been dropped due to susceptibility to
fusarium wilt (race 2). Since all of the above breeding lines are being
used as parental stock in the breeding program it is anticipated that out-
standing advanced selections will result. Early generation progeny appears
very promising.

IV. Program outlook
During the past season a notable degree of progress has been made toward the
release of a second machine harvest tomato cultivar. Locating trials at four
locations insures against poor weather conditions or unavoidable failures at any
one location. It also allows plant evaluation and selection under a very wide
range of cultural, environmental and disease exposures.

Factors of plant selection currently being emphasized, in addition to those
listed earlier, are the selection of plants with shorter, determinate, lateral
branches and concentrated fruit set. This is necessary for machine harvest of
plants, especially in use of the semi-harvester. A concentrated effort is being
made to select against the frequent occurrence of fruit with large stem scars.
This predisposes fruit to cracking and post-harvest decay.

The most promising variety candidates have originated from crosses with Walter
as a parent. Homestead line 908 has proven to be quite outstanding in the pro-
duction of smooth, firm, jointless fruit. Yields on rockland exceeded Walter
(Tables 1-3). Its resistance to fusarium (races 1 and 2) and verticillium wilt
diseases has been notable. Fruit set is less concentrated than Florida MH-1
which precludes it from excellence as a machine harvest type. Selections have
been made to improve even more upon internal and external fruit characteristics
of 908.


SStrobel, J. W., Pat Crill, D. S. Burgis and C. A. John. 1972. Florida 556. Univ.
of Fla., IFAS Exp. Sta. Circ. S-220.


I








-5-

Other breeding lines in the State hand and machine harvest fall trials were
desirable but not outstanding. There were no lines which exceeded Florida
MH-1 in fruit concentration and Walter in general smoothness. There were
two entries in the spring observational planting which have a great deal of
promise. Their pedigree includes Walter, Florida 556 (line 407) and Tropi-
Red.


Table 3. Fresh market, hand
Winter 1972-72I-


and machine harvest replicated evaluation. Homestead,


Total mkt.
yield 30
lb. boxes/A


Mkt. yield
as % of
total vield


Mkt. yield
6x6 30
lb. boxes/A


Mkt. yield
6x7 30
Ib. boxes/A


Cull fruit as
% of total
mkt. yield


407
908-(D4)
908-(DI)
1775
2148-(D11)
2159
2317
2432-(D20)
2454
Florida MH-1
i I MH-7
Homestead 24
Walter
Tropi-Red


Seeded:
Transplanted:
Picked:


11-2-72
11-29-72
2-21-73 and 3-7-73


2Entries followed by the same letter, in any one column, are not significantly
different at the 5% probability level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


/ Considerable catfaced fruit.


Entry


2/
1200a-
1030ab
1206a
848 b
827 b
1049ab
1059ab
865 b
870 b
908 b
1026ab
934 b
844 b
1198a


313a
105
53
92
148 1
180 1
108 1
96
67
77
122 1
92
56
230a


559ab
420 bcde
508ab
224 f
325 def
563a
485ab
247 ef
256 ef
282 ef
478abc
383 bcdef
291 ef
511ab


19
20
13
263/
41-
21
22
16
27
22
22
22
283/
23-


--


. ., W




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