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Group Title: GCREC research report - Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - BRA1995-25
Title: Cubanelle variety trial for spring 1995
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067781/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cubanelle variety trial for spring 1995
Series Title: GCREC research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Peppers -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peppers -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3-4).
Statement of Responsibility: T.K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August 1995."
Funding: Bradenton GCREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067781
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73693277

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Reference
        Page 3
    Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The gulf coast research and education center
        Page 7
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







^ UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-25 (August 1995)


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences





CUBANELLE VARIETY TRIAL FOR SPRING 1995


T. K. HOWE AND W. E. WATERS

Marston Science

JAN 1 9 1996


P








GCREC Research Report BRA1995-25


CUBANELLE VARIETY TRIAL FOR SPRING 1995

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Florida vegetable statistics for 1993-94 include very little information on
specialty peppers (non-bell types) produced in the State of Florida (Fla. Agr.
Stat. Serv., 1995). Value, harvested acreage, average yields and total
production figures are unavailable However, rail and truck shipments out of
the State are recorded for specialty peppers at 409,000 bushels, up 14% from the
previous year. This compares to 7.16 million bushels of bell peppers shipped out
of State. Of all the specialty peppers, cubanelle and jalapeno are the main
types grown in Florida.

Pepper production is concentrated in southwest, southeast and west central
Florida (Fla. Agr. Stat. Serv., 1995). In 1993-94, Manatee County in west
central Florida ranked fifth in the state in the harvested acreage of bell
peppers with 1100 acres. Since pepper growers usually supply some specialty
peppers in their shipments, it can be assumed that Manatee County produces a
significant quantity of specialty peppers. A cubanelle pepper variety trial was
conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (GCREC) in Manatee
County during the spring 1995 to gather yield and horticultural information for
Florida growers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Raised beds of EauGallie fine sand were formed on February 10, 1995. The 33-inch
wide, 8-inch high beds were spaced on 5 ft centers with seepage irrigation
ditches spaced every 6 beds. An acre was equivalent to 8712 linear ft of bed.
Fertilizer included 18-0-25 (N-P205-K O) at 1307 Ib/A placed in 2 grooves on the
bed surface 12 inches to each side of bed center. Superphosphate (0-20-0 with
80 Ib/ton minor elements as F503) was banded on the pre-bed at 348 Ib/A. Beds
were fumigated with methyl bromide:chloropicrin (66:33) at 213 lb per mulched bed
acre, and covered with black polyethylene film mulch.

Seeds of all entries were sown on January 11 into transplant flats (1.5 x 1.5 x
2.5 inch cells) containing a peat:vermiculite medium (1:1,v:v) amended with
dolomite (11.3 lb), superphosphate (5.6 lb), and hydrated lime (2.8 lb), each per
cu. yd. of medium. Seeds were germinated in the laboratory, then flats were
transferred to a screen-sided greenhouse.

Transplants were set into the field on March 2 in two rows per bed spaced 10
inches apart with an in-row spacing of 11 inches. Four replications of 20 plants
per entry for 7 entries were arranged in a randomized complete block design.


Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.


August 1995










The crop was scouted for the presence of pests throughout the season. Problem
pests were primarily lepidopterous larvae. Insect populations were managed with:
two strains of Bacillus thurinqiensis, permethrin, insecticidal soap, oxamyl,
azadirachtin, and cryolite. Bacillus thurinqiensis, cryolite, azadirachtin and
insecticidal soap were utilized most heavily to attempt to control insect
populations with a more biorational approach in order to protect beneficial
insects. The crop also was treated with maneb and copper salts to control
bacterial spot and fungal pathogens. Diseases were not a problem.

Fruit were harvested on May 4, 15, 25 and 31. Only the largest, firm fruit were
harvested on May 4. Fruit were not allowed to reach mature color. Total fruit
harvested were counted and weighed, then cull fruit were separated by visual
inspection for damage and fruit shape following guidelines for bell pepper (USDA,
1981) which also were counted and weighed.

