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 Historic note
 Material and methods
 Results and discussion
 Conclusion














Group Title: Sub-Tropical Experiment Station - mimeographed report ; no. SUB68-2
Title: Nabam as a soil drench for tomatoes in calcareous soil
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067789/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nabam as a soil drench for tomatoes in calcareous soil
Series Title: Mimeographed report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Averre, Charles W ( Charles Wilson ), 1932-
Winchester, James Alwyn, 1927-
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Publisher: University of Florida, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Homestead Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.W. Averre and J.A. Winchester.
Funding: Mimeographed report (Sub-Tropical Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067789
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 71667713

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Copyright
    Material and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Conclusion
        Page 2
        Page 3
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







MIMEOGRAPHED REPORT SUB68-2 *
September, 1967



University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences HUME LIBRAF
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION
18905 S. W. 280 Street
Homestead, Florida 33030 S9 1 1972


NABAM AS A SOIL DRENCH FOR TOMATOES IN CALCAREOUS SO fF.A.S. Univ. of FIl
1/
C. W. Averre, III and J. A. Winchester-


A large number of materials have been evaluated for the control of damping-off and
root rots of tomato seedlings. These diseases are a part of the complex situation
commonly referred to as the "old land" problem. Conover found that one pound of
Dithane A-40 (93% nabam, Rohm & Haas Co.) per 100 gallons of water drenched over
newly seeded tomatoes at the rate of 3,000 gallons per broadcast acre was especially
effective in stimulating seedling growth and reducing damping-off. Subsequently
many tomato growers in Dade County have reported this as a favorable practice. This
response has been evident in treated commercial fields on "old land" but it has not
been observed on "new land". Averre and Winchester used this technique on young
tomato seedlings affected by root-knot and reported increased yields and effective
root-knot control. However, the drenches were phytotoxic to foliage. This paper
reports the effect of different rates of nabam on seedling stimulation and seed
germination.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Tomato seed of the variety Homestead-24 was planted in flats or drilled in rows at
a depth up to one inch. Plot length in the field varied from 7 ft to 14 ft and
consisted of one row. Treatments were replicated at least four times. The soil
was classified as "old land" and was unsuited for tomato culture as a result of many
tomato crops. The soil type was Rockdale fine-sandy loam complex; this soil is
shallow and very rocky, has a pH between 7.5 and 8.0, is well drained and aerated,
and the portion screened through k in. mesh contained about 7% organic matter. Soil
moisture was about 20%. Immediately after seeding, the nabam drenches were applied
over the seed with sprinkling cans. The rates of material reported are on a broad-
cast basis. Growers would use much less material; usually only a one ft strip over
the seed is treated in rows on 6 ft centers. Seedling response was estimated on a
1-5 basis where "1" was the best plot and "5" the worst. When applicable, notes
were taken on damping-off, root rot, weed control, and germination.





1/ Assistant Plant Pathologist, University of Florida Sub-Tropical Experiment
Station and Assistant Nematologist, Everglades Experiment Station, respectively.
(Current address of senior author, Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations, Georgia Station, Experiment).


9/67/225







-2-


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The effect of various nabam drenches on tomato seedlings is presented in Table 1
and 2. Tomato seedlings in general had more vigorous growth with rates up to 240
lbs per acre. Increasing the amount of water above 6000 gal was also beneficial.
Rates lower than 30 Ibs per acre and 3000 gal of water were not especially effective.
Nabam drenches reduced root lesions and appeared to reduce populations of some weeds;
the effect on damping-off was not ascertained since this was not a problem. Nabam
drenches on various vegetable seed tended to reduce and delay germination, Tables
2 and 3. With tomato seed, the reduction in germination was significant with rates
higher than 160 Ib per acre rate.

Dilution plating "old land" soil treated with 180 lb Dithane A-40 in 3000 gal water
per acre showed reduced fungus populations one week after treatment.as-follows:
Pythium 440 to 100 VPGS (viable propagules per gram of soil), Fusarium 62,000 to
12,000 VPGS, and total fungi 226,000 to 72,000 VPGS. These fungi are frequently
associated with "old land" problems.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of nabam as a soil drench over tomato seed drilled in Rockdale soil that is
classified as "old land" appears to have merit. Previous tests have shown increased
tomato yields when nabam was applied as a drench over seed and reduced root-knot
galling when applied as a post emergence drench. Under the conditions of these
tests nabam is biologically active as a soil drench. The mechanism of stimulation
to tomato seedling remains to be determined.


It should be pointed out that nabam in effect
tomato foliage. Possibly its use on establish
with directed soil applications or followed wi
with water.
Table 1. Effect of drenching tomato
Test 1.1/


ve concentrations was phytotoxic to
ed tomato plants would be feasible
th thorough rinsing of the plants

seed in the field with nabam.


