• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Introduction
 Climate and soil
 Flower types and selection
 Propagation
 Planting
 Fertilization and irrigation
 Control of weeds, diseases and...














Group Title: Sub-Tropical Experiment Station - mimeographed report ; no. 54-1
Title: Papaya growing in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067801/00001
 Material Information
Title: Papaya growing in Florida
Series Title: Mimeographed report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harkness, Roy W
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Homestead Fla
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Papaya -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Roy W. Harkness.
General Note: "May, 1954."
Funding: Mimeographed report (Sub-Tropical Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067801
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71827127

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Copyright
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Climate and soil
        Page 1
    Flower types and selection
        Page 1
    Propagation
        Page 2
    Planting
        Page 3
    Fertilization and irrigation
        Page 3
    Control of weeds, diseases and pests
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




52/ 1954
Mimeographed Report No. -4 May, 1954
/ University of Florida
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION
/ -Homestead, Florida

PAPAYA GROWING IN FLORIDA
By
Roy W. Harkness


Introduction

Papayas have been grown in Florida for nearly half a century and have been widely
publicized at times. In spite of that, the market for the fruit has always been
limited so the acreage has remained comparatively small, never more than a few
hundred acres. Since the plants will produce fruit within a year after planting
there has usually been an overproduction within a year or two after each period of
high prices. Nevertheless there has been a gradual increase in consumption so that
during the last few years the industry has been fairly stable.

Most of the larger growers or prospective growers seem to realize that increasing
the acreage only a hundred acres or so might cause serious overproduction.

Climate and Soil

The papaya is very sensitive to frost although it is not as limited in range as
some tropical plants. It will be severely damaged by exposure to 310 temperature
but a large plant may not be killed until exposed for a considerable time to some-
what lower temperatures. Papayas have been grown in backyards as far north as
St. Augustine but commercial plantings are all located in the more nearly frost-free
areas of the state. Even in the vicinity of Miami, there is sufficient frost every
few years to cause severe damage if frost protection is not supplied.

The papaya thrives on almost any type of soil, provided there is adequate drainage.
Large amounts of fertilizer are required on poor soil, but when well fertilized,
high sandy or limerock soils will produce large crops of good quality fruit. On a
rich soil, such as the muck soils of the Everglades, growth is phenomenal and tre-
mendous crops are produced but such fruit is likely to be of poor quality.

Low marshy ground, or that subject to periods of overflow, should be avoided for
growing papayas. Water standing around the crown roots for a period of 48 hours is
likely to prove fatal to the plant.

Flower types and Seed Selection

Papaya plants may be "male", "female" or "bisexual". The sex of the papaya plant
can be determined only when flowers are produced. Male plants are easily recog-
nized by the long hanging panicles on which the flowers are produced in clusters.
These plants ordinarily do not bear fruit. Female and bisexual plants have flowers
which are clustered at the base of the leaf next to the stem. Female plants have
flowers that lack stamens so they must receive pollen from other plants in order to
produce fruit. Bisexual plants have complete or perfect blossoms with both a pistil
and 10 stamens but there is frequently a tendency for plants of the bisexual type
to revert to either the male or female form. Bisexual plants that are more male
than female may have flowers with pistils only during the late winter and spring
months so the plant will be barren a large part of the year. Bisexual plants that
are more female than male will have blooms with less than 10 stamens. When two or
more stamens are missing the fruit will be more or less misshapened and may have a
crease on one side. Rotten spots frequently form in these creases before the fruit
reaches maturity.




52/ 1954
Mimeographed Report No. -4 May, 1954
/ University of Florida
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION
/ -Homestead, Florida

PAPAYA GROWING IN FLORIDA
By
Roy W. Harkness


Introduction

Papayas have been grown in Florida for nearly half a century and have been widely
publicized at times. In spite of that, the market for the fruit has always been
limited so the acreage has remained comparatively small, never more than a few
hundred acres. Since the plants will produce fruit within a year after planting
there has usually been an overproduction within a year or two after each period of
high prices. Nevertheless there has been a gradual increase in consumption so that
during the last few years the industry has been fairly stable.