Yields were computed on a weight basis and were expressed as 28-lb bushels. A
sample of eight marketable fruit per cultivar and replication was taken from the
first fruit harvested to obtain data for length, diameter, pod wall thickness,
and the number of lobes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Maximum daily temperatures were one to four degrees higher than the 40-year
average during the entire season (Stanley, 1994) (Table 1). Minimum daily
temperatures were three to four degrees above the average throughout the season.
Rainfall was below average during March and May, but above the average in April.

Seasonal yields (Table 2) ranged from 1048 cartons/A for 'Estar' to 1679
cartons/A for 'Aruba'. 'Biscayne', Nun 8605, and 'Pay Day' were not
significantly different than 'Aruba' in seasonal yield, all of which had yields
of 1350 cartons/A or higher. These yields were very similar to those in a spring
1990 trial which was harvested 5 times instead of 4 (Howe & Waters, 1990), but
about 50% higher than a trial completed in the fall of 1994 (Howe & Waters,
1995). The number of marketable fruit per plant ranged from 7.0 for 'Estar' to
13.2 for Nun 8605. Only 'Biscayne' was similar to 'Aruba' in the number of
marketable fruit produced per plant. Average fruit weight ranged from 2.7 oz for
Nun 8605 to 3.7 oz for 'Aruba'. Only 'Estar' was similar to 'Aruba' in average
individual fruit weight. The proportion of fruit which were culled from the
total harvest due to defects or damage ranged from 16% for 'Biscayne' to 50% for
'Estar'. 'Estar' fruit losses were mainly due to blossom end rot. The only
other entry which showed blossom end rot symptoms was Nun 8605. Plant stand was
not significantly less than 100 % for any entry.

'Estar'and Nun 8605 produced the longest fruit, at 7.4 inches and 7.7 inches,
respectively (Table 3). All of the other entries were not different from each
other in fruit length. Fruit width ranged from 1.6 inches for Nun 8605, which
was significantly smaller than all other entries, to 2.6 inches for 'Aruba'.
Only 'Estar' and SSC-12 were similar to 'Aruba' in fruit diameter. Nun 8065 had
the greatest length to width ratio at 4.9. All other entries were between 2.4
and 3.0. Wall thickness ranged from 0.134 inches for 'Key Largo' to 0.173 inches
for 'Estar'. 'Aruba' and 'Biscayne' were not significantly different in pod wall
thickness than 'Estar'. The number of lobes per fruit ranged from 2.9 for 'Key










Largo' to 3.3 for 'Biscayne', but there were no significant differences among the
entries. Pod color was light yellow to light lime green for all entries except
'Estar' and Nun 8605 which were dark green. This will likely be a characteristic
which will keep these entries from being accepted in the Florida cubanelle
market.

Marketable yields, the number of marketable fruit per plant, average fruit
weight, and the proportion of culled fruit for each of the four harvests appears
in Table 4. Significant differences in yield among the entries was found at the
first three harvests. Marketable yields were three to four times greater for Nun
8605 and 'Estar' than for the other entries at the first harvest. By the second
harvest, they were among the lowest. Yields, on average, were the highest at
the second harvest for all of the entries. The number of marketable fruit per
plant changed dramatically from the first to second harvest, where 'Estar' went
from yielding the most to yielding the least marketable fruit per plant among the
entries. Average fruit weight among the entries had significant differences only
at the first two harvests. The production of cull fruit increased substantially
at the third and fourth harvests.

SUMMARY
Based on total seasonal yield, typical cubanelle appearance, heavy individual
fruit weight and thickest pod walls, 'Aruba' performed the best during the spring
of 1995 as it did in the fall of 1994 (Howe & Waters, 1995). 'Biscayne' provided
exceptional yield and good wall thickness, but not the heaviest fruit weight.
'Pay Day' also provided good yield, but was not among the those with heaviest
fruit weight or wall thickness. Nun 8605, although high in yield, was an
atypical color and was not among the best in wall thickness or fruit weight.

Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and should not be used as recommendations for crop production. No
discrimination is intended or endorsement implied where trade names are used.

Acknowledgement: The authors thank the following firms which donated funds
toward vegetable cultivar research during 1994 and 1995 (alphabetical): Abbott
& Cobb Inc., American Takii Inc., Asgrow Seed Co., Daehnfeldt Inc., Harris Moran
Seed Co., Nunhems, Pepper Research, Rio Colorado Seed Co., Rogers Seed Co.,
Sakata Seed America Inc., Sunseeds and Vilmorin Inc.

LITERATURE CITED
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. 1995. Vegetable Summary 1993-94.
Florida Agr. Stat. Serv., Orlando, FL.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Cubanelle pepper variety trial for spring
1990. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1990-23.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Cubanelle variety trial for fall 1994.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-12.










Largo' to 3.3 for 'Biscayne', but there were no significant differences among the
entries. Pod color was light yellow to light lime green for all entries except
'Estar' and Nun 8605 which were dark green. This will likely be a characteristic
which will keep these entries from being accepted in the Florida cubanelle
market.

Marketable yields, the number of marketable fruit per plant, average fruit
weight, and the proportion of culled fruit for each of the four harvests appears
in Table 4. Significant differences in yield among the entries was found at the
first three harvests. Marketable yields were three to four times greater for Nun
8605 and 'Estar' than for the other entries at the first harvest. By the second
harvest, they were among the lowest. Yields, on average, were the highest at
the second harvest for all of the entries. The number of marketable fruit per
plant changed dramatically from the first to second harvest, where 'Estar' went
from yielding the most to yielding the least marketable fruit per plant among the
entries. Average fruit weight among the entries had significant differences only
at the first two harvests. The production of cull fruit increased substantially
at the third and fourth harvests.

SUMMARY
Based on total seasonal yield, typical cubanelle appearance, heavy individual
fruit weight and thickest pod walls, 'Aruba' performed the best during the spring
of 1995 as it did in the fall of 1994 (Howe & Waters, 1995). 'Biscayne' provided
exceptional yield and good wall thickness, but not the heaviest fruit weight.
'Pay Day' also provided good yield, but was not among the those with heaviest
fruit weight or wall thickness. Nun 8605, although high in yield, was an
atypical color and was not among the best in wall thickness or fruit weight.

Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and should not be used as recommendations for crop production. No
discrimination is intended or endorsement implied where trade names are used.

Acknowledgement: The authors thank the following firms which donated funds
toward vegetable cultivar research during 1994 and 1995 (alphabetical): Abbott
& Cobb Inc., American Takii Inc., Asgrow Seed Co., Daehnfeldt Inc., Harris Moran
Seed Co., Nunhems, Pepper Research, Rio Colorado Seed Co., Rogers Seed Co.,
Sakata Seed America Inc., Sunseeds and Vilmorin Inc.

LITERATURE CITED
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. 1995. Vegetable Summary 1993-94.
Florida Agr. Stat. Serv., Orlando, FL.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Cubanelle pepper variety trial for spring
1990. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1990-23.

Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1995. Cubanelle variety trial for fall 1994.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1995-12.










Stanley, C. D.
BRA1994-08.


1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept.


United States Department of Agriculture. 1981. U. S. standards for grades of
peppers. USDA Agr. Mktg. Serv., USDA, Washington, DC.





Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the spring of 1995 and
the 40-year averages (Stanley, 1994).


Average Daily Temperature (OF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1995z 40-yr avq 1995z 40-yr avq 1995z 40-yr avq

March 80 77 59 55 2.57 3.35
April 83 82 63 60 3.41 1.72
May 91 87 70 64 1.48 3.20


zField transplanted March 2, 1995.


Last harvest May 31, 1995.










Table 2. Marketable yield,
the entire spring


fruit size, culls of cubanelle pepper entries for
1995 season.


Average
Marketable' Fruit Fruit Totalx Plant
Seedz Yield Per Weight Culls Stand
Entry Source (cartons/A) Plant (oz) (%) (%)

Aruba RO 1679 aW 10.3 b 3.7 a 22 bc 100 a
Biscayne PS 1678 a 12.0 ab 3.2 bc 16 c 100 a
Nun 8605 NU 1574 ab 13.2 a 2.7 d 24 b 100 a
Pay Day MM 1356 a-c 10.8 b 2.9 cd 23 bc 100 a
Key Largo HM 1314 bc 10.9 b 2.9 cd 24 b 98 a
SSC-12 SH 1304 bc 10.2 b 2.9 cd 24 b 100 a
Estar NU 1048 c 7.0 c 3.4 ab 50 a 100 a

ZAbbreviations: HM = Harris Moran, MM = Market More, NU = Nunhems, PS = Petoseed,
RO = Rogers, SH = Shamrock.
YCarton = 28 lb or 1 1/9 bushels. Acre = 8712 linear ft of bed. Plants in
single rows spaced 11 inches apart.
XBy weight.
"Mean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.