Treatment 2/
No. Rate per acre Vigor rating- Number 3
lb. Dithane A-40 gal. water (1-5) of weeds-

1 0 0 4.8 c 20 bc
2 7.5 3,000 4.1 bc 22 c
3 15.0 3,000 3.2 ab 17 abc
4 30.0 3,000 2.1 a 19 abc
5 60.0 3,000 2.8 ab 8 a
6 120.0 3,000 3.0 ab 10 ab
7 240.0 3,000 2.0 a 9 ab
8 30.0 600 3.8 bc 20 bc
9 30.0 6,000 2.0 a 20 bc
10 30.0 12,000 2.1 a 16 abc

1/ Numbers in a column with a letter in common are not significantly
different at the .05 level.
2/ Rating based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = best and 5 = worst treatment.
3/ Weeds were largely Oxalis spp., and Portulacca olearacea L.







-2-


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The effect of various nabam drenches on tomato seedlings is presented in Table 1
and 2. Tomato seedlings in general had more vigorous growth with rates up to 240
lbs per acre. Increasing the amount of water above 6000 gal was also beneficial.
Rates lower than 30 Ibs per acre and 3000 gal of water were not especially effective.
Nabam drenches reduced root lesions and appeared to reduce populations of some weeds;
the effect on damping-off was not ascertained since this was not a problem. Nabam
drenches on various vegetable seed tended to reduce and delay germination, Tables
2 and 3. With tomato seed, the reduction in germination was significant with rates
higher than 160 Ib per acre rate.

Dilution plating "old land" soil treated with 180 lb Dithane A-40 in 3000 gal water
per acre showed reduced fungus populations one week after treatment.as-follows:
Pythium 440 to 100 VPGS (viable propagules per gram of soil), Fusarium 62,000 to
12,000 VPGS, and total fungi 226,000 to 72,000 VPGS. These fungi are frequently
associated with "old land" problems.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of nabam as a soil drench over tomato seed drilled in Rockdale soil that is
classified as "old land" appears to have merit. Previous tests have shown increased
tomato yields when nabam was applied as a drench over seed and reduced root-knot
galling when applied as a post emergence drench. Under the conditions of these
tests nabam is biologically active as a soil drench. The mechanism of stimulation
to tomato seedling remains to be determined.


It should be pointed out that nabam in effect
tomato foliage. Possibly its use on establish
with directed soil applications or followed wi
with water.
Table 1. Effect of drenching tomato
Test 1.1/


ve concentrations was phytotoxic to
ed tomato plants would be feasible
th thorough rinsing of the plants

seed in the field with nabam.


Treatment 2/
No. Rate per acre Vigor rating- Number 3
lb. Dithane A-40 gal. water (1-5) of weeds-

1 0 0 4.8 c 20 bc
2 7.5 3,000 4.1 bc 22 c
3 15.0 3,000 3.2 ab 17 abc
4 30.0 3,000 2.1 a 19 abc
5 60.0 3,000 2.8 ab 8 a
6 120.0 3,000 3.0 ab 10 ab
7 240.0 3,000 2.0 a 9 ab
8 30.0 600 3.8 bc 20 bc
9 30.0 6,000 2.0 a 20 bc
10 30.0 12,000 2.1 a 16 abc

1/ Numbers in a column with a letter in common are not significantly
different at the .05 level.
2/ Rating based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = best and 5 = worst treatment.
3/ Weeds were largely Oxalis spp., and Portulacca olearacea L.







- 3: -


Table 2. Effect of drenching
Test 2.1/


tomato seed in the field with nabam.


Treatment 3/
No. Rate per acre Weight of Root lesions- No. of
lb. Dithane A-40 gal. water seedlings 2/ (1-5 scale) seedlings -

1 0 0 542 ab 3.7 bc 128 a
2 30 3,000 586 ab 3.0 ab 130 a
3 240 3,000 851 ab 2.2 a 60 b
4 1920 3,000 172 c 1.2 a 0 c
5 30 12,000 767 ab 2.7 ab 109 a
6 240 12,000 874 a 3.0 ab 23 c
7 1920 12,000 393 bc 1.5 a 0 c


1/ Numbers in a column with a letter in common are not significantly different
at the .05 level.

2 The seedlings from the central 9 ft were pulled 4 weeks after seeding and
weighed.
3/
Rating based on a 1-5 scale where 1 = best and 5 = worst treatment.
4/
Count made 10 days after seeding.




Table 3. Effect of nabam drenches on the percent germination of various vegetable
seed. The drench was applied over seed in a flat at the rate of 3000
gallons per broadcast acre.

Percent germination by lb. Dithane A-40 per acre-
Seed and Variety 0 40 80 160 320 640

Bean "Dade" 88 a 93 a 83 ab 85 a 73 ab 64 b
Corn "Wintergreen" 96 a 95 a 94 a 94 a 96 a 88 a
Cucumber 'Marketeer" 18 a 22 a 21 a 21 a 22 a 17 a
Okra "Clemson spineless" 97 a 94 a 90 a 92 a 91 a 83 a
Tomato "Homestead-24" 96 a 89 a 84 a 68 a 38 b 30 b


/ Numbers in a line with a letter in common are
the .05 level.


not significantly different at




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