Most of the larger growers or prospective growers seem to realize that increasing
the acreage only a hundred acres or so might cause serious overproduction.

Climate and Soil

The papaya is very sensitive to frost although it is not as limited in range as
some tropical plants. It will be severely damaged by exposure to 310 temperature
but a large plant may not be killed until exposed for a considerable time to some-
what lower temperatures. Papayas have been grown in backyards as far north as
St. Augustine but commercial plantings are all located in the more nearly frost-free
areas of the state. Even in the vicinity of Miami, there is sufficient frost every
few years to cause severe damage if frost protection is not supplied.

The papaya thrives on almost any type of soil, provided there is adequate drainage.
Large amounts of fertilizer are required on poor soil, but when well fertilized,
high sandy or limerock soils will produce large crops of good quality fruit. On a
rich soil, such as the muck soils of the Everglades, growth is phenomenal and tre-
mendous crops are produced but such fruit is likely to be of poor quality.

Low marshy ground, or that subject to periods of overflow, should be avoided for
growing papayas. Water standing around the crown roots for a period of 48 hours is
likely to prove fatal to the plant.

Flower types and Seed Selection

Papaya plants may be "male", "female" or "bisexual". The sex of the papaya plant
can be determined only when flowers are produced. Male plants are easily recog-
nized by the long hanging panicles on which the flowers are produced in clusters.
These plants ordinarily do not bear fruit. Female and bisexual plants have flowers
which are clustered at the base of the leaf next to the stem. Female plants have
flowers that lack stamens so they must receive pollen from other plants in order to
produce fruit. Bisexual plants have complete or perfect blossoms with both a pistil
and 10 stamens but there is frequently a tendency for plants of the bisexual type
to revert to either the male or female form. Bisexual plants that are more male
than female may have flowers with pistils only during the late winter and spring
months so the plant will be barren a large part of the year. Bisexual plants that
are more female than male will have blooms with less than 10 stamens. When two or
more stamens are missing the fruit will be more or less misshapened and may have a
crease on one side. Rotten spots frequently form in these creases before the fruit
reaches maturity.




52/ 1954
Mimeographed Report No. -4 May, 1954
/ University of Florida
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION
/ -Homestead, Florida

PAPAYA GROWING IN FLORIDA
By
Roy W. Harkness


Introduction

Papayas have been grown in Florida for nearly half a century and have been widely
publicized at times. In spite of that, the market for the fruit has always been
limited so the acreage has remained comparatively small, never more than a few
hundred acres. Since the plants will produce fruit within a year after planting
there has usually been an overproduction within a year or two after each period of
high prices. Nevertheless there has been a gradual increase in consumption so that
during the last few years the industry has been fairly stable.

Most of the larger growers or prospective growers seem to realize that increasing
the acreage only a hundred acres or so might cause serious overproduction.

Climate and Soil

The papaya is very sensitive to frost although it is not as limited in range as
some tropical plants. It will be severely damaged by exposure to 310 temperature
but a large plant may not be killed until exposed for a considerable time to some-
what lower temperatures. Papayas have been grown in backyards as far north as
St. Augustine but commercial plantings are all located in the more nearly frost-free
areas of the state. Even in the vicinity of Miami, there is sufficient frost every
few years to cause severe damage if frost protection is not supplied.

The papaya thrives on almost any type of soil, provided there is adequate drainage.
Large amounts of fertilizer are required on poor soil, but when well fertilized,
high sandy or limerock soils will produce large crops of good quality fruit. On a
rich soil, such as the muck soils of the Everglades, growth is phenomenal and tre-
mendous crops are produced but such fruit is likely to be of poor quality.

Low marshy ground, or that subject to periods of overflow, should be avoided for
growing papayas. Water standing around the crown roots for a period of 48 hours is
likely to prove fatal to the plant.

