• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Procedure
 Care of grafted plants
 Fertilizing seedling rootstock...
 Care of the new trees
 Mother-plant field nursery
 Control of diseases and pests
 Conclusions














Group Title: Homestead AREC research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; SB 76-2
Title: A rapid method for propagating mango trees
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067823/00001
 Material Information
Title: A rapid method for propagating mango trees
Series Title: Homestead AREC research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Malo, Simâon E
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Homestead Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Mango -- Propagation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Simon Malo E.
General Note: "August 1976"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067823
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 72470110

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Procedure
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Care of grafted plants
        Page 3
    Fertilizing seedling rootstocks
        Page 3
    Care of the new trees
        Page 3
    Mother-plant field nursery
        Page 4
    Control of diseases and pests
        Page 5
    Conclusions
        Page 6
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




109Li-

(6D ~~


A RAPID rETIO1D FOR PROPAGATIG :~"10 TREES



SIMONE E. MALO


I "U ~L.


SEp 23 1976


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
HOMESTEAD, FLORIDA


HOMESTEAD AREC RESEARCH REPORT SB 76-2


AUGUST 1976






Homestead AREC Research Report SB76-2 August 14, 1976

A Rapid Method for Propagating Mango Trees

B Simon E. Malo

INTRODUCTION

In most methods of grafting the scion consists of either one bud or a budstick

containing several buds. In inarching a young shoot or small branch serves as the

scion which is grafted by "approaching" it to a young seedling. The stock is either

supported by some sort of temporary scaffolding or platform or grown in a very light

rooting medium and then tied directly to the scion branch which supports it until the

graft union has formed. When this has occurred the scion branch is cut off from the

mother tree and the new grafted plant is ready for transplanting to the nursery.

The system described here is a form of modified inarching which is quicker and

less laborious than normal inarching. This method is used in Thailand by a few

nurserymen to produce grafted mango trees for field planting in about 4 months

instead of the regular 10-14 months which it takes to obtain a new plant in Florida

. or elsewhere.

PROCEDURE

Seeds of a polyembryonic mango rootstock (preferably 'Turpentine' in Florida)

are germinated in small 3" x 5" polyethylene plastic bags in a light mixture of peat,

sphagnum and perlite weighing approximately 5 oz.* When the stems of the seedlings

have the approximate caliper of a pencil at the base they are approach-grafted to

vigorous, straight terminal shoots 20-30 in. long. The scion branches are sub-

sequently girdled below the graft union 18-20 days after the graft has been made

(Fig. 1). This girdling has the effect of diverting all the photosynthates produced

in the large scion branch towards the roots of the stock to nourish them and encour-

age their growth. The tops of the seedling stocks, including all the leaves, are


SAssociate Horticulturist, University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Homestead 33030.

The lightest and perhaps most suitable material for this purpose is coconut fiber
(coir), if available.






Homestead AREC Research Report SB76-2 August 14, 1976

A Rapid Method for Propagating Mango Trees

B Simon E. Malo

INTRODUCTION

In most methods of grafting the scion consists of either one bud or a budstick

containing several buds. In inarching a young shoot or small branch serves as the

scion which is grafted by "approaching" it to a young seedling. The stock is either

supported by some sort of temporary scaffolding or platform or grown in a very light

rooting medium and then tied directly to the scion branch which supports it until the

graft union has formed. When this has occurred the scion branch is cut off from the

mother tree and the new grafted plant is ready for transplanting to the nursery.

The system described here is a form of modified inarching which is quicker and

less laborious than normal inarching. This method is used in Thailand by a few

nurserymen to produce grafted mango trees for field planting in about 4 months

instead of the regular 10-14 months which it takes to obtain a new plant in Florida

. or elsewhere.

PROCEDURE

Seeds of a polyembryonic mango rootstock (preferably 'Turpentine' in Florida)

are germinated in small 3" x 5" polyethylene plastic bags in a light mixture of peat,

sphagnum and perlite weighing approximately 5 oz.* When the stems of the seedlings

have the approximate caliper of a pencil at the base they are approach-grafted to

vigorous, straight terminal shoots 20-30 in. long. The scion branches are sub-

sequently girdled below the graft union 18-20 days after the graft has been made

(Fig. 1). This girdling has the effect of diverting all the photosynthates produced

in the large scion branch towards the roots of the stock to nourish them and encour-

age their growth. The tops of the seedling stocks, including all the leaves, are


SAssociate Horticulturist, University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Homestead 33030.

