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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
. UNIVERSITY OF
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-16 (May 1995)
GREEN CAULIFLOWER (BROCCOFLOWERTM)
^ A/9 \ .-AM 0C
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, Florida 34203-9324
GCREC Bradenton Research Report BRA1995-16
GREEN CAULIFLOWER (BROCCOFLOWERTM) VARIETY EVALUATION
A. A. Csizinszky'
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203
Green cauliflower (BroccoflowerTM), Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group, is a
relatively new vegetable in the United States. Its curd looks like that of a
cauliflower but with a light-green color. There are no published statistical
data on the production, acreage and value of this crop. There are no reports on
cultivars that are suitable for production under the soil and climatic conditions
in west-central Florida.
This trial was initiated to evaluate the yield potential of green cauliflower
cultivars at three plant spacings.
Materials and Methods
Soil in the trial area was sampled before land preparation and analyzed by the
University of Florida Analytical Research Laboratory (Hanlon and DeVore, 1989):
pH 6.78, Mehlich I extractable P = 76, K = 32, Ca = 797, Mg = 99, Cu = 2.4, Fe
= 8.1, Mn = 5.1, and Zn = 7.2 ppm. Nitrate-N was 3.5 and NH4-N was 0.9 ppm as
determined by a Kjeldahl method (Tecator, Inc., 1987). Raised beds, 32 inches
wide and 8 inches high, of EauGallie fine sand were spaced on 5 ft centers with
six beds between irrigation/drainage ditches which were on 41 ft centers.
Fertilizers included a 0-20-0 (N-P20 -KO) analysis superphosphate applied at 5
lb per 100 linear bed feet (Ibf) bandedon the false bed; 3 lb of N per 100 Ibf
from NH4NO3 and 2.4 lb of K20 from KC1 and K2SO4 banded on the bed center in a 2
inch deep, narrow groove. The superphosphate also contained 80 Ib/ton minor
elements as F503. The total amount of nutrients applied were 261 lb N, 87 lb
PO~ and 209 lb K20 per acre of 8712 linear bed feet (Ibf). Soil was fumigated
with MC 98 (98% methylbromide and 2% chloropicrin) then covered with black
polyethylene. Three days later, on 27 January, 5-week old green cauliflower
seedlings of the cvs. Alverda (Johnny's Selected Seeds) Green Goddess and Parks
5092 (Park Seeds), raised in 1 inch containerized cells by a commercial company,
were transplanted in double rows per bed at 14 inches between rows and at three
within-row spacings: 15, 18 and 21 inches. The experimental design was a split
plot replicated four times. Main plots, each 69-ft long, were the three green
cauliflower cultivars and sub-plots, each 23-ft long, were the three within-row
plant spacings. The land was irrigated by the fully enclosed sub-surface system
(Stanley and Clark, 1991). Soil water table was maintained at 20 to 23 inches
below the bed surface and irrigation tapes were chlorinated weekly to prevent
Pesticides, labeled for use on cauliflower, were applied weekly against fungi and
insects. At harvest, on 11 April, curds (k 0.75 Ib) were graded according to
U.S. Grade Standards for cauliflower (USDA, 1981). Six plants in each plot were
cut off at soil level and separated into leaves, stems and curds that were
weighed separately. Data were tested by analysis of variance (SAS Institute,
Plant pests presented no major problems during the season and no signs of
nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed on the plants.
Overall, the highest yield, 403 25 lb cartons (ctn) per acre, was recorded with
'Alverda' at the 18 in spacing followed by 399 ctn per acre by the same cultivar
at the 15 in spacing, but both yields were similar to all other yields in the
trial (Table 1). 'Alverda' also had the highest proportion of marketable curds,
63%, 59% and 52%, respectively, at the 15 in, 18 in and 21 in. spacing but these
proportions of marketable curds were statistically similar to the proportions of
marketable curds for the other two cvs. (Table 1). The marketable yield of
'Alverda' averaged over the three plant spacings was higher, 380 ctn per acre,
than the average yield of 'Green Goddess' (200 ctn per acre) or 'Parks 5092' (207
ctn per acre) (Table 1). Average fresh weight per plant and the weight of plant
organs: stems, leaves and curds were affected by plant spacing only (Table 2).