Table 3. Marketable fruit dimensions and color of harvestable pod.z


Wall
Length Width Ratio Thickness No. ImmatureY
Entry (in.) (in.) L/W (in.) Lobes Pod Color

Aruba 6.2 bx 2.6 a 2.4 c 0.159 ab 3.1 a It yellow-lime
Biscayne 5.9 b 2.2 bc 2.7 bc 0.161 ab 3.3 a It yellow-lime
Nun 8605 7.7 a 1.6 d 4.9 a 0.135 c 3.1 a dk lime
Pay Day 6.2 b 2.3 bc 2.7 bc 0.143 bc 3.0 a It yellow
Key Largo 6.1 b 2.1 c 2.9 b 0.134 c 2.9 a It yellow-lime
SSC-12 5.7 b 2.3 a-c 2.5 c 0.150 bc 3.1 a It yellow-lime
Estar 7.4 a 2.5 ab 3.0 b 0.173 a 3.2 a dk lime

ZMeasurements taken on eight marketable fruit per entry from the first harvest.
Ylt = light, dk = dark.
xMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.









Table 4. Marketable yield, fruit size, culls of cubanelle pepper entries by
harvest during spring 1995.

Marketable Fruit Average Total
Yieldz Per Fruit Weight CullsY
Entry (cartons/A) Plant (oz) (%)

Harvest 1 (May 4)

Nun 8605 287 aX 2.9 a 2.3 d 7 ab
Estar 217 a 1.3 b 4.0 b 17 a
Aruba 79 b 0.4 c 4.7 a 4 b
Key Largo 50 b 0.4 c 3.2 c 5 ab
Pay Day 50 b 0.3 c 3.7 bc 14 ab
SSC-12 49 b 0.3 c 3.5 bc 4 b
Biscayne 29 b 0.2 c 3.4 bc 0 b

Harvest 2 (May 15)

Aruba 1027 a 5.5 a 4.3 a 14 b-d
Biscayne 966 ab 6.0 a 3.7 bc 6 d
Key Largo 795 a-c 6.1 a 3.1 d 9 cd
Pay Day 719 bc 5.0 a 3.3 cd 9 cd
Nun 8605 698 bc 5.2 a 3.1 d 20 b
SSC-12 651 c 4.8 a 3.2 cd 16 bc
Estar 522 c 3.0 b 3.9 ab 51 a

Harvest 3 (May 25)

Biscayne 617 a 5.1 a 2.8 a 23 c
Pay Day 486 ab 4.2 ab 2.7 a 30 bc
Aruba 450 ab 3.3 bc 3.2 a 31 bc
SSC-12 427 ab 3.4 bc 3.0 a 25 c
NUN 8605 415 ab 3.2 bc 2.9 a 29 bc
Key Largo 273 bc 2.4 cd 2.8 a 37 b
Estar 186 c 1.4 d 3.1 a 60 a

Harvest 4 (May 31)

Key Largo 196 a 2.0 a 2.2 a 45 a
SSC-12 177 a 1.8 ab 2.3 a 38 a
NUN 8605 174 a 2.0 a 1.8 a 49 a
Estar 123 a 1.3 ab 2.2 a 57 a
Aruba 113 a 1.2 ab 2.1 a 49 a
Pay Day 101 a 1.3 ab 1.8 a 53 a
Biscayne 67 a 0.7 b 2.4 a 46 a

zCarton = 28 lb or 1 1/9 bushels. Acre = 8712 linear ft of bed. Plants in
single rows spaced 11 inches apart.
YBy weight.
XMean separation within columns and by harvest by Duncan's multiple range test,
5% level.








The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
" The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
Q A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
O Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
O A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
O An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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