The lightest and perhaps most suitable material for this purpose is coconut fiber
(coir), if available.

































FIG, 1


I
i :I,":I
i Y









cut off at the time of grafting and the roots are wrapped completely in new plastic

bags without holes. Thus, the roots remain fresh, even if they cannot be watered,

from the moment of grafting through the time of girdling at which time the scion

branch will provide the necessary nourishment for growth and development.


Care of Grafted Plants

After 45-50 days of inarching the new plants are ready to be cut off and trans-

planted either to 9" x 14" plastic bags or 2-gal. containers. Subsequently the

plants should be kept away from direct sunlight in a lightly shaded area where they

remain for the next 30 days. After this period the shade could be removed or the

plants removed to an open space to be hardened off for an additional month before

setting them in the field. Thus, approximately 4 months after grafting the new

plants are ready for final orchard planting. This is about 1/3 the time required to

grow a grafted plant through conventional methods. Since the young trees are top

O heavy they should be tied from the beginning to a stake or tutor and kept straight

and well supported in the containers until they are set in the new orchard where

special care should be taken to protect them from the wind.


Fertilizing Seedling Rootstocks

It is important to give seedling rootstocks the proper care before grafting.

They should be watered with a solution of 2% of 20-20-20 (Nutri-leaf) soluble

fertilizer containing iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) (approx. 20 gms of

20-20-20, in 4-gal. of water).


Care of the New Trees

When the new grafted plants are put in containers they should be fertilized

with a 4% solution of the same chemicals mentioned above and should remain in the

* nursery for 2-2V months. A nursery arrangement with a drip irrigation system will

greatly facilitate watering and fertilizing with soluble chemicals ("fertigation"),

and will cut labor costs and human error in the application of the fertilizer to a









cut off at the time of grafting and the roots are wrapped completely in new plastic

bags without holes. Thus, the roots remain fresh, even if they cannot be watered,

from the moment of grafting through the time of girdling at which time the scion

branch will provide the necessary nourishment for growth and development.


Care of Grafted Plants

After 45-50 days of inarching the new plants are ready to be cut off and trans-

planted either to 9" x 14" plastic bags or 2-gal. containers. Subsequently the

plants should be kept away from direct sunlight in a lightly shaded area where they

remain for the next 30 days. After this period the shade could be removed or the

plants removed to an open space to be hardened off for an additional month before

setting them in the field. Thus, approximately 4 months after grafting the new

plants are ready for final orchard planting. This is about 1/3 the time required to

grow a grafted plant through conventional methods. Since the young trees are top

O heavy they should be tied from the beginning to a stake or tutor and kept straight

and well supported in the containers until they are set in the new orchard where

special care should be taken to protect them from the wind.


Fertilizing Seedling Rootstocks

It is important to give seedling rootstocks the proper care before grafting.

They should be watered with a solution of 2% of 20-20-20 (Nutri-leaf) soluble

fertilizer containing iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) (approx. 20 gms of

20-20-20, in 4-gal. of water).


Care of the New Trees

When the new grafted plants are put in containers they should be fertilized

with a 4% solution of the same chemicals mentioned above and should remain in the

* nursery for 2-2V months. A nursery arrangement with a drip irrigation system will

greatly facilitate watering and fertilizing with soluble chemicals ("fertigation"),

and will cut labor costs and human error in the application of the fertilizer to a









cut off at the time of grafting and the roots are wrapped completely in new plastic

bags without holes. Thus, the roots remain fresh, even if they cannot be watered,

from the moment of grafting through the time of girdling at which time the scion

branch will provide the necessary nourishment for growth and development.


Care of Grafted Plants

After 45-50 days of inarching the new plants are ready to be cut off and trans-

planted either to 9" x 14" plastic bags or 2-gal. containers. Subsequently the

plants should be kept away from direct sunlight in a lightly shaded area where they

remain for the next 30 days. After this period the shade could be removed or the

plants removed to an open space to be hardened off for an additional month before

setting them in the field. Thus, approximately 4 months after grafting the new

plants are ready for final orchard planting. This is about 1/3 the time required to

grow a grafted plant through conventional methods. Since the young trees are top

O heavy they should be tied from the beginning to a stake or tutor and kept straight

and well supported in the containers until they are set in the new orchard where

special care should be taken to protect them from the wind.


Fertilizing Seedling Rootstocks

It is important to give seedling rootstocks the proper care before grafting.