Increased plant spacing resulted in increased fresh weights. Curd diameters were
similar at the 3 plant spacings. 'Alverda' had higher fresh weights for the
measured plant characteristics, except for stem weight, than 'Green Goddess' or
'Parks 5092', but the weight differences were non-significant (Table 2). On Fig.
1 the proportions (%) of plant organs of the 3 cvs. calculated from the per plant
fresh weights, and on Fig. 2 the proportions of plant organs, also by weight, at
the 3 plant spacings are illustrated. Leaves of all 3 cultivars made up over 70%
the plant total weight; while the net weight of curd ranged from 15.2 to 17% of
the total fresh weight.
Green cauliflower yields in this trial were far below the yields of white
cauliflower yields reported at this Center (Csizinszky, 1985; Howe and Waters,
1989). Even the yields of 'Alverda' at the 18 in and at the 15 in spacings were
one half or less than the marketable yields of white cauliflower cultivars. The
main reasons for the low marketable yields were the large number of curds below
marketable weight and bracty curds, i.e. leaves growing through and extending
above the curds (USDA, 1981). Consequently, growers attempting the production
of green cauliflower as an alternative crop should carefully consider whether the
higher price of the green cauliflower would compensate for the low yields of this
Note: The use of trade names in this publication does not imply either
endorsement or criticism of these products by the author or the University of
Acknowledgement: The author appreciates the help of Plant Farm, Inc., Sarasota,
FL for supplying the seedlings in this trial.
Csizinszky, A. A. 1985. Cauliflower variety trial results for fall-winter 1984-
85. Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1985-14.
Hanlon, E. A. and J. M. de Vore. 1989. IFAS extension soil testing laboratory
chemical procedures and training manual. Fla. Coop. Ext. Circ. 812.
Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Evaluation of cauliflower in west-central
Florida during the 1987-88 season. Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1989-2.
SAS Institute, Inc. 1988
Institute, Inc., Cary, NC
Stanley, C. D.
SSAS/STAT User's Guide, Release 6.03 Edition. SAS
A. Clark. 1991. Water table management using
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 50:6-8.
Tecator, Inc. 1987. Determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen with the Kjeltic system
1026. Tecator, Inc., Herndon, VA.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
cauliflower. U.S. Dept. Agr.,
United States standards for grades of
Mktg. Serv., Washington, D.C.
Table 1. Marketable yields (25 lb ctn/A) of green cauliflower cultivars and
the proportion (%) of marketable curds of the total number harvested.
Cultivar Average for
Alverda Green Goddess Parks 5092 plant spacing
Plant spacingz ctn/A (%) ctn/A (%) ctn/A (%) ctn/A (%)
15 399 (63) 189 (31) 221 (34) 270 aY (42)
18 403 (59) 219 (38) 194 (40) 272 a (45)
21 339 (52) 192 (42) 207 (42) 246 a (45)
cultivar 380 Ay (58) 200 B (37) 207 B (39)
zPlant population per acre (8712 Ibf): 13,940 at 15"; 11,610 at 18"; and
9,950 at 21" spacing.
YMean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, 5% level of probability.
Table 2. Fresh weight of whole plants and plant organs of green
as affected by cultivars and plant organs.
Total weight Weight Weight Weight Curd
of plant of curd of leaves of stem diameter
---------------------- lb ---------------------- ---in.--
Alverda 4.80 0.83 3.49 0.48 5.78
Green Goddess 4.25 0.66 3.11 0.48 5.45
Parks 5092 4.45 0.66 3.31 0.48 5.39
Significance ns ns ns ns ns
15 in. 3.88 0.66 2.82 0.40 5.46
18 in. 4.65 0.75 3.44 0.46 5.63
21 in. 5.14 0.79 3.80 0.55 5.53
Significance L** L* L** L** ns
zAveraged over 3
YAveraged over 3
plant spacings and 4 replications.
cultivars and 4 replications.
linear (L) at the 5% (*) or 1% (**) level or non-significant
Fig. 1. Proportions of plant organs of
O CURD I STEM I LEAF
Proportions of ftant organs of
at 3 plant spacings.
0 CURD l STEM M LEAF
The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.
In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.
The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.
Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
D The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
D A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
O Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
U An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-