Flower types and Seed Selection

Papaya plants may be "male", "female" or "bisexual". The sex of the papaya plant
can be determined only when flowers are produced. Male plants are easily recog-
nized by the long hanging panicles on which the flowers are produced in clusters.
These plants ordinarily do not bear fruit. Female and bisexual plants have flowers
which are clustered at the base of the leaf next to the stem. Female plants have
flowers that lack stamens so they must receive pollen from other plants in order to
produce fruit. Bisexual plants have complete or perfect blossoms with both a pistil
and 10 stamens but there is frequently a tendency for plants of the bisexual type
to revert to either the male or female form. Bisexual plants that are more male
than female may have flowers with pistils only during the late winter and spring
months so the plant will be barren a large part of the year. Bisexual plants that
are more female than male will have blooms with less than 10 stamens. When two or
more stamens are missing the fruit will be more or less misshapened and may have a
crease on one side. Rotten spots frequently form in these creases before the fruit
reaches maturity.





-2 -


The yield from the bisexual plants in a good strain of papayas will average nearly
as high as from the female plants. Most markets prefer the cylindrical shape and
small seed cavity characteristic of bisexual fruit rather than the nearly round
fruit produced by the female flower. Fruit from bisexual plants generally has a
firmer flesh and stands more handling than fruit from female plants.

Hand pollination can be done quite easily. To insure that a bisexual blossom is
self pollinated, it is only necessary to fasten a small paper bag over the blossom
before it opens and leave the bag on for several days until the ovary has started
to enlarge. To cross-pollinate two strains, stamens from a bisexual plant are col-
lected when the blossom is almost ready to open. One or two of these stamens are
placed on the pistil of a female blossom in which the petals are almost ready to
unfold. A bag is then tied over the blossom and left for a few days. If the
plants are in a vigorous condition and are setting most of their blossoms when
pollination is done, a large percentage of the hand pollinated blossoms should set
fruits and most of them should have the normal number of seeds. Sometimes, however,
when the pistil does not receive enough pollen, very few seeds will be formed.

Hand pollination tests have shown that:

1. Female pollinated by male gives equal numbers of male and female progeny.

2. Female pollinated by bisexual gives equal numbers of female and bisexual
progeny.

3. Bisexual pollinated by male gives equal numbers of female, bisexual and
male progeny.

4. Bisexual self-pollinated gives 67% bisexual, with the balance female.

In Florida male plants are usually not needed to pollinate female blossoms if bi-
sexual plants are present. However, male plants are apparently more active polli-
nating agents. Ordinarily a large proportion of the seeds from any fruit grown in
the vicinity of male plants will reproduce male plants.

The only way to improve the type of papayas raised is to use seed from selected
hand-pollinated fruit. However, any seed taken from good fruit in an isolated
planting that has uniformly good quality plants will usually produce a large pro-
portion of good plants.

In order to establish a true variety in any crop that is reproduced by seed, it is
necessary to carefully select the plants for uniform characteristics for several
generations. According to that standard, there are very few papaya varieties.
Probably the most uniform variety is the Hawaiin Solo which is the result of many
years of papaya breeding. This variety is not considered satisfactory in Florida,
however, because of its small size and poor yield. Most of the papayas grown in
Florida can better be described as types rather than true varieties. The nearest
to a true variety in Florida is probably the Blue Solo, a cross between the Hawaiin
Solo and a large blue stemmed papaya. It produces good yields of fairly uniform
2-4 lb. fruit of good quality.

Propagation

The only practical method of propagating papaya is by seed. Seeds should be started
in small pots so the seedlings may be set in the field without disturbing the roots.
Cups made of felt paper may be used but many growers use quart oil cans with the
bottom nearly cut out. When ready to set in the field the soil is thoroughly
moistened, the bottom of the can is turned back, and the soil is pushed out as a
solid cylinder.





- 3 -


A mixture of sand and muck or any other good high organic potting soil, such as
nurserymen use, is satisfactory for growing the seedlings. Small papaya seedlings
are subject to damping-off so sterilization of the soil is a wise precaution. If
soil sterilization is impractical, damping-off may be minimized by providing the
seedlings with good aeration and by watering only as necessary to keep the plants
from wilting.

When using seed from fruit hand-pollinated with bisexual pollen, two seeds to a pot
are enough. With other seed there will usually be a considerable proportion of
male plants so it is desirable to plant about five seeds to a pot and thin to three
plants. These three plants are allowed to grow until they blossom. The male and
other surplus plants should then be removed leaving one bisexual or female plant in
a hill. If no bisexual plants are present, about one male plant per 20-25 female
plants should be left for pollination.

The seedling pots should be watered frequently enough to prevent the top inch of
soil from becoming dry but not enough to frequently saturate the soil. It is ad-
visable to apply a little soluble fertilizer about once a week while the seedlings
are in the pots.

Planting

Papayas should be planted 8 to 10 feet apart both in the row and between rows since
the leaves of vigorously growing plants will spread more than 5 feet from the trunk.
For convenience in harvesting and spraying, a 15 to 20 foot driveway should be left
every four or five rows. The ground should be thoroughly loosened to a good depth
before planting. In the rocky soils of Dade County the ground should be scarified
quite deeply and if the ground has stood for a year or more after scarifying it
should be dug up again. In compact soil on low ground, careful arrangements should
be made for drainage between the rows.

Plants should not be set any lower in the ground than they were in the container.
A handful of a mixed fertilizer such as 5-7-5 should be placed in the hole around
the plant and close to it but not actually against the roots. After filling the
hole, a mulch of grass, peat moss, shavings, or other material should be placed
around the plants to help conserve moisture and prevent growth of weeds around the
small plants. In dry weather the plants should be watered frequently until well
established.

In cooler sections of the state plants should be set in the field in March or April
so as to give them the longest possible period without danger of frost. In warmer
parts of the state, plants may be set out at any time, but by planting in March or
April it is possible to get fruit by November or December. If they were planted
after July 1, they would go through the winter season without fruiting and would
probably require ten months or more to produce fruit. If planted in late summer,
however, they probably would not be damaged much by a hurricane in the fall and
would produce fruit for a considerable time before the next hurricane season.

Fertilization and Irrigation

Papayas require quite large amounts of fertilizer. The actual amount required de-
pends on soil conditions, rainfall etc., but the following schedule will serve as
a rough guide. Beginning a couple weeks after the plants are set in the field a
standard mixed fertilizer such as 5-7-5 with more than 25% of the nitrogen from
organic sources and containing 3 units of available MgO is used. This should be
applied twice monthly, starting with pound per hill and increasing gradually un-
til the end of six months the rate is one pound. In addition to that, 5 to 10 lbs.
of organic fertilizer such as chicken manure, commercial sewage sludge or tobacco
stems should be put around the plants when small. Such organic material may also





- 3 -


A mixture of sand and muck or any other good high organic potting soil, such as
nurserymen use, is satisfactory for growing the seedlings. Small papaya seedlings
are subject to damping-off so sterilization of the soil is a wise precaution. If
soil sterilization is impractical, damping-off may be minimized by providing the
seedlings with good aeration and by watering only as necessary to keep the plants
from wilting.

When using seed from fruit hand-pollinated with bisexual pollen, two seeds to a pot
are enough. With other seed there will usually be a considerable proportion of
male plants so it is desirable to plant about five seeds to a pot and thin to three
plants. These three plants are allowed to grow until they blossom. The male and
other surplus plants should then be removed leaving one bisexual or female plant in
a hill. If no bisexual plants are present, about one male plant per 20-25 female
plants should be left for pollination.

The seedling pots should be watered frequently enough to prevent the top inch of
soil from becoming dry but not enough to frequently saturate the soil. It is ad-
visable to apply a little soluble fertilizer about once a week while the seedlings
are in the pots.

Planting

Papayas should be planted 8 to 10 feet apart both in the row and between rows since
the leaves of vigorously growing plants will spread more than 5 feet from the trunk.
For convenience in harvesting and spraying, a 15 to 20 foot driveway should be left
every four or five rows. The ground should be thoroughly loosened to a good depth
before planting. In the rocky soils of Dade County the ground should be scarified
quite deeply and if the ground has stood for a year or more after scarifying it
should be dug up again. In compact soil on low ground, careful arrangements should
be made for drainage between the rows.