They should be watered with a solution of 2% of 20-20-20 (Nutri-leaf) soluble

fertilizer containing iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) (approx. 20 gms of

20-20-20, in 4-gal. of water).


Care of the New Trees

When the new grafted plants are put in containers they should be fertilized

with a 4% solution of the same chemicals mentioned above and should remain in the

* nursery for 2-2V months. A nursery arrangement with a drip irrigation system will

greatly facilitate watering and fertilizing with soluble chemicals ("fertigation"),

and will cut labor costs and human error in the application of the fertilizer to a









minimum. Since the new trees tend to be top heavy, transplanting to the orchard

must be done carefully and they should be protected against wind damage with an

individual burlap or plastic windbreak supported by stakes if possible.


Mother-plant Field Nursery

Since in this system we use sections of scion-wood 20-30 in. long, we must have

an ample supply of young, vigorous terminal branches to graft. Thus, in order to

minimize labor costs and the time involved in obtaining scion wood from mature trees,

it is convenient, in large commercial operations,to have young mother plants which

have been planted in closely spaced rows with the exclusive purpose of providing

scion wood. In this way an abundant source of material of selected clones is

assured.

Cultivars needed are planted 3 to 4 feet from each other in rows 3.5 to 4.5

feet apart. Remember that the distance of planting is a function of the fertility

* of the soil: higher fertility requires a greater distance because plants tend to grow

larger. The soil should be as well drained as possible, and there should be a good

system of irrigation. In this type of nursery a drip system of irrigation is de-

sirable since it does not create conditions conducive to anthracnose development

(produced by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes) as opposed to overhead

sprinkler irrigation. Furthermore it provides efficient irrigation and a means of

fertilizing with soluble nutrients (fertigation). This is an important advantage

particularly in applying iron chelates which are not absorbed from foliage sprays

and are costly and not as efficient when applied as injections or drenches.

It is important to follow a fertilizer program designed to give a maximum of

vegetative growth so that an abundant supply of young vigorous shoots can be obtained

The applications of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be in a 1:1:1 ratio

* and could be increased to an optimum upper threshold coming short of injuring the

plants (approximately 1/2 lb of each element per tree/year). If this is done the

rates of the minor elements will have to be in such quantities as to maintain a









Certain equilibrium among all the essential elements and thus avoid deficiencies

which result from imbalances in the availability of these elements. This is

particularly true of iron (Fe) which has a low mobility in the plant and is usually

accessible in the soil very slowly and in small amounts.

Iron becomes deficient in new shoots when large applications of nitrogen produce

abundant vegetative growth. This occurs particularly in sandy and calcareous soils

where the plant cannot absorb Fe in corresponding amounts. A deficiency of Fe slows

down the formation of chlorophyl which results in chlorosis or the yellowing of the

leaves. Other factors being equal, the efficiency of the foliage in producing the

necessary nourishment for the plant is a function of the concentration of chlorophyl.

This efficiency apparently goes down even before chlorosis becomes visible. It is

important, therefore, to apply iron chelates continuously to plants that are being

"pushed" with high rates of fertilizers as an insurance against the effects of

chlorosis.


Control of Diseases and Pests

It is important to be able to spray the mother-plant nursery when the need

arises. The crowded conditions are conducive to the development of foliage diseases,

insects and mites which may damage the young plants and constitute a focus of in-

fection for future orchards if not controlled properly. To allow for the spraying

operations the nursery should have a 12-foot middle every 8 rows of trees to drive a

tractor with a sprayer. In this manner 4 rows can be sprayed at either side of this

middle. It is doubtful whether more than 4 rows of trees can be reached and

thoroughly covered with even the most powerful speed sprayers. Depending on the

size and age of the trees this method may have to be supplemented by handgun spray-

ing of the internal rows. Recommendations on suitable fungicides and insecticides

s should be obtained from the Extension Service.






-6-


CONCLUSIONS

By following the steps outlined in this paper one can obtain a new grafted

mango tree in about 4 months. This constitutes approximately 1/3 of the time

employed by most nurserymen in producing a mango plant, ready for orchard planting,

by conventional methods. Thus, by using the "Thai Inarching Method" (TIM) it is

feasible to obtain as much as three times the conventional annual output of

"finished" mango trees of an average Florida nursery. The possibility of reaching

this goal is of course even better if an abundant supply of scion branches is

available from a productive mother-plant nursery.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs