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 Materials and methods
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 Gulf coast research and education...






Group Title: Research Report - GCREC - BRA1995-12
Title: Cubanelle variety trial for fall 1994
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00067779/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cubanelle variety trial for fall 1994
Series Title: GCREC research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Peppers -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peppers -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: T.K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 1995."
Funding: Bradenton GCREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00067779
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 73693247

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Gulf coast research and education center
        Page 7
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




loo


Q^-S
UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-12 (April 1995)


CUBANELLE VARIETY TRIAL FOR FALL 1994


T. K. HOWE AND W. E. WATERS
Marston Science
Library
JUN 2 11995








GCREC Research Report BRA1995-12


CUBANELLE VARIETY TRIAL FOR FALL 1994

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters1
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th St. East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Florida vegetable statistics for 1992-93 include very little information on
specialty peppers (non-bell types) produced in the State of Florida (Fla. Agr.
Stat. Serv., 1994). Value, harvested acreage, average yields and total
production figures are unavailable However, rail and truck shipments out of
the State are recorded for specialty peppers at 359,000 bushels. This compares
to 6.47 million bushels of bell peppers shipped out of State. Of all the
specialty peppers, cubanelle and jalapeno are the main types grown in Florida.

Pepper production is concentrated in southwest, southeast and west central
Florida (Fla. Agr. Stat. Serv., 1994). In 1992-93, Manatee County in west
central Florida ranked fourth in the state in the harvested acreage of bell
peppers. Since pepper growers usually supply some specialty peppers in their
shipments, it can be assumed that Manatee County produces a significant quantity
of specialty peppers. A cubanelle pepper variety trial was conducted at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center (GCREC) in Manatee County during the fall of
1994 to gather yield and horticultural information for Florida growers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Raised beds of EauGallie fine sand were formed on 9 August 1994. The 33-inch
wide, 8-inch high beds were spaced on 5 ft centers with seepage irrigation
ditches spaced every 6 beds. An acre was equivalent to 8712 linear ft of bed.
Fertilizer included 18-0-25 (N-P20s-KO) at 1307 Ib/A placed in 2 grooves on the
bed surface 12 inches to each side of bed center. Superphosphate (0-20-0 with
80 Ib/ton minor elements as F503) was banded on the pre-bed at 174 Ib/A. Beds
were fumigated with methyl bromide:chloropicrin (66:33) at 213 lb per mulched bed
acre, and covered with white on black polyethylene film mulch.

Seeds of all entries were sown on 11 July into transplant flats (1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5
inch cells) containing a peat:vermiculite medium (1:1,v:v) amended with dolomite
(11.3 lb), superphosphate (5.6 lb), and hydrated lime (2.8 lb), each per cu. yd.
of medium. Seeds were germinated in the laboratory, then flats were transferred
to a screen-sided greenhouse.

Transplants were set into the field on 25 August in two rows per bed spaced 10
inches apart with an in-row spacing of 11 inches. Four replications of 20 plants
per entry for 6 entries were arranged in a randomized complete block design.

'Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.


Apri 1 1995










The crop was scouted for the presence of pests throughout the season. Problem
pests were broad mites and lepidopterous larvae. Insect populations were managed
with: two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, sulfur, permethrin, insecticidal
soap, oxamyl, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, azadirachtin, and cryolite. Bacillus
thuringiensis, cryolite, sulfur and insecticidal soap were utilized most heavily
to attempt to control insect populations with a more biorational approach in
order to protect beneficial insects. The crop also was treated with maneb and
copper salts to control bacterial spot and fungal pathogens. Diseases were not
a problem.

In early October, foliar symptoms and soil testing indicated that in some parts
of the field, there was a loss of fertilizer from the beds due to a lack of
shoulder integrity. Thus, on 3 October an additional application of fertilizer
was made in the amount of 740 Ib/A of 18-0-25 (N-P205-K20).

Fruit were harvested on 7, 15, 23 and 30 November. Only the largest, firm fruit
were harvested on 7 November. Fruit were not allowed to reach mature color.
Total fruit harvested were counted and weighed, then cull fruit were separated
(USDA, 1981) which also were counted and weighed.

Yields were computed on a weight basis and were expressed as 28-lb bushels. A
sample of eight marketable fruit per cultivar and replication was taken from the
first fruit harvested to obtain data for length, diameter, pod wall thickness,
and the number of lobes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Maximum'daily temperatures were two and three degrees higher than normal in
October and November, respectively, and one degree below normal in September
(Stanley, 1994) (Table 1). Minimum daily temperatures were one to five degrees
above normal throughout the season. Rainfall was below average during September
and November, but above normal in October.

Seasonal yields (Table 2) ranged from 591 cartons/A for SSC-12 to 904 cartons/A
for 'Aruba'. 'Aruba' had significantly greater yield than any other entry in
trial, all others had yields of 700 cartons/A or lower. These yields were about
50% lower than those in a spring 1990 trial (Howe & Waters, 1990). Reasons may
include the fact that fall trials typically yield less than spring trials due to
high temperatures, the spring 1990 trial had an additional harvest, and the
previously mentioned fertilizer losses followed by a sidedressing may have caused
unrecognized stress to the plants. The number of marketable fruit per plant
ranged from 4.9 for 'Espana' to 7.1 for 'Aruba'. Three other entries, 'Pay Day',
'Key Largo' and 'Biscayne' were similar to 'Aruba' in the number of marketable
fruit produced per plant. Average fruit weight ranged from 2.7 oz for 'Biscayne'
to 3.4 oz for 'Espana'. 'Espana' and 'Aruba' produced the heaviest fruit. The
proportion of fruit which were culled from the total harvest due to defects or
damage ranged from 27% for 'Aruba' to 42% for 'Pay Day'. Plant stand was
significantly less than 100 % for 'Biscayne' (96%), 'Espana' (93%), and 'Aruba'
(90%).

'Aruba', 'Biscayne' and 'Espana' produced the longest fruit, all exceeding 6.0
inches (Table 3). Fruit width ranged from 1.9 inches for 'Key Largo' to 2.3










inches for 'Espana'. Only 'Aruba' was similar to 'Espana' in fruit diameter.
Wall thickness ranged from 0.149 inches for SSC-12 to 0.176 inches for 'Aruba'.
'Aruba' had the greatest pod wall thickness of any of the entries. The number
of lobes per fruit ranged from 2.6 for 'Aruba' to 3.4 for 'Espana'. Pod color
was light yellow to light lime green for all entries except 'Espana' which was
dark green. 'Espana' as an atypical cubanelle, with dark green fruit and an
average of 3.4 lobes per fruit, it was more like an extremely long, skinny
version of a bell pepper,

Marketable yields, the number of marketable fruit per plant, average fruit
weight, and the proportion of culled fruit for each of the four harvests appears
in Table 4. Significant differences in yield among the entries was only found
at the first and last harvests. Yields were the highest at the second harvest
for all of the entries. The number of marketable fruit per plant was different
among the entries only at the last harvest. Average fruit weight among the
entries had significant differences at all harvests except the first. The
production of cull fruit increased substantially at the third and fourth
harvests.

SUMMARY

Based on total seasonal yield, typical cubanelle appearance, heavy individual
fruit weight and thickest pod walls, 'Aruba' performed the best during the fall
of 1994.

Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and should not be used as recommendations for crop production. No
discrimination is intended or endorsement implied where trade names are used.

Acknowledgement: The authors thank the following firms which donated funds
toward vegetable cultivar research during 1994 (alphabetical): Abbott & Cobb
Inc., American Takii Inc., Asgrow Seed Co., Daehnfeldt Inc., Harris Moran Seed
Co., Nunhems, Pepper Research, Rio Colorado Seed Co., Sakata Seed America Inc.,
Sunseeds and Vilmorin Inc.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. 1994. Vegetable Summary 1992-
93. Florida Agric. Statistics Serv., Orlando, FL.

2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Cubanelle pepper variety trial for
spring 1990. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1990-23.

3. Stanley, C. D. 1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res.
Rept. BRA1994-08.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. 1981. U. S. standards for
grades of peppers. USDA Agric. Marketing Service, USDA, Washington, DC.










inches for 'Espana'. Only 'Aruba' was similar to 'Espana' in fruit diameter.
Wall thickness ranged from 0.149 inches for SSC-12 to 0.176 inches for 'Aruba'.
'Aruba' had the greatest pod wall thickness of any of the entries. The number
of lobes per fruit ranged from 2.6 for 'Aruba' to 3.4 for 'Espana'. Pod color
was light yellow to light lime green for all entries except 'Espana' which was
dark green. 'Espana' as an atypical cubanelle, with dark green fruit and an
average of 3.4 lobes per fruit, it was more like an extremely long, skinny
version of a bell pepper,

Marketable yields, the number of marketable fruit per plant, average fruit
weight, and the proportion of culled fruit for each of the four harvests appears
in Table 4. Significant differences in yield among the entries was only found
at the first and last harvests. Yields were the highest at the second harvest
for all of the entries. The number of marketable fruit per plant was different
among the entries only at the last harvest. Average fruit weight among the
entries had significant differences at all harvests except the first. The
production of cull fruit increased substantially at the third and fourth
harvests.

SUMMARY

Based on total seasonal yield, typical cubanelle appearance, heavy individual
fruit weight and thickest pod walls, 'Aruba' performed the best during the fall
of 1994.

Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and should not be used as recommendations for crop production. No
discrimination is intended or endorsement implied where trade names are used.