Plants should not be set any lower in the ground than they were in the container.
A handful of a mixed fertilizer such as 5-7-5 should be placed in the hole around
the plant and close to it but not actually against the roots. After filling the
hole, a mulch of grass, peat moss, shavings, or other material should be placed
around the plants to help conserve moisture and prevent growth of weeds around the
small plants. In dry weather the plants should be watered frequently until well
established.

In cooler sections of the state plants should be set in the field in March or April
so as to give them the longest possible period without danger of frost. In warmer
parts of the state, plants may be set out at any time, but by planting in March or
April it is possible to get fruit by November or December. If they were planted
after July 1, they would go through the winter season without fruiting and would
probably require ten months or more to produce fruit. If planted in late summer,
however, they probably would not be damaged much by a hurricane in the fall and
would produce fruit for a considerable time before the next hurricane season.

Fertilization and Irrigation

Papayas require quite large amounts of fertilizer. The actual amount required de-
pends on soil conditions, rainfall etc., but the following schedule will serve as
a rough guide. Beginning a couple weeks after the plants are set in the field a
standard mixed fertilizer such as 5-7-5 with more than 25% of the nitrogen from
organic sources and containing 3 units of available MgO is used. This should be
applied twice monthly, starting with pound per hill and increasing gradually un-
til the end of six months the rate is one pound. In addition to that, 5 to 10 lbs.
of organic fertilizer such as chicken manure, commercial sewage sludge or tobacco
stems should be put around the plants when small. Such organic material may also





-4 -

be used later but care must be taken to supplement it with extra potash and phos-
phorus. In any fertilizer program, it should be remembered that a heavy rain may
wash out most of the soluble nitrogen and potash. On the other hand, too high con-
centration of fertilizer materials may be obtained if repeated applications are
made when there is no rain or irrigation.

In general, best results are obtained by keeping the plants growing vigorously at
all times. Usually either nitrogen or water is the limiting factor in growth but
as the plants get older other elements must also be present to maintain healthy
plants and good quality fruit. If the bottom leaves turn yellow, a nitrogen defi-
cency is indicated. A gradual yellowing of all the leaves may indicate lack of
water. It is desirable to keep the bottom leaves green as long as possible because
the growth of the plant and the flavor and sugar content of the fruit are directly
dependent on the leaf surface. In applying fertilizer, care should be taken to
spread it over the whole feeding area of the roots. Papeya roots usually extend out
further than the height of the plant.

Under Florida conditions it is frequently possible to double the papaya crop by
irrigation. Young plants are not extremely sensitive to dry weather when first set
out; but when flowering starts, a week or so of dry weather may cause them to drop
their blossoms for a considerable time. Older plants become somewhat resistant to
drought but will not produce full crops in dry weather. On shallow soils such as
Dade County limestone, water may be needed every 5 or 6 days. Extending the inter-
val to 10 days in warm dry weather might result in as much damage from drought as
though there was no irrigation.

When properly cared for, the papaya plant will continue bearing good crops for at
least two years after the first fruit is obtained. When the plants are three or
four years old it is generally advisable to abandon the planting although the plants
may live much longer. When well cared for, plants should average 75 pounds of fruit
per year. Yields of 300 pounds of fruit per year on individual trees are not un-
usual but that amount is much above the normal average.

Control of Weeds, Diseases and Pests

The control of weeds is very important, particularly around the young plants. It is
impossible to make the small plants grow satisfactorily when they are surrounded by
a heavy growth of grass or weeds. The best method of control around the young
plants is to keep a mulch of dead grass, shavings or other material for a distance
of one or two feet from the plant. This mulch also helps to conserve moisture and
later when it decomposes will combine with the added fertilizer to give an organic
source of nitrogen. When the plants get larger, weeds can be controlled by culti-
vation. On shallow soil such as Dade County limestone the only cultivation should
be dragging or hand hoeing. Mowing does not give adequate control of weeds on
shallow soil.

There are three insect pests that may be serious: 1) The papaya webworm, which in-
vades the area between the fruit and trunk, will ruin the fruit if it is not con-
trolled; 2) The papaya fruit fly which lays its eggs in the growing fruit--on
ripening such fruit will frequently be found full of maggots; 3) The papaya white
fly, a very small fly, individuals of which congregate primarily on the young leaves
near the growing tip of the plant. Black sooty mold grows on the secretions and
excretions of this insect. The occurrence of this mold on leaves and fruit indicates
a white fly infestation. This mold cuts down the capacity of the green tissue to
make food and makes the fruit unattractive.

A spray of two pounds of wettable DDT per 100 gallons of water applied thoroughly
on the trunk and fruit once a month will give complete control of the papaya webworm.
This same spray will usually give good protection against the fruit fly if all the





- 5 -


papayas in the vicinity are sprayed. In a back yard planting, where the neighbor's
plants may be untreated, it may not be possible to control the fruit fly. A spray
of 5-10 pounds of wettable sulfur per 100 gallons will give good control of the
white fly. The sulfur may be combined with the DDT.

There are two leaf-spot diseases that are difficult to control but fortunately they
seldom do enough damage to be serious. Anthracnose and other fungus rots of the
fruit usually cause considerable loss. Excessive susceptibility-to anthracnose seems
to be inherited but all plantings will have some damaged fruit. The disease is
affected by various seasonal conditions, particularly rainfall and high humidity.
At present, no fungicidal treatment is known that will give satisfactory control.

A defect typified by a large bumps on the fruit and exudation of latex at many
points is quite common. The cause of this condition is unknown but susceptibility
to it seems to be inherited. It appears to be aggravated by freezing or near-
freezing temperatures.

Virus diseases are probably the greatest threat to the papaya industry in Florida.
The symptoms of these diseases vary but usually the first symptom is an irregular
mottling of the youngest leaves. Some areas become more transparent or yellow than
normal and the general effect is to lighten the color of the leaves. Later,
mottling will spread to all new leaves, irregular greasy-appearing streaks may form
on the leaf petioles and stem, and the fruit will develop spots that usually become
irregular rings less than an inch in diameter. These characteristic rings may be
considered positive identification. These rings do not always develop, but at other
times they may occur before mottling of the leaves can be detected.

Conditions other than virus diseases may cause deviations in the normal green color
of papaya leaves. Light colored young leaves may be caused by root damage or lack
of fertilizer so if no mottling is present virus diseases need not be suspected.
Powdery mildew, a fungous disease which seldom causes much damage will cause the
leaves to become mottled but that disease can usually be recognized by the growth
of a whitish mildew on the lower sides of leaves. In warm weather, DDT spray will
mottle the tender leaves but when that occurrs the spots will usually suddenly ap-
pear shortly after spraying and if the plants are watched for a couple weeks, new
leaves will be seen to come out without spots. Heavy infestations of white fly also
may cause a mottling of young leaves.

Papaya virus diseases are apparently not spread by seed and apparently not easily
spread by contact. There is no reason to believe that they are spread by workmen in
the field. In a large field, most newly infested plants will be clustered about a
diseased plant, but on the other hand, some will be at a considerable distance. On
that account, and because of our general knowledge of the nature of virus diseases,
it is suspected that the disease is spread by certain insects. However, no such in-
sect has been identified as a carrier of Florida papaya virus diseases and it is
doubted that any spray program would control the disease.

The only known control of virus diseases is to cut the plants down as soon as the
virus symptoms are detected. In one planting, where the plants were inspected and
infested plants removed once a week over a two year period, infected plants averaged
about 0.3% of the total number each week or 15% each year. The percentage found at
the end of the two year period was slightly less than during the first few months.
This planting was isolated from other papayas. It is doubtful that such control
could be maintained near an infected planting. There are still many plantings that
have apparently escaped infection up to the present time but plantings will





-6-

gncrrally become 100% infected within a year after appearance of the diseases if
the infected plants are not removed. The plants will start producing fruit with
objectionable flavor within two to three months -fter symptoms are visible. Most
plants are badly damaged by these diseases and practically stop growing. However,
some infected plants may seem to be only mildly affected as long as good growing
conditions exist, but they may fail to recover from adverse conditions such as
flooding, low fertility, extreme drought or cold weather.




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