Acknowledgement: The authors thank the following firms which donated funds
toward vegetable cultivar research during 1994 (alphabetical): Abbott & Cobb
Inc., American Takii Inc., Asgrow Seed Co., Daehnfeldt Inc., Harris Moran Seed
Co., Nunhems, Pepper Research, Rio Colorado Seed Co., Sakata Seed America Inc.,
Sunseeds and Vilmorin Inc.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. 1994. Vegetable Summary 1992-
93. Florida Agric. Statistics Serv., Orlando, FL.

2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Cubanelle pepper variety trial for
spring 1990. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1990-23.

3. Stanley, C. D. 1994. Weather report for 1993. Bradenton GCREC Res.
Rept. BRA1994-08.

4. United States Department of Agriculture. 1981. U. S. standards for
grades of peppers. USDA Agric. Marketing Service, USDA, Washington, DC.










Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the GCREC during the fall of 1994 and
the 40-year averages (Stanley, 1994).

Average Daily Temperature (oF)
Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.)
Month 1994z 40-yr avq 1994z 40-yr avq 19942 40-yr avg

September 89 90 72 71 7.24 8.17
October 87 85 67 64 3.53 2.91
November 82 79 63 58 1.65 1.98

ZField transplanted 25 August 1994. Last harvest 30 November 1994.






Table 2. Marketable yield, fruit size, culls of cubanelle pepper entries for
the entire fall 1994 season. (Harvested November 7, 15, 23 and 30,
1994).


Average
Marketabley Fruit Fruit Totalx Plant
Seedz Yield Per Weight Culls Stand
Entry Source (cartons/A) Plant (oz) (%) (%)

Aruba RO 904 aW 7.1 a 3.3 a 27 c 90 c
Biscayne PS 700 b 6.1 ab 2.7 b 32 bc 96 bc
Espana HM 664 b 4.9 c 3.4 a 36 ab 93 c
Pay Day MM 637 b 6.3 ab 2.4 c 42 a 98 ab
Key Largo HM 617 b 6.1 ab 2.3 c 40 a 100 a
SSC-12 SH 591 b 5.6 bc 2.5 c 38 ab 99 ab

ZAbbreviations: HM = Harris Moran, MM = Market More, PS = Petoseed, RO = Rogers
(formerly Rogers NK), SH = Shamrock.
YCarton = 28 lb or 1 1/9 bushels. Acre = 8712 linear ft of bed. Plants in
single rows spaced 11 inches apart.
xBy weight.
WMean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.








5
Table 3. Marketable fruit dimensions and color of harvestable pod.z


Wall
Length Width Ratio Thickness No. Immaturey
Entry (in.) (in.) L/W (in.) Lobes Pod Color

Aruba 6.2 aX 2.1 ab 2.9 ab 0.176 a 2.6 c It lime
Biscayne 6.3 a 2.0 bc 3.1 a 0.161 b 3.1 ab It yellow-lime
Espana 6.1 a 2.3 a 2.7 b 0.157 b 3.4 a dk green
Pay Day 5.6 b 2.0 bc 2.8 b 0.155 b 3.1 ab It lime
Key Largo 5.5 b 1.9 c 2.9 ab 0.159 b 2.9 bc It yellow-lime
SSC-12 5.6 b 2.0 bc 2.8 b 0.149 b 3.2 ab It yellow-lime

ZMeasurements taken on eight marketable fruit per entry from the first harvest.
Ylt = light, dk = dark.
XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.










Table 4. Marketable yield, fruit size, culls of cubanelle pepper entries by
harvest during fall 1994.


Marketable Fruit Average Total
Yieldz Per Fruit Weight Cullsy
Entry (cartons/A) Plant (oz) (%)


Harvest 1 (November 7)

Aruba
Espana
Key Largo
Pay Day
Biscayne
SSC-12

Harvest 2 (November 15)

Aruba
Espana
Key Largo
SSC-12
Pay Day
Biscayne

Harvest 3 (November 23)

Aruba
Biscayne
Pay Day
SSC-12
Key Largo
Espana

Harvest 4 (November 30)

Biscayne
Aruba
SSC-12
Key Largo
Pay Day
Espana


1.1
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6


446
378
369
337
334
318


3.4
2.8
3.8
3.2
3.4
2.7


3.8
3.7
3.1
2.9
3.2
3.0


3.4
3.4
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.8


3.0
2.6
2.3
2.4
2.4
3.2


0.7
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1


2.3
2.6
2.0
2.0
1.7
3.3


zCarton = 28 lb. or 1 1/9 bushels. Acre = 8712 linear ft of bed.
single rows spaced 11 inches apart.
YBy weight.
xMean separation within columns and by harvest by Duncan's multiple
5% level.


Plants in


range test,







The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement of fundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
3 The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
Q Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
O An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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